I'm interested in this comparison (not in starting yet another flame fest). I actually know nothing about matlab, but almost all my peers use it. One of the things I recall reading on this subject is that matlab doesn't support OO style programming. I happened to look on the matlab vendor's website, and found that it does have classes. OTOH, I've seen at least some matlab code, and never saw anyone use these features.
I'm perfectly happy with python myself, but I wonder if anyone has good arguments for why to prefer python over matlab?