Author: r.david.murray
Date: Thu Apr 30 14:42:32 2009
New Revision: 72149
Log:
Make the turtle.rst doctests pass. I have a feeling there should be
more cleanup, but I don't know now to kill turtles. Especially
unexpected ones... ;)
Modified:
python/trunk/Doc/library/turtle.rst
Modified: python/trunk/Doc/library/turtle.rst
==============================================================================
 python/trunk/Doc/library/turtle.rst (original)
+++ python/trunk/Doc/library/turtle.rst Thu Apr 30 14:42:32 2009
@@ 6,6 +6,11 @@
:synopsis: Turtle graphics for Tk
.. sectionauthor:: Gregor Lingl <gregor.lingl(a)aon.at>
+.. testsetup:: default
+
+ from turtle import *
+ turtle = Turtle()
+
Introduction
============
@@ 223,14 +228,16 @@
Move the turtle forward by the specified *distance*, in the direction the
turtle is headed.
 >>> turtle.position()
 (0.00, 0.00)
 >>> turtle.forward(25)
 >>> turtle.position()
 (25.00,0.00)
 >>> turtle.forward(75)
 >>> turtle.position()
 (50.00,0.00)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,0.00)
+ >>> turtle.forward(25)
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (25.00,0.00)
+ >>> turtle.forward(75)
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (50.00,0.00)
.. function:: back(distance)
@@ 242,11 +249,18 @@
Move the turtle backward by *distance*, opposite to the direction the
turtle is headed. Do not change the turtle's heading.
 >>> turtle.position()
 (0.00, 0.00)
 >>> turtle.backward(30)
 >>> turtle.position()
 (30.00, 0.00)
+ .. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> turtle.goto(0, 0)
+
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,0.00)
+ >>> turtle.backward(30)
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (30.00,0.00)
.. function:: right(angle)
@@ 258,11 +272,18 @@
can be set via the :func:`degrees` and :func:`radians` functions.) Angle
orientation depends on the turtle mode, see :func:`mode`.
 >>> turtle.heading()
 22.0
 >>> turtle.right(45)
 >>> turtle.heading()
 337.0
+ .. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> turtle.setheading(22)
+
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 22.0
+ >>> turtle.right(45)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 337.0
.. function:: left(angle)
@@ 274,37 +295,52 @@
can be set via the :func:`degrees` and :func:`radians` functions.) Angle
orientation depends on the turtle mode, see :func:`mode`.
 >>> turtle.heading()
 22.0
 >>> turtle.left(45)
 >>> turtle.heading()
 67.0
+ .. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> turtle.setheading(22)
+
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 22.0
+ >>> turtle.left(45)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 67.0
+
.. function:: goto(x, y=None)
setpos(x, y=None)
setposition(x, y=None)
 :param x: a number or a pair/vector of numbers
 :param y: a number or ``None``
+ :param x: a number or a pair/vector of numbers
+ :param y: a number or ``None``
 If *y* is ``None``, *x* must be a pair of coordinates or a :class:`Vec2D`
 (e.g. as returned by :func:`pos`).
+ If *y* is ``None``, *x* must be a pair of coordinates or a :class:`Vec2D`
+ (e.g. as returned by :func:`pos`).
 Move turtle to an absolute position. If the pen is down, draw line. Do
 not change the turtle's orientation.
+ Move turtle to an absolute position. If the pen is down, draw line. Do
+ not change the turtle's orientation.
 >>> tp = turtle.pos()
 >>> tp
 (0.00, 0.00)
 >>> turtle.setpos(60,30)
 >>> turtle.pos()
 (60.00,30.00)
 >>> turtle.setpos((20,80))
 >>> turtle.pos()
 (20.00,80.00)
 >>> turtle.setpos(tp)
 >>> turtle.pos()
 (0.00,0.00)
+ .. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> turtle.goto(0, 0)
+
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> tp = turtle.pos()
+ >>> tp
+ (0.00,0.00)
+ >>> turtle.setpos(60,30)
+ >>> turtle.pos()
+ (60.00,30.00)
+ >>> turtle.setpos((20,80))
+ >>> turtle.pos()
+ (20.00,80.00)
+ >>> turtle.setpos(tp)
+ >>> turtle.pos()
+ (0.00,0.00)
.. function:: setx(x)
@@ 314,11 +350,18 @@
Set the turtle's first coordinate to *x*, leave second coordinate
unchanged.
 >>> turtle.position()
 (0.00, 240.00)
 >>> turtle.setx(10)
 >>> turtle.position()
 (10.00, 240.00)
+ .. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> turtle.goto(0, 240)
+
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,240.00)
+ >>> turtle.setx(10)
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (10.00,240.00)
.. function:: sety(y)
@@ 327,11 +370,18 @@
Set the turtle's second coordinate to *y*, leave first coordinate unchanged.
 >>> turtle.position()
 (0.00, 40.00)
 >>> turtle.sety(10)
 >>> turtle.position()
 (0.00, 10.00)
+ .. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> turtle.goto(0, 40)
+
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,40.00)
+ >>> turtle.sety(10)
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,10.00)
.. function:: setheading(to_angle)
@@ 351,9 +401,11 @@
270  south 270  west
=================== ====================
 >>> turtle.setheading(90)
 >>> turtle.heading()
 90
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.setheading(90)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 90.0
.. function:: home()
@@ 361,6 +413,24 @@
Move turtle to the origin  coordinates (0,0)  and set its heading to
its startorientation (which depends on the mode, see :func:`mode`).
+ .. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> turtle.setheading(90)
+ >>> turtle.goto(0, 10)
+
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 90.0
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,10.00)
+ >>> turtle.home()
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,0.00)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 0.0
+
.. function:: circle(radius, extent=None, steps=None)
@@ 380,8 +450,23 @@
determines the number of steps to use. If not given, it will be
calculated automatically. May be used to draw regular polygons.
 >>> turtle.circle(50)
 >>> turtle.circle(120, 180) # draw a semicircle
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.home()
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,0.00)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 0.0
+ >>> turtle.circle(50)
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,0.00)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 0.0
+ >>> turtle.circle(120, 180) # draw a semicircle
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,240.00)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 180.0
.. function:: dot(size=None, *color)
@@ 392,8 +477,16 @@
Draw a circular dot with diameter *size*, using *color*. If *size* is
not given, the maximum of pensize+4 and 2*pensize is used.
 >>> turtle.dot()
 >>> turtle.fd(50); turtle.dot(20, "blue"); turtle.fd(50)
+
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.home()
+ >>> turtle.dot()
+ >>> turtle.fd(50); turtle.dot(20, "blue"); turtle.fd(50)
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (100.00,0.00)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 0.0
.. function:: stamp()
@@ 402,10 +495,12 @@
position. Return a stamp_id for that stamp, which can be used to delete
it by calling ``clearstamp(stamp_id)``.
 >>> turtle.color("blue")
 >>> turtle.stamp()
 13
 >>> turtle.fd(50)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.color("blue")
+ >>> turtle.stamp()
+ 11
+ >>> turtle.fd(50)
.. function:: clearstamp(stampid)
@@ 415,10 +510,18 @@
Delete stamp with given *stampid*.
 >>> turtle.color("blue")
 >>> astamp = turtle.stamp()
 >>> turtle.fd(50)
 >>> turtle.clearstamp(astamp)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (150.00,0.00)
+ >>> turtle.color("blue")
+ >>> astamp = turtle.stamp()
+ >>> turtle.fd(50)
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (200.00,0.00)
+ >>> turtle.clearstamp(astamp)
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (200.00,0.00)
.. function:: clearstamps(n=None)
@@ 429,11 +532,21 @@
all stamps, if *n* > 0 delete first *n* stamps, else if *n* < 0 delete
last *n* stamps.
 >>> for i in range(8):
 ... turtle.stamp(); turtle.fd(30)
 >>> turtle.clearstamps(2)
 >>> turtle.clearstamps(2)
 >>> turtle.clearstamps()
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> for i in range(8):
+ ... turtle.stamp(); turtle.fd(30)
+ 13
+ 14
+ 15
+ 16
+ 17
+ 18
+ 19
+ 20
+ >>> turtle.clearstamps(2)
+ >>> turtle.clearstamps(2)
+ >>> turtle.clearstamps()
.. function:: undo()
@@ 441,11 +554,13 @@
Undo (repeatedly) the last turtle action(s). Number of available
undo actions is determined by the size of the undobuffer.
 >>> for i in range(4):
 ... turtle.fd(50); turtle.lt(80)
 ...
 >>> for i in range(8):
 ... turtle.undo()
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> for i in range(4):
+ ... turtle.fd(50); turtle.lt(80)
+ ...
+ >>> for i in range(8):
+ ... turtle.undo()
.. function:: speed(speed=None)
@@ 471,7 +586,16 @@
place. forward/back makes turtle jump and likewise left/right make the
turtle turn instantly.
 >>> turtle.speed(3)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.speed()
+ 3
+ >>> turtle.speed('normal')
+ >>> turtle.speed()
+ 6
+ >>> turtle.speed(9)
+ >>> turtle.speed()
+ 9
Tell Turtle's state
@@ 482,8 +606,10 @@
Return the turtle's current location (x,y) (as a :class:`Vec2D` vector).
 >>> turtle.pos()
 (0.00, 240.00)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.pos()
+ (440.00,0.00)
.. function:: towards(x, y=None)
@@ 495,32 +621,41 @@
by (x,y), the vector or the other turtle. This depends on the turtle's start
orientation which depends on the mode  "standard"/"world" or "logo").
 >>> turtle.pos()
 (10.00, 10.00)
 >>> turtle.towards(0,0)
 225.0
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.goto(10, 10)
+ >>> turtle.towards(0,0)
+ 225.0
.. function:: xcor()
Return the turtle's x coordinate.
 >>> reset()
 >>> turtle.left(60)
 >>> turtle.forward(100)
 >>> print turtle.xcor()
 50.0
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.home()
+ >>> turtle.left(50)
+ >>> turtle.forward(100)
+ >>> turtle.pos()
+ (64.28,76.60)
+ >>> print turtle.xcor()
+ 64.2787609687
.. function:: ycor()
Return the turtle's y coordinate.
 >>> reset()
 >>> turtle.left(60)
 >>> turtle.forward(100)
 >>> print turtle.ycor()
 86.6025403784
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.home()
+ >>> turtle.left(60)
+ >>> turtle.forward(100)
+ >>> print turtle.pos()
+ (50.00,86.60)
+ >>> print turtle.ycor()
+ 86.6025403784
.. function:: heading()
@@ 528,9 +663,12 @@
Return the turtle's current heading (value depends on the turtle mode, see
:func:`mode`).
 >>> turtle.left(67)
 >>> turtle.heading()
 67.0
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.home()
+ >>> turtle.left(67)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 67.0
.. function:: distance(x, y=None)
@@ 541,14 +679,17 @@
Return the distance from the turtle to (x,y), the given vector, or the given
other turtle, in turtle step units.
 >>> turtle.pos()
 (0.00, 0.00)
 >>> turtle.distance(30,40)
 50.0
 >>> joe = Turtle()
 >>> joe.forward(77)
 >>> turtle.distance(joe)
 77.0
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.home()
+ >>> turtle.distance(30,40)
+ 50.0
+ >>> turtle.distance((30,40))
+ 50.0
+ >>> joe = Turtle()
+ >>> joe.forward(77)
+ >>> turtle.distance(joe)
+ 77.0
Settings for measurement
@@ 561,12 +702,18 @@
Set angle measurement units, i.e. set number of "degrees" for a full circle.
Default value is 360 degrees.
 >>> turtle.left(90)
 >>> turtle.heading()
 90
 >>> turtle.degrees(400.0) # angle measurement in gon
 >>> turtle.heading()
 100
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.home()
+ >>> turtle.left(90)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 90.0
+ >>> turtle.degrees(400.0) # angle measurement in gon
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 100.0
+ >>> turtle.degrees(360)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 90.0
.. function:: radians()
@@ 574,11 +721,20 @@
Set the angle measurement units to radians. Equivalent to
``degrees(2*math.pi)``.
 >>> turtle.heading()
 90
 >>> turtle.radians()
 >>> turtle.heading()
 1.5707963267948966
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.home()
+ >>> turtle.left(90)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 90.0
+ >>> turtle.radians()
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 1.5707963267948966
+
+ .. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> turtle.degrees(360)
Pen control
@@ 610,9 +766,11 @@
"auto" and turtleshape is a polygon, that polygon is drawn with the same line
thickness. If no argument is given, the current pensize is returned.
 >>> turtle.pensize()
 1
 >>> turtle.pensize(10) # from here on lines of width 10 are drawn
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.pensize()
+ 1
+ >>> turtle.pensize(10) # from here on lines of width 10 are drawn
.. function:: pen(pen=None, **pendict)
@@ 634,40 +792,45 @@
* "outline": positive number
* "tilt": number
 This dicionary can be used as argument for a subsequent call to :func:`pen`
+ This dictionary can be used as argument for a subsequent call to :func:`pen`
to restore the former penstate. Moreover one or more of these attributes
can be provided as keywordarguments. This can be used to set several pen
attributes in one statement.
 >>> turtle.pen(fillcolor="black", pencolor="red", pensize=10)
 >>> turtle.pen()
 {'pensize': 10, 'shown': True, 'resizemode': 'auto', 'outline': 1,
 'pencolor': 'red', 'pendown': True, 'fillcolor': 'black',
 'stretchfactor': (1,1), 'speed': 3}
 >>> penstate=turtle.pen()
 >>> turtle.color("yellow","")
 >>> turtle.penup()
 >>> turtle.pen()
 {'pensize': 10, 'shown': True, 'resizemode': 'auto', 'outline': 1,
 'pencolor': 'yellow', 'pendown': False, 'fillcolor': '',
 'stretchfactor': (1,1), 'speed': 3}
 >>> p.pen(penstate, fillcolor="green")
 >>> p.pen()
 {'pensize': 10, 'shown': True, 'resizemode': 'auto', 'outline': 1,
 'pencolor': 'red', 'pendown': True, 'fillcolor': 'green',
 'stretchfactor': (1,1), 'speed': 3}
+ .. doctest::
+ :options: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
+
+ >>> turtle.pen(fillcolor="black", pencolor="red", pensize=10)
+ >>> sorted(turtle.pen().items())
+ [('fillcolor', 'black'), ('outline', 1), ('pencolor', 'red'),
+ ('pendown', True), ('pensize', 10), ('resizemode', 'noresize'),
+ ('shown', True), ('speed', 9), ('stretchfactor', (1, 1)), ('tilt', 0)]
+ >>> penstate=turtle.pen()
+ >>> turtle.color("yellow", "")
+ >>> turtle.penup()
+ >>> sorted(turtle.pen().items())
+ [('fillcolor', ''), ('outline', 1), ('pencolor', 'yellow'),
+ ('pendown', False), ('pensize', 10), ('resizemode', 'noresize'),
+ ('shown', True), ('speed', 9), ('stretchfactor', (1, 1)), ('tilt', 0)]
+ >>> turtle.pen(penstate, fillcolor="green")
+ >>> sorted(turtle.pen().items())
+ [('fillcolor', 'green'), ('outline', 1), ('pencolor', 'red'),
+ ('pendown', True), ('pensize', 10), ('resizemode', 'noresize'),
+ ('shown', True), ('speed', 9), ('stretchfactor', (1, 1)), ('tilt', 0)]
.. function:: isdown()
Return ``True`` if pen is down, ``False`` if it's up.
 >>> turtle.penup()
 >>> turtle.isdown()
 False
 >>> turtle.pendown()
 >>> turtle.isdown()
 True
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.penup()
+ >>> turtle.isdown()
+ False
+ >>> turtle.pendown()
+ >>> turtle.isdown()
+ True
Color control
@@ 680,8 +843,8 @@
Four input formats are allowed:
``pencolor()``
 Return the current pencolor as color specification string, possibly in
 hexnumber format (see example). May be used as input to another
+ Return the current pencolor as color specification string or
+ as a tuple (see example). May be used as input to another
color/pencolor/fillcolor call.
``pencolor(colorstring)``
@@ 700,11 +863,25 @@
If turtleshape is a polygon, the outline of that polygon is drawn with the
newly set pencolor.
 >>> turtle.pencolor("brown")
 >>> tup = (0.2, 0.8, 0.55)
 >>> turtle.pencolor(tup)
 >>> turtle.pencolor()
 "#33cc8c"
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> colormode()
+ 1.0
+ >>> turtle.pencolor()
+ 'red'
+ >>> turtle.pencolor("brown")
+ >>> turtle.pencolor()
+ 'brown'
+ >>> tup = (0.2, 0.8, 0.55)
+ >>> turtle.pencolor(tup)
+ >>> turtle.pencolor()
+ (0.20000000000000001, 0.80000000000000004, 0.5490196078431373)
+ >>> colormode(255)
+ >>> turtle.pencolor()
+ (51, 204, 140)
+ >>> turtle.pencolor('#32c18f')
+ >>> turtle.pencolor()
+ (50, 193, 143)
.. function:: fillcolor(*args)
@@ 714,8 +891,8 @@
Four input formats are allowed:
``fillcolor()``
 Return the current fillcolor as color specification string, possibly in
 hexnumber format (see example). May be used as input to another
+ Return the current fillcolor as color specification string, possibly
+ in tuple format (see example). May be used as input to another
color/pencolor/fillcolor call.
``fillcolor(colorstring)``
@@ 734,10 +911,20 @@
If turtleshape is a polygon, the interior of that polygon is drawn
with the newly set fillcolor.
 >>> turtle.fillcolor("violet")
 >>> col = turtle.pencolor()
 >>> turtle.fillcolor(col)
 >>> turtle.fillcolor(0, .5, 0)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.fillcolor("violet")
+ >>> turtle.fillcolor()
+ 'violet'
+ >>> col = turtle.pencolor()
+ >>> col
+ (50, 193, 143)
+ >>> turtle.fillcolor(col)
+ >>> turtle.fillcolor()
+ (50, 193, 143)
+ >>> turtle.fillcolor('#ffffff')
+ >>> turtle.fillcolor()
+ (255, 255, 255)
.. function:: color(*args)
@@ 749,7 +936,7 @@
``color()``
Return the current pencolor and the current fillcolor as a pair of color
 specification strings as returned by :func:`pencolor` and
+ specification strings or tuples as returned by :func:`pencolor` and
:func:`fillcolor`.
``color(colorstring)``, ``color((r,g,b))``, ``color(r,g,b)``
@@ 763,13 +950,14 @@
If turtleshape is a polygon, outline and interior of that polygon is drawn
with the newly set colors.
 >>> turtle.color("red", "green")
 >>> turtle.color()
 ("red", "green")
 >>> colormode(255)
 >>> color((40, 80, 120), (160, 200, 240))
 >>> color()
 ("#285078", "#a0c8f0")
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.color("red", "green")
+ >>> turtle.color()
+ ('red', 'green')
+ >>> color("#285078", "#a0c8f0")
+ >>> color()
+ ((40, 80, 120), (160, 200, 240))
See also: Screen method :func:`colormode`.
@@ 778,6 +966,11 @@
Filling
~~~~~~~
+.. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> turtle.home()
+
.. function:: fill(flag)
:param flag: True/False (or 1/0 respectively)
@@ 786,29 +979,33 @@
``fill(False)`` when done. When used without argument: return fillstate
(``True`` if filling, ``False`` else).
 >>> turtle.fill(True)
 >>> for _ in range(3):
 ... turtle.forward(100)
 ... turtle.left(120)
 ...
 >>> turtle.fill(False)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.fill(True)
+ >>> for _ in range(3):
+ ... turtle.forward(100)
+ ... turtle.left(120)
+ ...
+ >>> turtle.fill(False)
.. function:: begin_fill()
Call just before drawing a shape to be filled. Equivalent to ``fill(True)``.
 >>> turtle.color("black", "red")
 >>> turtle.begin_fill()
 >>> turtle.circle(60)
 >>> turtle.end_fill()

.. function:: end_fill()
Fill the shape drawn after the last call to :func:`begin_fill`. Equivalent
to ``fill(False)``.
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.color("black", "red")
+ >>> turtle.begin_fill()
+ >>> turtle.circle(80)
+ >>> turtle.end_fill()
+
More drawing control
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ 818,15 +1015,19 @@
Delete the turtle's drawings from the screen, recenter the turtle and set
variables to the default values.
 >>> turtle.position()
 (0.00,22.00)
 >>> turtle.heading()
 100.0
 >>> turtle.reset()
 >>> turtle.position()
 (0.00,0.00)
 >>> turtle.heading()
 0.0
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.goto(0,22)
+ >>> turtle.left(100)
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,22.00)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 100.0
+ >>> turtle.reset()
+ >>> turtle.position()
+ (0.00,0.00)
+ >>> turtle.heading()
+ 0.0
.. function:: clear()
@@ 857,15 +1058,6 @@
Visibility
~~~~~~~~~~
.. function:: showturtle()
 st()

 Make the turtle visible.

 >>> turtle.hideturtle()
 >>> turtle.showturtle()


.. function:: hideturtle()
ht()
@@ 873,7 +1065,19 @@
middle of doing some complex drawing, because hiding the turtle speeds up the
drawing observably.
 >>> turtle.hideturtle()
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.hideturtle()
+
+
+.. function:: showturtle()
+ st()
+
+ Make the turtle visible.
+
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.showturtle()
.. function:: isvisible()
@@ 881,8 +1085,11 @@
Return True if the Turtle is shown, False if it's hidden.
>>> turtle.hideturtle()
 >>> print turtle.isvisible():
+ >>> turtle.isvisible()
False
+ >>> turtle.showturtle()
+ >>> turtle.isvisible()
+ True
Appearance
@@ 898,11 +1105,13 @@
"turtle", "circle", "square", "triangle", "classic". To learn about how to
deal with shapes see Screen method :func:`register_shape`.
 >>> turtle.shape()
 "arrow"
 >>> turtle.shape("turtle")
 >>> turtle.shape()
 "turtle"
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.shape()
+ 'classic'
+ >>> turtle.shape("turtle")
+ >>> turtle.shape()
+ 'turtle'
.. function:: resizemode(rmode=None)
@@ 921,9 +1130,13 @@
resizemode("user") is called by :func:`shapesize` when used with arguments.
 >>> turtle.resizemode("noresize")
 >>> turtle.resizemode()
 "noresize"
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.resizemode()
+ 'noresize'
+ >>> turtle.resizemode("auto")
+ >>> turtle.resizemode()
+ 'auto'
.. function:: shapesize(stretch_wid=None, stretch_len=None, outline=None)
@@ 939,9 +1152,17 @@
stretchfactor in direction of its orientation, *outline* determines the width
of the shapes's outline.
 >>> turtle.resizemode("user")
 >>> turtle.shapesize(5, 5, 12)
 >>> turtle.shapesize(outline=8)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.shapesize()
+ (1, 1, 1)
+ >>> turtle.resizemode("user")
+ >>> turtle.shapesize(5, 5, 12)
+ >>> turtle.shapesize()
+ (5, 5, 12)
+ >>> turtle.shapesize(outline=8)
+ >>> turtle.shapesize()
+ (5, 5, 8)
.. function:: tilt(angle)
@@ 951,12 +1172,15 @@
Rotate the turtleshape by *angle* from its current tiltangle, but do *not*
change the turtle's heading (direction of movement).
 >>> turtle.shape("circle")
 >>> turtle.shapesize(5,2)
 >>> turtle.tilt(30)
 >>> turtle.fd(50)
 >>> turtle.tilt(30)
 >>> turtle.fd(50)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.reset()
+ >>> turtle.shape("circle")
+ >>> turtle.shapesize(5,2)
+ >>> turtle.tilt(30)
+ >>> turtle.fd(50)
+ >>> turtle.tilt(30)
+ >>> turtle.fd(50)
.. function:: settiltangle(angle)
@@ 967,14 +1191,15 @@
regardless of its current tiltangle. *Do not* change the turtle's heading
(direction of movement).
 >>> turtle.shape("circle")
 >>> turtle.shapesize(5,2)
 >>> turtle.settiltangle(45)
 >>> stamp()
 >>> turtle.fd(50)
 >>> turtle.settiltangle(45)
 >>> stamp()
 >>> turtle.fd(50)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.reset()
+ >>> turtle.shape("circle")
+ >>> turtle.shapesize(5,2)
+ >>> turtle.settiltangle(45)
+ >>> turtle.fd(50)
+ >>> turtle.settiltangle(45)
+ >>> turtle.fd(50)
.. function:: tiltangle()
@@ 982,11 +1207,14 @@
Return the current tiltangle, i.e. the angle between the orientation of the
turtleshape and the heading of the turtle (its direction of movement).
 >>> turtle.shape("circle")
 >>> turtle.shapesize(5,2)
 >>> turtle.tilt(45)
 >>> turtle.tiltangle()
 45
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.reset()
+ >>> turtle.shape("circle")
+ >>> turtle.shapesize(5,2)
+ >>> turtle.tilt(45)
+ >>> turtle.tiltangle()
+ 45.0
Using events
@@ 1004,11 +1232,13 @@
existing bindings are removed. Example for the anonymous turtle, i.e. the
procedural way:
 >>> def turn(x, y):
 ... left(180)
 ...
 >>> onclick(turn) # Now clicking into the turtle will turn it.
 >>> onclick(None) # eventbinding will be removed
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> def turn(x, y):
+ ... left(180)
+ ...
+ >>> onclick(turn) # Now clicking into the turtle will turn it.
+ >>> onclick(None) # eventbinding will be removed
.. function:: onrelease(fun, btn=1, add=None)
@@ 1022,15 +1252,17 @@
Bind *fun* to mousebuttonrelease events on this turtle. If *fun* is
``None``, existing bindings are removed.
 >>> class MyTurtle(Turtle):
 ... def glow(self,x,y):
 ... self.fillcolor("red")
 ... def unglow(self,x,y):
 ... self.fillcolor("")
 ...
 >>> turtle = MyTurtle()
 >>> turtle.onclick(turtle.glow) # clicking on turtle turns fillcolor red,
 >>> turtle.onrelease(turtle.unglow) # releasing turns it to transparent.
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> class MyTurtle(Turtle):
+ ... def glow(self,x,y):
+ ... self.fillcolor("red")
+ ... def unglow(self,x,y):
+ ... self.fillcolor("")
+ ...
+ >>> turtle = MyTurtle()
+ >>> turtle.onclick(turtle.glow) # clicking on turtle turns fillcolor red,
+ >>> turtle.onrelease(turtle.unglow) # releasing turns it to transparent.
.. function:: ondrag(fun, btn=1, add=None)
@@ 1047,9 +1279,12 @@
Remark: Every sequence of mousemoveevents on a turtle is preceded by a
mouseclick event on that turtle.
 >>> turtle.ondrag(turtle.goto)
 # Subsequently, clicking and dragging the Turtle will move it across
 # the screen thereby producing handdrawings (if pen is down).
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.ondrag(turtle.goto)
+
+ Subsequently, clicking and dragging the Turtle will move it across
+ the screen thereby producing handdrawings (if pen is down).
Special Turtle methods
@@ 1071,8 +1306,18 @@
Return the last recorded polygon.
 >>> p = turtle.get_poly()
 >>> turtle.register_shape("myFavouriteShape", p)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.home()
+ >>> turtle.begin_poly()
+ >>> turtle.fd(100)
+ >>> turtle.left(20)
+ >>> turtle.fd(30)
+ >>> turtle.left(60)
+ >>> turtle.fd(50)
+ >>> turtle.end_poly()
+ >>> p = turtle.get_poly()
+ >>> register_shape("myFavouriteShape", p)
.. function:: clone()
@@ 1080,8 +1325,10 @@
Create and return a clone of the turtle with same position, heading and
turtle properties.
 >>> mick = Turtle()
 >>> joe = mick.clone()
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> mick = Turtle()
+ >>> joe = mick.clone()
.. function:: getturtle()
@@ 1089,12 +1336,12 @@
Return the Turtle object itself. Only reasonable use: as a function to
return the "anonymous turtle":
 >>> pet = getturtle()
 >>> pet.fd(50)
 >>> pet
 <turtle.Turtle object at 0x01417350>
 >>> turtles()
 [<turtle.Turtle object at 0x01417350>]
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> pet = getturtle()
+ >>> pet.fd(50)
+ >>> pet
+ <turtle.Turtle object at 0x...>
.. function:: getscreen()
@@ 1102,10 +1349,12 @@
Return the :class:`TurtleScreen` object the turtle is drawing on.
TurtleScreen methods can then be called for that object.
 >>> ts = turtle.getscreen()
 >>> ts
 <turtle.Screen object at 0x01417710>
 >>> ts.bgcolor("pink")
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> ts = turtle.getscreen()
+ >>> ts
+ <turtle._Screen object at 0x...>
+ >>> ts.bgcolor("pink")
.. function:: setundobuffer(size)
@@ 1117,15 +1366,19 @@
that can be undone by the :func:`undo` method/function. If *size* is
``None``, the undobuffer is disabled.
 >>> turtle.setundobuffer(42)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> turtle.setundobuffer(42)
.. function:: undobufferentries()
Return number of entries in the undobuffer.
 >>> while undobufferentries():
 ... undo()
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> while undobufferentries():
+ ... undo()
.. function:: tracer(flag=None, delay=None)
@@ 1158,16 +1411,20 @@
For example:
 >>> s = Shape("compound")
 >>> poly1 = ((0,0),(10,5),(0,10),(10,5))
 >>> s.addcomponent(poly1, "red", "blue")
 >>> poly2 = ((0,0),(10,5),(10,5))
 >>> s.addcomponent(poly2, "blue", "red")
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> s = Shape("compound")
+ >>> poly1 = ((0,0),(10,5),(0,10),(10,5))
+ >>> s.addcomponent(poly1, "red", "blue")
+ >>> poly2 = ((0,0),(10,5),(10,5))
+ >>> s.addcomponent(poly2, "blue", "red")
3. Now add the Shape to the Screen's shapelist and use it:
 >>> register_shape("myshape", s)
 >>> shape("myshape")
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> register_shape("myshape", s)
+ >>> shape("myshape")
.. note::
@@ 1183,6 +1440,10 @@
Most of the examples in this section refer to a TurtleScreen instance called
``screen``.
+.. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> screen = Screen()
Window control

@@ 1194,12 +1455,14 @@
Set or return background color of the TurtleScreen.
 >>> screen.bgcolor("orange")
 >>> screen.bgcolor()
 "orange"
 >>> screen.bgcolor(0.5,0,0.5)
 >>> screen.bgcolor()
 "#800080"
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> screen.bgcolor("orange")
+ >>> screen.bgcolor()
+ 'orange'
+ >>> screen.bgcolor("#800080")
+ >>> screen.bgcolor()
+ (128, 0, 128)
.. function:: bgpic(picname=None)
@@ 1209,13 +1472,13 @@
Set background image or return name of current backgroundimage. If *picname*
is a filename, set the corresponding image as background. If *picname* is
``"nopic"``, delete background image, if present. If *picname* is ``None``,
 return the filename of the current backgroundimage.
+ return the filename of the current backgroundimage. ::
 >>> screen.bgpic()
 "nopic"
 >>> screen.bgpic("landscape.gif")
 >>> screen.bgpic()
 "landscape.gif"
+ >>> screen.bgpic()
+ 'nopic'
+ >>> screen.bgpic("landscape.gif")
+ >>> screen.bgpic()
+ "landscape.gif"
.. function:: clear()
@@ 1254,8 +1517,13 @@
method, one can make visible those parts of a drawing which were outside the
canvas before.
 >>> turtle.screensize(2000,1500)
 # e.g. to search for an erroneously escaped turtle ;)
+ >>> screen.screensize()
+ (400, 300)
+ >>> screen.screensize(2000,1500)
+ >>> screen.screensize()
+ (2000, 1500)
+
+ e.g. to search for an erroneously escaped turtle ;)
.. function:: setworldcoordinates(llx, lly, urx, ury)
@@ 1272,13 +1540,22 @@
**ATTENTION**: in userdefined coordinate systems angles may appear
distorted.
 >>> screen.reset()
 >>> screen.setworldcoordinates(50,7.5,50,7.5)
 >>> for _ in range(72):
 ... left(10)
 ...
 >>> for _ in range(8):
 ... left(45); fd(2) # a regular octagon
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> screen.reset()
+ >>> screen.setworldcoordinates(50,7.5,50,7.5)
+ >>> for _ in range(72):
+ ... left(10)
+ ...
+ >>> for _ in range(8):
+ ... left(45); fd(2) # a regular octagon
+
+ .. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> screen.reset()
+ >>> for t in turtles():
+ ... t.reset()
Animation control
@@ 1294,9 +1571,13 @@
Optional argument:
 >>> screen.delay(15)
 >>> screen.delay()
 15
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> screen.delay()
+ 10
+ >>> screen.delay(5)
+ >>> screen.delay()
+ 5
.. function:: tracer(n=None, delay=None)
@@ 1309,12 +1590,14 @@
used to accelerate the drawing of complex graphics.) Second argument sets
delay value (see :func:`delay`).
 >>> screen.tracer(8, 25)
 >>> dist = 2
 >>> for i in range(200):
 ... fd(dist)
 ... rt(90)
 ... dist += 2
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> screen.tracer(8, 25)
+ >>> dist = 2
+ >>> for i in range(200):
+ ... fd(dist)
+ ... rt(90)
+ ... dist += 2
.. function:: update()
@@ 1342,12 +1625,14 @@
are removed. Remark: in order to be able to register keyevents, TurtleScreen
must have the focus. (See method :func:`listen`.)
 >>> def f():
 ... fd(50)
 ... lt(60)
 ...
 >>> screen.onkey(f, "Up")
 >>> screen.listen()
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> def f():
+ ... fd(50)
+ ... lt(60)
+ ...
+ >>> screen.onkey(f, "Up")
+ >>> screen.listen()
.. function:: onclick(fun, btn=1, add=None)
@@ 1365,10 +1650,11 @@
Example for a TurtleScreen instance named ``screen`` and a Turtle instance
named turtle:
 >>> screen.onclick(turtle.goto)
 # Subsequently clicking into the TurtleScreen will
 # make the turtle move to the clicked point.
 >>> screen.onclick(None) # remove event binding again
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> screen.onclick(turtle.goto) # Subsequently clicking into the TurtleScreen will
+ >>> # make the turtle move to the clicked point.
+ >>> screen.onclick(None) # remove event binding again
.. note::
This TurtleScreen method is available as a global function only under the
@@ 1383,14 +1669,16 @@
Install a timer that calls *fun* after *t* milliseconds.
 >>> running = True
 >>> def f():
 if running:
 fd(50)
 lt(60)
 screen.ontimer(f, 250)
 >>> f() ### makes the turtle marching around
 >>> running = False
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> running = True
+ >>> def f():
+ ... if running:
+ ... fd(50)
+ ... lt(60)
+ ... screen.ontimer(f, 250)
+ >>> f() ### makes the turtle march around
+ >>> running = False
Settings and special methods
@@ 1415,9 +1703,11 @@
"logo" upward (north) clockwise
============ ========================= ===================
 >>> mode("logo") # resets turtle heading to north
 >>> mode()
 "logo"
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> mode("logo") # resets turtle heading to north
+ >>> mode()
+ 'logo'
.. function:: colormode(cmode=None)
@@ 1427,10 +1717,19 @@
Return the colormode or set it to 1.0 or 255. Subsequently *r*, *g*, *b*
values of color triples have to be in the range 0..\ *cmode*.
 >>> screen.colormode()
 1.0
 >>> screen.colormode(255)
 >>> turtle.pencolor(240,160,80)
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> screen.colormode(1)
+ >>> turtle.pencolor(240, 160, 80)
+ Traceback (most recent call last):
+ ...
+ TurtleGraphicsError: bad color sequence: (240, 160, 80)
+ >>> screen.colormode()
+ 1.0
+ >>> screen.colormode(255)
+ >>> screen.colormode()
+ 255
+ >>> turtle.pencolor(240,160,80)
.. function:: getcanvas()
@@ 1438,17 +1737,21 @@
Return the Canvas of this TurtleScreen. Useful for insiders who know what to
do with a Tkinter Canvas.
 >>> cv = screen.getcanvas()
 >>> cv
 <turtle.ScrolledCanvas instance at 0x010742D8>
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> cv = screen.getcanvas()
+ >>> cv
+ <turtle.ScrolledCanvas instance at 0x...>
.. function:: getshapes()
Return a list of names of all currently available turtle shapes.
 >>> screen.getshapes()
 ["arrow", "blank", "circle", ..., "turtle"]
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> screen.getshapes()
+ ['arrow', 'blank', 'circle', ..., 'turtle']
.. function:: register_shape(name, shape=None)
@@ 1457,7 +1760,9 @@
There are three different ways to call this function:
(1) *name* is the name of a giffile and *shape* is ``None``: Install the
 corresponding image shape.
+ corresponding image shape. ::
+
+ >>> screen.register_shape("turtle.gif")
.. note::
Image shapes *do not* rotate when turning the turtle, so they do not
@@ 1466,38 +1771,41 @@
(2) *name* is an arbitrary string and *shape* is a tuple of pairs of
coordinates: Install the corresponding polygon shape.
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> screen.register_shape("triangle", ((5,3), (0,5), (5,3)))
+
(3) *name* is an arbitrary string and shape is a (compound) :class:`Shape`
object: Install the corresponding compound shape.
Add a turtle shape to TurtleScreen's shapelist. Only thusly registered
shapes can be used by issuing the command ``shape(shapename)``.
 >>> screen.register_shape("turtle.gif")
 >>> screen.register_shape("triangle", ((5,3), (0,5), (5,3)))

.. function:: turtles()
Return the list of turtles on the screen.
 >>> for turtle in screen.turtles()
 ... turtle.color("red")
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> for turtle in screen.turtles():
+ ... turtle.color("red")
.. function:: window_height()
 Return the height of the turtle window.
+ Return the height of the turtle window. ::
 >>> screen.window_height()
 480
+ >>> screen.window_height()
+ 480
.. function:: window_width()
 Return the width of the turtle window.
+ Return the width of the turtle window. ::
 >>> screen.window_width()
 640
+ >>> screen.window_width()
+ 640
.. _screenspecific:
@@ 1539,10 +1847,12 @@
edge of the screen, if negative from the bottom edge, if None,
center window vertically
 >>> screen.setup (width=200, height=200, startx=0, starty=0)
 # sets window to 200x200 pixels, in upper left of screen
 >>> screen.setup(width=.75, height=0.5, startx=None, starty=None)
 # sets window to 75% of screen by 50% of screen and centers
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> screen.setup (width=200, height=200, startx=0, starty=0)
+ >>> # sets window to 200x200 pixels, in upper left of screen
+ >>> screen.setup(width=.75, height=0.5, startx=None, starty=None)
+ >>> # sets window to 75% of screen by 50% of screen and centers
.. function:: title(titlestring)
@@ 1552,7 +1862,9 @@
Set title of turtle window to *titlestring*.
 >>> screen.title("Welcome to the turtle zoo!")
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> screen.title("Welcome to the turtle zoo!")
The public classes of the module :mod:`turtle`
@@ 1565,14 +1877,14 @@
:param canvas: a :class:`Tkinter.Canvas`, a :class:`ScrolledCanvas` or a
:class:`TurtleScreen`
 Create a turtle. The turtle has all methods described above as "methods of
 Turtle/RawTurtle".
+ Create a turtle. The turtle has all methods described above as "methods of
+ Turtle/RawTurtle".
.. class:: Turtle()
 Subclass of RawTurtle, has the same interface but draws on a default
 :class:`Screen` object created automatically when needed for the first time.
+ Subclass of RawTurtle, has the same interface but draws on a default
+ :class:`Screen` object created automatically when needed for the first time.
.. class:: TurtleScreen(cv)
@@ 1620,10 +1932,12 @@
Example:
 >>> poly = ((0,0),(10,5),(0,10),(10,5))
 >>> s = Shape("compound")
 >>> s.addcomponent(poly, "red", "blue")
 # .. add more components and then use register_shape()
+ .. doctest::
+
+ >>> poly = ((0,0),(10,5),(0,10),(10,5))
+ >>> s = Shape("compound")
+ >>> s.addcomponent(poly, "red", "blue")
+ >>> # ... add more components and then use register_shape()
See :ref:`compoundshapes`.
@@ 1889,3 +2203,22 @@
++++
Have fun!
+
+.. doctest::
+ :hide:
+
+ >>> for turtle in turtles():
+ ... turtle.reset()
+ >>> turtle.penup()
+ >>> turtle.goto(200,25)
+ >>> turtle.pendown()
+ >>> turtle.write("No one expects the Spanish Inquisition!",
+ ... font=("Arial", 20, "normal"))
+ >>> turtle.penup()
+ >>> turtle.goto(100,50)
+ >>> turtle.pendown()
+ >>> turtle.write("Our two chief Turtles are...",
+ ... font=("Arial", 16, "normal"))
+ >>> turtle.penup()
+ >>> turtle.goto(450,75)
+ >>> turtle.write(str(turtles()))