It has been a while since I posted a copy of PEP 1 to the mailing
lists and newsgroups. I've recently done some updating of a few
sections, so in the interest of gaining wider community participation
in the Python development process, I'm posting the latest revision of
PEP 1 here. A version of the PEP is always available on-line at
-------------------- snip snip --------------------
Title: PEP Purpose and Guidelines
Version: $Revision: 1.36 $
Last-Modified: $Date: 2002/07/29 18:34:59 $
Author: Barry A. Warsaw, Jeremy Hylton
Post-History: 21-Mar-2001, 29-Jul-2002
What is a PEP?
PEP stands for Python Enhancement Proposal. A PEP is a design
document providing information to the Python community, or
describing a new feature for Python. The PEP should provide a
concise technical specification of the feature and a rationale for
We intend PEPs to be the primary mechanisms for proposing new
features, for collecting community input on an issue, and for
documenting the design decisions that have gone into Python. The
PEP author is responsible for building consensus within the
community and documenting dissenting opinions.
Because the PEPs are maintained as plain text files under CVS
control, their revision history is the historical record of the
Kinds of PEPs
There are two kinds of PEPs. A standards track PEP describes a
new feature or implementation for Python. An informational PEP
describes a Python design issue, or provides general guidelines or
information to the Python community, but does not propose a new
feature. Informational PEPs do not necessarily represent a Python
community consensus or recommendation, so users and implementors
are free to ignore informational PEPs or follow their advice.
PEP Work Flow
The PEP editor, Barry Warsaw <peps(a)python.org>, assigns numbers
for each PEP and changes its status.
The PEP process begins with a new idea for Python. It is highly
recommended that a single PEP contain a single key proposal or new
idea. The more focussed the PEP, the more successfully it tends
to be. The PEP editor reserves the right to reject PEP proposals
if they appear too unfocussed or too broad. If in doubt, split
your PEP into several well-focussed ones.
Each PEP must have a champion -- someone who writes the PEP using
the style and format described below, shepherds the discussions in
the appropriate forums, and attempts to build community consensus
around the idea. The PEP champion (a.k.a. Author) should first
attempt to ascertain whether the idea is PEP-able. Small
enhancements or patches often don't need a PEP and can be injected
into the Python development work flow with a patch submission to
the SourceForge patch manager or feature request tracker.
The PEP champion then emails the PEP editor <peps(a)python.org> with
a proposed title and a rough, but fleshed out, draft of the PEP.
This draft must be written in PEP style as described below.
If the PEP editor approves, he will assign the PEP a number, label
it as standards track or informational, give it status 'draft',
and create and check-in the initial draft of the PEP. The PEP
editor will not unreasonably deny a PEP. Reasons for denying PEP
status include duplication of effort, being technically unsound,
not providing proper motivation or addressing backwards
compatibility, or not in keeping with the Python philosophy. The
BDFL (Benevolent Dictator for Life, Guido van Rossum) can be
consulted during the approval phase, and is the final arbitrator
of the draft's PEP-ability.
If a pre-PEP is rejected, the author may elect to take the pre-PEP
to the comp.lang.python newsgroup (a.k.a. python-list(a)python.org
mailing list) to help flesh it out, gain feedback and consensus
from the community at large, and improve the PEP for
The author of the PEP is then responsible for posting the PEP to
the community forums, and marshaling community support for it. As
updates are necessary, the PEP author can check in new versions if
they have CVS commit permissions, or can email new PEP versions to
the PEP editor for committing.
Standards track PEPs consists of two parts, a design document and
a reference implementation. The PEP should be reviewed and
accepted before a reference implementation is begun, unless a
reference implementation will aid people in studying the PEP.
Standards Track PEPs must include an implementation - in the form
of code, patch, or URL to same - before it can be considered
PEP authors are responsible for collecting community feedback on a
PEP before submitting it for review. A PEP that has not been
discussed on python-list(a)python.org and/or python-dev(a)python.org
will not be accepted. However, wherever possible, long open-ended
discussions on public mailing lists should be avoided. Strategies
to keep the discussions efficient include, setting up a separate
SIG mailing list for the topic, having the PEP author accept
private comments in the early design phases, etc. PEP authors
should use their discretion here.
Once the authors have completed a PEP, they must inform the PEP
editor that it is ready for review. PEPs are reviewed by the BDFL
and his chosen consultants, who may accept or reject a PEP or send
it back to the author(s) for revision.
Once a PEP has been accepted, the reference implementation must be
completed. When the reference implementation is complete and
accepted by the BDFL, the status will be changed to `Final.'
A PEP can also be assigned status `Deferred.' The PEP author or
editor can assign the PEP this status when no progress is being
made on the PEP. Once a PEP is deferred, the PEP editor can
re-assign it to draft status.
A PEP can also be `Rejected'. Perhaps after all is said and done
it was not a good idea. It is still important to have a record of
PEPs can also be replaced by a different PEP, rendering the
original obsolete. This is intended for Informational PEPs, where
version 2 of an API can replace version 1.
PEP work flow is as follows:
Draft -> Accepted -> Final -> Replaced
Some informational PEPs may also have a status of `Active' if they
are never meant to be completed. E.g. PEP 1.
What belongs in a successful PEP?
Each PEP should have the following parts:
1. Preamble -- RFC822 style headers containing meta-data about the
PEP, including the PEP number, a short descriptive title
(limited to a maximum of 44 characters), the names, and
optionally the contact info for each author, etc.
2. Abstract -- a short (~200 word) description of the technical
issue being addressed.
3. Copyright/public domain -- Each PEP must either be explicitly
labelled as placed in the public domain (see this PEP as an
example) or licensed under the Open Publication License.
4. Specification -- The technical specification should describe
the syntax and semantics of any new language feature. The
specification should be detailed enough to allow competing,
interoperable implementations for any of the current Python
platforms (CPython, JPython, Python .NET).
5. Motivation -- The motivation is critical for PEPs that want to
change the Python language. It should clearly explain why the
existing language specification is inadequate to address the
problem that the PEP solves. PEP submissions without
sufficient motivation may be rejected outright.
6. Rationale -- The rationale fleshes out the specification by
describing what motivated the design and why particular design
decisions were made. It should describe alternate designs that
were considered and related work, e.g. how the feature is
supported in other languages.
The rationale should provide evidence of consensus within the
community and discuss important objections or concerns raised
7. Backwards Compatibility -- All PEPs that introduce backwards
incompatibilities must include a section describing these
incompatibilities and their severity. The PEP must explain how
the author proposes to deal with these incompatibilities. PEP
submissions without a sufficient backwards compatibility
treatise may be rejected outright.
8. Reference Implementation -- The reference implementation must
be completed before any PEP is given status 'Final,' but it
need not be completed before the PEP is accepted. It is better
to finish the specification and rationale first and reach
consensus on it before writing code.
The final implementation must include test code and
documentation appropriate for either the Python language
reference or the standard library reference.
PEPs are written in plain ASCII text, and should adhere to a
rigid style. There is a Python script that parses this style and
converts the plain text PEP to HTML for viewing on the web.
PEP 9 contains a boilerplate template you can use to get
started writing your PEP.
Each PEP must begin with an RFC822 style header preamble. The
headers must appear in the following order. Headers marked with
`*' are optional and are described below. All other headers are
PEP: <pep number>
Title: <pep title>
Version: <cvs version string>
Last-Modified: <cvs date string>
Author: <list of authors' real names and optionally, email addrs>
* Discussions-To: <email address>
Status: <Draft | Active | Accepted | Deferred | Final | Replaced>
Type: <Informational | Standards Track>
* Requires: <pep numbers>
Created: <date created on, in dd-mmm-yyyy format>
* Python-Version: <version number>
Post-History: <dates of postings to python-list and python-dev>
* Replaces: <pep number>
* Replaced-By: <pep number>
The Author: header lists the names and optionally, the email
addresses of all the authors/owners of the PEP. The format of the
author entry should be
address(a)dom.ain (Random J. User)
if the email address is included, and just
Random J. User
if the address is not given. If there are multiple authors, each
should be on a separate line following RFC 822 continuation line
conventions. Note that personal email addresses in PEPs will be
obscured as a defense against spam harvesters.
Standards track PEPs must have a Python-Version: header which
indicates the version of Python that the feature will be released
with. Informational PEPs do not need a Python-Version: header.
While a PEP is in private discussions (usually during the initial
Draft phase), a Discussions-To: header will indicate the mailing
list or URL where the PEP is being discussed. No Discussions-To:
header is necessary if the PEP is being discussed privately with
the author, or on the python-list or python-dev email mailing
lists. Note that email addresses in the Discussions-To: header
will not be obscured.
Created: records the date that the PEP was assigned a number,
while Post-History: is used to record the dates of when new
versions of the PEP are posted to python-list and/or python-dev.
Both headers should be in dd-mmm-yyyy format, e.g. 14-Aug-2001.
PEPs may have a Requires: header, indicating the PEP numbers that
this PEP depends on.
PEPs may also have a Replaced-By: header indicating that a PEP has
been rendered obsolete by a later document; the value is the
number of the PEP that replaces the current document. The newer
PEP must have a Replaces: header containing the number of the PEP
that it rendered obsolete.
PEP Formatting Requirements
PEP headings must begin in column zero and the initial letter of
each word must be capitalized as in book titles. Acronyms should
be in all capitals. The body of each section must be indented 4
spaces. Code samples inside body sections should be indented a
further 4 spaces, and other indentation can be used as required to
make the text readable. You must use two blank lines between the
last line of a section's body and the next section heading.
You must adhere to the Emacs convention of adding two spaces at
the end of every sentence. You should fill your paragraphs to
column 70, but under no circumstances should your lines extend
past column 79. If your code samples spill over column 79, you
should rewrite them.
Tab characters must never appear in the document at all. A PEP
should include the standard Emacs stanza included by example at
the bottom of this PEP.
A PEP must contain a Copyright section, and it is strongly
recommended to put the PEP in the public domain.
When referencing an external web page in the body of a PEP, you
should include the title of the page in the text, with a
footnote reference to the URL. Do not include the URL in the body
text of the PEP. E.g.
Refer to the Python Language web site  for more details.
When referring to another PEP, include the PEP number in the body
text, such as "PEP 1". The title may optionally appear. Add a
footnote reference that includes the PEP's title and author. It
may optionally include the explicit URL on a separate line, but
only in the References section. Note that the pep2html.py script
will calculate URLs automatically, e.g.:
Refer to PEP 1  for more information about PEP style
 PEP 1, PEP Purpose and Guidelines, Warsaw, Hylton
If you decide to provide an explicit URL for a PEP, please use
this as the URL template:
PEP numbers in URLs must be padded with zeros from the left, so as
to be exactly 4 characters wide, however PEP numbers in text are
Reporting PEP Bugs, or Submitting PEP Updates
How you report a bug, or submit a PEP update depends on several
factors, such as the maturity of the PEP, the preferences of the
PEP author, and the nature of your comments. For the early draft
stages of the PEP, it's probably best to send your comments and
changes directly to the PEP author. For more mature, or finished
PEPs you may want to submit corrections to the SourceForge bug
manager or better yet, the SourceForge patch manager so that
your changes don't get lost. If the PEP author is a SF developer,
assign the bug/patch to him, otherwise assign it to the PEP
When in doubt about where to send your changes, please check first
with the PEP author and/or PEP editor.
PEP authors who are also SF committers, can update the PEPs
themselves by using "cvs commit" to commit their changes.
Remember to also push the formatted PEP text out to the web by
doing the following:
% python pep2html.py -i NUM
where NUM is the number of the PEP you want to push out. See
% python pep2html.py --help
Transferring PEP Ownership
It occasionally becomes necessary to transfer ownership of PEPs to
a new champion. In general, we'd like to retain the original
author as a co-author of the transferred PEP, but that's really up
to the original author. A good reason to transfer ownership is
because the original author no longer has the time or interest in
updating it or following through with the PEP process, or has
fallen off the face of the 'net (i.e. is unreachable or not
responding to email). A bad reason to transfer ownership is
because you don't agree with the direction of the PEP. We try to
build consensus around a PEP, but if that's not possible, you can
always submit a competing PEP.
If you are interested assuming ownership of a PEP, send a message
asking to take over, addressed to both the original author and the
PEP editor <peps(a)python.org>. If the original author doesn't
respond to email in a timely manner, the PEP editor will make a
unilateral decision (it's not like such decisions can be
References and Footnotes
 This historical record is available by the normal CVS commands
for retrieving older revisions. For those without direct access
to the CVS tree, you can browse the current and past PEP revisions
via the SourceForge web site at
 The script referred to here is pep2html.py, which lives in
the same directory in the CVS tree as the PEPs themselves.
Try "pep2html.py --help" for details.
The URL for viewing PEPs on the web is
 PEP 9, Sample PEP Template
This document has been placed in the public domain.
> The point isn't about my suffering as such. The point is more that
> python-dev owns a tiny amount of the code out there, and I don't believe we
> should put Python's users through this.
> Sure - I would be happy to "upgrade" all the win32all code, no problem. I
> am also happy to live in the bleeding edge and take some pain that will
> The issue is simply the user base, and giving Python a reputation of not
> being able to painlessly upgrade even dot revisions.
I agree with all this.
[As I imagined explicit syntax did not catch up and would require
lot of discussions.]
> > Another way is to use special rules
> > (similar to those for class defs), e.g. having
> > <frag>
> > y=3
> > def f():
> > exec "y=2"
> > def g():
> > return y
> > return g()
> > print f()
> > </frag>
> > # print 3.
> > Is that confusing for users? maybe they will more naturally expect 2
> > as outcome (given nested scopes).
> This seems the best compromise to me. It will lead to the least
> broken code, because this is the behavior that we had before nested
> scopes! It is also quite easy to implement given the current
> implementation, I believe.
> Maybe we could introduce a warning rather than an error for this
> situation though, because even if this behavior is clearly documented,
> it will still be confusing to some, so it is better if we outlaw it in
> some future version.
Yes this can be easy to implement but more confusing situations can arise:
What should this print? the situation leads not to a canonical solution
as class def scopes.
from foo import *
> > This probably won't be a very popular suggestion, but how about pulling
> > nested scopes (I assume they are at the root of the problem)
> > until this can be solved cleanly?
> Agreed. While I think nested scopes are kinda cool, I have lived without
> them, and really without missing them, for years. At the moment the cure
> appears worse then the symptoms in at least a few cases. If nothing else,
> it compromises the elegant simplicity of Python that drew me here in the
> first place!
> Assuming that people really _do_ want this feature, IMO the bar should be
> raised so there are _zero_ backward compatibility issues.
I don't say anything about pulling nested scopes (I don't think my opinion
can change things in this respect)
but I should insist that without explicit syntax IMO raising the bar
has a too high impl cost (both performance and complexity) or creates
> >Assuming that people really _do_ want this feature, IMO the bar should be
> >raised so there are _zero_ backward compatibility issues.
> Even at the cost of additional implementation complexity? At the cost
> of having to learn "scopes are nested, unless you do these two things
> in which case they're not"?
> Let's not waffle. If nested scopes are worth doing, they're worth
> breaking code. Either leave exec and from..import illegal, or back
> out nested scopes, or think of some better solution, but let's not
> introduce complicated backward compatibility hacks.
IMO breaking code would be ok if we issue warnings today and implement
nested scopes issuing errors tomorrow. But this is simply a statement
about principles and raised impression.
IMO import * in an inner scope should end up being an error,
not sure about 'exec's.
We will need a final BDFL statement.
regards, Samuele Pedroni.
Title: Support for System Upgrades
Version: $Revision: 0.0 $
Author: mal(a)lemburg.com (Marc-Andr? Lemburg)
Type: Standards Track
This PEP proposes strategies to allow the Python standard library
to be upgraded in parts without having to reinstall the complete
distribution or having to wait for a new patch level release.
Python currently does not allow overriding modules or packages in
the standard library per default. Even though this is possible by
defining a PYTHONPATH environment variable (the paths defined in
this variable are prepended to the Python standard library path),
there is no standard way of achieving this without changing the
Since Python's standard library is starting to host packages which
are also available separately, e.g. the distutils, email and PyXML
packages, which can also be installed independently of the Python
distribution, it is desireable to have an option to upgrade these
packages without having to wait for a new patch level release of
the Python interpreter to bring along the changes.
This PEP proposes two different but not necessarily conflicting
1. Adding a new standard search path to sys.path:
$stdlibpath/system-packages just before the $stdlibpath
entry. This complements the already existing entry for site
add-ons $stdlibpath/site-packages which is appended to the
sys.path at interpreter startup time.
To make use of this new standard location, distutils will need
to grow support for installing certain packages in
$stdlibpath/system-packages rather than the standard location
for third-party packages $stdlibpath/site-packages.
2. Tweaking distutils to install directly into $stdlibpath for the
system upgrades rather than into $stdlibpath/site-packages.
The first solution has a few advantages over the second:
* upgrades can be easily identified (just look in
* upgrades can be deinstalled without affecting the rest
of the interpreter installation
* modules can be virtually removed from packages; this is
due to the way Python imports packages: once it finds the
top-level package directory it stay in this directory for
all subsequent package submodule imports
* the approach has an overall much cleaner design than the
hackish install on top of an existing installation approach
The only advantages of the second approach are that the Python
interpreter does not have to changed and that it works with
older Python versions.
Both solutions require changes to distutils. These changes can
also be implemented by package authors, but it would be better to
define a standard way of switching on the proposed behaviour.
Solution 1: Python 2.3 and up
Solution 2: all Python versions supported by distutils
This document has been placed in the public domain.
CEO eGenix.com Software GmbH
eGenix.com -- Makers of the Python mx Extensions: mxDateTime,mxODBC,...
Python Consulting: http://www.egenix.com/
Python Software: http://www.egenix.com/files/python/
Hi all --
I've been hacking sporadically on the linuxaudiodev module for the last
couple of days. Initial results are in patch #645786
(www.python.org/sf/645786). The main goal of this patch is to make
linuxaudiodev objects a thinner wrapper around the underlying OSS device
driver, while still providing some highish-level convenience methods --
see my comments in the patch for details.
There's a slight theoretical risk of backwards incompatibility, though.
Since this module has never been documented, and since its current
behaviour is such that doing anything really funky is severely
curtailed, I very much doubt this will be a problem. Is anyone doing
anything with linuxaudiodev more sophisticated than playing silly beep
sounds? Should I ask around on python-list to be sure I won't ruin
anyone's day with this change?
Oh yeah: someone noted in the CVS history that the module is misnamed.
This is true; it should probably have been called ossaudiodev -- OSS is
the current standard audio API used by Linux and, I think, various BSDs.
It's also available for a bunch of commercial Unices.
Greg Ward <gward(a)python.net> http://www.gerg.ca/
Just because you're paranoid doesn't mean they *aren't* out to get you.
I have temporary access to a Mac OSX box. I find the following
- test_re crashes unless I do ulimit -s 2000 -- haven't tried other
values, but the default of 512 (KB) is insufficient. I know the
README file explains this, but now that I've experienced this
myself, I wonder if we shouldn't hack main() to increase the stack
size to 2 MB, inside an #ifdef darwin or something like that.
- test_socket fails with errno 3, 'Unknown server error' on a
socket.gethostbyaddr() call. Does anybody know what that is about?
- test_locale fails with a complaint about "1,024" vs. "1024". Since
this is probably a libc bug (though wouldn't this also occur on
other BSD systems?) I can live with it.
- test_largefile takes a *very* long time. Perhaps it actually
creates a truly large file (the Mac OSX filesystem is case
insensitive, so I suppose it may be so different that it doesn't
support files with holes in them). Maybe the test should disable
itself (or part of itself) unless a specific resource is requested?
--Guido van Rossum (home page: http://www.python.org/~guido/)
There is a slight chance some of you remember the discussion that Zack
Weinberg brought up here back in September about his experiences in
rewriting ``tempfile``. One of the things he brought up was having to
write his own fake lock so that the code would work when ``thread`` was
not available. Guido suggested writing a module called ``dummy_thread``
that was API compatible with ``thread`` but was available on all
platforms; he said he would check it in if it was written.
Well, I wrote it. But Guido has told me that he is too busy to check it
in and so I am emailing you guys to see if someone can look at it and
check it in. I would like to get it in before 2.3a so as to get the extra
testing the alpha will get.
The patch is #622537 ( http://www.python.org/sf/622537 ). It is complete
to the best of my abilities. I have docs and the module and the tests and
such. Should be pretty straight-forward to apply assuming I didn't muck
up the docs (first attempt at doing any docs from scratch).
The only thing beyond quality of code and documentation that might have to
be dealt with is how far to integrate ``dummy_thread`` into the stdlib.
I have a patch to have ``Queue``, ``threading``, and ``tempfile`` all use
``dummy_thread`` when ``thread`` is not available. Now I tested all of
them with and without ``thread`` available and they all pass. But of
course I wonder if this will break any code.
The problem is that since ``dummy_thread`` basically just executes thread
calls serially there is a problem when sommething like blocking I/O is
used that blocks waiting for another thread (test_asynchat and test_socket
do that, but they require ``thread`` so there is no issue there outright).
So there is a chance that some code, when trying to run using
``threading`` will lock up.
But I don't think this is an issue. I say in the docs that if you want to
guarantee true threading to run ``import thread; del thread`` before
importing ``threading``. But the main reason I don't think it will be an
issue is that all other code that runs fine (but slowly) using
``dummy_thread`` now can be run where threads are not available. And
those programs where deadlock would occur do not lose or gain anything
since they couldn't run on a platform without ``thread`` anyway. The
only issue is that if they don't check for ``thread`` someone trying to
run the program will have a deadlocked program (although they shouldn't
have been trying to run it in the first place).
This is the only real questionable thing. Obviously the module can be
checked in with no problem without touching the other modules (although
``Queue`` and ``tempfile`` should be patched regardless) if this seems to
dicey to do.
Earlier this month, Tim P. wrote:
> Semi-unfortunately, the author of that [bzip2] has
> no idea if it actually works on 95/98/ME/NT/XP
> and in the docs for "3.8 Making a Windows DLL"
> I haven't tried any of this stuff myself, but it all looks
> That means it will require some real work to build and test this
> stuff on 6 flavors of Windows. Not a showstopper, but does raise
> the bar for getting into the PLabs Windows distro.
Sorry if I'm way off base here, but does the underlying bzip2 package
have to be in a DLL, or can't that be built as a static library, which
gets linked into the .pyd, which *is* a DLL? In either case, it doesn't
seem like it would be very difficult to create whatever flavor library
is needed. The code for bzip2 seems to be very portably written.
The python-bz2 code, on the other hand, needed a little bit of tweaking
to make it compile with Microsoft's compiler.
I'll be happy to help in whatever way would be useful in dealing with
the "raised bar," as the prospect of having Python support on all
platforms for bz2 compression (and tarfiles) is very appealing.
On vrijdag, nov 29, 2002, at 21:47 Europe/Amsterdam,
> Update of /cvsroot/python/python/dist/src/Python
> In directory sc8-pr-cvs1:/tmp/cvs-serv20813/Python
> Modified Files:
> Log Message:
> Slightly improved version of patch #642578: "Expose
> in imp". This adds two functions to the imp module: get_frozenmodules()
> and set_frozenmodules().
Something that's been bothering me about frozen modules in the
classical sense (i.e. those that are stored in C static data
structures) is that the memory used by them is gone without any chance
at recovery. For big frozen Python programs that are to be run on small
machines this is a waste of precious memory.
With modules "frozen" with set_frozenmodules you could conceivably free
the data again after it has been imported (similar to what
MacPython-OS9 does with modules "frozen" in "PYC " resources).
Would that be worth the added complexity?
- Jack Jansen <Jack.Jansen(a)oratrix.com>
- If I can't dance I don't want to be part of your revolution -- Emma
I figured that once I started pasting and checking code like:
if sys.version_info >= (2, 3):
# sick off the new hex() warnings, and no time to digest what the
# impact will be!
warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", category=FutureWarning, append=1)
into the Mozilla source tree, it was time to start digesting!
Unfortunately, a simple answer seems to allude me whenever it is brought up
So, to cut a long story short, I have lots and lots of script generated,
then often hand-edited source files with constants defined thus:
SOMETHING = 0x80000000
Which generate a warning telling me that this may become a positive long in
Python 2.4. All I really care about is how my C extension code, which does:
PyArg_ParseTuple("ilhH", ...) // Take your pick
is going to react to this change? (There are similar warnings for certain
shift operations too, but I believe they will all boil down to the same
People using the win32all extensions are unlikely to be happy with the
screenfulls of warning generated. I know I'm not <wink>. But I don't know
what to do.
I know I can suppress the warning either using the code I have above, or
simply by appending an L to each of the thousands of constants, or even
converting them all to decimal. But if nothing is going to change from the
POV of my C extensions, then changing all these constants just to suppress a
warning seems overkill.
Any suggestions for me?