A recent technical note from Microsoft describes a new reference counting algorithm, Perceus. It seemed worth posting here in case there are any thoughts about whether it might be useful for Python. I couldn't find any existing references to it in this list.
""" We introduce Perceus, an algorithm for precise reference counting with reuse and specialization. Starting from a func- tional core language with explicit control-flow, Perceus emits precise reference counting instructions such that programs are garbage free, where only live references are retained. This enables further optimizations, like reuse analysis that allows for guaranteed in-place updates at runtime. This in turn enables a novel programming paradigm that we call functional but in-place (FBIP). Much like tail-call optimiza- tion enables writing loops with regular function calls, reuse analysis enables writing in-place mutating algorithms in a purely functional way. We give a novel formalization of ref- erence counting in a linear resource calculus, and prove that Perceus is sound and garbage free. We show evidence that Perceus, as implemented in Koka, has good performance and is competitive with other state-of-the-art memory collectors. """