[Guido]

But beware, IIRC there are pathological cases involving floats, (long) ints and rounding where transitivity may be violated in Python (though I believe only Tim Peters can produce an example :-).

Not anymore ;-) That is, while comparisons mixing bigints and floats may have suffered rounding surprises long ago, all cases of float-or-int compared-to float-or-int now act as if infinite precision were used. You can throw fractions.Fraction and (I believe) decimal.Decimal into that too. Except for NaNs in the floating types, there's a well-behaved total ordering now (whether doing mixed-type or intra-type comparisons).

That doesn't make it surprise-free, though. For example, just last week someone on bugs.python.org flipped out ;-) upon learning

10**100 == 1e100

False

10**100 < 1e100

True

Because, indeed, they don't denote the same "mathematical" value:

int(1e100)

10000000000000000159028911097599180468360808563945281389781327557747838772170381060813469985856815104

hex(_)

'0x1249ad2594c37d0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000'

(1e100).hex()

'0x1.249ad2594c37dp+332'