[Cython] AddTraceback() slows down generators

Stefan Behnel stefan_ml at behnel.de
Thu Jan 26 21:02:43 CET 2012

Robert Bradshaw, 21.01.2012 23:09:
> On Sat, Jan 21, 2012 at 10:50 AM, Stefan Behnel wrote:
>> I did some callgrind profiling on Cython's generators and was surprised to
>> find that AddTraceback() represents a serious performance penalty for short
>> running generators.
>> I profiled a compiled Python implementation of itertools.groupby(), which
>> yields (key, group) tuples where the group is an iterator again. I ran this
>> code in Python for benchmarking:
>> """
>> L = sorted(range(1000)*5)
>> all(list(g) for k,g in groupby(L))
>> """
>> Groups tend to be rather short in real code, often just one or a couple of
>> items, so unpacking the group iterator into a list will usually be a quick
>> loop and then the generator raises StopIteration on termination and builds
>> a traceback for it. According to callgrind (which, I should note, tends to
>> overestimate the amount of time spent in memory allocation), the iteration
>> during the group unpacking takes about 30% of the overall runtime of the
>> all() loop, and the AddTraceback() call at the end of each group traversal
>> takes up to 25% (!) on my side. That means that more than 80% of the group
>> unpacking time goes into raising StopIteration from the generators. I
>> attached the call graph with the relative timings.
>> About half of the exception raising time is eaten by PyString_FromFormat()
>> that builds the function-name + line-position string (which, I may note, is
>> basically a convenience feature). This string is a constant for a
>> generator's StopIteration exception, at least for each final return point
>> in a generator, but here it is being recreated over and over again, for
>> each exception that gets raised.
>> Even if we keep creating a new frame instance each time (which should be ok
>> because CPython has a frame instance cache already and we'd only create one
>> during the generator lifetime), the whole code object could actually be
>> cached after the first creation, preferably bound to the lifetime of the
>> generator creator function/method. Or, more generally, one code object per
>> generator termination point, which will be a single point in the majority
>> of cases. For the specific code above, that should shave off almost 20% of
>> the overall runtime of the all() loop.
>> I think that's totally worth doing.
> Makes sense to me. I did some caching like this for profiling.

Here's a ticket for now:



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