arigo at codespeak.net arigo at codespeak.net
Mon Jan 2 12:56:20 CET 2006

Author: arigo
Date: Mon Jan  2 12:56:07 2006
New Revision: 21623

- copied, changed from r21572, pypy/extradoc/talk/22c3/techpaper.sty
- copied, changed from r21572, pypy/extradoc/talk/22c3/techpaper.txt
- copied unchanged from r21572, pypy/extradoc/talk/22c3/translation-greyscale-small.pdf
Modified:
Log:
Copied the CCC paper (itself copied from architecture.txt) as the Chalmers
Winter Meeting paper.  Changed the style, the title and the authors (mentioned
all non-trivial svn authors in a footnote, for want of a better idea).

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+++ pypy/extradoc/talk/chalmers/techpaper.tex	Mon Jan  2 12:56:07 2006
@@ -0,0 +1,422 @@
+\documentclass[a4paper,11pt,english]{article}
+\usepackage{babel}
+\usepackage{ae}
+\usepackage{aeguill}
+\usepackage{shortvrb}
+\usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
+\usepackage{tabularx}
+\usepackage{longtable}
+\setlength{\extrarowheight}{2pt}
+\usepackage{amsmath}
+\usepackage{graphicx}
+\usepackage{color}
+\usepackage{multirow}
+\usepackage{ifthen}
+\usepackage[DIV12]{typearea}
+%% generator Docutils: http://docutils.sourceforge.net/
+\newlength{\docinfowidth}
+\setlength{\docinfowidth}{0.9\textwidth}
+\newlength{\locallinewidth}
+\newcommand{\optionlistlabel}[1]{\bf #1 \hfill}
+\newenvironment{optionlist}[1]
+{\begin{list}{}
+  {\setlength{\labelwidth}{#1}
+   \setlength{\rightmargin}{1cm}
+   \setlength{\leftmargin}{\rightmargin}
+   \renewcommand{\makelabel}{\optionlistlabel}}
+}{\end{list}}
+\newlength{\lineblockindentation}
+\setlength{\lineblockindentation}{2.5em}
+\newenvironment{lineblock}[1]
+{\begin{list}{}
+  {\setlength{\partopsep}{\parskip}
+   \topsep0pt\itemsep0.15\baselineskip\parsep0pt
+   \leftmargin#1}
+ \raggedright}
+{\end{list}}
+% begin: floats for footnotes tweaking.
+\setlength{\floatsep}{0.5em}
+\setlength{\textfloatsep}{\fill}
+\renewcommand{\textfraction}{0.5}
+\renewcommand{\topfraction}{0.5}
+\renewcommand{\bottomfraction}{0.5}
+\setcounter{totalnumber}{50}
+\setcounter{topnumber}{50}
+\setcounter{bottomnumber}{50}
+% end floats for footnotes
+% some commands, that could be overwritten in the style file.
+\newcommand{\rubric}[1]{\subsection*{~\hfill {\it #1} \hfill ~}}
+\newcommand{\titlereference}[1]{\textsl{#1}}
+% end of "some commands"
+\input{techpaper.sty}
+\title{PyPy - Architecture Overview}
+\hypersetup{
+pdftitle={PyPy - Architecture Overview}
+}
+\raggedbottom
+\begin{document}
+\maketitle
+
+
+\setlength{\locallinewidth}{\linewidth}
+% command to produce latex file:
+% rst2latex.py --use-latex-citations --use-latex-footnotes --use-latex-toc --documentoptions=a4paper,11pt --hyperlink-color=0 techpaper.txt --use-latex-docinfo --stylesheet=techpaper.sty techpaper.tex
+\begin{abstract}
+PyPy\footnotemark[1] is an implementation of the Python\footnotemark[2] programming language written in
+Python itself, flexible and easy to experiment with.  Our long-term goals are
+to target a large variety of platforms, small and large, by providing a
+compiler toolsuite that can produce custom Python versions.  Platform, memory
+and threading models are to become aspects of the translation process - as
+opposed to encoding low level details into the language implementation itself.
+Eventually, dynamic optimization techniques - implemented as another
+translation aspect - should become robust against language changes.
+\footnotetext[1]{
+\href{http://codespeak.net/pypy}{http://codespeak.net/pypy}
+}
+\footnotetext[2]{
+\href{http://docs.python.org/ref}{http://docs.python.org/ref}
+}
+\end{abstract}
+
+%___________________________________________________________________________
+
+\hypertarget{pypy-an-implementation-of-python-in-python}{}
+\section{PyPy - an implementation of Python in Python}
+
+It has become a tradition in the development of computer languages to
+implement each language in itself.  This serves many purposes. By doing so,
+you demonstrate the versatility of the language and its applicability for
+large projects.  Writing compilers and interpreters are among the most
+complex endeavours in software development.
+
+An important aspect of implementing Python in Python is the high level of
+abstraction and compactness of the language. This allows an implementation
+that is, in some respects, easier to understand and play with than the one
+written in C (referred to throughout the PyPy documentation and source as
+CPython''\footnotemark[3]).
+\footnotetext[3]{
+\href{http://www.python.org}{http://www.python.org}
+}
+
+Another central idea in PyPy is building the implementation in the form
+of a number of independent modules with clearly defined and well tested API's.
+This eases reuse and allows experimenting with multiple implementations
+of specific features.
+
+Later in the project we will introduce optimizations, following the
+ideas of Psyco\footnotemark[4], a Just in Time Specializer, that should make PyPy
+run Python programs faster than CPython. Extensions that increase the
+expressive power are also planned. For instance, we will include the
+ideas of Stackless\footnotemark[5], which moves the execution frames off the stack into
+heap space, allowing for massive parallellism.
+\footnotetext[4]{
+\href{http://psyco.sourceforge.net}{http://psyco.sourceforge.net}
+}
+\footnotetext[5]{
+\href{http://stackless.com}{http://stackless.com}
+}
+
+
+%___________________________________________________________________________
+
+\hypertarget{pypy-meta-goals}{}
+\section{PyPy - Meta Goals}
+
+PyPy is not only about writing another Python interpreter.
+Traditionally, interpreters are written in a target platform language
+like C/Posix, Java or C{\#}.  Each such interpreter provides a mapping''
+from application source code to the target environment.  One of the
+goals of the all-encompassing'' environments, like the .NET framework
+and to some extent the Java virtual machine, is to provide standardized
+and higher level functionalities to language implementors.  This reduces
+the burden of having to write and maintain many interpreters or
+compilers.
+
+PyPy is experimenting with a different approach.  We are not writing a
+Python interpreter for a specific target platform.  We have written a
+Python interpreter in Python, with as few references as possible to
+low-level details.  (Because of the nature of Python, this is already
+a complicated task, although not as complicated as writing it in - say
+- C.)  Then we use this as a language specification'' and manipulate
+it to produce the more traditional interpreters that we want.  In the
+above sense, we are generating the concrete mappings'' of Python into
+lower-level target platforms.
+
+So far (autumn 2005), we have already succeeded in turning this language
+specification'' into reasonably efficient C-level code that performs
+basically the same job as CPython.  Memory management is inserted during
+this \emph{translation} process.  It can be configured to use reference
+counting or not; thus we have already achieved two very different
+mappings of application Python code over C/Posix.  We have
+also successfully translated our Python interpreter into LLVM\footnotemark[6] code,
+and we are working on targeting higher-level environments like
+Java and Squeak.
+
+In some senses, PyPy project's central component is not its
+interpreter implementation, but its configurable translator.
+We think it provides a good way to avoid writing \texttt{n * m * o}
+interpreters for \texttt{n} dynamic languages and \texttt{m} platforms
+with \texttt{o} crucial design decisions.  PyPy aims at having any
+one of these parameters changeable independently from each other:
+\begin{itemize}
+\item {}
+we can modify or replace the language we interpret and just regenerate
+a concrete interpreter for each target;
+
+\item {}
+we can write new translator back-ends to target new platforms;
+
+\item {}
+we can tweak the translation process to produce low-level code based
+
+\end{itemize}
+
+By contrast, a standardized target environment - say .NET -
+enforces \texttt{m=1} as far as it is concerned.  This helps making \texttt{o} a
+bit smaller by providing a higher-level base to build upon.  Still,
+we believe that enforcing the use of one common environment
+is not necessary.  PyPy's goal is to give weight to this claim - at least
+as far as language implementation is concerned - showing an approach
+to the \texttt{n * m * o} problem that does not rely on standardization.
+
+This is the \emph{meta-goal}; a more concrete goal worth mentioning at this
+point is that language specifications can be used to generate cool stuff
+\footnotetext[6]{
+\href{http://llvm.cs.uiuc.edu/}{http://llvm.cs.uiuc.edu/}
+}
+
+
+%___________________________________________________________________________
+
+\hypertarget{higher-level-picture}{}
+\section{Higher level picture}
+
+As you would expect from a project implemented using ideas from the world
+of Extreme Programming\footnotemark[7], the architecture of PyPy has evolved over time
+and continues to evolve.  Nevertheless, the high level architecture is now
+clear.  There are two independent basic subsystems: the Standard
+Interpreter and the Translation Process.
+\footnotetext[7]{
+\href{http://www.extremeprogramming.com/}{http://www.extremeprogramming.com/}
+}
+
+
+%___________________________________________________________________________
+
+\hypertarget{the-standard-interpreter}{}
+\subsection{The Standard Interpreter}
+
+The \emph{standard interpreter} is the subsystem implementing the Python language.
+It is divided into two components:
+\begin{itemize}
+\item {}
+the bytecode interpreter which is responsible for interpreting
+code objects and implementing bytecodes,
+
+\item {}
+the standard object space which implements creating, accessing and
+modifying application level objects.
+
+\end{itemize}
+
+Note that the \emph{standard interpreter} can run fine on top of CPython if one
+is willing to pay the performance penalty for double-interpretation.
+
+The \emph{bytecode interpreter} is the part that interprets the compact
+bytecode format produced from user Python sources by a preprocessing
+phase, the \emph{bytecode compiler}.  The bytecode compiler itself is
+implemented as a chain of flexible passes (tokenizer, lexer, parser,
+abstract syntax tree builder, bytecode generator).  The bytecode
+interpreter then does its work by delegating all actual manipulation of
+user objects to the \emph{object space}.  The latter can be thought of as the
+library of built-in types.  It defines the implementation of the user
+objects, like integers and lists, as well as the operations between
+
+This division between bytecode interpreter and object space is very
+important, as it gives a lot of flexibility. It is possible to use
+different object spaces to get different behaviours of the Python
+objects.  Using a special object space is also an important technique
+for our translation process.
+
+
+%___________________________________________________________________________
+
+\hypertarget{the-translation-process}{}
+\subsection{The Translation Process}
+
+The \emph{translation process} aims at producing a different (low-level)
+representation of our standard interpreter.  The \emph{translation process}
+is done in four steps:
+\begin{itemize}
+\item {}
+producing a \emph{flow graph} representation of the standard interpreter.
+A combination of the bytecode interpreter and a \emph{flow object space}
+performs \emph{abstract interpretation} to record the flow of objects
+and execution throughout a Python program into such a \emph{flow graph};
+
+\item {}
+the \emph{annotator} which performs type inference on the flow graph;
+
+\item {}
+the \emph{typer} which, based on the type annotations, turns the flow graph
+into one using only low-level operations that fit the model of the
+target platform;
+
+\item {}
+the \emph{code generator} which translates the resulting flow graph into
+another language, currently C, LLVM, Javascript (experimental).
+
+\end{itemize}
+
+A more complete description of the phases of this process is out of the scope
+of the present introduction.  We will only give a short overview in the sequel.
+\hypertarget{initialization-time}{}\hypertarget{translation-process-in-more-details}{}
+
+%___________________________________________________________________________
+
+\hypertarget{rpython-the-flow-object-space-and-translation}{}
+\section{RPython, the Flow Object Space and translation}
+
+One of PyPy's now achieved objectives is to enable translation of our
+bytecode interpreter and standard object space into a lower-level language.
+In order for our translation and type inference mechanisms to work
+effectively, we need to restrict the dynamism of our interpreter-level
+Python code at some point.  However, in the start-up phase, we are
+completely free to use all kinds of powerful Python constructs, including
+metaclasses and execution of dynamically constructed strings.  However,
+when the initialization phase finishes, all code objects involved need to
+adhere to a more static subset of Python:
+Restricted Python, also known as RPython.
+
+The Flow Object Space then, with the help of our bytecode interpreter,
+works through those initialized RPython code objects.  The result of
+this abstract interpretation is a flow graph: yet another
+representation of a Python program, but one which is suitable for
+applying translation and type inference techniques.  The nodes of the
+graph are basic blocks consisting of Object Space operations, flowing
+of values, and an exitswitch to one, two or multiple links which connect
+each basic block to other basic blocks.
+
+The flow graphs are fed as input into the Annotator.  The Annotator,
+given entry point types, infers the types of values that flow through
+the program variables.  This is the core of the definition of RPython:
+RPython code is restricted in such a way that the
+Annotator is able to infer consistent types.  How much
+dynamism we allow in RPython depends on, and is restricted by, the Flow
+Object Space and the Annotator implementation.  The more we can improve
+this translation phase, the more dynamism we can allow.  In some cases,
+however, it is more feasible and practical to just get rid
+of some of the dynamism we use in our interpreter level code.  It is
+mainly because of this trade-off situation that the definition of
+RPython has shifted over time.  Although the Annotator is
+pretty stable now and able to process the whole of PyPy, the RPython
+definition will probably continue to shift marginally as we improve it.
+
+The newest piece of this puzzle is the
+\emph{Typer}, which inputs the high-level types inferred by the Annotator and
+uses them to modify the flow graph in-place to replace its operations with
+low-level ones, directly manipulating low-level values and data structures.
+
+The actual low-level code is emitted by visiting'' the type-annotated
+flow graph after the typer introduced low-level operations.  Currently we have
+a C-producing backend, and an LLVM-producing backend.  The former also
+accepts non-annotated or partially-annotated graphs, which allow us to
+test it on a larger class of programs than what the Annotator can (or
+ever will) fully process.
+\begin{figure*}[htbp]\begin{center}
+\includegraphics{translation-greyscale-small.pdf}
+overview of the translation process
+\end{center}\end{figure*}
+The complete translation process is described in more detail in the
+documentation section on the PyPy homepage\footnotemark[8].
+\footnotetext[8]{
+\href{http://codespeak.net/pypy}{http://codespeak.net/pypy}
+}
+
+
+%___________________________________________________________________________
+
+\hypertarget{status-of-the-implementation-nov-2005}{}
+\section{Status of the implementation (Nov 2005)}
+
+With the pypy-0.8.0 release we have integrated our Abstract Syntax
+Tree (AST) compiler with the rest of PyPy. The compiler gets
+translated with the rest to a static self-contained version of the
+standard interpreter.  Like with 0.7.0 this version is very compliant\footnotemark[9] to CPython 2.4.1 but you cannot run many existing programs on it
+yet because we are still missing a number of C-modules like socket or
+support for process creation.
+
+The self-contained PyPy version (single-threaded and using the
+Boehm-Demers-Weiser garbage collector\footnotemark[10]) now runs around 10-20
+times slower than CPython, i.e. around 10 times faster than 0.7.0.
+This is the result of optimizations, adding short cuts for some common
+paths in our interpreter and adding relatively straight forward
+optimising transforms to our tool chain, like inlining paired with
+simple escape analysis to remove unnecessary heap allocations.  We
+still have some way to go. However we expect that most of our speed
+will come from the Just-In-Time compiler - work which we have barely
+started yet.
+
+With the 0.8.0 release the Thunk Object Space'' can also be
+translated. This is a module that proxies the Standard Object Space,
+adding lazy evaluation features to Python. It is a small scale
+show-case for how our whole tool-chain supports flexibility from the
+interpreter written in Python to the resulting self-contained
+executable.
+
+Our rather complete and Python 2.4-compliant interpreter consists
+of about 30,000-50,000 lines of code (depending on the way you
+count code borrowed and adapted from other sources), with
+another 14,000 lines of unit tests.  If we include the tools,
+the parts related to code analysis and generation, and the
+standard library modules ported from C, PyPy is now 138,000
+lines of code and 32,000 lines of tests. Refer to
+the statistics web page\footnotemark[11] for more detailed information.
+\footnotetext[9]{
+\href{http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Hans_Boehm/gc/}{http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Hans{\_}Boehm/gc/}
+}
+\footnotetext[10]{
+\href{http://codespeak.net/~hpk/pypy-testresult/}{http://codespeak.net/{\textasciitilde}hpk/pypy-testresult/}
+}
+\footnotetext[11]{
+\href{http://codespeak.net/~hpk/pypy-stat/}{http://codespeak.net/{\textasciitilde}hpk/pypy-stat/}
+}
+
+
+%___________________________________________________________________________
+
+\hypertarget{future-work-and-foreseen-possibilities}{}
+\section{Future work and foreseen possibilities}
+
+In 2006, the PyPy project aims to translate the standard Python
+Interpreter to a JIT-compiler and also to support massive parallelism
+especially if we want to retain and improve the modularity and
+flexibility aspects of our implementation - like giving an independent
+choice of memory or threading models for translation.  Moreover it is
+likely that our Javascript and other higher level backends (in
+contrast to our current low-level ones) will continue to evolve.
+
+Apart from optimization-related translation choices PyPy is to enable
+new possibilities regarding persistence, security and distribution
+issues.  We intend to experiment with ortoghonal persistence for
+Python objects, i.e. one that doesn't require application objects to
+behave in a particular manner.  Security-wise we will look at
+sandboxing or capabilities based schemes.  For distribution we already
+experimented with allowing transparent migration of objects between
+processes with the help of the existing (and translateable) Thunk
+Object Space.  In general, all experiments are much easier to conduct
+in PyPy and should provide a resulting standalone executable in
+a shorter time than traditional approaches.
+
+\end{document}