[pypy-svn] r60282 - pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009

antocuni at codespeak.net antocuni at codespeak.net
Tue Dec 2 18:32:42 CET 2008


Author: antocuni
Date: Tue Dec  2 18:32:40 2008
New Revision: 60282

Added:
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/abstract.tex
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/clibackend.tex
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/diagram0.odg   (contents, props changed)
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/diagram0.pdf   (contents, props changed)
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/diagram1.odg   (contents, props changed)
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/diagram1.pdf   (contents, props changed)
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/intro.tex
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/jitgen.tex
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/llncs.cls
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/main.bbl
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/main.tex
   pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/rainbow.tex
Log:
first draft of the ecoop paper



Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/abstract.tex
==============================================================================
--- (empty file)
+++ pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/abstract.tex	Tue Dec  2 18:32:40 2008
@@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
+\begin{abstract}
+Dynamic languages are increasingly popular etc. etc.
+\end{abstract}

Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/clibackend.tex
==============================================================================
--- (empty file)
+++ pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/clibackend.tex	Tue Dec  2 18:32:40 2008
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+\section{CLI backend for Rainbow interpreter}
+
+\subsection{Promotion on CLI}
+
+Implementing promotion on top of CLI is not straightforward, as it needs to
+patch and modify the already generated code, and this is not possible on .NET.
+
+To solve, we do xxx and yyy etc. etc.

Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/diagram0.odg
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Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/diagram0.pdf
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Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/diagram1.odg
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Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/diagram1.pdf
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Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/intro.tex
==============================================================================
--- (empty file)
+++ pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/intro.tex	Tue Dec  2 18:32:40 2008
@@ -0,0 +1,70 @@
+\section{Introduction}
+
+Dynamic languages are increasingly popular etc. etc.
+
+The easiest way to implement a dynamic language such as Python is to write an
+interpreter; however, interpreters are slow.
+
+The alternative is to write a compiler; writing a compiler that targets a high
+level virtual machine like CLI or JVM is easier than targeting a real CPU, but
+it still require a lot of work, as IronPython, Jython, JRuby demonstrate.
+
+Moreover, writing a static compiler is often not enough to get high
+performances; IronPython and JRuby are going in the direction of JIT compiling
+specialized versions of the code depending on the actual values/types seen at
+runtime; this approach seems to work, but write it manually requires an
+enormous effort.
+
+PyPy's idea is to automatize the generation of static/JIT compilers in order
+to reduce at minimun the effort required to get a fast implementation of a
+dynamic language; all you have to do is to write a high level specification of
+the language (by writing an interpreter), and put it through PyPy's
+translation toolchain.
+
+\subsection{PyPy and RPython}
+
+\begin{figure}[h]
+\begin{center}
+\includegraphics[width=.6\textwidth]{diagram0}
+\caption{PyPy infrastracture for generating an interpreter of a
+  language $L$ for several platforms}\label{pypy-fig}
+\end{center}
+\end{figure}
+
+The \emph{PyPy} project\footnote{\texttt{http://codespeak.net/pypy/dist/pypy/doc/home.html}}
+\cite{RigoPedroni06} was initially conceived to develop an implementation of Python which
+could be easily portable and extensible without renouncing efficiency.
+To achieve these aims, the PyPy implementation is based on a highly
+modular design which allows high-level aspects
+to be separated from lower-level implementation details.
+The abstract semantics of Python is defined by an interpreter written
+in a high-level language, called RPython \cite{AACM-DLS07}, which is in fact a subset of
+Python where some dynamic features have been sacrificed to allow an
+efficient translation of the interpreter to low-level code.
+
+Compilation of the interpreter is implemented as a stepwise
+refinement by means of a translation toolchain which performs type
+analysis, code optimizations and several transformations aiming at 
+incrementally providing implementation details as memory management or the threading model.
+The different kinds of intermediate codes  which are refined 
+during the translation process are all represented by a collection of control flow graphs,
+at several levels of abstractions.
+
+Finally, the low-level control flow-graphs produced by the toolchain
+can be translated to executable code for a specific platform by a
+corresponding backend.
+Currently, three fully developed backends are available to produce
+executable C/POSIX code, Java and CLI/.NET bytecode. 
+
+Despite the PyPy infrastructure was specifically developed 
+for Python, in fact it can be used for implementing
+other languages. Indeed, PyPy has been successfully experimented with
+several languages as Smalltalk \cite{BolzEtAl08}, JavaScript, Scheme and Prolog.
+As suggested by Figure~\ref{pypy-fig}, a portable interpreter for a
+generic language $L$  can be
+easily developed once an abstract interpreter for $L$ is implemented in
+RPython.
+
+Another interesting feature of PyPy
+is that just-in-time compilers can be semi-automatically generated from the
+interpreter source.

Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/jitgen.tex
==============================================================================
--- (empty file)
+++ pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/jitgen.tex	Tue Dec  2 18:32:40 2008
@@ -0,0 +1,66 @@
+\section{Automatic generation of JIT compilers}
+
+Traditional JIT compilers are hard to write, time consuming, hard to evolve,
+etc. etc.
+
+\begin{figure}[h]
+\begin{center}
+\includegraphics[width=.6\textwidth]{diagram1}
+\caption{PyPy infrastructure for generating an interpreter of a
+  language $L$ with JIT compilation for the .NET platform}
+\end{center}
+\end{figure}
+
+The JIT generation framework uses partial evaluation techniques to generate a
+dynamic compiler from an interpreter; the idea is inspired by Psyco, which
+uses the same techniques but it's manually written instead of being
+automatically generated.
+
+The original idea is by Futamura \cite{Futamura99}. He proposed to generate compilers
+from interpreters with automatic specialization, but his work has had
+relatively little practical impact so far.
+
+\subsection{Partial evaluation}
+
+Assume the Python bytecode to be constant, and constant-propagate it into the
+Python interpreter.
+
+Example::
+\begin{lstlisting}[language=Python]
+  def f(x, y):    
+    x2 = x * x    
+    y2 = y * y    
+    return x2 + y2
+
+**case x=3** ::
+
+  def f_3(y):    
+    y2 = y * y   
+    return 9 + y2
+
+**case x=10** ::
+
+  def f_10(y):    
+    y2 = y * y   
+    return 100 + y2
+\end{lstlisting}
+
+A shortcoming of PE is that in many cases not much can be really assumed
+constant at compile-time, and this leads to poor results.  Effective dynamic
+compilation requires feedback of runtime information into compile-time; for a
+dynamic language, types are a primary example.
+
+
+\subsection{Execution steps}
+
+* Translation time
+
+  - pypy-c-jit is translated into an executable
+
+  - the JIT compiler is automatically generated
+
+* Compile-time: the JIT compiler runs
+
+* Runtime: the JIT compiled code runs
+
+* Compile-time and runtime are intermixed

Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/llncs.cls
==============================================================================
--- (empty file)
+++ pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/llncs.cls	Tue Dec  2 18:32:40 2008
@@ -0,0 +1,1190 @@
+% LLNCS DOCUMENT CLASS -- version 2.14 (17-Aug-2004)
+% Springer Verlag LaTeX2e support for Lecture Notes in Computer Science
+%
+%%
+%% \CharacterTable
+%%  {Upper-case    \A\B\C\D\E\F\G\H\I\J\K\L\M\N\O\P\Q\R\S\T\U\V\W\X\Y\Z
+%%   Lower-case    \a\b\c\d\e\f\g\h\i\j\k\l\m\n\o\p\q\r\s\t\u\v\w\x\y\z
+%%   Digits        \0\1\2\3\4\5\6\7\8\9
+%%   Exclamation   \!     Double quote  \"     Hash (number) \#
+%%   Dollar        \$     Percent       \%     Ampersand     \&
+%%   Acute accent  \'     Left paren    \(     Right paren   \)
+%%   Asterisk      \*     Plus          \+     Comma         \,
+%%   Minus         \-     Point         \.     Solidus       \/
+%%   Colon         \:     Semicolon     \;     Less than     \<
+%%   Equals        \=     Greater than  \>     Question mark \?
+%%   Commercial at \@     Left bracket  \[     Backslash     \\
+%%   Right bracket \]     Circumflex    \^     Underscore    \_
+%%   Grave accent  \`     Left brace    \{     Vertical bar  \|
+%%   Right brace   \}     Tilde         \~}
+%%
+\NeedsTeXFormat{LaTeX2e}[1995/12/01]
+\ProvidesClass{llncs}[2004/08/17 v2.14
+^^J LaTeX document class for Lecture Notes in Computer Science]
+% Options
+\let\if at envcntreset\iffalse
+\DeclareOption{envcountreset}{\let\if at envcntreset\iftrue}
+\DeclareOption{citeauthoryear}{\let\citeauthoryear=Y}
+\DeclareOption{oribibl}{\let\oribibl=Y}
+\let\if at custvec\iftrue
+\DeclareOption{orivec}{\let\if at custvec\iffalse}
+\let\if at envcntsame\iffalse
+\DeclareOption{envcountsame}{\let\if at envcntsame\iftrue}
+\let\if at envcntsect\iffalse
+\DeclareOption{envcountsect}{\let\if at envcntsect\iftrue}
+\let\if at runhead\iffalse
+\DeclareOption{runningheads}{\let\if at runhead\iftrue}
+
+\let\if at openbib\iffalse
+\DeclareOption{openbib}{\let\if at openbib\iftrue}
+
+% languages
+\let\switcht@@therlang\relax
+\def\ds at deutsch{\def\switcht@@therlang{\switcht at deutsch}}
+\def\ds at francais{\def\switcht@@therlang{\switcht at francais}}
+
+\DeclareOption*{\PassOptionsToClass{\CurrentOption}{article}}
+
+\ProcessOptions
+
+\LoadClass[twoside]{article}
+\RequirePackage{multicol} % needed for the list of participants, index
+
+\setlength{\textwidth}{12.2cm}
+\setlength{\textheight}{19.3cm}
+\renewcommand\@pnumwidth{2em}
+\renewcommand\@tocrmarg{3.5em}
+%
+\def\@dottedtocline#1#2#3#4#5{%
+  \ifnum #1>\c at tocdepth \else
+    \vskip \z@ \@plus.2\p@
+    {\leftskip #2\relax \rightskip \@tocrmarg \advance\rightskip by 0pt plus 2cm
+               \parfillskip -\rightskip \pretolerance=10000
+     \parindent #2\relax\@afterindenttrue
+     \interlinepenalty\@M
+     \leavevmode
+     \@tempdima #3\relax
+     \advance\leftskip \@tempdima \null\nobreak\hskip -\leftskip
+     {#4}\nobreak
+     \leaders\hbox{$\m at th
+        \mkern \@dotsep mu\hbox{.}\mkern \@dotsep
+        mu$}\hfill
+     \nobreak
+     \hb at xt@\@pnumwidth{\hfil\normalfont \normalcolor #5}%
+     \par}%
+  \fi}
+%
+\def\switcht at albion{%
+\def\abstractname{Abstract.}
+\def\ackname{Acknowledgement.}
+\def\andname{and}
+\def\lastandname{\unskip, and}
+\def\appendixname{Appendix}
+\def\chaptername{Chapter}
+\def\claimname{Claim}
+\def\conjecturename{Conjecture}
+\def\contentsname{Table of Contents}
+\def\corollaryname{Corollary}
+\def\definitionname{Definition}
+\def\examplename{Example}
+\def\exercisename{Exercise}
+\def\figurename{Fig.}
+\def\keywordname{{\bf Key words:}}
+\def\indexname{Index}
+\def\lemmaname{Lemma}
+\def\contriblistname{List of Contributors}
+\def\listfigurename{List of Figures}
+\def\listtablename{List of Tables}
+\def\mailname{{\it Correspondence to\/}:}
+\def\noteaddname{Note added in proof}
+\def\notename{Note}
+\def\partname{Part}
+\def\problemname{Problem}
+\def\proofname{Proof}
+\def\propertyname{Property}
+\def\propositionname{Proposition}
+\def\questionname{Question}
+\def\remarkname{Remark}
+\def\seename{see}
+\def\solutionname{Solution}
+\def\subclassname{{\it Subject Classifications\/}:}
+\def\tablename{Table}
+\def\theoremname{Theorem}}
+\switcht at albion
+% Names of theorem like environments are already defined
+% but must be translated if another language is chosen
+%
+% French section
+\def\switcht at francais{%\typeout{On parle francais.}%
+ \def\abstractname{R\'esum\'e.}%
+ \def\ackname{Remerciements.}%
+ \def\andname{et}%
+ \def\lastandname{ et}%
+ \def\appendixname{Appendice}
+ \def\chaptername{Chapitre}%
+ \def\claimname{Pr\'etention}%
+ \def\conjecturename{Hypoth\`ese}%
+ \def\contentsname{Table des mati\`eres}%
+ \def\corollaryname{Corollaire}%
+ \def\definitionname{D\'efinition}%
+ \def\examplename{Exemple}%
+ \def\exercisename{Exercice}%
+ \def\figurename{Fig.}%
+ \def\keywordname{{\bf Mots-cl\'e:}}
+ \def\indexname{Index}
+ \def\lemmaname{Lemme}%
+ \def\contriblistname{Liste des contributeurs}
+ \def\listfigurename{Liste des figures}%
+ \def\listtablename{Liste des tables}%
+ \def\mailname{{\it Correspondence to\/}:}
+ \def\noteaddname{Note ajout\'ee \`a l'\'epreuve}%
+ \def\notename{Remarque}%
+ \def\partname{Partie}%
+ \def\problemname{Probl\`eme}%
+ \def\proofname{Preuve}%
+ \def\propertyname{Caract\'eristique}%
+%\def\propositionname{Proposition}%
+ \def\questionname{Question}%
+ \def\remarkname{Remarque}%
+ \def\seename{voir}
+ \def\solutionname{Solution}%
+ \def\subclassname{{\it Subject Classifications\/}:}
+ \def\tablename{Tableau}%
+ \def\theoremname{Th\'eor\`eme}%
+}
+%
+% German section
+\def\switcht at deutsch{%\typeout{Man spricht deutsch.}%
+ \def\abstractname{Zusammenfassung.}%
+ \def\ackname{Danksagung.}%
+ \def\andname{und}%
+ \def\lastandname{ und}%
+ \def\appendixname{Anhang}%
+ \def\chaptername{Kapitel}%
+ \def\claimname{Behauptung}%
+ \def\conjecturename{Hypothese}%
+ \def\contentsname{Inhaltsverzeichnis}%
+ \def\corollaryname{Korollar}%
+%\def\definitionname{Definition}%
+ \def\examplename{Beispiel}%
+ \def\exercisename{\"Ubung}%
+ \def\figurename{Abb.}%
+ \def\keywordname{{\bf Schl\"usselw\"orter:}}
+ \def\indexname{Index}
+%\def\lemmaname{Lemma}%
+ \def\contriblistname{Mitarbeiter}
+ \def\listfigurename{Abbildungsverzeichnis}%
+ \def\listtablename{Tabellenverzeichnis}%
+ \def\mailname{{\it Correspondence to\/}:}
+ \def\noteaddname{Nachtrag}%
+ \def\notename{Anmerkung}%
+ \def\partname{Teil}%
+%\def\problemname{Problem}%
+ \def\proofname{Beweis}%
+ \def\propertyname{Eigenschaft}%
+%\def\propositionname{Proposition}%
+ \def\questionname{Frage}%
+ \def\remarkname{Anmerkung}%
+ \def\seename{siehe}
+ \def\solutionname{L\"osung}%
+ \def\subclassname{{\it Subject Classifications\/}:}
+ \def\tablename{Tabelle}%
+%\def\theoremname{Theorem}%
+}
+
+% Ragged bottom for the actual page
+\def\thisbottomragged{\def\@textbottom{\vskip\z@ plus.0001fil
+\global\let\@textbottom\relax}}
+
+\renewcommand\small{%
+   \@setfontsize\small\@ixpt{11}%
+   \abovedisplayskip 8.5\p@ \@plus3\p@ \@minus4\p@
+   \abovedisplayshortskip \z@ \@plus2\p@
+   \belowdisplayshortskip 4\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus2\p@
+   \def\@listi{\leftmargin\leftmargini
+               \parsep 0\p@ \@plus1\p@ \@minus\p@
+               \topsep 8\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus4\p@
+               \itemsep0\p@}%
+   \belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip
+}
+
+\frenchspacing
+\widowpenalty=10000
+\clubpenalty=10000
+
+\setlength\oddsidemargin   {63\p@}
+\setlength\evensidemargin  {63\p@}
+\setlength\marginparwidth  {90\p@}
+
+\setlength\headsep   {16\p@}
+
+\setlength\footnotesep{7.7\p@}
+\setlength\textfloatsep{8mm\@plus 2\p@ \@minus 4\p@}
+\setlength\intextsep   {8mm\@plus 2\p@ \@minus 2\p@}
+
+\setcounter{secnumdepth}{2}
+
+\newcounter {chapter}
+\renewcommand\thechapter      {\@arabic\c at chapter}
+
+\newif\if at mainmatter \@mainmattertrue
+\newcommand\frontmatter{\cleardoublepage
+            \@mainmatterfalse\pagenumbering{Roman}}
+\newcommand\mainmatter{\cleardoublepage
+       \@mainmattertrue\pagenumbering{arabic}}
+\newcommand\backmatter{\if at openright\cleardoublepage\else\clearpage\fi
+      \@mainmatterfalse}
+
+\renewcommand\part{\cleardoublepage
+                 \thispagestyle{empty}%
+                 \if at twocolumn
+                     \onecolumn
+                     \@tempswatrue
+                   \else
+                     \@tempswafalse
+                 \fi
+                 \null\vfil
+                 \secdef\@part\@spart}
+
+\def\@part[#1]#2{%
+    \ifnum \c at secnumdepth >-2\relax
+      \refstepcounter{part}%
+      \addcontentsline{toc}{part}{\thepart\hspace{1em}#1}%
+    \else
+      \addcontentsline{toc}{part}{#1}%
+    \fi
+    \markboth{}{}%
+    {\centering
+     \interlinepenalty \@M
+     \normalfont
+     \ifnum \c at secnumdepth >-2\relax
+       \huge\bfseries \partname~\thepart
+       \par
+       \vskip 20\p@
+     \fi
+     \Huge \bfseries #2\par}%
+    \@endpart}
+\def\@spart#1{%
+    {\centering
+     \interlinepenalty \@M
+     \normalfont
+     \Huge \bfseries #1\par}%
+    \@endpart}
+\def\@endpart{\vfil\newpage
+              \if at twoside
+                \null
+                \thispagestyle{empty}%
+                \newpage
+              \fi
+              \if at tempswa
+                \twocolumn
+              \fi}
+
+\newcommand\chapter{\clearpage
+                    \thispagestyle{empty}%
+                    \global\@topnum\z@
+                    \@afterindentfalse
+                    \secdef\@chapter\@schapter}
+\def\@chapter[#1]#2{\ifnum \c at secnumdepth >\m at ne
+                       \if at mainmatter
+                         \refstepcounter{chapter}%
+                         \typeout{\@chapapp\space\thechapter.}%
+                         \addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}%
+                                  {\protect\numberline{\thechapter}#1}%
+                       \else
+                         \addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{#1}%
+                       \fi
+                    \else
+                      \addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{#1}%
+                    \fi
+                    \chaptermark{#1}%
+                    \addtocontents{lof}{\protect\addvspace{10\p@}}%
+                    \addtocontents{lot}{\protect\addvspace{10\p@}}%
+                    \if at twocolumn
+                      \@topnewpage[\@makechapterhead{#2}]%
+                    \else
+                      \@makechapterhead{#2}%
+                      \@afterheading
+                    \fi}
+\def\@makechapterhead#1{%
+% \vspace*{50\p@}%
+  {\centering
+    \ifnum \c at secnumdepth >\m at ne
+      \if at mainmatter
+        \large\bfseries \@chapapp{} \thechapter
+        \par\nobreak
+        \vskip 20\p@
+      \fi
+    \fi
+    \interlinepenalty\@M
+    \Large \bfseries #1\par\nobreak
+    \vskip 40\p@
+  }}
+\def\@schapter#1{\if at twocolumn
+                   \@topnewpage[\@makeschapterhead{#1}]%
+                 \else
+                   \@makeschapterhead{#1}%
+                   \@afterheading
+                 \fi}
+\def\@makeschapterhead#1{%
+% \vspace*{50\p@}%
+  {\centering
+    \normalfont
+    \interlinepenalty\@M
+    \Large \bfseries  #1\par\nobreak
+    \vskip 40\p@
+  }}
+
+\renewcommand\section{\@startsection{section}{1}{\z@}%
+                       {-18\p@ \@plus -4\p@ \@minus -4\p@}%
+                       {12\p@ \@plus 4\p@ \@minus 4\p@}%
+                       {\normalfont\large\bfseries\boldmath
+                        \rightskip=\z@ \@plus 8em\pretolerance=10000 }}
+\renewcommand\subsection{\@startsection{subsection}{2}{\z@}%
+                       {-18\p@ \@plus -4\p@ \@minus -4\p@}%
+                       {8\p@ \@plus 4\p@ \@minus 4\p@}%
+                       {\normalfont\normalsize\bfseries\boldmath
+                        \rightskip=\z@ \@plus 8em\pretolerance=10000 }}
+\renewcommand\subsubsection{\@startsection{subsubsection}{3}{\z@}%
+                       {-18\p@ \@plus -4\p@ \@minus -4\p@}%
+                       {-0.5em \@plus -0.22em \@minus -0.1em}%
+                       {\normalfont\normalsize\bfseries\boldmath}}
+\renewcommand\paragraph{\@startsection{paragraph}{4}{\z@}%
+                       {-12\p@ \@plus -4\p@ \@minus -4\p@}%
+                       {-0.5em \@plus -0.22em \@minus -0.1em}%
+                       {\normalfont\normalsize\itshape}}
+\renewcommand\subparagraph[1]{\typeout{LLNCS warning: You should not use
+                  \string\subparagraph\space with this class}\vskip0.5cm
+You should not use \verb|\subparagraph| with this class.\vskip0.5cm}
+
+\DeclareMathSymbol{\Gamma}{\mathalpha}{letters}{"00}
+\DeclareMathSymbol{\Delta}{\mathalpha}{letters}{"01}
+\DeclareMathSymbol{\Theta}{\mathalpha}{letters}{"02}
+\DeclareMathSymbol{\Lambda}{\mathalpha}{letters}{"03}
+\DeclareMathSymbol{\Xi}{\mathalpha}{letters}{"04}
+\DeclareMathSymbol{\Pi}{\mathalpha}{letters}{"05}
+\DeclareMathSymbol{\Sigma}{\mathalpha}{letters}{"06}
+\DeclareMathSymbol{\Upsilon}{\mathalpha}{letters}{"07}
+\DeclareMathSymbol{\Phi}{\mathalpha}{letters}{"08}
+\DeclareMathSymbol{\Psi}{\mathalpha}{letters}{"09}
+\DeclareMathSymbol{\Omega}{\mathalpha}{letters}{"0A}
+
+\let\footnotesize\small
+
+\if at custvec
+\def\vec#1{\mathchoice{\mbox{\boldmath$\displaystyle#1$}}
+{\mbox{\boldmath$\textstyle#1$}}
+{\mbox{\boldmath$\scriptstyle#1$}}
+{\mbox{\boldmath$\scriptscriptstyle#1$}}}
+\fi
+
+\def\squareforqed{\hbox{\rlap{$\sqcap$}$\sqcup$}}
+\def\qed{\ifmmode\squareforqed\else{\unskip\nobreak\hfil
+\penalty50\hskip1em\null\nobreak\hfil\squareforqed
+\parfillskip=0pt\finalhyphendemerits=0\endgraf}\fi}
+
+\def\getsto{\mathrel{\mathchoice {\vcenter{\offinterlineskip
+\halign{\hfil
+$\displaystyle##$\hfil\cr\gets\cr\to\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\textstyle##$\hfil\cr\gets
+\cr\to\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\scriptstyle##$\hfil\cr\gets
+\cr\to\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\scriptscriptstyle##$\hfil\cr
+\gets\cr\to\cr}}}}}
+\def\lid{\mathrel{\mathchoice {\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil
+$\displaystyle##$\hfil\cr<\cr\noalign{\vskip1.2pt}=\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\textstyle##$\hfil\cr<\cr
+\noalign{\vskip1.2pt}=\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\scriptstyle##$\hfil\cr<\cr
+\noalign{\vskip1pt}=\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\scriptscriptstyle##$\hfil\cr
+<\cr
+\noalign{\vskip0.9pt}=\cr}}}}}
+\def\gid{\mathrel{\mathchoice {\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil
+$\displaystyle##$\hfil\cr>\cr\noalign{\vskip1.2pt}=\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\textstyle##$\hfil\cr>\cr
+\noalign{\vskip1.2pt}=\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\scriptstyle##$\hfil\cr>\cr
+\noalign{\vskip1pt}=\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\scriptscriptstyle##$\hfil\cr
+>\cr
+\noalign{\vskip0.9pt}=\cr}}}}}
+\def\grole{\mathrel{\mathchoice {\vcenter{\offinterlineskip
+\halign{\hfil
+$\displaystyle##$\hfil\cr>\cr\noalign{\vskip-1pt}<\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\textstyle##$\hfil\cr
+>\cr\noalign{\vskip-1pt}<\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\scriptstyle##$\hfil\cr
+>\cr\noalign{\vskip-0.8pt}<\cr}}}
+{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\scriptscriptstyle##$\hfil\cr
+>\cr\noalign{\vskip-0.3pt}<\cr}}}}}
+\def\bbbr{{\rm I\!R}} %reelle Zahlen
+\def\bbbm{{\rm I\!M}}
+\def\bbbn{{\rm I\!N}} %natuerliche Zahlen
+\def\bbbf{{\rm I\!F}}
+\def\bbbh{{\rm I\!H}}
+\def\bbbk{{\rm I\!K}}
+\def\bbbp{{\rm I\!P}}
+\def\bbbone{{\mathchoice {\rm 1\mskip-4mu l} {\rm 1\mskip-4mu l}
+{\rm 1\mskip-4.5mu l} {\rm 1\mskip-5mu l}}}
+\def\bbbc{{\mathchoice {\setbox0=\hbox{$\displaystyle\rm C$}\hbox{\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.4\wd0\vrule height0.9\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\textstyle\rm C$}\hbox{\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.4\wd0\vrule height0.9\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptstyle\rm C$}\hbox{\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.4\wd0\vrule height0.9\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptscriptstyle\rm C$}\hbox{\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.4\wd0\vrule height0.9\ht0\hss}\box0}}}}
+\def\bbbq{{\mathchoice {\setbox0=\hbox{$\displaystyle\rm
+Q$}\hbox{\raise
+0.15\ht0\hbox to0pt{\kern0.4\wd0\vrule height0.8\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\textstyle\rm Q$}\hbox{\raise
+0.15\ht0\hbox to0pt{\kern0.4\wd0\vrule height0.8\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptstyle\rm Q$}\hbox{\raise
+0.15\ht0\hbox to0pt{\kern0.4\wd0\vrule height0.7\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptscriptstyle\rm Q$}\hbox{\raise
+0.15\ht0\hbox to0pt{\kern0.4\wd0\vrule height0.7\ht0\hss}\box0}}}}
+\def\bbbt{{\mathchoice {\setbox0=\hbox{$\displaystyle\rm
+T$}\hbox{\hbox to0pt{\kern0.3\wd0\vrule height0.9\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\textstyle\rm T$}\hbox{\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.3\wd0\vrule height0.9\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptstyle\rm T$}\hbox{\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.3\wd0\vrule height0.9\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptscriptstyle\rm T$}\hbox{\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.3\wd0\vrule height0.9\ht0\hss}\box0}}}}
+\def\bbbs{{\mathchoice
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\displaystyle     \rm S$}\hbox{\raise0.5\ht0\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.35\wd0\vrule height0.45\ht0\hss}\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.55\wd0\vrule height0.5\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\textstyle        \rm S$}\hbox{\raise0.5\ht0\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.35\wd0\vrule height0.45\ht0\hss}\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.55\wd0\vrule height0.5\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptstyle      \rm S$}\hbox{\raise0.5\ht0\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.35\wd0\vrule height0.45\ht0\hss}\raise0.05\ht0\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.5\wd0\vrule height0.45\ht0\hss}\box0}}
+{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptscriptstyle\rm S$}\hbox{\raise0.5\ht0\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.4\wd0\vrule height0.45\ht0\hss}\raise0.05\ht0\hbox
+to0pt{\kern0.55\wd0\vrule height0.45\ht0\hss}\box0}}}}
+\def\bbbz{{\mathchoice {\hbox{$\mathsf\textstyle Z\kern-0.4em Z$}}
+{\hbox{$\mathsf\textstyle Z\kern-0.4em Z$}}
+{\hbox{$\mathsf\scriptstyle Z\kern-0.3em Z$}}
+{\hbox{$\mathsf\scriptscriptstyle Z\kern-0.2em Z$}}}}
+
+\let\ts\,
+
+\setlength\leftmargini  {17\p@}
+\setlength\leftmargin    {\leftmargini}
+\setlength\leftmarginii  {\leftmargini}
+\setlength\leftmarginiii {\leftmargini}
+\setlength\leftmarginiv  {\leftmargini}
+\setlength  \labelsep  {.5em}
+\setlength  \labelwidth{\leftmargini}
+\addtolength\labelwidth{-\labelsep}
+
+\def\@listI{\leftmargin\leftmargini
+            \parsep 0\p@ \@plus1\p@ \@minus\p@
+            \topsep 8\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus4\p@
+            \itemsep0\p@}
+\let\@listi\@listI
+\@listi
+\def\@listii {\leftmargin\leftmarginii
+              \labelwidth\leftmarginii
+              \advance\labelwidth-\labelsep
+              \topsep    0\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus\p@}
+\def\@listiii{\leftmargin\leftmarginiii
+              \labelwidth\leftmarginiii
+              \advance\labelwidth-\labelsep
+              \topsep    0\p@ \@plus\p@\@minus\p@
+              \parsep    \z@
+              \partopsep \p@ \@plus\z@ \@minus\p@}
+
+\renewcommand\labelitemi{\normalfont\bfseries --}
+\renewcommand\labelitemii{$\m at th\bullet$}
+
+\setlength\arraycolsep{1.4\p@}
+\setlength\tabcolsep{1.4\p@}
+
+\def\tableofcontents{\chapter*{\contentsname\@mkboth{{\contentsname}}%
+                                                    {{\contentsname}}}
+ \def\authcount##1{\setcounter{auco}{##1}\setcounter{@auth}{1}}
+ \def\lastand{\ifnum\value{auco}=2\relax
+                 \unskip{} \andname\
+              \else
+                 \unskip \lastandname\
+              \fi}%
+ \def\and{\stepcounter{@auth}\relax
+          \ifnum\value{@auth}=\value{auco}%
+             \lastand
+          \else
+             \unskip,
+          \fi}%
+ \@starttoc{toc}\if at restonecol\twocolumn\fi}
+
+\def\l at part#1#2{\addpenalty{\@secpenalty}%
+   \addvspace{2em plus\p@}%  % space above part line
+   \begingroup
+     \parindent \z@
+     \rightskip \z@ plus 5em
+     \hrule\vskip5pt
+     \large               % same size as for a contribution heading
+     \bfseries\boldmath   % set line in boldface
+     \leavevmode          % TeX command to enter horizontal mode.
+     #1\par
+     \vskip5pt
+     \hrule
+     \vskip1pt
+     \nobreak             % Never break after part entry
+   \endgroup}
+
+\def\@dotsep{2}
+
+\def\hyperhrefextend{\ifx\hyper at anchor\@undefined\else
+{chapter.\thechapter}\fi}
+
+\def\addnumcontentsmark#1#2#3{%
+\addtocontents{#1}{\protect\contentsline{#2}{\protect\numberline
+                     {\thechapter}#3}{\thepage}\hyperhrefextend}}
+\def\addcontentsmark#1#2#3{%
+\addtocontents{#1}{\protect\contentsline{#2}{#3}{\thepage}\hyperhrefextend}}
+\def\addcontentsmarkwop#1#2#3{%
+\addtocontents{#1}{\protect\contentsline{#2}{#3}{0}\hyperhrefextend}}
+
+\def\@adcmk[#1]{\ifcase #1 \or
+\def\@gtempa{\addnumcontentsmark}%
+  \or    \def\@gtempa{\addcontentsmark}%
+  \or    \def\@gtempa{\addcontentsmarkwop}%
+  \fi\@gtempa{toc}{chapter}}
+\def\addtocmark{\@ifnextchar[{\@adcmk}{\@adcmk[3]}}
+
+\def\l at chapter#1#2{\addpenalty{-\@highpenalty}
+ \vskip 1.0em plus 1pt \@tempdima 1.5em \begingroup
+ \parindent \z@ \rightskip \@tocrmarg
+ \advance\rightskip by 0pt plus 2cm
+ \parfillskip -\rightskip \pretolerance=10000
+ \leavevmode \advance\leftskip\@tempdima \hskip -\leftskip
+ {\large\bfseries\boldmath#1}\ifx0#2\hfil\null
+ \else
+      \nobreak
+      \leaders\hbox{$\m at th \mkern \@dotsep mu.\mkern
+      \@dotsep mu$}\hfill
+      \nobreak\hbox to\@pnumwidth{\hss #2}%
+ \fi\par
+ \penalty\@highpenalty \endgroup}
+
+\def\l at title#1#2{\addpenalty{-\@highpenalty}
+ \addvspace{8pt plus 1pt}
+ \@tempdima \z@
+ \begingroup
+ \parindent \z@ \rightskip \@tocrmarg
+ \advance\rightskip by 0pt plus 2cm
+ \parfillskip -\rightskip \pretolerance=10000
+ \leavevmode \advance\leftskip\@tempdima \hskip -\leftskip
+ #1\nobreak
+ \leaders\hbox{$\m at th \mkern \@dotsep mu.\mkern
+ \@dotsep mu$}\hfill
+ \nobreak\hbox to\@pnumwidth{\hss #2}\par
+ \penalty\@highpenalty \endgroup}
+
+\def\l at author#1#2{\addpenalty{\@highpenalty}
+ \@tempdima=15\p@ %\z@
+ \begingroup
+ \parindent \z@ \rightskip \@tocrmarg
+ \advance\rightskip by 0pt plus 2cm
+ \pretolerance=10000
+ \leavevmode \advance\leftskip\@tempdima %\hskip -\leftskip
+ \textit{#1}\par
+ \penalty\@highpenalty \endgroup}
+
+\setcounter{tocdepth}{0}
+\newdimen\tocchpnum
+\newdimen\tocsecnum
+\newdimen\tocsectotal
+\newdimen\tocsubsecnum
+\newdimen\tocsubsectotal
+\newdimen\tocsubsubsecnum
+\newdimen\tocsubsubsectotal
+\newdimen\tocparanum
+\newdimen\tocparatotal
+\newdimen\tocsubparanum
+\tocchpnum=\z@            % no chapter numbers
+\tocsecnum=15\p@          % section 88. plus 2.222pt
+\tocsubsecnum=23\p@       % subsection 88.8 plus 2.222pt
+\tocsubsubsecnum=27\p@    % subsubsection 88.8.8 plus 1.444pt
+\tocparanum=35\p@         % paragraph 88.8.8.8 plus 1.666pt
+\tocsubparanum=43\p@      % subparagraph 88.8.8.8.8 plus 1.888pt
+\def\calctocindent{%
+\tocsectotal=\tocchpnum
+\advance\tocsectotal by\tocsecnum
+\tocsubsectotal=\tocsectotal
+\advance\tocsubsectotal by\tocsubsecnum
+\tocsubsubsectotal=\tocsubsectotal
+\advance\tocsubsubsectotal by\tocsubsubsecnum
+\tocparatotal=\tocsubsubsectotal
+\advance\tocparatotal by\tocparanum}
+\calctocindent
+
+\def\l at section{\@dottedtocline{1}{\tocchpnum}{\tocsecnum}}
+\def\l at subsection{\@dottedtocline{2}{\tocsectotal}{\tocsubsecnum}}
+\def\l at subsubsection{\@dottedtocline{3}{\tocsubsectotal}{\tocsubsubsecnum}}
+\def\l at paragraph{\@dottedtocline{4}{\tocsubsubsectotal}{\tocparanum}}
+\def\l at subparagraph{\@dottedtocline{5}{\tocparatotal}{\tocsubparanum}}
+
+\def\listoffigures{\@restonecolfalse\if at twocolumn\@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
+ \fi\section*{\listfigurename\@mkboth{{\listfigurename}}{{\listfigurename}}}
+ \@starttoc{lof}\if at restonecol\twocolumn\fi}
+\def\l at figure{\@dottedtocline{1}{0em}{1.5em}}
+
+\def\listoftables{\@restonecolfalse\if at twocolumn\@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
+ \fi\section*{\listtablename\@mkboth{{\listtablename}}{{\listtablename}}}
+ \@starttoc{lot}\if at restonecol\twocolumn\fi}
+\let\l at table\l at figure
+
+\renewcommand\listoffigures{%
+    \section*{\listfigurename
+      \@mkboth{\listfigurename}{\listfigurename}}%
+    \@starttoc{lof}%
+    }
+
+\renewcommand\listoftables{%
+    \section*{\listtablename
+      \@mkboth{\listtablename}{\listtablename}}%
+    \@starttoc{lot}%
+    }
+
+\ifx\oribibl\undefined
+\ifx\citeauthoryear\undefined
+\renewenvironment{thebibliography}[1]
+     {\section*{\refname}
+      \def\@biblabel##1{##1.}
+      \small
+      \list{\@biblabel{\@arabic\c at enumiv}}%
+           {\settowidth\labelwidth{\@biblabel{#1}}%
+            \leftmargin\labelwidth
+            \advance\leftmargin\labelsep
+            \if at openbib
+              \advance\leftmargin\bibindent
+              \itemindent -\bibindent
+              \listparindent \itemindent
+              \parsep \z@
+            \fi
+            \usecounter{enumiv}%
+            \let\p at enumiv\@empty
+            \renewcommand\theenumiv{\@arabic\c at enumiv}}%
+      \if at openbib
+        \renewcommand\newblock{\par}%
+      \else
+        \renewcommand\newblock{\hskip .11em \@plus.33em \@minus.07em}%
+      \fi
+      \sloppy\clubpenalty4000\widowpenalty4000%
+      \sfcode`\.=\@m}
+     {\def\@noitemerr
+       {\@latex at warning{Empty `thebibliography' environment}}%
+      \endlist}
+\def\@lbibitem[#1]#2{\item[{[#1]}\hfill]\if at filesw
+     {\let\protect\noexpand\immediate
+     \write\@auxout{\string\bibcite{#2}{#1}}}\fi\ignorespaces}
+\newcount\@tempcntc
+\def\@citex[#1]#2{\if at filesw\immediate\write\@auxout{\string\citation{#2}}\fi
+  \@tempcnta\z@\@tempcntb\m at ne\def\@citea{}\@cite{\@for\@citeb:=#2\do
+    {\@ifundefined
+       {b@\@citeb}{\@citeo\@tempcntb\m at ne\@citea\def\@citea{,}{\bfseries
+        ?}\@warning
+       {Citation `\@citeb' on page \thepage \space undefined}}%
+    {\setbox\z@\hbox{\global\@tempcntc0\csname b@\@citeb\endcsname\relax}%
+     \ifnum\@tempcntc=\z@ \@citeo\@tempcntb\m at ne
+       \@citea\def\@citea{,}\hbox{\csname b@\@citeb\endcsname}%
+     \else
+      \advance\@tempcntb\@ne
+      \ifnum\@tempcntb=\@tempcntc
+      \else\advance\@tempcntb\m at ne\@citeo
+      \@tempcnta\@tempcntc\@tempcntb\@tempcntc\fi\fi}}\@citeo}{#1}}
+\def\@citeo{\ifnum\@tempcnta>\@tempcntb\else
+               \@citea\def\@citea{,\,\hskip\z at skip}%
+               \ifnum\@tempcnta=\@tempcntb\the\@tempcnta\else
+               {\advance\@tempcnta\@ne\ifnum\@tempcnta=\@tempcntb \else
+                \def\@citea{--}\fi
+      \advance\@tempcnta\m at ne\the\@tempcnta\@citea\the\@tempcntb}\fi\fi}
+\else
+\renewenvironment{thebibliography}[1]
+     {\section*{\refname}
+      \small
+      \list{}%
+           {\settowidth\labelwidth{}%
+            \leftmargin\parindent
+            \itemindent=-\parindent
+            \labelsep=\z@
+            \if at openbib
+              \advance\leftmargin\bibindent
+              \itemindent -\bibindent
+              \listparindent \itemindent
+              \parsep \z@
+            \fi
+            \usecounter{enumiv}%
+            \let\p at enumiv\@empty
+            \renewcommand\theenumiv{}}%
+      \if at openbib
+        \renewcommand\newblock{\par}%
+      \else
+        \renewcommand\newblock{\hskip .11em \@plus.33em \@minus.07em}%
+      \fi
+      \sloppy\clubpenalty4000\widowpenalty4000%
+      \sfcode`\.=\@m}
+     {\def\@noitemerr
+       {\@latex at warning{Empty `thebibliography' environment}}%
+      \endlist}
+      \def\@cite#1{#1}%
+      \def\@lbibitem[#1]#2{\item[]\if at filesw
+        {\def\protect##1{\string ##1\space}\immediate
+      \write\@auxout{\string\bibcite{#2}{#1}}}\fi\ignorespaces}
+   \fi
+\else
+\@cons\@openbib at code{\noexpand\small}
+\fi
+
+\def\idxquad{\hskip 10\p@}% space that divides entry from number
+
+\def\@idxitem{\par\hangindent 10\p@}
+
+\def\subitem{\par\setbox0=\hbox{--\enspace}% second order
+                \noindent\hangindent\wd0\box0}% index entry
+
+\def\subsubitem{\par\setbox0=\hbox{--\,--\enspace}% third
+                \noindent\hangindent\wd0\box0}% order index entry
+
+\def\indexspace{\par \vskip 10\p@ plus5\p@ minus3\p@\relax}
+
+\renewenvironment{theindex}
+               {\@mkboth{\indexname}{\indexname}%
+                \thispagestyle{empty}\parindent\z@
+                \parskip\z@ \@plus .3\p@\relax
+                \let\item\par
+                \def\,{\relax\ifmmode\mskip\thinmuskip
+                             \else\hskip0.2em\ignorespaces\fi}%
+                \normalfont\small
+                \begin{multicols}{2}[\@makeschapterhead{\indexname}]%
+                }
+                {\end{multicols}}
+
+\renewcommand\footnoterule{%
+  \kern-3\p@
+  \hrule\@width 2truecm
+  \kern2.6\p@}
+  \newdimen\fnindent
+  \fnindent1em
+\long\def\@makefntext#1{%
+    \parindent \fnindent%
+    \leftskip \fnindent%
+    \noindent
+    \llap{\hb at xt@1em{\hss\@makefnmark\ }}\ignorespaces#1}
+
+\long\def\@makecaption#1#2{%
+  \vskip\abovecaptionskip
+  \sbox\@tempboxa{{\bfseries #1.} #2}%
+  \ifdim \wd\@tempboxa >\hsize
+    {\bfseries #1.} #2\par
+  \else
+    \global \@minipagefalse
+    \hb at xt@\hsize{\hfil\box\@tempboxa\hfil}%
+  \fi
+  \vskip\belowcaptionskip}
+
+\def\fps at figure{htbp}
+\def\fnum at figure{\figurename\thinspace\thefigure}
+\def \@floatboxreset {%
+        \reset at font
+        \small
+        \@setnobreak
+        \@setminipage
+}
+\def\fps at table{htbp}
+\def\fnum at table{\tablename~\thetable}
+\renewenvironment{table}
+               {\setlength\abovecaptionskip{0\p@}%
+                \setlength\belowcaptionskip{10\p@}%
+                \@float{table}}
+               {\end at float}
+\renewenvironment{table*}
+               {\setlength\abovecaptionskip{0\p@}%
+                \setlength\belowcaptionskip{10\p@}%
+                \@dblfloat{table}}
+               {\end at dblfloat}
+
+\long\def\@caption#1[#2]#3{\par\addcontentsline{\csname
+  ext@#1\endcsname}{#1}{\protect\numberline{\csname
+  the#1\endcsname}{\ignorespaces #2}}\begingroup
+    \@parboxrestore
+    \@makecaption{\csname fnum@#1\endcsname}{\ignorespaces #3}\par
+  \endgroup}
+
+% LaTeX does not provide a command to enter the authors institute
+% addresses. The \institute command is defined here.
+
+\newcounter{@inst}
+\newcounter{@auth}
+\newcounter{auco}
+\newdimen\instindent
+\newbox\authrun
+\newtoks\authorrunning
+\newtoks\tocauthor
+\newbox\titrun
+\newtoks\titlerunning
+\newtoks\toctitle
+
+\def\clearheadinfo{\gdef\@author{No Author Given}%
+                   \gdef\@title{No Title Given}%
+                   \gdef\@subtitle{}%
+                   \gdef\@institute{No Institute Given}%
+                   \gdef\@thanks{}%
+                   \global\titlerunning={}\global\authorrunning={}%
+                   \global\toctitle={}\global\tocauthor={}}
+
+\def\institute#1{\gdef\@institute{#1}}
+
+\def\institutename{\par
+ \begingroup
+ \parskip=\z@
+ \parindent=\z@
+ \setcounter{@inst}{1}%
+ \def\and{\par\stepcounter{@inst}%
+ \noindent$^{\the at inst}$\enspace\ignorespaces}%
+ \setbox0=\vbox{\def\thanks##1{}\@institute}%
+ \ifnum\c@@inst=1\relax
+   \gdef\fnnstart{0}%
+ \else
+   \xdef\fnnstart{\c@@inst}%
+   \setcounter{@inst}{1}%
+   \noindent$^{\the at inst}$\enspace
+ \fi
+ \ignorespaces
+ \@institute\par
+ \endgroup}
+
+\def\@fnsymbol#1{\ensuremath{\ifcase#1\or\star\or{\star\star}\or
+   {\star\star\star}\or \dagger\or \ddagger\or
+   \mathchar "278\or \mathchar "27B\or \|\or **\or \dagger\dagger
+   \or \ddagger\ddagger \else\@ctrerr\fi}}
+
+\def\inst#1{\unskip$^{#1}$}
+\def\fnmsep{\unskip$^,$}
+\def\email#1{{\tt#1}}
+\AtBeginDocument{\@ifundefined{url}{\def\url#1{#1}}{}%
+\@ifpackageloaded{babel}{%
+\@ifundefined{extrasenglish}{}{\addto\extrasenglish{\switcht at albion}}%
+\@ifundefined{extrasfrenchb}{}{\addto\extrasfrenchb{\switcht at francais}}%
+\@ifundefined{extrasgerman}{}{\addto\extrasgerman{\switcht at deutsch}}%
+}{\switcht@@therlang}%
+}
+\def\homedir{\~{ }}
+
+\def\subtitle#1{\gdef\@subtitle{#1}}
+\clearheadinfo
+%
+\renewcommand\maketitle{\newpage
+  \refstepcounter{chapter}%
+  \stepcounter{section}%
+  \setcounter{section}{0}%
+  \setcounter{subsection}{0}%
+  \setcounter{figure}{0}
+  \setcounter{table}{0}
+  \setcounter{equation}{0}
+  \setcounter{footnote}{0}%
+  \begingroup
+    \parindent=\z@
+    \renewcommand\thefootnote{\@fnsymbol\c at footnote}%
+    \if at twocolumn
+      \ifnum \col at number=\@ne
+        \@maketitle
+      \else
+        \twocolumn[\@maketitle]%
+      \fi
+    \else
+      \newpage
+      \global\@topnum\z@   % Prevents figures from going at top of page.
+      \@maketitle
+    \fi
+    \thispagestyle{empty}\@thanks
+%
+    \def\\{\unskip\ \ignorespaces}\def\inst##1{\unskip{}}%
+    \def\thanks##1{\unskip{}}\def\fnmsep{\unskip}%
+    \instindent=\hsize
+    \advance\instindent by-\headlineindent
+    \if!\the\toctitle!\addcontentsline{toc}{title}{\@title}\else
+       \addcontentsline{toc}{title}{\the\toctitle}\fi
+    \if at runhead
+       \if!\the\titlerunning!\else
+         \edef\@title{\the\titlerunning}%
+       \fi
+       \global\setbox\titrun=\hbox{\small\rm\unboldmath\ignorespaces\@title}%
+       \ifdim\wd\titrun>\instindent
+          \typeout{Title too long for running head. Please supply}%
+          \typeout{a shorter form with \string\titlerunning\space prior to
+                   \string\maketitle}%
+          \global\setbox\titrun=\hbox{\small\rm
+          Title Suppressed Due to Excessive Length}%
+       \fi
+       \xdef\@title{\copy\titrun}%
+    \fi
+%
+    \if!\the\tocauthor!\relax
+      {\def\and{\noexpand\protect\noexpand\and}%
+      \protected at xdef\toc at uthor{\@author}}%
+    \else
+      \def\\{\noexpand\protect\noexpand\newline}%
+      \protected at xdef\scratch{\the\tocauthor}%
+      \protected at xdef\toc at uthor{\scratch}%
+    \fi
+    \addtocontents{toc}{\noexpand\protect\noexpand\authcount{\the\c at auco}}%
+    \addcontentsline{toc}{author}{\toc at uthor}%
+    \if at runhead
+       \if!\the\authorrunning!
+         \value{@inst}=\value{@auth}%
+         \setcounter{@auth}{1}%
+       \else
+         \edef\@author{\the\authorrunning}%
+       \fi
+       \global\setbox\authrun=\hbox{\small\unboldmath\@author\unskip}%
+       \ifdim\wd\authrun>\instindent
+          \typeout{Names of authors too long for running head. Please supply}%
+          \typeout{a shorter form with \string\authorrunning\space prior to
+                   \string\maketitle}%
+          \global\setbox\authrun=\hbox{\small\rm
+          Authors Suppressed Due to Excessive Length}%
+       \fi
+       \xdef\@author{\copy\authrun}%
+       \markboth{\@author}{\@title}%
+     \fi
+  \endgroup
+  \setcounter{footnote}{\fnnstart}%
+  \clearheadinfo}
+%
+\def\@maketitle{\newpage
+ \markboth{}{}%
+ \def\lastand{\ifnum\value{@inst}=2\relax
+                 \unskip{} \andname\
+              \else
+                 \unskip \lastandname\
+              \fi}%
+ \def\and{\stepcounter{@auth}\relax
+          \ifnum\value{@auth}=\value{@inst}%
+             \lastand
+          \else
+             \unskip,
+          \fi}%
+ \begin{center}%
+ \let\newline\\
+ {\Large \bfseries\boldmath
+  \pretolerance=10000
+  \@title \par}\vskip .8cm
+\if!\@subtitle!\else {\large \bfseries\boldmath
+  \vskip -.65cm
+  \pretolerance=10000
+  \@subtitle \par}\vskip .8cm\fi
+ \setbox0=\vbox{\setcounter{@auth}{1}\def\and{\stepcounter{@auth}}%
+ \def\thanks##1{}\@author}%
+ \global\value{@inst}=\value{@auth}%
+ \global\value{auco}=\value{@auth}%
+ \setcounter{@auth}{1}%
+{\lineskip .5em
+\noindent\ignorespaces
+\@author\vskip.35cm}
+ {\small\institutename}
+ \end{center}%
+ }
+
+% definition of the "\spnewtheorem" command.
+%
+% Usage:
+%
+%     \spnewtheorem{env_nam}{caption}[within]{cap_font}{body_font}
+% or  \spnewtheorem{env_nam}[numbered_like]{caption}{cap_font}{body_font}
+% or  \spnewtheorem*{env_nam}{caption}{cap_font}{body_font}
+%
+% New is "cap_font" and "body_font". It stands for
+% fontdefinition of the caption and the text itself.
+%
+% "\spnewtheorem*" gives a theorem without number.
+%
+% A defined spnewthoerem environment is used as described
+% by Lamport.
+%
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+
+\def\@thmcountersep{}
+\def\@thmcounterend{.}
+
+\def\spnewtheorem{\@ifstar{\@sthm}{\@Sthm}}
+
+% definition of \spnewtheorem with number
+
+\def\@spnthm#1#2{%
+  \@ifnextchar[{\@spxnthm{#1}{#2}}{\@spynthm{#1}{#2}}}
+\def\@Sthm#1{\@ifnextchar[{\@spothm{#1}}{\@spnthm{#1}}}
+
+\def\@spxnthm#1#2[#3]#4#5{\expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
+   {\@definecounter{#1}\@addtoreset{#1}{#3}%
+   \expandafter\xdef\csname the#1\endcsname{\expandafter\noexpand
+     \csname the#3\endcsname \noexpand\@thmcountersep \@thmcounter{#1}}%
+   \expandafter\xdef\csname #1name\endcsname{#2}%
+   \global\@namedef{#1}{\@spthm{#1}{\csname #1name\endcsname}{#4}{#5}}%
+                              \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}}}
+
+\def\@spynthm#1#2#3#4{\expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
+   {\@definecounter{#1}%
+   \expandafter\xdef\csname the#1\endcsname{\@thmcounter{#1}}%
+   \expandafter\xdef\csname #1name\endcsname{#2}%
+   \global\@namedef{#1}{\@spthm{#1}{\csname #1name\endcsname}{#3}{#4}}%
+                               \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}}}
+
+\def\@spothm#1[#2]#3#4#5{%
+  \@ifundefined{c@#2}{\@latexerr{No theorem environment `#2' defined}\@eha}%
+  {\expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
+  {\global\@namedef{the#1}{\@nameuse{the#2}}%
+  \expandafter\xdef\csname #1name\endcsname{#3}%
+  \global\@namedef{#1}{\@spthm{#2}{\csname #1name\endcsname}{#4}{#5}}%
+  \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}}}}
+
+\def\@spthm#1#2#3#4{\topsep 7\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus4\p@
+\refstepcounter{#1}%
+\@ifnextchar[{\@spythm{#1}{#2}{#3}{#4}}{\@spxthm{#1}{#2}{#3}{#4}}}
+
+\def\@spxthm#1#2#3#4{\@spbegintheorem{#2}{\csname the#1\endcsname}{#3}{#4}%
+                    \ignorespaces}
+
+\def\@spythm#1#2#3#4[#5]{\@spopargbegintheorem{#2}{\csname
+       the#1\endcsname}{#5}{#3}{#4}\ignorespaces}
+
+\def\@spbegintheorem#1#2#3#4{\trivlist
+                 \item[\hskip\labelsep{#3#1\ #2\@thmcounterend}]#4}
+
+\def\@spopargbegintheorem#1#2#3#4#5{\trivlist
+      \item[\hskip\labelsep{#4#1\ #2}]{#4(#3)\@thmcounterend\ }#5}
+
+% definition of \spnewtheorem* without number
+
+\def\@sthm#1#2{\@Ynthm{#1}{#2}}
+
+\def\@Ynthm#1#2#3#4{\expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
+   {\global\@namedef{#1}{\@Thm{\csname #1name\endcsname}{#3}{#4}}%
+    \expandafter\xdef\csname #1name\endcsname{#2}%
+    \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}}}
+
+\def\@Thm#1#2#3{\topsep 7\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus4\p@
+\@ifnextchar[{\@Ythm{#1}{#2}{#3}}{\@Xthm{#1}{#2}{#3}}}
+
+\def\@Xthm#1#2#3{\@Begintheorem{#1}{#2}{#3}\ignorespaces}
+
+\def\@Ythm#1#2#3[#4]{\@Opargbegintheorem{#1}
+       {#4}{#2}{#3}\ignorespaces}
+
+\def\@Begintheorem#1#2#3{#3\trivlist
+                           \item[\hskip\labelsep{#2#1\@thmcounterend}]}
+
+\def\@Opargbegintheorem#1#2#3#4{#4\trivlist
+      \item[\hskip\labelsep{#3#1}]{#3(#2)\@thmcounterend\ }}
+
+\if at envcntsect
+   \def\@thmcountersep{.}
+   \spnewtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}[section]{\bfseries}{\itshape}
+\else
+   \spnewtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}{\bfseries}{\itshape}
+   \if at envcntreset
+      \@addtoreset{theorem}{section}
+   \else
+      \@addtoreset{theorem}{chapter}
+   \fi
+\fi
+
+%definition of divers theorem environments
+\spnewtheorem*{claim}{Claim}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+\spnewtheorem*{proof}{Proof}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+\if at envcntsame % alle Umgebungen wie Theorem.
+   \def\spn at wtheorem#1#2#3#4{\@spothm{#1}[theorem]{#2}{#3}{#4}}
+\else % alle Umgebungen mit eigenem Zaehler
+   \if at envcntsect % mit section numeriert
+      \def\spn at wtheorem#1#2#3#4{\@spxnthm{#1}{#2}[section]{#3}{#4}}
+   \else % nicht mit section numeriert
+      \if at envcntreset
+         \def\spn at wtheorem#1#2#3#4{\@spynthm{#1}{#2}{#3}{#4}
+                                   \@addtoreset{#1}{section}}
+      \else
+         \def\spn at wtheorem#1#2#3#4{\@spynthm{#1}{#2}{#3}{#4}
+                                   \@addtoreset{#1}{chapter}}%
+      \fi
+   \fi
+\fi
+\spn at wtheorem{case}{Case}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+\spn at wtheorem{conjecture}{Conjecture}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+\spn at wtheorem{corollary}{Corollary}{\bfseries}{\itshape}
+\spn at wtheorem{definition}{Definition}{\bfseries}{\itshape}
+\spn at wtheorem{example}{Example}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+\spn at wtheorem{exercise}{Exercise}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+\spn at wtheorem{lemma}{Lemma}{\bfseries}{\itshape}
+\spn at wtheorem{note}{Note}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+\spn at wtheorem{problem}{Problem}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+\spn at wtheorem{property}{Property}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+\spn at wtheorem{proposition}{Proposition}{\bfseries}{\itshape}
+\spn at wtheorem{question}{Question}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+\spn at wtheorem{solution}{Solution}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+\spn at wtheorem{remark}{Remark}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
+
+\def\@takefromreset#1#2{%
+    \def\@tempa{#1}%
+    \let\@tempd\@elt
+    \def\@elt##1{%
+        \def\@tempb{##1}%
+        \ifx\@tempa\@tempb\else
+            \@addtoreset{##1}{#2}%
+        \fi}%
+    \expandafter\expandafter\let\expandafter\@tempc\csname cl@#2\endcsname
+    \expandafter\def\csname cl@#2\endcsname{}%
+    \@tempc
+    \let\@elt\@tempd}
+
+\def\theopargself{\def\@spopargbegintheorem##1##2##3##4##5{\trivlist
+      \item[\hskip\labelsep{##4##1\ ##2}]{##4##3\@thmcounterend\ }##5}
+                  \def\@Opargbegintheorem##1##2##3##4{##4\trivlist
+      \item[\hskip\labelsep{##3##1}]{##3##2\@thmcounterend\ }}
+      }
+
+\renewenvironment{abstract}{%
+      \list{}{\advance\topsep by0.35cm\relax\small
+      \leftmargin=1cm
+      \labelwidth=\z@
+      \listparindent=\z@
+      \itemindent\listparindent
+      \rightmargin\leftmargin}\item[\hskip\labelsep
+                                    \bfseries\abstractname]}
+    {\endlist}
+
+\newdimen\headlineindent             % dimension for space between
+\headlineindent=1.166cm              % number and text of headings.
+
+\def\ps at headings{\let\@mkboth\@gobbletwo
+   \let\@oddfoot\@empty\let\@evenfoot\@empty
+   \def\@evenhead{\normalfont\small\rlap{\thepage}\hspace{\headlineindent}%
+                  \leftmark\hfil}
+   \def\@oddhead{\normalfont\small\hfil\rightmark\hspace{\headlineindent}%
+                 \llap{\thepage}}
+   \def\chaptermark##1{}%
+   \def\sectionmark##1{}%
+   \def\subsectionmark##1{}}
+
+\def\ps at titlepage{\let\@mkboth\@gobbletwo
+   \let\@oddfoot\@empty\let\@evenfoot\@empty
+   \def\@evenhead{\normalfont\small\rlap{\thepage}\hspace{\headlineindent}%
+                  \hfil}
+   \def\@oddhead{\normalfont\small\hfil\hspace{\headlineindent}%
+                 \llap{\thepage}}
+   \def\chaptermark##1{}%
+   \def\sectionmark##1{}%
+   \def\subsectionmark##1{}}
+
+\if at runhead\ps at headings\else
+\ps at empty\fi
+
+\setlength\arraycolsep{1.4\p@}
+\setlength\tabcolsep{1.4\p@}
+
+\endinput
+%end of file llncs.cls

Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/main.bbl
==============================================================================
--- (empty file)
+++ pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/main.bbl	Tue Dec  2 18:32:40 2008
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+\begin{thebibliography}{1}
+
+\bibitem{AACM-DLS07}
+D.~Ancona, M.~Ancona, A~Cuni, and N.~Matsakis.
+\newblock R{P}ython: a {S}tep {T}owards {R}econciling {D}ynamically and
+  {S}tatically {T}yped {OO} {L}anguages.
+\newblock In {\em O{OPSLA} 2007 {P}roceedings and {C}ompanion, {DLS}'07:
+  {P}roceedings of the 2007 {S}ymposium on {D}ynamic {L}anguages}, pages
+  53--64. ACM, 2007.
+
+\bibitem{BolzEtAl08}
+C.~F. Bolz, A.~Kuhn, A.~Lienhard, N.~D. Matsakis, O.~Nierstrasz, L.~Renggli,
+  A.~Rigo, and T.~Verwaest.
+\newblock Back to the future in one week - implementing a smalltalk vm in pypy.
+\newblock In {\em Self-Sustaining Systems, First Workshop, S3 2008, Potsdam,
+  Revised Selected Papers}, volume 5146 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
+  Science}, pages 123--139, 2008.
+
+\bibitem{Futamura99}
+Yoshihiko Futamura.
+\newblock Partial evaluation of computation process, revisited.
+\newblock {\em Higher Order Symbol. Comput.}, 12(4):377--380, 1999.
+
+\bibitem{RigoPedroni06}
+A.~Rigo and S.~Pedroni.
+\newblock Py{P}y's approach to virtual machine construction.
+\newblock In {\em OOPSLA Companion}, pages 944--953, 2006.
+
+\end{thebibliography}

Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/main.tex
==============================================================================
--- (empty file)
+++ pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/main.tex	Tue Dec  2 18:32:40 2008
@@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
+\documentclass{llncs}
+
+\usepackage{amssymb}
+\usepackage{amsmath}
+\usepackage[sans]{dsfont}
+\usepackage{color}
+\usepackage{xspace}
+\usepackage{listings}
+\usepackage[pdftex]{graphicx}
+
+%\input{macros}
+
+\pagestyle{plain}
+
+\lstset{mathescape=true,language=Java,basicstyle=\tt,keywordstyle=\bf}
+
+%\renewcommand{\baselinestretch}{.98}
+
+\begin{document}
+\title{Automatic generation of JIT compilers for dynamic languages
+  in .NET\thanks{This work has been partially
+supported by MIUR EOS DUE - Extensible Object Systems for Dynamic and
+Unpredictable Environments.}}
+
+
+\author{Davide Ancona\inst{1} \and Carl Friedrich Bolz\inst{2} \and Antonio Cuni\inst{1} \and Armin Rigo}
+
+\institute{DISI, University of Genova, Italy 
+\and 
+Softwaretechnik und Programmiersprachen
+ Heinrich-Heine-Universit\"at D\"usseldorf}
+
+\maketitle
+
+\input{abstract}
+\input{intro}
+\input{jitgen}
+\input{rainbow}
+\input{clibackend}
+%\input{conclusion}
+
+\bibliographystyle{plain}
+\bibliography{ALLMY}
+
+\end{document}

Added: pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/rainbow.tex
==============================================================================
--- (empty file)
+++ pypy/extradoc/talk/ecoop2009/rainbow.tex	Tue Dec  2 18:32:40 2008
@@ -0,0 +1,96 @@
+\section{The Rainbow Interpreter}
+
+The JIT compiler is implemented by running the "Rainbow interpreter", whose
+output is a compiled function.
+
+Variables and opcodes are colored:
+
+  - green values are known at compile time, and green operations are executed
+    when interpreting the bytecode;
+
+  - red values are not known until runtime; the result of a red operation is a
+    piece of machine code that will compute the result at runtime.
+
+The Rainbow bytecode is produced at translation time, when the JIT compiler is
+generated.
+
+Here are summarized the various phases of the JIT:
+
+Translation time:
+
+  * Low-level flowgraphs are produced
+
+  * The *hint-annotator* colors the variables
+
+  * The *rainbow codewriter* translates flowgraphs into rainbow bytecode
+
+
+Compile-time:
+
+  * The rainbow interpreter executes the bytecode
+
+  * As a result, it produces executable code
+
+Runtime:
+
+  * The produced code is executed
+
+
+\subsection{Example of Rainbow bytecode and execution}
+
+TODO
+
+\subsection{Promotion}
+
+There are values that, if known at compile time, allow the JIT compiler to
+produce very efficient code.  Unfortunately, these values are tipically red,
+e.g. the exact type of a variable.
+
+"Promotion" is a particular operation that convert a red value into a green
+value; i.e., after the promotion of a variable, the JIT compiler knows its
+value at compile time. Since the value of a red variable is not known until
+runtime, we need to postpone the compilation phase after the runtime phase.
+
+This is done by continuously intermixing compile time and runtime; a promotion
+is implemented in this way:
+
+  * (compile time): the rainbow interpreter produces machine code until it
+    hits a promotion point; e.g.::
+
+    \begin{lstlisting}[language=C]
+        y = hint(x, promote=True)
+        return y+10
+    \end{lstlisting}
+
+  * (compile time): at this point, it generates special machine code that when
+    reached calls the JIT compiler again; the JIT compilation stops::
+
+    \begin{lstlisting}[language=C]
+        switch(y) {
+            default: compile_more(y);
+        }
+    \end{lstlisting}
+
+  * (runtime): the machine code is executed; when it reaches a promotion
+    point, it executes the special machine code we described in the previous
+    point; the JIT compiler is invoked again;
+
+  * (compile time): now we finally know the exact value of our red variable,
+    and we can promote it to green; suppose that the value of 'y' is 32::
+
+    \begin{lstlisting}[language=C]
+        switch(y) {
+            32: return 42;
+            default: compile_more(y);
+        }
+    \end{lstlisting}
+
+    Note that the operation "y+10" has been constant-folded into "42", as it
+    was a green operation.
+
+  * (runtime) the execution restart from the point it stopped, until a new
+    unhandled promotion point is reached.
+
+\subsection{Virtuals and virtualizables}
+
+TODO



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