[pypy-commit] pypy arm-backend-2: merge default

bivab noreply at buildbot.pypy.org
Thu Feb 9 15:02:06 CET 2012


Author: David Schneider <david.schneider at picle.org>
Branch: arm-backend-2
Changeset: r52284:619fa7780600
Date: 2012-02-09 14:29 +0100
http://bitbucket.org/pypy/pypy/changeset/619fa7780600/

Log:	merge default

diff too long, truncating to 10000 out of 155826 lines

diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/BaseHTTPServer.py b/lib-python/2.7/BaseHTTPServer.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/BaseHTTPServer.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/BaseHTTPServer.py
@@ -310,7 +310,13 @@
 
         """
         try:
-            self.raw_requestline = self.rfile.readline()
+            self.raw_requestline = self.rfile.readline(65537)
+            if len(self.raw_requestline) > 65536:
+                self.requestline = ''
+                self.request_version = ''
+                self.command = ''
+                self.send_error(414)
+                return
             if not self.raw_requestline:
                 self.close_connection = 1
                 return
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ConfigParser.py b/lib-python/2.7/ConfigParser.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ConfigParser.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ConfigParser.py
@@ -545,6 +545,38 @@
                 if isinstance(val, list):
                     options[name] = '\n'.join(val)
 
+import UserDict as _UserDict
+
+class _Chainmap(_UserDict.DictMixin):
+    """Combine multiple mappings for successive lookups.
+
+    For example, to emulate Python's normal lookup sequence:
+
+        import __builtin__
+        pylookup = _Chainmap(locals(), globals(), vars(__builtin__))
+    """
+
+    def __init__(self, *maps):
+        self._maps = maps
+
+    def __getitem__(self, key):
+        for mapping in self._maps:
+            try:
+                return mapping[key]
+            except KeyError:
+                pass
+        raise KeyError(key)
+
+    def keys(self):
+        result = []
+        seen = set()
+        for mapping in self_maps:
+            for key in mapping:
+                if key not in seen:
+                    result.append(key)
+                    seen.add(key)
+        return result
+
 class ConfigParser(RawConfigParser):
 
     def get(self, section, option, raw=False, vars=None):
@@ -559,16 +591,18 @@
 
         The section DEFAULT is special.
         """
-        d = self._defaults.copy()
+        sectiondict = {}
         try:
-            d.update(self._sections[section])
+            sectiondict = self._sections[section]
         except KeyError:
             if section != DEFAULTSECT:
                 raise NoSectionError(section)
         # Update with the entry specific variables
+        vardict = {}
         if vars:
             for key, value in vars.items():
-                d[self.optionxform(key)] = value
+                vardict[self.optionxform(key)] = value
+        d = _Chainmap(vardict, sectiondict, self._defaults)
         option = self.optionxform(option)
         try:
             value = d[option]
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/Cookie.py b/lib-python/2.7/Cookie.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/Cookie.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/Cookie.py
@@ -258,6 +258,11 @@
     '\033' : '\\033',  '\034' : '\\034',  '\035' : '\\035',
     '\036' : '\\036',  '\037' : '\\037',
 
+    # Because of the way browsers really handle cookies (as opposed
+    # to what the RFC says) we also encode , and ;
+
+    ',' : '\\054', ';' : '\\073',
+
     '"' : '\\"',       '\\' : '\\\\',
 
     '\177' : '\\177',  '\200' : '\\200',  '\201' : '\\201',
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/HTMLParser.py b/lib-python/2.7/HTMLParser.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/HTMLParser.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/HTMLParser.py
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@
 tagfind = re.compile('[a-zA-Z][-.a-zA-Z0-9:_]*')
 attrfind = re.compile(
     r'\s*([a-zA-Z_][-.:a-zA-Z_0-9]*)(\s*=\s*'
-    r'(\'[^\']*\'|"[^"]*"|[-a-zA-Z0-9./,:;+*%?!&$\(\)_#=~@]*))?')
+    r'(\'[^\']*\'|"[^"]*"|[^\s"\'=<>`]*))?')
 
 locatestarttagend = re.compile(r"""
   <[a-zA-Z][-.a-zA-Z0-9:_]*          # tag name
@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@
         markupbase.ParserBase.reset(self)
 
     def feed(self, data):
-        """Feed data to the parser.
+        r"""Feed data to the parser.
 
         Call this as often as you want, with as little or as much text
         as you want (may include '\n').
@@ -367,13 +367,16 @@
             return s
         def replaceEntities(s):
             s = s.groups()[0]
-            if s[0] == "#":
-                s = s[1:]
-                if s[0] in ['x','X']:
-                    c = int(s[1:], 16)
-                else:
-                    c = int(s)
-                return unichr(c)
+            try:
+                if s[0] == "#":
+                    s = s[1:]
+                    if s[0] in ['x','X']:
+                        c = int(s[1:], 16)
+                    else:
+                        c = int(s)
+                    return unichr(c)
+            except ValueError:
+                return '&#'+s+';'
             else:
                 # Cannot use name2codepoint directly, because HTMLParser supports apos,
                 # which is not part of HTML 4
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/SimpleHTTPServer.py b/lib-python/2.7/SimpleHTTPServer.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/SimpleHTTPServer.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/SimpleHTTPServer.py
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@
 import BaseHTTPServer
 import urllib
 import cgi
+import sys
 import shutil
 import mimetypes
 try:
@@ -131,7 +132,8 @@
         length = f.tell()
         f.seek(0)
         self.send_response(200)
-        self.send_header("Content-type", "text/html")
+        encoding = sys.getfilesystemencoding()
+        self.send_header("Content-type", "text/html; charset=%s" % encoding)
         self.send_header("Content-Length", str(length))
         self.end_headers()
         return f
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/SimpleXMLRPCServer.py b/lib-python/2.7/SimpleXMLRPCServer.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/SimpleXMLRPCServer.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/SimpleXMLRPCServer.py
@@ -246,7 +246,7 @@
         marshalled data. For backwards compatibility, a dispatch
         function can be provided as an argument (see comment in
         SimpleXMLRPCRequestHandler.do_POST) but overriding the
-        existing method through subclassing is the prefered means
+        existing method through subclassing is the preferred means
         of changing method dispatch behavior.
         """
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/SocketServer.py b/lib-python/2.7/SocketServer.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/SocketServer.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/SocketServer.py
@@ -675,7 +675,7 @@
     # A timeout to apply to the request socket, if not None.
     timeout = None
 
-    # Disable nagle algoritm for this socket, if True.
+    # Disable nagle algorithm for this socket, if True.
     # Use only when wbufsize != 0, to avoid small packets.
     disable_nagle_algorithm = False
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/StringIO.py b/lib-python/2.7/StringIO.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/StringIO.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/StringIO.py
@@ -266,6 +266,7 @@
         8th bit) will cause a UnicodeError to be raised when getvalue()
         is called.
         """
+        _complain_ifclosed(self.closed)
         if self.buflist:
             self.buf += ''.join(self.buflist)
             self.buflist = []
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/_abcoll.py b/lib-python/2.7/_abcoll.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/_abcoll.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/_abcoll.py
@@ -82,7 +82,7 @@
     @classmethod
     def __subclasshook__(cls, C):
         if cls is Iterator:
-            if _hasattr(C, "next"):
+            if _hasattr(C, "next") and _hasattr(C, "__iter__"):
                 return True
         return NotImplemented
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/_pyio.py b/lib-python/2.7/_pyio.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/_pyio.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/_pyio.py
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@
 
 import io
 from io import (__all__, SEEK_SET, SEEK_CUR, SEEK_END)
+from errno import EINTR
 
 __metaclass__ = type
 
@@ -559,7 +560,11 @@
             if not data:
                 break
             res += data
-        return bytes(res)
+        if res:
+            return bytes(res)
+        else:
+            # b'' or None
+            return data
 
     def readinto(self, b):
         """Read up to len(b) bytes into b.
@@ -678,7 +683,7 @@
     """
 
     def __init__(self, raw):
-        self.raw = raw
+        self._raw = raw
 
     ### Positioning ###
 
@@ -722,8 +727,8 @@
         if self.raw is None:
             raise ValueError("raw stream already detached")
         self.flush()
-        raw = self.raw
-        self.raw = None
+        raw = self._raw
+        self._raw = None
         return raw
 
     ### Inquiries ###
@@ -738,6 +743,10 @@
         return self.raw.writable()
 
     @property
+    def raw(self):
+        return self._raw
+
+    @property
     def closed(self):
         return self.raw.closed
 
@@ -933,7 +942,12 @@
             current_size = 0
             while True:
                 # Read until EOF or until read() would block.
-                chunk = self.raw.read()
+                try:
+                    chunk = self.raw.read()
+                except IOError as e:
+                    if e.errno != EINTR:
+                        raise
+                    continue
                 if chunk in empty_values:
                     nodata_val = chunk
                     break
@@ -952,7 +966,12 @@
         chunks = [buf[pos:]]
         wanted = max(self.buffer_size, n)
         while avail < n:
-            chunk = self.raw.read(wanted)
+            try:
+                chunk = self.raw.read(wanted)
+            except IOError as e:
+                if e.errno != EINTR:
+                    raise
+                continue
             if chunk in empty_values:
                 nodata_val = chunk
                 break
@@ -981,7 +1000,14 @@
         have = len(self._read_buf) - self._read_pos
         if have < want or have <= 0:
             to_read = self.buffer_size - have
-            current = self.raw.read(to_read)
+            while True:
+                try:
+                    current = self.raw.read(to_read)
+                except IOError as e:
+                    if e.errno != EINTR:
+                        raise
+                    continue
+                break
             if current:
                 self._read_buf = self._read_buf[self._read_pos:] + current
                 self._read_pos = 0
@@ -1088,7 +1114,12 @@
         written = 0
         try:
             while self._write_buf:
-                n = self.raw.write(self._write_buf)
+                try:
+                    n = self.raw.write(self._write_buf)
+                except IOError as e:
+                    if e.errno != EINTR:
+                        raise
+                    continue
                 if n > len(self._write_buf) or n < 0:
                     raise IOError("write() returned incorrect number of bytes")
                 del self._write_buf[:n]
@@ -1456,7 +1487,7 @@
             if not isinstance(errors, basestring):
                 raise ValueError("invalid errors: %r" % errors)
 
-        self.buffer = buffer
+        self._buffer = buffer
         self._line_buffering = line_buffering
         self._encoding = encoding
         self._errors = errors
@@ -1511,6 +1542,10 @@
     def line_buffering(self):
         return self._line_buffering
 
+    @property
+    def buffer(self):
+        return self._buffer
+
     def seekable(self):
         return self._seekable
 
@@ -1724,8 +1759,8 @@
         if self.buffer is None:
             raise ValueError("buffer is already detached")
         self.flush()
-        buffer = self.buffer
-        self.buffer = None
+        buffer = self._buffer
+        self._buffer = None
         return buffer
 
     def seek(self, cookie, whence=0):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/_weakrefset.py b/lib-python/2.7/_weakrefset.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/_weakrefset.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/_weakrefset.py
@@ -66,7 +66,11 @@
         return sum(x() is not None for x in self.data)
 
     def __contains__(self, item):
-        return ref(item) in self.data
+        try:
+            wr = ref(item)
+        except TypeError:
+            return False
+        return wr in self.data
 
     def __reduce__(self):
         return (self.__class__, (list(self),),
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/anydbm.py b/lib-python/2.7/anydbm.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/anydbm.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/anydbm.py
@@ -29,17 +29,8 @@
         list = d.keys() # return a list of all existing keys (slow!)
 
 Future versions may change the order in which implementations are
-tested for existence, add interfaces to other dbm-like
+tested for existence, and add interfaces to other dbm-like
 implementations.
-
-The open function has an optional second argument.  This can be 'r',
-for read-only access, 'w', for read-write access of an existing
-database, 'c' for read-write access to a new or existing database, and
-'n' for read-write access to a new database.  The default is 'r'.
-
-Note: 'r' and 'w' fail if the database doesn't exist; 'c' creates it
-only if it doesn't exist; and 'n' always creates a new database.
-
 """
 
 class error(Exception):
@@ -63,7 +54,18 @@
 
 error = tuple(_errors)
 
-def open(file, flag = 'r', mode = 0666):
+def open(file, flag='r', mode=0666):
+    """Open or create database at path given by *file*.
+
+    Optional argument *flag* can be 'r' (default) for read-only access, 'w'
+    for read-write access of an existing database, 'c' for read-write access
+    to a new or existing database, and 'n' for read-write access to a new
+    database.
+
+    Note: 'r' and 'w' fail if the database doesn't exist; 'c' creates it
+    only if it doesn't exist; and 'n' always creates a new database.
+    """
+
     # guess the type of an existing database
     from whichdb import whichdb
     result=whichdb(file)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/argparse.py b/lib-python/2.7/argparse.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/argparse.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/argparse.py
@@ -82,6 +82,7 @@
 ]
 
 
+import collections as _collections
 import copy as _copy
 import os as _os
 import re as _re
@@ -1037,7 +1038,7 @@
 
         self._prog_prefix = prog
         self._parser_class = parser_class
-        self._name_parser_map = {}
+        self._name_parser_map = _collections.OrderedDict()
         self._choices_actions = []
 
         super(_SubParsersAction, self).__init__(
@@ -1080,7 +1081,7 @@
             parser = self._name_parser_map[parser_name]
         except KeyError:
             tup = parser_name, ', '.join(self._name_parser_map)
-            msg = _('unknown parser %r (choices: %s)' % tup)
+            msg = _('unknown parser %r (choices: %s)') % tup
             raise ArgumentError(self, msg)
 
         # parse all the remaining options into the namespace
@@ -1109,7 +1110,7 @@
             the builtin open() function.
     """
 
-    def __init__(self, mode='r', bufsize=None):
+    def __init__(self, mode='r', bufsize=-1):
         self._mode = mode
         self._bufsize = bufsize
 
@@ -1121,18 +1122,19 @@
             elif 'w' in self._mode:
                 return _sys.stdout
             else:
-                msg = _('argument "-" with mode %r' % self._mode)
+                msg = _('argument "-" with mode %r') % self._mode
                 raise ValueError(msg)
 
         # all other arguments are used as file names
-        if self._bufsize:
+        try:
             return open(string, self._mode, self._bufsize)
-        else:
-            return open(string, self._mode)
+        except IOError as e:
+            message = _("can't open '%s': %s")
+            raise ArgumentTypeError(message % (string, e))
 
     def __repr__(self):
-        args = [self._mode, self._bufsize]
-        args_str = ', '.join([repr(arg) for arg in args if arg is not None])
+        args = self._mode, self._bufsize
+        args_str = ', '.join(repr(arg) for arg in args if arg != -1)
         return '%s(%s)' % (type(self).__name__, args_str)
 
 # ===========================
@@ -1275,13 +1277,20 @@
         # create the action object, and add it to the parser
         action_class = self._pop_action_class(kwargs)
         if not _callable(action_class):
-            raise ValueError('unknown action "%s"' % action_class)
+            raise ValueError('unknown action "%s"' % (action_class,))
         action = action_class(**kwargs)
 
         # raise an error if the action type is not callable
         type_func = self._registry_get('type', action.type, action.type)
         if not _callable(type_func):
-            raise ValueError('%r is not callable' % type_func)
+            raise ValueError('%r is not callable' % (type_func,))
+
+        # raise an error if the metavar does not match the type
+        if hasattr(self, "_get_formatter"):
+            try:
+                self._get_formatter()._format_args(action, None)
+            except TypeError:
+                raise ValueError("length of metavar tuple does not match nargs")
 
         return self._add_action(action)
 
@@ -1481,6 +1490,7 @@
         self._defaults = container._defaults
         self._has_negative_number_optionals = \
             container._has_negative_number_optionals
+        self._mutually_exclusive_groups = container._mutually_exclusive_groups
 
     def _add_action(self, action):
         action = super(_ArgumentGroup, self)._add_action(action)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ast.py b/lib-python/2.7/ast.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ast.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ast.py
@@ -29,12 +29,12 @@
 from _ast import __version__
 
 
-def parse(expr, filename='<unknown>', mode='exec'):
+def parse(source, filename='<unknown>', mode='exec'):
     """
-    Parse an expression into an AST node.
-    Equivalent to compile(expr, filename, mode, PyCF_ONLY_AST).
+    Parse the source into an AST node.
+    Equivalent to compile(source, filename, mode, PyCF_ONLY_AST).
     """
-    return compile(expr, filename, mode, PyCF_ONLY_AST)
+    return compile(source, filename, mode, PyCF_ONLY_AST)
 
 
 def literal_eval(node_or_string):
@@ -152,8 +152,6 @@
     Increment the line number of each node in the tree starting at *node* by *n*.
     This is useful to "move code" to a different location in a file.
     """
-    if 'lineno' in node._attributes:
-        node.lineno = getattr(node, 'lineno', 0) + n
     for child in walk(node):
         if 'lineno' in child._attributes:
             child.lineno = getattr(child, 'lineno', 0) + n
@@ -204,9 +202,9 @@
 
 def walk(node):
     """
-    Recursively yield all child nodes of *node*, in no specified order.  This is
-    useful if you only want to modify nodes in place and don't care about the
-    context.
+    Recursively yield all descendant nodes in the tree starting at *node*
+    (including *node* itself), in no specified order.  This is useful if you
+    only want to modify nodes in place and don't care about the context.
     """
     from collections import deque
     todo = deque([node])
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/asyncore.py b/lib-python/2.7/asyncore.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/asyncore.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/asyncore.py
@@ -54,7 +54,11 @@
 
 import os
 from errno import EALREADY, EINPROGRESS, EWOULDBLOCK, ECONNRESET, EINVAL, \
-     ENOTCONN, ESHUTDOWN, EINTR, EISCONN, EBADF, ECONNABORTED, errorcode
+     ENOTCONN, ESHUTDOWN, EINTR, EISCONN, EBADF, ECONNABORTED, EPIPE, EAGAIN, \
+     errorcode
+
+_DISCONNECTED = frozenset((ECONNRESET, ENOTCONN, ESHUTDOWN, ECONNABORTED, EPIPE,
+                           EBADF))
 
 try:
     socket_map
@@ -109,7 +113,7 @@
         if flags & (select.POLLHUP | select.POLLERR | select.POLLNVAL):
             obj.handle_close()
     except socket.error, e:
-        if e.args[0] not in (EBADF, ECONNRESET, ENOTCONN, ESHUTDOWN, ECONNABORTED):
+        if e.args[0] not in _DISCONNECTED:
             obj.handle_error()
         else:
             obj.handle_close()
@@ -353,7 +357,7 @@
         except TypeError:
             return None
         except socket.error as why:
-            if why.args[0] in (EWOULDBLOCK, ECONNABORTED):
+            if why.args[0] in (EWOULDBLOCK, ECONNABORTED, EAGAIN):
                 return None
             else:
                 raise
@@ -367,7 +371,7 @@
         except socket.error, why:
             if why.args[0] == EWOULDBLOCK:
                 return 0
-            elif why.args[0] in (ECONNRESET, ENOTCONN, ESHUTDOWN, ECONNABORTED):
+            elif why.args[0] in _DISCONNECTED:
                 self.handle_close()
                 return 0
             else:
@@ -385,7 +389,7 @@
                 return data
         except socket.error, why:
             # winsock sometimes throws ENOTCONN
-            if why.args[0] in [ECONNRESET, ENOTCONN, ESHUTDOWN, ECONNABORTED]:
+            if why.args[0] in _DISCONNECTED:
                 self.handle_close()
                 return ''
             else:
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/bdb.py b/lib-python/2.7/bdb.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/bdb.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/bdb.py
@@ -250,6 +250,12 @@
             list.append(lineno)
         bp = Breakpoint(filename, lineno, temporary, cond, funcname)
 
+    def _prune_breaks(self, filename, lineno):
+        if (filename, lineno) not in Breakpoint.bplist:
+            self.breaks[filename].remove(lineno)
+        if not self.breaks[filename]:
+            del self.breaks[filename]
+
     def clear_break(self, filename, lineno):
         filename = self.canonic(filename)
         if not filename in self.breaks:
@@ -261,10 +267,7 @@
         # pair, then remove the breaks entry
         for bp in Breakpoint.bplist[filename, lineno][:]:
             bp.deleteMe()
-        if (filename, lineno) not in Breakpoint.bplist:
-            self.breaks[filename].remove(lineno)
-        if not self.breaks[filename]:
-            del self.breaks[filename]
+        self._prune_breaks(filename, lineno)
 
     def clear_bpbynumber(self, arg):
         try:
@@ -277,7 +280,8 @@
             return 'Breakpoint number (%d) out of range' % number
         if not bp:
             return 'Breakpoint (%d) already deleted' % number
-        self.clear_break(bp.file, bp.line)
+        bp.deleteMe()
+        self._prune_breaks(bp.file, bp.line)
 
     def clear_all_file_breaks(self, filename):
         filename = self.canonic(filename)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/collections.py b/lib-python/2.7/collections.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/collections.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/collections.py
@@ -6,59 +6,38 @@
 __all__ += _abcoll.__all__
 
 from _collections import deque, defaultdict
-from operator import itemgetter as _itemgetter, eq as _eq
+from operator import itemgetter as _itemgetter
 from keyword import iskeyword as _iskeyword
 import sys as _sys
 import heapq as _heapq
-from itertools import repeat as _repeat, chain as _chain, starmap as _starmap, \
-                      ifilter as _ifilter, imap as _imap
+from itertools import repeat as _repeat, chain as _chain, starmap as _starmap
+
 try:
-    from thread import get_ident
+    from thread import get_ident as _get_ident
 except ImportError:
-    from dummy_thread import get_ident
-
-def _recursive_repr(user_function):
-    'Decorator to make a repr function return "..." for a recursive call'
-    repr_running = set()
-
-    def wrapper(self):
-        key = id(self), get_ident()
-        if key in repr_running:
-            return '...'
-        repr_running.add(key)
-        try:
-            result = user_function(self)
-        finally:
-            repr_running.discard(key)
-        return result
-
-    # Can't use functools.wraps() here because of bootstrap issues
-    wrapper.__module__ = getattr(user_function, '__module__')
-    wrapper.__doc__ = getattr(user_function, '__doc__')
-    wrapper.__name__ = getattr(user_function, '__name__')
-    return wrapper
+    from dummy_thread import get_ident as _get_ident
 
 
 ################################################################################
 ### OrderedDict
 ################################################################################
 
-class OrderedDict(dict, MutableMapping):
+class OrderedDict(dict):
     'Dictionary that remembers insertion order'
     # An inherited dict maps keys to values.
     # The inherited dict provides __getitem__, __len__, __contains__, and get.
     # The remaining methods are order-aware.
-    # Big-O running times for all methods are the same as for regular dictionaries.
+    # Big-O running times for all methods are the same as regular dictionaries.
 
-    # The internal self.__map dictionary maps keys to links in a doubly linked list.
+    # The internal self.__map dict maps keys to links in a doubly linked list.
     # The circular doubly linked list starts and ends with a sentinel element.
     # The sentinel element never gets deleted (this simplifies the algorithm).
     # Each link is stored as a list of length three:  [PREV, NEXT, KEY].
 
     def __init__(self, *args, **kwds):
-        '''Initialize an ordered dictionary.  Signature is the same as for
-        regular dictionaries, but keyword arguments are not recommended
-        because their insertion order is arbitrary.
+        '''Initialize an ordered dictionary.  The signature is the same as
+        regular dictionaries, but keyword arguments are not recommended because
+        their insertion order is arbitrary.
 
         '''
         if len(args) > 1:
@@ -66,17 +45,15 @@
         try:
             self.__root
         except AttributeError:
-            self.__root = root = [None, None, None]     # sentinel node
-            PREV = 0
-            NEXT = 1
-            root[PREV] = root[NEXT] = root
+            self.__root = root = []                     # sentinel node
+            root[:] = [root, root, None]
             self.__map = {}
-        self.update(*args, **kwds)
+        self.__update(*args, **kwds)
 
     def __setitem__(self, key, value, PREV=0, NEXT=1, dict_setitem=dict.__setitem__):
         'od.__setitem__(i, y) <==> od[i]=y'
-        # Setting a new item creates a new link which goes at the end of the linked
-        # list, and the inherited dictionary is updated with the new key/value pair.
+        # Setting a new item creates a new link at the end of the linked list,
+        # and the inherited dictionary is updated with the new key/value pair.
         if key not in self:
             root = self.__root
             last = root[PREV]
@@ -85,65 +62,160 @@
 
     def __delitem__(self, key, PREV=0, NEXT=1, dict_delitem=dict.__delitem__):
         'od.__delitem__(y) <==> del od[y]'
-        # Deleting an existing item uses self.__map to find the link which is
-        # then removed by updating the links in the predecessor and successor nodes.
+        # Deleting an existing item uses self.__map to find the link which gets
+        # removed by updating the links in the predecessor and successor nodes.
         dict_delitem(self, key)
-        link = self.__map.pop(key)
-        link_prev = link[PREV]
-        link_next = link[NEXT]
+        link_prev, link_next, key = self.__map.pop(key)
         link_prev[NEXT] = link_next
         link_next[PREV] = link_prev
 
-    def __iter__(self, NEXT=1, KEY=2):
+    def __iter__(self):
         'od.__iter__() <==> iter(od)'
         # Traverse the linked list in order.
+        NEXT, KEY = 1, 2
         root = self.__root
         curr = root[NEXT]
         while curr is not root:
             yield curr[KEY]
             curr = curr[NEXT]
 
-    def __reversed__(self, PREV=0, KEY=2):
+    def __reversed__(self):
         'od.__reversed__() <==> reversed(od)'
         # Traverse the linked list in reverse order.
+        PREV, KEY = 0, 2
         root = self.__root
         curr = root[PREV]
         while curr is not root:
             yield curr[KEY]
             curr = curr[PREV]
 
+    def clear(self):
+        'od.clear() -> None.  Remove all items from od.'
+        for node in self.__map.itervalues():
+            del node[:]
+        root = self.__root
+        root[:] = [root, root, None]
+        self.__map.clear()
+        dict.clear(self)
+
+    # -- the following methods do not depend on the internal structure --
+
+    def keys(self):
+        'od.keys() -> list of keys in od'
+        return list(self)
+
+    def values(self):
+        'od.values() -> list of values in od'
+        return [self[key] for key in self]
+
+    def items(self):
+        'od.items() -> list of (key, value) pairs in od'
+        return [(key, self[key]) for key in self]
+
+    def iterkeys(self):
+        'od.iterkeys() -> an iterator over the keys in od'
+        return iter(self)
+
+    def itervalues(self):
+        'od.itervalues -> an iterator over the values in od'
+        for k in self:
+            yield self[k]
+
+    def iteritems(self):
+        'od.iteritems -> an iterator over the (key, value) pairs in od'
+        for k in self:
+            yield (k, self[k])
+
+    update = MutableMapping.update
+
+    __update = update # let subclasses override update without breaking __init__
+
+    __marker = object()
+
+    def pop(self, key, default=__marker):
+        '''od.pop(k[,d]) -> v, remove specified key and return the corresponding
+        value.  If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError
+        is raised.
+
+        '''
+        if key in self:
+            result = self[key]
+            del self[key]
+            return result
+        if default is self.__marker:
+            raise KeyError(key)
+        return default
+
+    def setdefault(self, key, default=None):
+        'od.setdefault(k[,d]) -> od.get(k,d), also set od[k]=d if k not in od'
+        if key in self:
+            return self[key]
+        self[key] = default
+        return default
+
+    def popitem(self, last=True):
+        '''od.popitem() -> (k, v), return and remove a (key, value) pair.
+        Pairs are returned in LIFO order if last is true or FIFO order if false.
+
+        '''
+        if not self:
+            raise KeyError('dictionary is empty')
+        key = next(reversed(self) if last else iter(self))
+        value = self.pop(key)
+        return key, value
+
+    def __repr__(self, _repr_running={}):
+        'od.__repr__() <==> repr(od)'
+        call_key = id(self), _get_ident()
+        if call_key in _repr_running:
+            return '...'
+        _repr_running[call_key] = 1
+        try:
+            if not self:
+                return '%s()' % (self.__class__.__name__,)
+            return '%s(%r)' % (self.__class__.__name__, self.items())
+        finally:
+            del _repr_running[call_key]
+
     def __reduce__(self):
         'Return state information for pickling'
         items = [[k, self[k]] for k in self]
-        tmp = self.__map, self.__root
-        del self.__map, self.__root
         inst_dict = vars(self).copy()
-        self.__map, self.__root = tmp
+        for k in vars(OrderedDict()):
+            inst_dict.pop(k, None)
         if inst_dict:
             return (self.__class__, (items,), inst_dict)
         return self.__class__, (items,)
 
-    def clear(self):
-        'od.clear() -> None.  Remove all items from od.'
-        try:
-            for node in self.__map.itervalues():
-                del node[:]
-            self.__root[:] = [self.__root, self.__root, None]
-            self.__map.clear()
-        except AttributeError:
-            pass
-        dict.clear(self)
+    def copy(self):
+        'od.copy() -> a shallow copy of od'
+        return self.__class__(self)
 
-    setdefault = MutableMapping.setdefault
-    update = MutableMapping.update
-    pop = MutableMapping.pop
-    keys = MutableMapping.keys
-    values = MutableMapping.values
-    items = MutableMapping.items
-    iterkeys = MutableMapping.iterkeys
-    itervalues = MutableMapping.itervalues
-    iteritems = MutableMapping.iteritems
-    __ne__ = MutableMapping.__ne__
+    @classmethod
+    def fromkeys(cls, iterable, value=None):
+        '''OD.fromkeys(S[, v]) -> New ordered dictionary with keys from S.
+        If not specified, the value defaults to None.
+
+        '''
+        self = cls()
+        for key in iterable:
+            self[key] = value
+        return self
+
+    def __eq__(self, other):
+        '''od.__eq__(y) <==> od==y.  Comparison to another OD is order-sensitive
+        while comparison to a regular mapping is order-insensitive.
+
+        '''
+        if isinstance(other, OrderedDict):
+            return len(self)==len(other) and self.items() == other.items()
+        return dict.__eq__(self, other)
+
+    def __ne__(self, other):
+        'od.__ne__(y) <==> od!=y'
+        return not self == other
+
+    # -- the following methods support python 3.x style dictionary views --
 
     def viewkeys(self):
         "od.viewkeys() -> a set-like object providing a view on od's keys"
@@ -157,49 +229,6 @@
         "od.viewitems() -> a set-like object providing a view on od's items"
         return ItemsView(self)
 
-    def popitem(self, last=True):
-        '''od.popitem() -> (k, v), return and remove a (key, value) pair.
-        Pairs are returned in LIFO order if last is true or FIFO order if false.
-
-        '''
-        if not self:
-            raise KeyError('dictionary is empty')
-        key = next(reversed(self) if last else iter(self))
-        value = self.pop(key)
-        return key, value
-
-    @_recursive_repr
-    def __repr__(self):
-        'od.__repr__() <==> repr(od)'
-        if not self:
-            return '%s()' % (self.__class__.__name__,)
-        return '%s(%r)' % (self.__class__.__name__, self.items())
-
-    def copy(self):
-        'od.copy() -> a shallow copy of od'
-        return self.__class__(self)
-
-    @classmethod
-    def fromkeys(cls, iterable, value=None):
-        '''OD.fromkeys(S[, v]) -> New ordered dictionary with keys from S
-        and values equal to v (which defaults to None).
-
-        '''
-        d = cls()
-        for key in iterable:
-            d[key] = value
-        return d
-
-    def __eq__(self, other):
-        '''od.__eq__(y) <==> od==y.  Comparison to another OD is order-sensitive
-        while comparison to a regular mapping is order-insensitive.
-
-        '''
-        if isinstance(other, OrderedDict):
-            return len(self)==len(other) and \
-                   all(_imap(_eq, self.iteritems(), other.iteritems()))
-        return dict.__eq__(self, other)
-
 
 ################################################################################
 ### namedtuple
@@ -328,16 +357,16 @@
     or multiset.  Elements are stored as dictionary keys and their counts
     are stored as dictionary values.
 
-    >>> c = Counter('abracadabra')      # count elements from a string
+    >>> c = Counter('abcdeabcdabcaba')  # count elements from a string
 
     >>> c.most_common(3)                # three most common elements
-    [('a', 5), ('r', 2), ('b', 2)]
+    [('a', 5), ('b', 4), ('c', 3)]
     >>> sorted(c)                       # list all unique elements
-    ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'r']
+    ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e']
     >>> ''.join(sorted(c.elements()))   # list elements with repetitions
-    'aaaaabbcdrr'
+    'aaaaabbbbcccdde'
     >>> sum(c.values())                 # total of all counts
-    11
+    15
 
     >>> c['a']                          # count of letter 'a'
     5
@@ -345,8 +374,8 @@
     ...     c[elem] += 1                # by adding 1 to each element's count
     >>> c['a']                          # now there are seven 'a'
     7
-    >>> del c['r']                      # remove all 'r'
-    >>> c['r']                          # now there are zero 'r'
+    >>> del c['b']                      # remove all 'b'
+    >>> c['b']                          # now there are zero 'b'
     0
 
     >>> d = Counter('simsalabim')       # make another counter
@@ -385,6 +414,7 @@
         >>> c = Counter(a=4, b=2)                   # a new counter from keyword args
 
         '''
+        super(Counter, self).__init__()
         self.update(iterable, **kwds)
 
     def __missing__(self, key):
@@ -396,8 +426,8 @@
         '''List the n most common elements and their counts from the most
         common to the least.  If n is None, then list all element counts.
 
-        >>> Counter('abracadabra').most_common(3)
-        [('a', 5), ('r', 2), ('b', 2)]
+        >>> Counter('abcdeabcdabcaba').most_common(3)
+        [('a', 5), ('b', 4), ('c', 3)]
 
         '''
         # Emulate Bag.sortedByCount from Smalltalk
@@ -463,7 +493,7 @@
                     for elem, count in iterable.iteritems():
                         self[elem] = self_get(elem, 0) + count
                 else:
-                    dict.update(self, iterable) # fast path when counter is empty
+                    super(Counter, self).update(iterable) # fast path when counter is empty
             else:
                 self_get = self.get
                 for elem in iterable:
@@ -499,13 +529,16 @@
             self.subtract(kwds)
 
     def copy(self):
-        'Like dict.copy() but returns a Counter instance instead of a dict.'
-        return Counter(self)
+        'Return a shallow copy.'
+        return self.__class__(self)
+
+    def __reduce__(self):
+        return self.__class__, (dict(self),)
 
     def __delitem__(self, elem):
         'Like dict.__delitem__() but does not raise KeyError for missing values.'
         if elem in self:
-            dict.__delitem__(self, elem)
+            super(Counter, self).__delitem__(elem)
 
     def __repr__(self):
         if not self:
@@ -532,10 +565,13 @@
         if not isinstance(other, Counter):
             return NotImplemented
         result = Counter()
-        for elem in set(self) | set(other):
-            newcount = self[elem] + other[elem]
+        for elem, count in self.items():
+            newcount = count + other[elem]
             if newcount > 0:
                 result[elem] = newcount
+        for elem, count in other.items():
+            if elem not in self and count > 0:
+                result[elem] = count
         return result
 
     def __sub__(self, other):
@@ -548,10 +584,13 @@
         if not isinstance(other, Counter):
             return NotImplemented
         result = Counter()
-        for elem in set(self) | set(other):
-            newcount = self[elem] - other[elem]
+        for elem, count in self.items():
+            newcount = count - other[elem]
             if newcount > 0:
                 result[elem] = newcount
+        for elem, count in other.items():
+            if elem not in self and count < 0:
+                result[elem] = 0 - count
         return result
 
     def __or__(self, other):
@@ -564,11 +603,14 @@
         if not isinstance(other, Counter):
             return NotImplemented
         result = Counter()
-        for elem in set(self) | set(other):
-            p, q = self[elem], other[elem]
-            newcount = q if p < q else p
+        for elem, count in self.items():
+            other_count = other[elem]
+            newcount = other_count if count < other_count else count
             if newcount > 0:
                 result[elem] = newcount
+        for elem, count in other.items():
+            if elem not in self and count > 0:
+                result[elem] = count
         return result
 
     def __and__(self, other):
@@ -581,11 +623,9 @@
         if not isinstance(other, Counter):
             return NotImplemented
         result = Counter()
-        if len(self) < len(other):
-            self, other = other, self
-        for elem in _ifilter(self.__contains__, other):
-            p, q = self[elem], other[elem]
-            newcount = p if p < q else q
+        for elem, count in self.items():
+            other_count = other[elem]
+            newcount = count if count < other_count else other_count
             if newcount > 0:
                 result[elem] = newcount
         return result
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/compileall.py b/lib-python/2.7/compileall.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/compileall.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/compileall.py
@@ -9,7 +9,6 @@
 packages -- for now, you'll have to deal with packages separately.)
 
 See module py_compile for details of the actual byte-compilation.
-
 """
 import os
 import sys
@@ -31,7 +30,6 @@
                directory name that will show up in error messages)
     force:     if 1, force compilation, even if timestamps are up-to-date
     quiet:     if 1, be quiet during compilation
-
     """
     if not quiet:
         print 'Listing', dir, '...'
@@ -61,15 +59,16 @@
     return success
 
 def compile_file(fullname, ddir=None, force=0, rx=None, quiet=0):
-    """Byte-compile file.
-    file:      the file to byte-compile
+    """Byte-compile one file.
+
+    Arguments (only fullname is required):
+
+    fullname:  the file to byte-compile
     ddir:      if given, purported directory name (this is the
                directory name that will show up in error messages)
     force:     if 1, force compilation, even if timestamps are up-to-date
     quiet:     if 1, be quiet during compilation
-
     """
-
     success = 1
     name = os.path.basename(fullname)
     if ddir is not None:
@@ -120,7 +119,6 @@
     maxlevels:   max recursion level (default 0)
     force: as for compile_dir() (default 0)
     quiet: as for compile_dir() (default 0)
-
     """
     success = 1
     for dir in sys.path:
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/csv.py b/lib-python/2.7/csv.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/csv.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/csv.py
@@ -281,7 +281,7 @@
         an all or nothing approach, so we allow for small variations in this
         number.
           1) build a table of the frequency of each character on every line.
-          2) build a table of freqencies of this frequency (meta-frequency?),
+          2) build a table of frequencies of this frequency (meta-frequency?),
              e.g.  'x occurred 5 times in 10 rows, 6 times in 1000 rows,
              7 times in 2 rows'
           3) use the mode of the meta-frequency to determine the /expected/
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_arrays.py b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_arrays.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_arrays.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_arrays.py
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@
             values = [ia[i] for i in range(len(init))]
             self.assertEqual(values, [0] * len(init))
 
-            # Too many in itializers should be caught
+            # Too many initializers should be caught
             self.assertRaises(IndexError, int_array, *range(alen*2))
 
         CharArray = ARRAY(c_char, 3)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_as_parameter.py b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_as_parameter.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_as_parameter.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_as_parameter.py
@@ -187,6 +187,18 @@
         self.assertEqual((s8i.a, s8i.b, s8i.c, s8i.d, s8i.e, s8i.f, s8i.g, s8i.h),
                              (9*2, 8*3, 7*4, 6*5, 5*6, 4*7, 3*8, 2*9))
 
+    def test_recursive_as_param(self):
+        from ctypes import c_int
+
+        class A(object):
+            pass
+
+        a = A()
+        a._as_parameter_ = a
+        with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
+            c_int.from_param(a)
+
+
 #~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 class AsParamWrapper(object):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_callbacks.py b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_callbacks.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_callbacks.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_callbacks.py
@@ -206,6 +206,42 @@
 
             windll.user32.EnumWindows(EnumWindowsCallbackFunc, 0)
 
+    def test_callback_register_int(self):
+        # Issue #8275: buggy handling of callback args under Win64
+        # NOTE: should be run on release builds as well
+        dll = CDLL(_ctypes_test.__file__)
+        CALLBACK = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, c_int, c_int, c_int, c_int, c_int)
+        # All this function does is call the callback with its args squared
+        func = dll._testfunc_cbk_reg_int
+        func.argtypes = (c_int, c_int, c_int, c_int, c_int, CALLBACK)
+        func.restype = c_int
+
+        def callback(a, b, c, d, e):
+            return a + b + c + d + e
+
+        result = func(2, 3, 4, 5, 6, CALLBACK(callback))
+        self.assertEqual(result, callback(2*2, 3*3, 4*4, 5*5, 6*6))
+
+    def test_callback_register_double(self):
+        # Issue #8275: buggy handling of callback args under Win64
+        # NOTE: should be run on release builds as well
+        dll = CDLL(_ctypes_test.__file__)
+        CALLBACK = CFUNCTYPE(c_double, c_double, c_double, c_double,
+                             c_double, c_double)
+        # All this function does is call the callback with its args squared
+        func = dll._testfunc_cbk_reg_double
+        func.argtypes = (c_double, c_double, c_double,
+                         c_double, c_double, CALLBACK)
+        func.restype = c_double
+
+        def callback(a, b, c, d, e):
+            return a + b + c + d + e
+
+        result = func(1.1, 2.2, 3.3, 4.4, 5.5, CALLBACK(callback))
+        self.assertEqual(result,
+                         callback(1.1*1.1, 2.2*2.2, 3.3*3.3, 4.4*4.4, 5.5*5.5))
+
+
 ################################################################
 
 if __name__ == '__main__':
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_functions.py b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_functions.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_functions.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_functions.py
@@ -116,7 +116,7 @@
         self.assertEqual(result, 21)
         self.assertEqual(type(result), int)
 
-        # You cannot assing character format codes as restype any longer
+        # You cannot assign character format codes as restype any longer
         self.assertRaises(TypeError, setattr, f, "restype", "i")
 
     def test_floatresult(self):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_init.py b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_init.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_init.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_init.py
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@
         self.assertEqual((y.x.a, y.x.b), (0, 0))
         self.assertEqual(y.x.new_was_called, False)
 
-        # But explicitely creating an X structure calls __new__ and __init__, of course.
+        # But explicitly creating an X structure calls __new__ and __init__, of course.
         x = X()
         self.assertEqual((x.a, x.b), (9, 12))
         self.assertEqual(x.new_was_called, True)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_numbers.py b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_numbers.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_numbers.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_numbers.py
@@ -157,7 +157,7 @@
     def test_int_from_address(self):
         from array import array
         for t in signed_types + unsigned_types:
-            # the array module doesn't suppport all format codes
+            # the array module doesn't support all format codes
             # (no 'q' or 'Q')
             try:
                 array(t._type_)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_win32.py b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_win32.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_win32.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ctypes/test/test_win32.py
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@
             # ValueError: Procedure probably called with not enough arguments (4 bytes missing)
             self.assertRaises(ValueError, IsWindow)
 
-            # This one should succeeed...
+            # This one should succeed...
             self.assertEqual(0, IsWindow(0))
 
             # ValueError: Procedure probably called with too many arguments (8 bytes in excess)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/curses/wrapper.py b/lib-python/2.7/curses/wrapper.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/curses/wrapper.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/curses/wrapper.py
@@ -43,7 +43,8 @@
         return func(stdscr, *args, **kwds)
     finally:
         # Set everything back to normal
-        stdscr.keypad(0)
-        curses.echo()
-        curses.nocbreak()
-        curses.endwin()
+        if 'stdscr' in locals():
+            stdscr.keypad(0)
+            curses.echo()
+            curses.nocbreak()
+            curses.endwin()
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/decimal.py b/lib-python/2.7/decimal.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/decimal.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/decimal.py
@@ -1068,14 +1068,16 @@
             if ans:
                 return ans
 
-        if not self:
-            # -Decimal('0') is Decimal('0'), not Decimal('-0')
+        if context is None:
+            context = getcontext()
+
+        if not self and context.rounding != ROUND_FLOOR:
+            # -Decimal('0') is Decimal('0'), not Decimal('-0'), except
+            # in ROUND_FLOOR rounding mode.
             ans = self.copy_abs()
         else:
             ans = self.copy_negate()
 
-        if context is None:
-            context = getcontext()
         return ans._fix(context)
 
     def __pos__(self, context=None):
@@ -1088,14 +1090,15 @@
             if ans:
                 return ans
 
-        if not self:
-            # + (-0) = 0
+        if context is None:
+            context = getcontext()
+
+        if not self and context.rounding != ROUND_FLOOR:
+            # + (-0) = 0, except in ROUND_FLOOR rounding mode.
             ans = self.copy_abs()
         else:
             ans = Decimal(self)
 
-        if context is None:
-            context = getcontext()
         return ans._fix(context)
 
     def __abs__(self, round=True, context=None):
@@ -1680,7 +1683,7 @@
                 self = _dec_from_triple(self._sign, '1', exp_min-1)
                 digits = 0
             rounding_method = self._pick_rounding_function[context.rounding]
-            changed = getattr(self, rounding_method)(digits)
+            changed = rounding_method(self, digits)
             coeff = self._int[:digits] or '0'
             if changed > 0:
                 coeff = str(int(coeff)+1)
@@ -1720,8 +1723,6 @@
         # here self was representable to begin with; return unchanged
         return Decimal(self)
 
-    _pick_rounding_function = {}
-
     # for each of the rounding functions below:
     #   self is a finite, nonzero Decimal
     #   prec is an integer satisfying 0 <= prec < len(self._int)
@@ -1788,6 +1789,17 @@
         else:
             return -self._round_down(prec)
 
+    _pick_rounding_function = dict(
+        ROUND_DOWN = _round_down,
+        ROUND_UP = _round_up,
+        ROUND_HALF_UP = _round_half_up,
+        ROUND_HALF_DOWN = _round_half_down,
+        ROUND_HALF_EVEN = _round_half_even,
+        ROUND_CEILING = _round_ceiling,
+        ROUND_FLOOR = _round_floor,
+        ROUND_05UP = _round_05up,
+    )
+
     def fma(self, other, third, context=None):
         """Fused multiply-add.
 
@@ -2492,8 +2504,8 @@
         if digits < 0:
             self = _dec_from_triple(self._sign, '1', exp-1)
             digits = 0
-        this_function = getattr(self, self._pick_rounding_function[rounding])
-        changed = this_function(digits)
+        this_function = self._pick_rounding_function[rounding]
+        changed = this_function(self, digits)
         coeff = self._int[:digits] or '0'
         if changed == 1:
             coeff = str(int(coeff)+1)
@@ -3705,18 +3717,6 @@
 
 ##### Context class #######################################################
 
-
-# get rounding method function:
-rounding_functions = [name for name in Decimal.__dict__.keys()
-                                    if name.startswith('_round_')]
-for name in rounding_functions:
-    # name is like _round_half_even, goes to the global ROUND_HALF_EVEN value.
-    globalname = name[1:].upper()
-    val = globals()[globalname]
-    Decimal._pick_rounding_function[val] = name
-
-del name, val, globalname, rounding_functions
-
 class _ContextManager(object):
     """Context manager class to support localcontext().
 
@@ -5990,7 +5990,7 @@
 
 def _format_align(sign, body, spec):
     """Given an unpadded, non-aligned numeric string 'body' and sign
-    string 'sign', add padding and aligment conforming to the given
+    string 'sign', add padding and alignment conforming to the given
     format specifier dictionary 'spec' (as produced by
     parse_format_specifier).
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/difflib.py b/lib-python/2.7/difflib.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/difflib.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/difflib.py
@@ -1140,6 +1140,21 @@
     return ch in ws
 
 
+########################################################################
+###  Unified Diff
+########################################################################
+
+def _format_range_unified(start, stop):
+    'Convert range to the "ed" format'
+    # Per the diff spec at http://www.unix.org/single_unix_specification/
+    beginning = start + 1     # lines start numbering with one
+    length = stop - start
+    if length == 1:
+        return '{}'.format(beginning)
+    if not length:
+        beginning -= 1        # empty ranges begin at line just before the range
+    return '{},{}'.format(beginning, length)
+
 def unified_diff(a, b, fromfile='', tofile='', fromfiledate='',
                  tofiledate='', n=3, lineterm='\n'):
     r"""
@@ -1184,25 +1199,45 @@
     started = False
     for group in SequenceMatcher(None,a,b).get_grouped_opcodes(n):
         if not started:
-            fromdate = '\t%s' % fromfiledate if fromfiledate else ''
-            todate = '\t%s' % tofiledate if tofiledate else ''
-            yield '--- %s%s%s' % (fromfile, fromdate, lineterm)
-            yield '+++ %s%s%s' % (tofile, todate, lineterm)
             started = True
-        i1, i2, j1, j2 = group[0][1], group[-1][2], group[0][3], group[-1][4]
-        yield "@@ -%d,%d +%d,%d @@%s" % (i1+1, i2-i1, j1+1, j2-j1, lineterm)
+            fromdate = '\t{}'.format(fromfiledate) if fromfiledate else ''
+            todate = '\t{}'.format(tofiledate) if tofiledate else ''
+            yield '--- {}{}{}'.format(fromfile, fromdate, lineterm)
+            yield '+++ {}{}{}'.format(tofile, todate, lineterm)
+
+        first, last = group[0], group[-1]
+        file1_range = _format_range_unified(first[1], last[2])
+        file2_range = _format_range_unified(first[3], last[4])
+        yield '@@ -{} +{} @@{}'.format(file1_range, file2_range, lineterm)
+
         for tag, i1, i2, j1, j2 in group:
             if tag == 'equal':
                 for line in a[i1:i2]:
                     yield ' ' + line
                 continue
-            if tag == 'replace' or tag == 'delete':
+            if tag in ('replace', 'delete'):
                 for line in a[i1:i2]:
                     yield '-' + line
-            if tag == 'replace' or tag == 'insert':
+            if tag in ('replace', 'insert'):
                 for line in b[j1:j2]:
                     yield '+' + line
 
+
+########################################################################
+###  Context Diff
+########################################################################
+
+def _format_range_context(start, stop):
+    'Convert range to the "ed" format'
+    # Per the diff spec at http://www.unix.org/single_unix_specification/
+    beginning = start + 1     # lines start numbering with one
+    length = stop - start
+    if not length:
+        beginning -= 1        # empty ranges begin at line just before the range
+    if length <= 1:
+        return '{}'.format(beginning)
+    return '{},{}'.format(beginning, beginning + length - 1)
+
 # See http://www.unix.org/single_unix_specification/
 def context_diff(a, b, fromfile='', tofile='',
                  fromfiledate='', tofiledate='', n=3, lineterm='\n'):
@@ -1247,38 +1282,36 @@
       four
     """
 
+    prefix = dict(insert='+ ', delete='- ', replace='! ', equal='  ')
     started = False
-    prefixmap = {'insert':'+ ', 'delete':'- ', 'replace':'! ', 'equal':'  '}
     for group in SequenceMatcher(None,a,b).get_grouped_opcodes(n):
         if not started:
-            fromdate = '\t%s' % fromfiledate if fromfiledate else ''
-            todate = '\t%s' % tofiledate if tofiledate else ''
-            yield '*** %s%s%s' % (fromfile, fromdate, lineterm)
-            yield '--- %s%s%s' % (tofile, todate, lineterm)
             started = True
+            fromdate = '\t{}'.format(fromfiledate) if fromfiledate else ''
+            todate = '\t{}'.format(tofiledate) if tofiledate else ''
+            yield '*** {}{}{}'.format(fromfile, fromdate, lineterm)
+            yield '--- {}{}{}'.format(tofile, todate, lineterm)
 
-        yield '***************%s' % (lineterm,)
-        if group[-1][2] - group[0][1] >= 2:
-            yield '*** %d,%d ****%s' % (group[0][1]+1, group[-1][2], lineterm)
-        else:
-            yield '*** %d ****%s' % (group[-1][2], lineterm)
-        visiblechanges = [e for e in group if e[0] in ('replace', 'delete')]
-        if visiblechanges:
+        first, last = group[0], group[-1]
+        yield '***************' + lineterm
+
+        file1_range = _format_range_context(first[1], last[2])
+        yield '*** {} ****{}'.format(file1_range, lineterm)
+
+        if any(tag in ('replace', 'delete') for tag, _, _, _, _ in group):
             for tag, i1, i2, _, _ in group:
                 if tag != 'insert':
                     for line in a[i1:i2]:
-                        yield prefixmap[tag] + line
+                        yield prefix[tag] + line
 
-        if group[-1][4] - group[0][3] >= 2:
-            yield '--- %d,%d ----%s' % (group[0][3]+1, group[-1][4], lineterm)
-        else:
-            yield '--- %d ----%s' % (group[-1][4], lineterm)
-        visiblechanges = [e for e in group if e[0] in ('replace', 'insert')]
-        if visiblechanges:
+        file2_range = _format_range_context(first[3], last[4])
+        yield '--- {} ----{}'.format(file2_range, lineterm)
+
+        if any(tag in ('replace', 'insert') for tag, _, _, _, _ in group):
             for tag, _, _, j1, j2 in group:
                 if tag != 'delete':
                     for line in b[j1:j2]:
-                        yield prefixmap[tag] + line
+                        yield prefix[tag] + line
 
 def ndiff(a, b, linejunk=None, charjunk=IS_CHARACTER_JUNK):
     r"""
@@ -1714,7 +1747,7 @@
             line = line.replace(' ','\0')
             # expand tabs into spaces
             line = line.expandtabs(self._tabsize)
-            # relace spaces from expanded tabs back into tab characters
+            # replace spaces from expanded tabs back into tab characters
             # (we'll replace them with markup after we do differencing)
             line = line.replace(' ','\t')
             return line.replace('\0',' ').rstrip('\n')
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/__init__.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/__init__.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/__init__.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/__init__.py
@@ -15,5 +15,5 @@
 # Updated automatically by the Python release process.
 #
 #--start constants--
-__version__ = "2.7.1"
+__version__ = "2.7.2"
 #--end constants--
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/archive_util.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/archive_util.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/archive_util.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/archive_util.py
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@
 def make_zipfile(base_name, base_dir, verbose=0, dry_run=0):
     """Create a zip file from all the files under 'base_dir'.
 
-    The output zip file will be named 'base_dir' + ".zip".  Uses either the
+    The output zip file will be named 'base_name' + ".zip".  Uses either the
     "zipfile" Python module (if available) or the InfoZIP "zip" utility
     (if installed and found on the default search path).  If neither tool is
     available, raises DistutilsExecError.  Returns the name of the output zip
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/cmd.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/cmd.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/cmd.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/cmd.py
@@ -377,7 +377,7 @@
             dry_run=self.dry_run)
 
     def move_file (self, src, dst, level=1):
-        """Move a file respectin dry-run flag."""
+        """Move a file respecting dry-run flag."""
         return file_util.move_file(src, dst, dry_run = self.dry_run)
 
     def spawn (self, cmd, search_path=1, level=1):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/build_ext.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/build_ext.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/build_ext.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/build_ext.py
@@ -207,7 +207,7 @@
 
             elif MSVC_VERSION == 8:
                 self.library_dirs.append(os.path.join(sys.exec_prefix,
-                                         'PC', 'VS8.0', 'win32release'))
+                                         'PC', 'VS8.0'))
             elif MSVC_VERSION == 7:
                 self.library_dirs.append(os.path.join(sys.exec_prefix,
                                          'PC', 'VS7.1'))
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/sdist.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/sdist.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/sdist.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/sdist.py
@@ -306,17 +306,20 @@
                             rstrip_ws=1,
                             collapse_join=1)
 
-        while 1:
-            line = template.readline()
-            if line is None:            # end of file
-                break
+        try:
+            while 1:
+                line = template.readline()
+                if line is None:            # end of file
+                    break
 
-            try:
-                self.filelist.process_template_line(line)
-            except DistutilsTemplateError, msg:
-                self.warn("%s, line %d: %s" % (template.filename,
-                                               template.current_line,
-                                               msg))
+                try:
+                    self.filelist.process_template_line(line)
+                except DistutilsTemplateError, msg:
+                    self.warn("%s, line %d: %s" % (template.filename,
+                                                   template.current_line,
+                                                   msg))
+        finally:
+            template.close()
 
     def prune_file_list(self):
         """Prune off branches that might slip into the file list as created
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/upload.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/upload.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/upload.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/command/upload.py
@@ -176,6 +176,9 @@
             result = urlopen(request)
             status = result.getcode()
             reason = result.msg
+            if self.show_response:
+                msg = '\n'.join(('-' * 75, r.read(), '-' * 75))
+                self.announce(msg, log.INFO)
         except socket.error, e:
             self.announce(str(e), log.ERROR)
             return
@@ -189,6 +192,3 @@
         else:
             self.announce('Upload failed (%s): %s' % (status, reason),
                           log.ERROR)
-        if self.show_response:
-            msg = '\n'.join(('-' * 75, r.read(), '-' * 75))
-            self.announce(msg, log.INFO)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/sysconfig.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/sysconfig.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/sysconfig.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/sysconfig.py
@@ -389,7 +389,7 @@
         cur_target = os.getenv('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET', '')
         if cur_target == '':
             cur_target = cfg_target
-            os.putenv('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET', cfg_target)
+            os.environ['MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET'] = cfg_target
         elif map(int, cfg_target.split('.')) > map(int, cur_target.split('.')):
             my_msg = ('$MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET mismatch: now "%s" but "%s" during configure'
                 % (cur_target, cfg_target))
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/__init__.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/__init__.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/__init__.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/__init__.py
@@ -15,9 +15,10 @@
 import os
 import sys
 import unittest
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 
-here = os.path.dirname(__file__)
+here = os.path.dirname(__file__) or os.curdir
 
 
 def test_suite():
@@ -32,4 +33,4 @@
 
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_archive_util.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_archive_util.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_archive_util.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_archive_util.py
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
                                     ARCHIVE_FORMATS)
 from distutils.spawn import find_executable, spawn
 from distutils.tests import support
-from test.test_support import check_warnings
+from test.test_support import check_warnings, run_unittest
 
 try:
     import grp
@@ -281,4 +281,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(ArchiveUtilTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_bdist_msi.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_bdist_msi.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_bdist_msi.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_bdist_msi.py
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
                        support.LoggingSilencer,
                        unittest.TestCase):
 
-    def test_minial(self):
+    def test_minimal(self):
         # minimal test XXX need more tests
         from distutils.command.bdist_msi import bdist_msi
         pkg_pth, dist = self.create_dist()
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build.py
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
 import unittest
 import os
 import sys
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 from distutils.command.build import build
 from distutils.tests import support
@@ -51,4 +52,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(BuildTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_clib.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_clib.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_clib.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_clib.py
@@ -3,6 +3,8 @@
 import os
 import sys
 
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
+
 from distutils.command.build_clib import build_clib
 from distutils.errors import DistutilsSetupError
 from distutils.tests import support
@@ -140,4 +142,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(BuildCLibTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_ext.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_ext.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_ext.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_ext.py
@@ -3,12 +3,13 @@
 import tempfile
 import shutil
 from StringIO import StringIO
+import textwrap
 
 from distutils.core import Extension, Distribution
 from distutils.command.build_ext import build_ext
 from distutils import sysconfig
 from distutils.tests import support
-from distutils.errors import DistutilsSetupError
+from distutils.errors import DistutilsSetupError, CompileError
 
 import unittest
 from test import test_support
@@ -430,6 +431,59 @@
         wanted = os.path.join(cmd.build_lib, 'UpdateManager', 'fdsend' + ext)
         self.assertEqual(ext_path, wanted)
 
+    @unittest.skipUnless(sys.platform == 'darwin', 'test only relevant for MacOSX')
+    def test_deployment_target(self):
+        self._try_compile_deployment_target()
+
+        orig_environ = os.environ
+        os.environ = orig_environ.copy()
+        self.addCleanup(setattr, os, 'environ', orig_environ)
+
+        os.environ['MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET']='10.1'
+        self._try_compile_deployment_target()
+
+
+    def _try_compile_deployment_target(self):
+        deptarget_c = os.path.join(self.tmp_dir, 'deptargetmodule.c')
+
+        with open(deptarget_c, 'w') as fp:
+            fp.write(textwrap.dedent('''\
+                #include <AvailabilityMacros.h>
+
+                int dummy;
+
+                #if TARGET != MAC_OS_X_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED
+                #error "Unexpected target"
+               #endif
+
+            '''))
+
+        target = sysconfig.get_config_var('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET')
+        target = tuple(map(int, target.split('.')))
+        target = '%02d%01d0' % target
+
+        deptarget_ext = Extension(
+            'deptarget',
+            [deptarget_c],
+            extra_compile_args=['-DTARGET=%s'%(target,)],
+        )
+        dist = Distribution({
+            'name': 'deptarget',
+            'ext_modules': [deptarget_ext]
+        })
+        dist.package_dir = self.tmp_dir
+        cmd = build_ext(dist)
+        cmd.build_lib = self.tmp_dir
+        cmd.build_temp = self.tmp_dir
+
+        try:
+            old_stdout = sys.stdout
+            cmd.ensure_finalized()
+            cmd.run()
+
+        except CompileError:
+            self.fail("Wrong deployment target during compilation")
+
 def test_suite():
     return unittest.makeSuite(BuildExtTestCase)
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_py.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_py.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_py.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_py.py
@@ -10,13 +10,14 @@
 from distutils.errors import DistutilsFileError
 
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 
 class BuildPyTestCase(support.TempdirManager,
                       support.LoggingSilencer,
                       unittest.TestCase):
 
-    def _setup_package_data(self):
+    def test_package_data(self):
         sources = self.mkdtemp()
         f = open(os.path.join(sources, "__init__.py"), "w")
         try:
@@ -56,20 +57,15 @@
         self.assertEqual(len(cmd.get_outputs()), 3)
         pkgdest = os.path.join(destination, "pkg")
         files = os.listdir(pkgdest)
-        return files
+        self.assertIn("__init__.py", files)
+        self.assertIn("README.txt", files)
+        # XXX even with -O, distutils writes pyc, not pyo; bug?
+        if sys.dont_write_bytecode:
+            self.assertNotIn("__init__.pyc", files)
+        else:
+            self.assertIn("__init__.pyc", files)
 
-    def test_package_data(self):
-        files = self._setup_package_data()
-        self.assertTrue("__init__.py" in files)
-        self.assertTrue("README.txt" in files)
-
-    @unittest.skipIf(sys.flags.optimize >= 2,
-                     "pyc files are not written with -O2 and above")
-    def test_package_data_pyc(self):
-        files = self._setup_package_data()
-        self.assertTrue("__init__.pyc" in files)
-
-    def test_empty_package_dir (self):
+    def test_empty_package_dir(self):
         # See SF 1668596/1720897.
         cwd = os.getcwd()
 
@@ -117,10 +113,10 @@
         finally:
             sys.dont_write_bytecode = old_dont_write_bytecode
 
-        self.assertTrue('byte-compiling is disabled' in self.logs[0][1])
+        self.assertIn('byte-compiling is disabled', self.logs[0][1])
 
 def test_suite():
     return unittest.makeSuite(BuildPyTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_scripts.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_scripts.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_scripts.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_build_scripts.py
@@ -8,6 +8,7 @@
 import sysconfig
 
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 
 class BuildScriptsTestCase(support.TempdirManager,
@@ -108,4 +109,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(BuildScriptsTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_check.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_check.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_check.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_check.py
@@ -1,5 +1,6 @@
 """Tests for distutils.command.check."""
 import unittest
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 from distutils.command.check import check, HAS_DOCUTILS
 from distutils.tests import support
@@ -95,4 +96,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(CheckTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_clean.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_clean.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_clean.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_clean.py
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 
 from distutils.command.clean import clean
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 class cleanTestCase(support.TempdirManager,
                     support.LoggingSilencer,
@@ -38,7 +39,7 @@
             self.assertTrue(not os.path.exists(path),
                          '%s was not removed' % path)
 
-        # let's run the command again (should spit warnings but suceed)
+        # let's run the command again (should spit warnings but succeed)
         cmd.all = 1
         cmd.ensure_finalized()
         cmd.run()
@@ -47,4 +48,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(cleanTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_cmd.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_cmd.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_cmd.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_cmd.py
@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@
 
     def test_ensure_dirname(self):
         cmd = self.cmd
-        cmd.option1 = os.path.dirname(__file__)
+        cmd.option1 = os.path.dirname(__file__) or os.curdir
         cmd.ensure_dirname('option1')
         cmd.option2 = 'xxx'
         self.assertRaises(DistutilsOptionError, cmd.ensure_dirname, 'option2')
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_config.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_config.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_config.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_config.py
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@
 from distutils.log import WARN
 
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 PYPIRC = """\
 [distutils]
@@ -119,4 +120,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(PyPIRCCommandTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_config_cmd.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_config_cmd.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_config_cmd.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_config_cmd.py
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
 import unittest
 import os
 import sys
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 from distutils.command.config import dump_file, config
 from distutils.tests import support
@@ -86,4 +87,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(ConfigTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_core.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_core.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_core.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_core.py
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 import shutil
 import sys
 import test.test_support
-from test.test_support import captured_stdout
+from test.test_support import captured_stdout, run_unittest
 import unittest
 from distutils.tests import support
 
@@ -105,4 +105,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(CoreTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dep_util.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dep_util.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dep_util.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dep_util.py
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 from distutils.dep_util import newer, newer_pairwise, newer_group
 from distutils.errors import DistutilsFileError
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 class DepUtilTestCase(support.TempdirManager, unittest.TestCase):
 
@@ -77,4 +78,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(DepUtilTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dir_util.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dir_util.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dir_util.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dir_util.py
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
 
 from distutils import log
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 class DirUtilTestCase(support.TempdirManager, unittest.TestCase):
 
@@ -112,4 +113,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(DirUtilTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dist.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dist.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dist.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_dist.py
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 from distutils.dist import Distribution, fix_help_options, DistributionMetadata
 from distutils.cmd import Command
 import distutils.dist
-from test.test_support import TESTFN, captured_stdout
+from test.test_support import TESTFN, captured_stdout, run_unittest
 from distutils.tests import support
 
 class test_dist(Command):
@@ -433,4 +433,4 @@
     return suite
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_file_util.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_file_util.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_file_util.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_file_util.py
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 from distutils.file_util import move_file, write_file, copy_file
 from distutils import log
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 class FileUtilTestCase(support.TempdirManager, unittest.TestCase):
 
@@ -77,4 +78,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(FileUtilTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_filelist.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_filelist.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_filelist.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_filelist.py
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 """Tests for distutils.filelist."""
 from os.path import join
 import unittest
-from test.test_support import captured_stdout
+from test.test_support import captured_stdout, run_unittest
 
 from distutils.filelist import glob_to_re, FileList
 from distutils import debug
@@ -82,4 +82,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(FileListTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install.py
@@ -3,6 +3,8 @@
 import os
 import unittest
 
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
+
 from distutils.command.install import install
 from distutils.core import Distribution
 
@@ -52,4 +54,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(InstallTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_data.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_data.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_data.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_data.py
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 
 from distutils.command.install_data import install_data
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 class InstallDataTestCase(support.TempdirManager,
                           support.LoggingSilencer,
@@ -73,4 +74,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(InstallDataTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_headers.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_headers.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_headers.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_headers.py
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 
 from distutils.command.install_headers import install_headers
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 class InstallHeadersTestCase(support.TempdirManager,
                              support.LoggingSilencer,
@@ -37,4 +38,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(InstallHeadersTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_lib.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_lib.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_lib.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_lib.py
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
 from distutils.extension import Extension
 from distutils.tests import support
 from distutils.errors import DistutilsOptionError
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 class InstallLibTestCase(support.TempdirManager,
                          support.LoggingSilencer,
@@ -103,4 +104,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(InstallLibTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_scripts.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_scripts.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_scripts.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_install_scripts.py
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
 from distutils.core import Distribution
 
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 
 class InstallScriptsTestCase(support.TempdirManager,
@@ -78,4 +79,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(InstallScriptsTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_msvc9compiler.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_msvc9compiler.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_msvc9compiler.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_msvc9compiler.py
@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
 
 from distutils.errors import DistutilsPlatformError
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 _MANIFEST = """\
 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
@@ -137,4 +138,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(msvc9compilerTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_register.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_register.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_register.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_register.py
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
 import urllib2
 import warnings
 
-from test.test_support import check_warnings
+from test.test_support import check_warnings, run_unittest
 
 from distutils.command import register as register_module
 from distutils.command.register import register
@@ -138,7 +138,7 @@
 
         # let's see what the server received : we should
         # have 2 similar requests
-        self.assertTrue(self.conn.reqs, 2)
+        self.assertEqual(len(self.conn.reqs), 2)
         req1 = dict(self.conn.reqs[0].headers)
         req2 = dict(self.conn.reqs[1].headers)
         self.assertEqual(req2['Content-length'], req1['Content-length'])
@@ -168,7 +168,7 @@
             del register_module.raw_input
 
         # we should have send a request
-        self.assertTrue(self.conn.reqs, 1)
+        self.assertEqual(len(self.conn.reqs), 1)
         req = self.conn.reqs[0]
         headers = dict(req.headers)
         self.assertEqual(headers['Content-length'], '608')
@@ -186,7 +186,7 @@
             del register_module.raw_input
 
         # we should have send a request
-        self.assertTrue(self.conn.reqs, 1)
+        self.assertEqual(len(self.conn.reqs), 1)
         req = self.conn.reqs[0]
         headers = dict(req.headers)
         self.assertEqual(headers['Content-length'], '290')
@@ -258,4 +258,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(RegisterTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_sdist.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_sdist.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_sdist.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_sdist.py
@@ -24,11 +24,9 @@
 import tempfile
 import warnings
 
-from test.test_support import check_warnings
-from test.test_support import captured_stdout
+from test.test_support import captured_stdout, check_warnings, run_unittest
 
-from distutils.command.sdist import sdist
-from distutils.command.sdist import show_formats
+from distutils.command.sdist import sdist, show_formats
 from distutils.core import Distribution
 from distutils.tests.test_config import PyPIRCCommandTestCase
 from distutils.errors import DistutilsExecError, DistutilsOptionError
@@ -372,7 +370,7 @@
         # adding a file
         self.write_file((self.tmp_dir, 'somecode', 'doc2.txt'), '#')
 
-        # make sure build_py is reinitinialized, like a fresh run
+        # make sure build_py is reinitialized, like a fresh run
         build_py = dist.get_command_obj('build_py')
         build_py.finalized = False
         build_py.ensure_finalized()
@@ -390,6 +388,7 @@
         self.assertEqual(len(manifest2), 6)
         self.assertIn('doc2.txt', manifest2[-1])
 
+    @unittest.skipUnless(zlib, "requires zlib")
     def test_manifest_marker(self):
         # check that autogenerated MANIFESTs have a marker
         dist, cmd = self.get_cmd()
@@ -406,6 +405,7 @@
         self.assertEqual(manifest[0],
                          '# file GENERATED by distutils, do NOT edit')
 
+    @unittest.skipUnless(zlib, "requires zlib")
     def test_manual_manifest(self):
         # check that a MANIFEST without a marker is left alone
         dist, cmd = self.get_cmd()
@@ -426,4 +426,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(SDistTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_spawn.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_spawn.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_spawn.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_spawn.py
@@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
 import unittest
 import os
 import time
-from test.test_support import captured_stdout
+from test.test_support import captured_stdout, run_unittest
 
 from distutils.spawn import _nt_quote_args
 from distutils.spawn import spawn, find_executable
@@ -57,4 +57,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(SpawnTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_text_file.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_text_file.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_text_file.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_text_file.py
@@ -3,6 +3,7 @@
 import unittest
 from distutils.text_file import TextFile
 from distutils.tests import support
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 TEST_DATA = """# test file
 
@@ -103,4 +104,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(TextFileTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_unixccompiler.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_unixccompiler.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_unixccompiler.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_unixccompiler.py
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
 """Tests for distutils.unixccompiler."""
 import sys
 import unittest
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 from distutils import sysconfig
 from distutils.unixccompiler import UnixCCompiler
@@ -126,4 +127,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(UnixCCompilerTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_upload.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_upload.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_upload.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_upload.py
@@ -1,14 +1,13 @@
+# -*- encoding: utf8 -*-
 """Tests for distutils.command.upload."""
-# -*- encoding: utf8 -*-
-import sys
 import os
 import unittest
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 from distutils.command import upload as upload_mod
 from distutils.command.upload import upload
 from distutils.core import Distribution
 
-from distutils.tests import support
 from distutils.tests.test_config import PYPIRC, PyPIRCCommandTestCase
 
 PYPIRC_LONG_PASSWORD = """\
@@ -129,4 +128,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(uploadTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_util.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_util.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_util.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_util.py
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
 """Tests for distutils.util."""
 import sys
 import unittest
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 from distutils.errors import DistutilsPlatformError, DistutilsByteCompileError
 from distutils.util import byte_compile
@@ -21,4 +22,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(UtilTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_version.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_version.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_version.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_version.py
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
 import unittest
 from distutils.version import LooseVersion
 from distutils.version import StrictVersion
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 class VersionTestCase(unittest.TestCase):
 
@@ -67,4 +68,4 @@
     return unittest.makeSuite(VersionTestCase)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":
-    unittest.main(defaultTest="test_suite")
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_versionpredicate.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_versionpredicate.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_versionpredicate.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/tests/test_versionpredicate.py
@@ -4,6 +4,10 @@
 
 import distutils.versionpredicate
 import doctest
+from test.test_support import run_unittest
 
 def test_suite():
     return doctest.DocTestSuite(distutils.versionpredicate)
+
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+    run_unittest(test_suite())
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/util.py b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/util.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/distutils/util.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/distutils/util.py
@@ -97,9 +97,7 @@
         from distutils.sysconfig import get_config_vars
         cfgvars = get_config_vars()
 
-        macver = os.environ.get('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET')
-        if not macver:
-            macver = cfgvars.get('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET')
+        macver = cfgvars.get('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET')
 
         if 1:
             # Always calculate the release of the running machine,
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/doctest.py b/lib-python/2.7/doctest.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/doctest.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/doctest.py
@@ -1217,7 +1217,7 @@
         # Process each example.
         for examplenum, example in enumerate(test.examples):
 
-            # If REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE is set, then supress
+            # If REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE is set, then suppress
             # reporting after the first failure.
             quiet = (self.optionflags & REPORT_ONLY_FIRST_FAILURE and
                      failures > 0)
@@ -2186,7 +2186,7 @@
            caller can catch the errors and initiate post-mortem debugging.
 
            The DocTestCase provides a debug method that raises
-           UnexpectedException errors if there is an unexepcted
+           UnexpectedException errors if there is an unexpected
            exception:
 
              >>> test = DocTestParser().get_doctest('>>> raise KeyError\n42',
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/email/charset.py b/lib-python/2.7/email/charset.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/email/charset.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/email/charset.py
@@ -209,7 +209,7 @@
                 input_charset = unicode(input_charset, 'ascii')
         except UnicodeError:
             raise errors.CharsetError(input_charset)
-        input_charset = input_charset.lower()
+        input_charset = input_charset.lower().encode('ascii')
         # Set the input charset after filtering through the aliases and/or codecs
         if not (input_charset in ALIASES or input_charset in CHARSETS):
             try:
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/email/generator.py b/lib-python/2.7/email/generator.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/email/generator.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/email/generator.py
@@ -202,18 +202,13 @@
             g = self.clone(s)
             g.flatten(part, unixfrom=False)
             msgtexts.append(s.getvalue())
-        # Now make sure the boundary we've selected doesn't appear in any of
-        # the message texts.
-        alltext = NL.join(msgtexts)
         # BAW: What about boundaries that are wrapped in double-quotes?
-        boundary = msg.get_boundary(failobj=_make_boundary(alltext))
-        # If we had to calculate a new boundary because the body text
-        # contained that string, set the new boundary.  We don't do it
-        # unconditionally because, while set_boundary() preserves order, it
-        # doesn't preserve newlines/continuations in headers.  This is no big
-        # deal in practice, but turns out to be inconvenient for the unittest
-        # suite.
-        if msg.get_boundary() != boundary:
+        boundary = msg.get_boundary()
+        if not boundary:
+            # Create a boundary that doesn't appear in any of the
+            # message texts.
+            alltext = NL.join(msgtexts)
+            boundary = _make_boundary(alltext)
             msg.set_boundary(boundary)
         # If there's a preamble, write it out, with a trailing CRLF
         if msg.preamble is not None:
@@ -292,7 +287,7 @@
 _FMT = '[Non-text (%(type)s) part of message omitted, filename %(filename)s]'
 
 class DecodedGenerator(Generator):
-    """Generator a text representation of a message.
+    """Generates a text representation of a message.
 
     Like the Generator base class, except that non-text parts are substituted
     with a format string representing the part.
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/email/header.py b/lib-python/2.7/email/header.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/email/header.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/email/header.py
@@ -47,6 +47,10 @@
 # For use with .match()
 fcre = re.compile(r'[\041-\176]+:$')
 
+# Find a header embedded in a putative header value.  Used to check for
+# header injection attack.
+_embeded_header = re.compile(r'\n[^ \t]+:')
+
 
 
 # Helpers
@@ -403,7 +407,11 @@
             newchunks += self._split(s, charset, targetlen, splitchars)
             lastchunk, lastcharset = newchunks[-1]
             lastlen = lastcharset.encoded_header_len(lastchunk)
-        return self._encode_chunks(newchunks, maxlinelen)
+        value = self._encode_chunks(newchunks, maxlinelen)
+        if _embeded_header.search(value):
+            raise HeaderParseError("header value appears to contain "
+                "an embedded header: {!r}".format(value))
+        return value
 
 
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/email/message.py b/lib-python/2.7/email/message.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/email/message.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/email/message.py
@@ -38,7 +38,9 @@
 def _formatparam(param, value=None, quote=True):
     """Convenience function to format and return a key=value pair.
 
-    This will quote the value if needed or if quote is true.
+    This will quote the value if needed or if quote is true.  If value is a
+    three tuple (charset, language, value), it will be encoded according
+    to RFC2231 rules.
     """
     if value is not None and len(value) > 0:
         # A tuple is used for RFC 2231 encoded parameter values where items
@@ -97,7 +99,7 @@
     objects, otherwise it is a string.
 
     Message objects implement part of the `mapping' interface, which assumes
-    there is exactly one occurrance of the header per message.  Some headers
+    there is exactly one occurrence of the header per message.  Some headers
     do in fact appear multiple times (e.g. Received) and for those headers,
     you must use the explicit API to set or get all the headers.  Not all of
     the mapping methods are implemented.
@@ -286,7 +288,7 @@
         Return None if the header is missing instead of raising an exception.
 
         Note that if the header appeared multiple times, exactly which
-        occurrance gets returned is undefined.  Use get_all() to get all
+        occurrence gets returned is undefined.  Use get_all() to get all
         the values matching a header field name.
         """
         return self.get(name)
@@ -389,7 +391,10 @@
         name is the header field to add.  keyword arguments can be used to set
         additional parameters for the header field, with underscores converted
         to dashes.  Normally the parameter will be added as key="value" unless
-        value is None, in which case only the key will be added.
+        value is None, in which case only the key will be added.  If a
+        parameter value contains non-ASCII characters it must be specified as a
+        three-tuple of (charset, language, value), in which case it will be
+        encoded according to RFC2231 rules.
 
         Example:
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/email/mime/application.py b/lib-python/2.7/email/mime/application.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/email/mime/application.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/email/mime/application.py
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@
                  _encoder=encoders.encode_base64, **_params):
         """Create an application/* type MIME document.
 
-        _data is a string containing the raw applicatoin data.
+        _data is a string containing the raw application data.
 
         _subtype is the MIME content type subtype, defaulting to
         'octet-stream'.
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/email/test/data/msg_26.txt b/lib-python/2.7/email/test/data/msg_26.txt
--- a/lib-python/2.7/email/test/data/msg_26.txt
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/email/test/data/msg_26.txt
@@ -42,4 +42,4 @@
 MzMAAAAACH97tzAAAAALu3c3gAAAAAAL+7tzDABAu7f7cAAAAAAACA+3MA7EQAv/sIAA
 AAAAAAAIAAAAAAAAAIAAAAAA
 
---1618492860--2051301190--113853680--
+--1618492860--2051301190--113853680--
\ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/email/test/test_email.py b/lib-python/2.7/email/test/test_email.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/email/test/test_email.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/email/test/test_email.py
@@ -179,6 +179,17 @@
         self.assertRaises(Errors.HeaderParseError,
                           msg.set_boundary, 'BOUNDARY')
 
+    def test_make_boundary(self):
+        msg = MIMEMultipart('form-data')
+        # Note that when the boundary gets created is an implementation
+        # detail and might change.
+        self.assertEqual(msg.items()[0][1], 'multipart/form-data')
+        # Trigger creation of boundary
+        msg.as_string()
+        self.assertEqual(msg.items()[0][1][:33],
+                        'multipart/form-data; boundary="==')
+        # XXX: there ought to be tests of the uniqueness of the boundary, too.
+
     def test_message_rfc822_only(self):
         # Issue 7970: message/rfc822 not in multipart parsed by
         # HeaderParser caused an exception when flattened.
@@ -542,6 +553,17 @@
         msg.set_charset(u'us-ascii')
         self.assertEqual('us-ascii', msg.get_content_charset())
 
+    # Issue 5871: reject an attempt to embed a header inside a header value
+    # (header injection attack).
+    def test_embeded_header_via_Header_rejected(self):
+        msg = Message()
+        msg['Dummy'] = Header('dummy\nX-Injected-Header: test')
+        self.assertRaises(Errors.HeaderParseError, msg.as_string)
+
+    def test_embeded_header_via_string_rejected(self):
+        msg = Message()
+        msg['Dummy'] = 'dummy\nX-Injected-Header: test'
+        self.assertRaises(Errors.HeaderParseError, msg.as_string)
 
 
 # Test the email.Encoders module
@@ -3113,6 +3135,28 @@
         s = 'Subject: =?EUC-KR?B?CSixpLDtKSC/7Liuvsax4iC6uLmwMcijIKHaILzSwd/H0SC8+LCjwLsgv7W/+Mj3I ?='
         raises(Errors.HeaderParseError, decode_header, s)
 
+    # Issue 1078919
+    def test_ascii_add_header(self):
+        msg = Message()
+        msg.add_header('Content-Disposition', 'attachment',
+                       filename='bud.gif')
+        self.assertEqual('attachment; filename="bud.gif"',
+            msg['Content-Disposition'])
+
+    def test_nonascii_add_header_via_triple(self):
+        msg = Message()
+        msg.add_header('Content-Disposition', 'attachment',
+            filename=('iso-8859-1', '', 'Fu\xdfballer.ppt'))
+        self.assertEqual(
+            'attachment; filename*="iso-8859-1\'\'Fu%DFballer.ppt"',
+            msg['Content-Disposition'])
+
+    def test_encode_unaliased_charset(self):
+        # Issue 1379416: when the charset has no output conversion,
+        # output was accidentally getting coerced to unicode.
+        res = Header('abc','iso-8859-2').encode()
+        self.assertEqual(res, '=?iso-8859-2?q?abc?=')
+        self.assertIsInstance(res, str)
 
 
 # Test RFC 2231 header parameters (en/de)coding
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ftplib.py b/lib-python/2.7/ftplib.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ftplib.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ftplib.py
@@ -599,7 +599,7 @@
         Usage example:
         >>> from ftplib import FTP_TLS
         >>> ftps = FTP_TLS('ftp.python.org')
-        >>> ftps.login()  # login anonimously previously securing control channel
+        >>> ftps.login()  # login anonymously previously securing control channel
         '230 Guest login ok, access restrictions apply.'
         >>> ftps.prot_p()  # switch to secure data connection
         '200 Protection level set to P'
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/functools.py b/lib-python/2.7/functools.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/functools.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/functools.py
@@ -53,17 +53,17 @@
 def total_ordering(cls):
     """Class decorator that fills in missing ordering methods"""
     convert = {
-        '__lt__': [('__gt__', lambda self, other: other < self),
-                   ('__le__', lambda self, other: not other < self),
+        '__lt__': [('__gt__', lambda self, other: not (self < other or self == other)),
+                   ('__le__', lambda self, other: self < other or self == other),
                    ('__ge__', lambda self, other: not self < other)],
-        '__le__': [('__ge__', lambda self, other: other <= self),
-                   ('__lt__', lambda self, other: not other <= self),
+        '__le__': [('__ge__', lambda self, other: not self <= other or self == other),
+                   ('__lt__', lambda self, other: self <= other and not self == other),
                    ('__gt__', lambda self, other: not self <= other)],
-        '__gt__': [('__lt__', lambda self, other: other > self),
-                   ('__ge__', lambda self, other: not other > self),
+        '__gt__': [('__lt__', lambda self, other: not (self > other or self == other)),
+                   ('__ge__', lambda self, other: self > other or self == other),
                    ('__le__', lambda self, other: not self > other)],
-        '__ge__': [('__le__', lambda self, other: other >= self),
-                   ('__gt__', lambda self, other: not other >= self),
+        '__ge__': [('__le__', lambda self, other: (not self >= other) or self == other),
+                   ('__gt__', lambda self, other: self >= other and not self == other),
                    ('__lt__', lambda self, other: not self >= other)]
     }
     roots = set(dir(cls)) & set(convert)
@@ -80,6 +80,7 @@
 def cmp_to_key(mycmp):
     """Convert a cmp= function into a key= function"""
     class K(object):
+        __slots__ = ['obj']
         def __init__(self, obj, *args):
             self.obj = obj
         def __lt__(self, other):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/getpass.py b/lib-python/2.7/getpass.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/getpass.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/getpass.py
@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@
         try:
             old = termios.tcgetattr(fd)     # a copy to save
             new = old[:]
-            new[3] &= ~(termios.ECHO|termios.ISIG)  # 3 == 'lflags'
+            new[3] &= ~termios.ECHO  # 3 == 'lflags'
             tcsetattr_flags = termios.TCSAFLUSH
             if hasattr(termios, 'TCSASOFT'):
                 tcsetattr_flags |= termios.TCSASOFT
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/gettext.py b/lib-python/2.7/gettext.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/gettext.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/gettext.py
@@ -316,7 +316,7 @@
             # Note: we unconditionally convert both msgids and msgstrs to
             # Unicode using the character encoding specified in the charset
             # parameter of the Content-Type header.  The gettext documentation
-            # strongly encourages msgids to be us-ascii, but some appliations
+            # strongly encourages msgids to be us-ascii, but some applications
             # require alternative encodings (e.g. Zope's ZCML and ZPT).  For
             # traditional gettext applications, the msgid conversion will
             # cause no problems since us-ascii should always be a subset of
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/hashlib.py b/lib-python/2.7/hashlib.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/hashlib.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/hashlib.py
@@ -64,26 +64,29 @@
 
 
 def __get_builtin_constructor(name):
-    if name in ('SHA1', 'sha1'):
-        import _sha
-        return _sha.new
-    elif name in ('MD5', 'md5'):
-        import _md5
-        return _md5.new
-    elif name in ('SHA256', 'sha256', 'SHA224', 'sha224'):
-        import _sha256
-        bs = name[3:]
-        if bs == '256':
-            return _sha256.sha256
-        elif bs == '224':
-            return _sha256.sha224
-    elif name in ('SHA512', 'sha512', 'SHA384', 'sha384'):
-        import _sha512
-        bs = name[3:]
-        if bs == '512':
-            return _sha512.sha512
-        elif bs == '384':
-            return _sha512.sha384
+    try:
+        if name in ('SHA1', 'sha1'):
+            import _sha
+            return _sha.new
+        elif name in ('MD5', 'md5'):
+            import _md5
+            return _md5.new
+        elif name in ('SHA256', 'sha256', 'SHA224', 'sha224'):
+            import _sha256
+            bs = name[3:]
+            if bs == '256':
+                return _sha256.sha256
+            elif bs == '224':
+                return _sha256.sha224
+        elif name in ('SHA512', 'sha512', 'SHA384', 'sha384'):
+            import _sha512
+            bs = name[3:]
+            if bs == '512':
+                return _sha512.sha512
+            elif bs == '384':
+                return _sha512.sha384
+    except ImportError:
+        pass  # no extension module, this hash is unsupported.
 
     raise ValueError('unsupported hash type %s' % name)
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/heapq.py b/lib-python/2.7/heapq.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/heapq.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/heapq.py
@@ -133,6 +133,11 @@
 from operator import itemgetter
 import bisect
 
+def cmp_lt(x, y):
+    # Use __lt__ if available; otherwise, try __le__.
+    # In Py3.x, only __lt__ will be called.
+    return (x < y) if hasattr(x, '__lt__') else (not y <= x)
+
 def heappush(heap, item):
     """Push item onto heap, maintaining the heap invariant."""
     heap.append(item)
@@ -167,13 +172,13 @@
 
 def heappushpop(heap, item):
     """Fast version of a heappush followed by a heappop."""
-    if heap and heap[0] < item:
+    if heap and cmp_lt(heap[0], item):
         item, heap[0] = heap[0], item
         _siftup(heap, 0)
     return item
 
 def heapify(x):
-    """Transform list into a heap, in-place, in O(len(heap)) time."""
+    """Transform list into a heap, in-place, in O(len(x)) time."""
     n = len(x)
     # Transform bottom-up.  The largest index there's any point to looking at
     # is the largest with a child index in-range, so must have 2*i + 1 < n,
@@ -215,11 +220,10 @@
         pop = result.pop
         los = result[-1]    # los --> Largest of the nsmallest
         for elem in it:
-            if los <= elem:
-                continue
-            insort(result, elem)
-            pop()
-            los = result[-1]
+            if cmp_lt(elem, los):
+                insort(result, elem)
+                pop()
+                los = result[-1]
         return result
     # An alternative approach manifests the whole iterable in memory but
     # saves comparisons by heapifying all at once.  Also, saves time
@@ -240,7 +244,7 @@
     while pos > startpos:
         parentpos = (pos - 1) >> 1
         parent = heap[parentpos]
-        if newitem < parent:
+        if cmp_lt(newitem, parent):
             heap[pos] = parent
             pos = parentpos
             continue
@@ -295,7 +299,7 @@
     while childpos < endpos:
         # Set childpos to index of smaller child.
         rightpos = childpos + 1
-        if rightpos < endpos and not heap[childpos] < heap[rightpos]:
+        if rightpos < endpos and not cmp_lt(heap[childpos], heap[rightpos]):
             childpos = rightpos
         # Move the smaller child up.
         heap[pos] = heap[childpos]
@@ -364,7 +368,7 @@
             return [min(chain(head, it))]
         return [min(chain(head, it), key=key)]
 
-    # When n>=size, it's faster to use sort()
+    # When n>=size, it's faster to use sorted()
     try:
         size = len(iterable)
     except (TypeError, AttributeError):
@@ -402,7 +406,7 @@
             return [max(chain(head, it))]
         return [max(chain(head, it), key=key)]
 
-    # When n>=size, it's faster to use sort()
+    # When n>=size, it's faster to use sorted()
     try:
         size = len(iterable)
     except (TypeError, AttributeError):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/httplib.py b/lib-python/2.7/httplib.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/httplib.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/httplib.py
@@ -212,6 +212,9 @@
 # maximal amount of data to read at one time in _safe_read
 MAXAMOUNT = 1048576
 
+# maximal line length when calling readline().
+_MAXLINE = 65536
+
 class HTTPMessage(mimetools.Message):
 
     def addheader(self, key, value):
@@ -274,7 +277,9 @@
                 except IOError:
                     startofline = tell = None
                     self.seekable = 0
-            line = self.fp.readline()
+            line = self.fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1)
+            if len(line) > _MAXLINE:
+                raise LineTooLong("header line")
             if not line:
                 self.status = 'EOF in headers'
                 break
@@ -404,7 +409,10 @@
                 break
             # skip the header from the 100 response
             while True:
-                skip = self.fp.readline().strip()
+                skip = self.fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1)
+                if len(skip) > _MAXLINE:
+                    raise LineTooLong("header line")
+                skip = skip.strip()
                 if not skip:
                     break
                 if self.debuglevel > 0:
@@ -563,7 +571,9 @@
         value = []
         while True:
             if chunk_left is None:
-                line = self.fp.readline()
+                line = self.fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1)
+                if len(line) > _MAXLINE:
+                    raise LineTooLong("chunk size")
                 i = line.find(';')
                 if i >= 0:
                     line = line[:i] # strip chunk-extensions
@@ -598,7 +608,9 @@
         # read and discard trailer up to the CRLF terminator
         ### note: we shouldn't have any trailers!
         while True:
-            line = self.fp.readline()
+            line = self.fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1)
+            if len(line) > _MAXLINE:
+                raise LineTooLong("trailer line")
             if not line:
                 # a vanishingly small number of sites EOF without
                 # sending the trailer
@@ -730,7 +742,9 @@
             raise socket.error("Tunnel connection failed: %d %s" % (code,
                                                                     message.strip()))
         while True:
-            line = response.fp.readline()
+            line = response.fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1)
+            if len(line) > _MAXLINE:
+                raise LineTooLong("header line")
             if line == '\r\n': break
 
 
@@ -790,7 +804,7 @@
         del self._buffer[:]
         # If msg and message_body are sent in a single send() call,
         # it will avoid performance problems caused by the interaction
-        # between delayed ack and the Nagle algorithim.
+        # between delayed ack and the Nagle algorithm.
         if isinstance(message_body, str):
             msg += message_body
             message_body = None
@@ -1233,6 +1247,11 @@
         self.args = line,
         self.line = line
 
+class LineTooLong(HTTPException):
+    def __init__(self, line_type):
+        HTTPException.__init__(self, "got more than %d bytes when reading %s"
+                                     % (_MAXLINE, line_type))
+
 # for backwards compatibility
 error = HTTPException
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/Bindings.py b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/Bindings.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/Bindings.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/Bindings.py
@@ -98,14 +98,6 @@
     # menu
     del menudefs[-1][1][0:2]
 
-    menudefs.insert(0,
-            ('application', [
-                ('About IDLE', '<<about-idle>>'),
-                None,
-                ('_Preferences....', '<<open-config-dialog>>'),
-            ]))
-
-
 default_keydefs = idleConf.GetCurrentKeySet()
 
 del sys
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/EditorWindow.py b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/EditorWindow.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/EditorWindow.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/EditorWindow.py
@@ -48,6 +48,21 @@
             path = module.__path__
         except AttributeError:
             raise ImportError, 'No source for module ' + module.__name__
+    if descr[2] != imp.PY_SOURCE:
+        # If all of the above fails and didn't raise an exception,fallback
+        # to a straight import which can find __init__.py in a package.
+        m = __import__(fullname)
+        try:
+            filename = m.__file__
+        except AttributeError:
+            pass
+        else:
+            file = None
+            base, ext = os.path.splitext(filename)
+            if ext == '.pyc':
+                ext = '.py'
+            filename = base + ext
+            descr = filename, None, imp.PY_SOURCE
     return file, filename, descr
 
 class EditorWindow(object):
@@ -102,8 +117,8 @@
         self.top = top = WindowList.ListedToplevel(root, menu=self.menubar)
         if flist:
             self.tkinter_vars = flist.vars
-            #self.top.instance_dict makes flist.inversedict avalable to
-            #configDialog.py so it can access all EditorWindow instaces
+            #self.top.instance_dict makes flist.inversedict available to
+            #configDialog.py so it can access all EditorWindow instances
             self.top.instance_dict = flist.inversedict
         else:
             self.tkinter_vars = {}  # keys: Tkinter event names
@@ -136,6 +151,14 @@
         if macosxSupport.runningAsOSXApp():
             # Command-W on editorwindows doesn't work without this.
             text.bind('<<close-window>>', self.close_event)
+            # Some OS X systems have only one mouse button,
+            # so use control-click for pulldown menus there.
+            #  (Note, AquaTk defines <2> as the right button if
+            #   present and the Tk Text widget already binds <2>.)
+            text.bind("<Control-Button-1>",self.right_menu_event)
+        else:
+            # Elsewhere, use right-click for pulldown menus.
+            text.bind("<3>",self.right_menu_event)
         text.bind("<<cut>>", self.cut)
         text.bind("<<copy>>", self.copy)
         text.bind("<<paste>>", self.paste)
@@ -154,7 +177,6 @@
         text.bind("<<find-selection>>", self.find_selection_event)
         text.bind("<<replace>>", self.replace_event)
         text.bind("<<goto-line>>", self.goto_line_event)
-        text.bind("<3>", self.right_menu_event)
         text.bind("<<smart-backspace>>",self.smart_backspace_event)
         text.bind("<<newline-and-indent>>",self.newline_and_indent_event)
         text.bind("<<smart-indent>>",self.smart_indent_event)
@@ -300,13 +322,13 @@
         return "break"
 
     def home_callback(self, event):
-        if (event.state & 12) != 0 and event.keysym == "Home":
-            # state&1==shift, state&4==control, state&8==alt
-            return # <Modifier-Home>; fall back to class binding
-
+        if (event.state & 4) != 0 and event.keysym == "Home":
+            # state&4==Control. If <Control-Home>, use the Tk binding.
+            return
         if self.text.index("iomark") and \
            self.text.compare("iomark", "<=", "insert lineend") and \
            self.text.compare("insert linestart", "<=", "iomark"):
+            # In Shell on input line, go to just after prompt
             insertpt = int(self.text.index("iomark").split(".")[1])
         else:
             line = self.text.get("insert linestart", "insert lineend")
@@ -315,30 +337,27 @@
                     break
             else:
                 insertpt=len(line)
-
         lineat = int(self.text.index("insert").split('.')[1])
-
         if insertpt == lineat:
             insertpt = 0
-
         dest = "insert linestart+"+str(insertpt)+"c"
-
         if (event.state&1) == 0:
-            # shift not pressed
+            # shift was not pressed
             self.text.tag_remove("sel", "1.0", "end")
         else:
             if not self.text.index("sel.first"):
-                self.text.mark_set("anchor","insert")
-
+                self.text.mark_set("my_anchor", "insert")  # there was no previous selection
+            else:
+                if self.text.compare(self.text.index("sel.first"), "<", self.text.index("insert")):
+                    self.text.mark_set("my_anchor", "sel.first") # extend back
+                else:
+                    self.text.mark_set("my_anchor", "sel.last") # extend forward
             first = self.text.index(dest)
-            last = self.text.index("anchor")
-
+            last = self.text.index("my_anchor")
             if self.text.compare(first,">",last):
                 first,last = last,first
-
             self.text.tag_remove("sel", "1.0", "end")
             self.text.tag_add("sel", first, last)
-
         self.text.mark_set("insert", dest)
         self.text.see("insert")
         return "break"
@@ -385,7 +404,7 @@
             menudict[name] = menu = Menu(mbar, name=name)
             mbar.add_cascade(label=label, menu=menu, underline=underline)
 
-        if macosxSupport.runningAsOSXApp():
+        if macosxSupport.isCarbonAquaTk(self.root):
             # Insert the application menu
             menudict['application'] = menu = Menu(mbar, name='apple')
             mbar.add_cascade(label='IDLE', menu=menu)
@@ -445,7 +464,11 @@
 
     def python_docs(self, event=None):
         if sys.platform[:3] == 'win':
-            os.startfile(self.help_url)
+            try:
+                os.startfile(self.help_url)
+            except WindowsError as why:
+                tkMessageBox.showerror(title='Document Start Failure',
+                    message=str(why), parent=self.text)
         else:
             webbrowser.open(self.help_url)
         return "break"
@@ -740,9 +763,13 @@
         "Create a callback with the helpfile value frozen at definition time"
         def display_extra_help(helpfile=helpfile):
             if not helpfile.startswith(('www', 'http')):
-                url = os.path.normpath(helpfile)
+                helpfile = os.path.normpath(helpfile)
             if sys.platform[:3] == 'win':
-                os.startfile(helpfile)
+                try:
+                    os.startfile(helpfile)
+                except WindowsError as why:
+                    tkMessageBox.showerror(title='Document Start Failure',
+                        message=str(why), parent=self.text)
             else:
                 webbrowser.open(helpfile)
         return display_extra_help
@@ -1526,7 +1553,12 @@
 
 def get_accelerator(keydefs, eventname):
     keylist = keydefs.get(eventname)
-    if not keylist:
+    # issue10940: temporary workaround to prevent hang with OS X Cocoa Tk 8.5
+    # if not keylist:
+    if (not keylist) or (macosxSupport.runningAsOSXApp() and eventname in {
+                            "<<open-module>>",
+                            "<<goto-line>>",
+                            "<<change-indentwidth>>"}):
         return ""
     s = keylist[0]
     s = re.sub(r"-[a-z]\b", lambda m: m.group().upper(), s)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/FileList.py b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/FileList.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/FileList.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/FileList.py
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@
     def new(self, filename=None):
         return self.EditorWindow(self, filename)
 
-    def close_all_callback(self, event):
+    def close_all_callback(self, *args, **kwds):
         for edit in self.inversedict.keys():
             reply = edit.close()
             if reply == "cancel":
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/FormatParagraph.py b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/FormatParagraph.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/FormatParagraph.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/FormatParagraph.py
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@
             # If the block ends in a \n, we dont want the comment
             # prefix inserted after it. (Im not sure it makes sense to
             # reformat a comment block that isnt made of complete
-            # lines, but whatever!)  Can't think of a clean soltution,
+            # lines, but whatever!)  Can't think of a clean solution,
             # so we hack away
             block_suffix = ""
             if not newdata[-1]:
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/HISTORY.txt b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/HISTORY.txt
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/HISTORY.txt
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/HISTORY.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
 - New tarball released as a result of the 'revitalisation' of the IDLEfork
   project. 
 
-- This release requires python 2.1 or better. Compatability with earlier
+- This release requires python 2.1 or better. Compatibility with earlier
   versions of python (especially ancient ones like 1.5x) is no longer a
   priority in IDLEfork development.
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/IOBinding.py b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/IOBinding.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/IOBinding.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/IOBinding.py
@@ -320,17 +320,20 @@
             return "yes"
         message = "Do you want to save %s before closing?" % (
             self.filename or "this untitled document")
-        m = tkMessageBox.Message(
-            title="Save On Close",
-            message=message,
-            icon=tkMessageBox.QUESTION,
-            type=tkMessageBox.YESNOCANCEL,
-            master=self.text)
-        reply = m.show()
-        if reply == "yes":
+        confirm = tkMessageBox.askyesnocancel(
+                  title="Save On Close",
+                  message=message,
+                  default=tkMessageBox.YES,
+                  master=self.text)
+        if confirm:
+            reply = "yes"
             self.save(None)
             if not self.get_saved():
                 reply = "cancel"
+        elif confirm is None:
+            reply = "cancel"
+        else:
+            reply = "no"
         self.text.focus_set()
         return reply
 
@@ -339,7 +342,7 @@
             self.save_as(event)
         else:
             if self.writefile(self.filename):
-                self.set_saved(1)
+                self.set_saved(True)
                 try:
                     self.editwin.store_file_breaks()
                 except AttributeError:  # may be a PyShell
@@ -465,15 +468,12 @@
             self.text.insert("end-1c", "\n")
 
     def print_window(self, event):
-        m = tkMessageBox.Message(
-            title="Print",
-            message="Print to Default Printer",
-            icon=tkMessageBox.QUESTION,
-            type=tkMessageBox.OKCANCEL,
-            default=tkMessageBox.OK,
-            master=self.text)
-        reply = m.show()
-        if reply != tkMessageBox.OK:
+        confirm = tkMessageBox.askokcancel(
+                  title="Print",
+                  message="Print to Default Printer",
+                  default=tkMessageBox.OK,
+                  master=self.text)
+        if not confirm:
             self.text.focus_set()
             return "break"
         tempfilename = None
@@ -488,8 +488,8 @@
             if not self.writefile(tempfilename):
                 os.unlink(tempfilename)
                 return "break"
-        platform=os.name
-        printPlatform=1
+        platform = os.name
+        printPlatform = True
         if platform == 'posix': #posix platform
             command = idleConf.GetOption('main','General',
                                          'print-command-posix')
@@ -497,7 +497,7 @@
         elif platform == 'nt': #win32 platform
             command = idleConf.GetOption('main','General','print-command-win')
         else: #no printing for this platform
-            printPlatform=0
+            printPlatform = False
         if printPlatform:  #we can try to print for this platform
             command = command % filename
             pipe = os.popen(command, "r")
@@ -511,7 +511,7 @@
                 output = "Printing command: %s\n" % repr(command) + output
                 tkMessageBox.showerror("Print status", output, master=self.text)
         else:  #no printing for this platform
-            message="Printing is not enabled for this platform: %s" % platform
+            message = "Printing is not enabled for this platform: %s" % platform
             tkMessageBox.showinfo("Print status", message, master=self.text)
         if tempfilename:
             os.unlink(tempfilename)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/NEWS.txt b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/NEWS.txt
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/NEWS.txt
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/NEWS.txt
@@ -1,3 +1,18 @@
+What's New in IDLE 2.7.2?
+=======================
+
+*Release date: 29-May-2011*
+
+- Issue #6378: Further adjust idle.bat to start associated Python
+
+- Issue #11896: Save on Close failed despite selecting "Yes" in dialog.
+
+- <Home> toggle failing on Tk 8.5, causing IDLE exits and strange selection
+  behavior. Issue 4676.  Improve selection extension behaviour.
+
+- <Home> toggle non-functional when NumLock set on Windows.  Issue 3851.
+
+
 What's New in IDLE 2.7?
 =======================
 
@@ -21,7 +36,7 @@
 
 - Tk 8.5 Text widget requires 'wordprocessor' tabstyle attr to handle
   mixed space/tab properly. Issue 5129, patch by Guilherme Polo.
-  
+
 - Issue #3549: On MacOS the preferences menu was not present
 
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/PyShell.py b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/PyShell.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/PyShell.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/PyShell.py
@@ -1432,6 +1432,13 @@
             shell.interp.prepend_syspath(script)
             shell.interp.execfile(script)
 
+    # Check for problematic OS X Tk versions and print a warning message
+    # in the IDLE shell window; this is less intrusive than always opening
+    # a separate window.
+    tkversionwarning = macosxSupport.tkVersionWarning(root)
+    if tkversionwarning:
+        shell.interp.runcommand(''.join(("print('", tkversionwarning, "')")))
+
     root.mainloop()
     root.destroy()
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/ScriptBinding.py b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/ScriptBinding.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/ScriptBinding.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/ScriptBinding.py
@@ -26,6 +26,7 @@
 from idlelib import PyShell
 
 from idlelib.configHandler import idleConf
+from idlelib import macosxSupport
 
 IDENTCHARS = string.ascii_letters + string.digits + "_"
 
@@ -53,6 +54,9 @@
         self.flist = self.editwin.flist
         self.root = self.editwin.root
 
+        if macosxSupport.runningAsOSXApp():
+            self.editwin.text_frame.bind('<<run-module-event-2>>', self._run_module_event)
+
     def check_module_event(self, event):
         filename = self.getfilename()
         if not filename:
@@ -166,6 +170,19 @@
         interp.runcode(code)
         return 'break'
 
+    if macosxSupport.runningAsOSXApp():
+        # Tk-Cocoa in MacOSX is broken until at least
+        # Tk 8.5.9, and without this rather
+        # crude workaround IDLE would hang when a user
+        # tries to run a module using the keyboard shortcut
+        # (the menu item works fine).
+        _run_module_event = run_module_event
+
+        def run_module_event(self, event):
+            self.editwin.text_frame.after(200,
+                lambda: self.editwin.text_frame.event_generate('<<run-module-event-2>>'))
+            return 'break'
+
     def getfilename(self):
         """Get source filename.  If not saved, offer to save (or create) file
 
@@ -184,9 +201,9 @@
             if autosave and filename:
                 self.editwin.io.save(None)
             else:
-                reply = self.ask_save_dialog()
+                confirm = self.ask_save_dialog()
                 self.editwin.text.focus_set()
-                if reply == "ok":
+                if confirm:
                     self.editwin.io.save(None)
                     filename = self.editwin.io.filename
                 else:
@@ -195,13 +212,11 @@
 
     def ask_save_dialog(self):
         msg = "Source Must Be Saved\n" + 5*' ' + "OK to Save?"
-        mb = tkMessageBox.Message(title="Save Before Run or Check",
-                                  message=msg,
-                                  icon=tkMessageBox.QUESTION,
-                                  type=tkMessageBox.OKCANCEL,
-                                  default=tkMessageBox.OK,
-                                  master=self.editwin.text)
-        return mb.show()
+        confirm = tkMessageBox.askokcancel(title="Save Before Run or Check",
+                                           message=msg,
+                                           default=tkMessageBox.OK,
+                                           master=self.editwin.text)
+        return confirm
 
     def errorbox(self, title, message):
         # XXX This should really be a function of EditorWindow...
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/config-keys.def b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/config-keys.def
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/config-keys.def
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/config-keys.def
@@ -176,7 +176,7 @@
 redo = <Shift-Command-Key-Z>
 close-window = <Command-Key-w>
 restart-shell = <Control-Key-F6>
-save-window-as-file = <Command-Key-S>
+save-window-as-file = <Shift-Command-Key-S>
 close-all-windows = <Command-Key-q>
 view-restart = <Key-F6>
 tabify-region = <Control-Key-5>
@@ -208,7 +208,7 @@
 open-module = <Command-Key-m>
 find-selection = <Shift-Command-Key-F3>
 python-context-help = <Shift-Key-F1>
-save-copy-of-window-as-file = <Shift-Command-Key-s>
+save-copy-of-window-as-file = <Option-Command-Key-s>
 open-window-from-file = <Command-Key-o>
 python-docs = <Key-F1>
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/extend.txt b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/extend.txt
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/extend.txt
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/extend.txt
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
 
 An IDLE extension class is instantiated with a single argument,
 `editwin', an EditorWindow instance. The extension cannot assume much
-about this argument, but it is guarateed to have the following instance
+about this argument, but it is guaranteed to have the following instance
 variables:
 
     text	a Text instance (a widget)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/idle.bat b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/idle.bat
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/idle.bat
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/idle.bat
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
 @echo off
 rem Start IDLE using the appropriate Python interpreter
 set CURRDIR=%~dp0
-start "%CURRDIR%..\..\pythonw.exe" "%CURRDIR%idle.pyw" %1 %2 %3 %4 %5 %6 %7 %8 %9
+start "IDLE" "%CURRDIR%..\..\pythonw.exe" "%CURRDIR%idle.pyw" %1 %2 %3 %4 %5 %6 %7 %8 %9
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/idlever.py b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/idlever.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/idlever.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/idlever.py
@@ -1,1 +1,1 @@
-IDLE_VERSION = "2.7.1"
+IDLE_VERSION = "2.7.2"
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/macosxSupport.py b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/macosxSupport.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/macosxSupport.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/idlelib/macosxSupport.py
@@ -4,6 +4,7 @@
 """
 import sys
 import Tkinter
+from os import path
 
 
 _appbundle = None
@@ -19,10 +20,41 @@
         _appbundle = (sys.platform == 'darwin' and '.app' in sys.executable)
     return _appbundle
 
+_carbonaquatk = None
+
+def isCarbonAquaTk(root):
+    """
+    Returns True if IDLE is using a Carbon Aqua Tk (instead of the
+    newer Cocoa Aqua Tk).
+    """
+    global _carbonaquatk
+    if _carbonaquatk is None:
+        _carbonaquatk = (runningAsOSXApp() and
+                         'aqua' in root.tk.call('tk', 'windowingsystem') and
+                         'AppKit' not in root.tk.call('winfo', 'server', '.'))
+    return _carbonaquatk
+
+def tkVersionWarning(root):
+    """
+    Returns a string warning message if the Tk version in use appears to
+    be one known to cause problems with IDLE.  The Apple Cocoa-based Tk 8.5
+    that was shipped with Mac OS X 10.6.
+    """
+
+    if (runningAsOSXApp() and
+            ('AppKit' in root.tk.call('winfo', 'server', '.')) and
+            (root.tk.call('info', 'patchlevel') == '8.5.7') ):
+        return (r"WARNING: The version of Tcl/Tk (8.5.7) in use may"
+                r" be unstable.\n"
+                r"Visit http://www.python.org/download/mac/tcltk/"
+                r" for current information.")
+    else:
+        return False
+
 def addOpenEventSupport(root, flist):
     """
-    This ensures that the application will respont to open AppleEvents, which
-    makes is feaseable to use IDLE as the default application for python files.
+    This ensures that the application will respond to open AppleEvents, which
+    makes is feasible to use IDLE as the default application for python files.
     """
     def doOpenFile(*args):
         for fn in args:
@@ -79,9 +111,6 @@
         WindowList.add_windows_to_menu(menu)
     WindowList.register_callback(postwindowsmenu)
 
-    menudict['application'] = menu = Menu(menubar, name='apple')
-    menubar.add_cascade(label='IDLE', menu=menu)
-
     def about_dialog(event=None):
         from idlelib import aboutDialog
         aboutDialog.AboutDialog(root, 'About IDLE')
@@ -91,41 +120,45 @@
         root.instance_dict = flist.inversedict
         configDialog.ConfigDialog(root, 'Settings')
 
+    def help_dialog(event=None):
+        from idlelib import textView
+        fn = path.join(path.abspath(path.dirname(__file__)), 'help.txt')
+        textView.view_file(root, 'Help', fn)
 
     root.bind('<<about-idle>>', about_dialog)
     root.bind('<<open-config-dialog>>', config_dialog)
+    root.createcommand('::tk::mac::ShowPreferences', config_dialog)
     if flist:
         root.bind('<<close-all-windows>>', flist.close_all_callback)
 
+        # The binding above doesn't reliably work on all versions of Tk
+        # on MacOSX. Adding command definition below does seem to do the
+        # right thing for now.
+        root.createcommand('exit', flist.close_all_callback)
 
-    ###check if Tk version >= 8.4.14; if so, use hard-coded showprefs binding
-    tkversion = root.tk.eval('info patchlevel')
-    # Note: we cannot check if the string tkversion >= '8.4.14', because
-    # the string '8.4.7' is greater than the string '8.4.14'.
-    if tuple(map(int, tkversion.split('.'))) >= (8, 4, 14):
-        Bindings.menudefs[0] =  ('application', [
+    if isCarbonAquaTk(root):
+        # for Carbon AquaTk, replace the default Tk apple menu
+        menudict['application'] = menu = Menu(menubar, name='apple')
+        menubar.add_cascade(label='IDLE', menu=menu)
+        Bindings.menudefs.insert(0,
+            ('application', [
                 ('About IDLE', '<<about-idle>>'),
-                None,
-            ])
-        root.createcommand('::tk::mac::ShowPreferences', config_dialog)
+                    None,
+                ]))
+        tkversion = root.tk.eval('info patchlevel')
+        if tuple(map(int, tkversion.split('.'))) < (8, 4, 14):
+            # for earlier AquaTk versions, supply a Preferences menu item
+            Bindings.menudefs[0][1].append(
+                    ('_Preferences....', '<<open-config-dialog>>'),
+                )
     else:
-        for mname, entrylist in Bindings.menudefs:
-            menu = menudict.get(mname)
-            if not menu:
-                continue
-            else:
-                for entry in entrylist:
-                    if not entry:
-                        menu.add_separator()
-                    else:
-                        label, eventname = entry
-                        underline, label = prepstr(label)
-                        accelerator = get_accelerator(Bindings.default_keydefs,
-                        eventname)
-                        def command(text=root, eventname=eventname):
-                            text.event_generate(eventname)
-                        menu.add_command(label=label, underline=underline,
-                        command=command, accelerator=accelerator)
+        # assume Cocoa AquaTk
+        # replace default About dialog with About IDLE one
+        root.createcommand('tkAboutDialog', about_dialog)
+        # replace default "Help" item in Help menu
+        root.createcommand('::tk::mac::ShowHelp', help_dialog)
+        # remove redundant "IDLE Help" from menu
+        del Bindings.menudefs[-1][1][0]
 
 def setupApp(root, flist):
     """
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/imaplib.py b/lib-python/2.7/imaplib.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/imaplib.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/imaplib.py
@@ -1158,28 +1158,17 @@
             self.port = port
             self.sock = socket.create_connection((host, port))
             self.sslobj = ssl.wrap_socket(self.sock, self.keyfile, self.certfile)
+            self.file = self.sslobj.makefile('rb')
 
 
         def read(self, size):
             """Read 'size' bytes from remote."""
-            # sslobj.read() sometimes returns < size bytes
-            chunks = []
-            read = 0
-            while read < size:
-                data = self.sslobj.read(min(size-read, 16384))
-                read += len(data)
-                chunks.append(data)
-
-            return ''.join(chunks)
+            return self.file.read(size)
 
 
         def readline(self):
             """Read line from remote."""
-            line = []
-            while 1:
-                char = self.sslobj.read(1)
-                line.append(char)
-                if char in ("\n", ""): return ''.join(line)
+            return self.file.readline()
 
 
         def send(self, data):
@@ -1195,6 +1184,7 @@
 
         def shutdown(self):
             """Close I/O established in "open"."""
+            self.file.close()
             self.sock.close()
 
 
@@ -1321,9 +1311,10 @@
         'Jul': 7, 'Aug': 8, 'Sep': 9, 'Oct': 10, 'Nov': 11, 'Dec': 12}
 
 def Internaldate2tuple(resp):
-    """Convert IMAP4 INTERNALDATE to UT.
+    """Parse an IMAP4 INTERNALDATE string.
 
-    Returns Python time module tuple.
+    Return corresponding local time.  The return value is a
+    time.struct_time instance or None if the string has wrong format.
     """
 
     mo = InternalDate.match(resp)
@@ -1390,9 +1381,14 @@
 
 def Time2Internaldate(date_time):
 
-    """Convert 'date_time' to IMAP4 INTERNALDATE representation.
+    """Convert date_time to IMAP4 INTERNALDATE representation.
 
-    Return string in form: '"DD-Mmm-YYYY HH:MM:SS +HHMM"'
+    Return string in form: '"DD-Mmm-YYYY HH:MM:SS +HHMM"'.  The
+    date_time argument can be a number (int or float) representing
+    seconds since epoch (as returned by time.time()), a 9-tuple
+    representing local time (as returned by time.localtime()), or a
+    double-quoted string.  In the last case, it is assumed to already
+    be in the correct format.
     """
 
     if isinstance(date_time, (int, float)):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/inspect.py b/lib-python/2.7/inspect.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/inspect.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/inspect.py
@@ -943,8 +943,14 @@
             f_name, 'at most' if defaults else 'exactly', num_args,
             'arguments' if num_args > 1 else 'argument', num_total))
     elif num_args == 0 and num_total:
-        raise TypeError('%s() takes no arguments (%d given)' %
-                        (f_name, num_total))
+        if varkw:
+            if num_pos:
+                # XXX: We should use num_pos, but Python also uses num_total:
+                raise TypeError('%s() takes exactly 0 arguments '
+                                '(%d given)' % (f_name, num_total))
+        else:
+            raise TypeError('%s() takes no arguments (%d given)' %
+                            (f_name, num_total))
     for arg in args:
         if isinstance(arg, str) and arg in named:
             if is_assigned(arg):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/decoder.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/decoder.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/decoder.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/decoder.py
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
 import sys
 import struct
 
-from json.scanner import make_scanner
+from json import scanner
 try:
     from _json import scanstring as c_scanstring
 except ImportError:
@@ -161,6 +161,12 @@
             nextchar = s[end:end + 1]
         # Trivial empty object
         if nextchar == '}':
+            if object_pairs_hook is not None:
+                result = object_pairs_hook(pairs)
+                return result, end
+            pairs = {}
+            if object_hook is not None:
+                pairs = object_hook(pairs)
             return pairs, end + 1
         elif nextchar != '"':
             raise ValueError(errmsg("Expecting property name", s, end))
@@ -350,7 +356,7 @@
         self.parse_object = JSONObject
         self.parse_array = JSONArray
         self.parse_string = scanstring
-        self.scan_once = make_scanner(self)
+        self.scan_once = scanner.make_scanner(self)
 
     def decode(self, s, _w=WHITESPACE.match):
         """Return the Python representation of ``s`` (a ``str`` or ``unicode``
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/encoder.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/encoder.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/encoder.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/encoder.py
@@ -251,7 +251,7 @@
 
 
         if (_one_shot and c_make_encoder is not None
-                and not self.indent and not self.sort_keys):
+                and self.indent is None and not self.sort_keys):
             _iterencode = c_make_encoder(
                 markers, self.default, _encoder, self.indent,
                 self.key_separator, self.item_separator, self.sort_keys,
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/__init__.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/__init__.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/__init__.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/__init__.py
@@ -1,7 +1,46 @@
 import os
 import sys
+import json
+import doctest
 import unittest
-import doctest
+
+from test import test_support
+
+# import json with and without accelerations
+cjson = test_support.import_fresh_module('json', fresh=['_json'])
+pyjson = test_support.import_fresh_module('json', blocked=['_json'])
+
+# create two base classes that will be used by the other tests
+class PyTest(unittest.TestCase):
+    json = pyjson
+    loads = staticmethod(pyjson.loads)
+    dumps = staticmethod(pyjson.dumps)
+
+ at unittest.skipUnless(cjson, 'requires _json')
+class CTest(unittest.TestCase):
+    if cjson is not None:
+        json = cjson
+        loads = staticmethod(cjson.loads)
+        dumps = staticmethod(cjson.dumps)
+
+# test PyTest and CTest checking if the functions come from the right module
+class TestPyTest(PyTest):
+    def test_pyjson(self):
+        self.assertEqual(self.json.scanner.make_scanner.__module__,
+                         'json.scanner')
+        self.assertEqual(self.json.decoder.scanstring.__module__,
+                         'json.decoder')
+        self.assertEqual(self.json.encoder.encode_basestring_ascii.__module__,
+                         'json.encoder')
+
+class TestCTest(CTest):
+    def test_cjson(self):
+        self.assertEqual(self.json.scanner.make_scanner.__module__, '_json')
+        self.assertEqual(self.json.decoder.scanstring.__module__, '_json')
+        self.assertEqual(self.json.encoder.c_make_encoder.__module__, '_json')
+        self.assertEqual(self.json.encoder.encode_basestring_ascii.__module__,
+                         '_json')
+
 
 here = os.path.dirname(__file__)
 
@@ -17,12 +56,11 @@
     return suite
 
 def additional_tests():
-    import json
-    import json.encoder
-    import json.decoder
     suite = unittest.TestSuite()
     for mod in (json, json.encoder, json.decoder):
         suite.addTest(doctest.DocTestSuite(mod))
+    suite.addTest(TestPyTest('test_pyjson'))
+    suite.addTest(TestCTest('test_cjson'))
     return suite
 
 def main():
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_check_circular.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_check_circular.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_check_circular.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_check_circular.py
@@ -1,30 +1,34 @@
-from unittest import TestCase
-import json
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
+
 
 def default_iterable(obj):
     return list(obj)
 
-class TestCheckCircular(TestCase):
+class TestCheckCircular(object):
     def test_circular_dict(self):
         dct = {}
         dct['a'] = dct
-        self.assertRaises(ValueError, json.dumps, dct)
+        self.assertRaises(ValueError, self.dumps, dct)
 
     def test_circular_list(self):
         lst = []
         lst.append(lst)
-        self.assertRaises(ValueError, json.dumps, lst)
+        self.assertRaises(ValueError, self.dumps, lst)
 
     def test_circular_composite(self):
         dct2 = {}
         dct2['a'] = []
         dct2['a'].append(dct2)
-        self.assertRaises(ValueError, json.dumps, dct2)
+        self.assertRaises(ValueError, self.dumps, dct2)
 
     def test_circular_default(self):
-        json.dumps([set()], default=default_iterable)
-        self.assertRaises(TypeError, json.dumps, [set()])
+        self.dumps([set()], default=default_iterable)
+        self.assertRaises(TypeError, self.dumps, [set()])
 
     def test_circular_off_default(self):
-        json.dumps([set()], default=default_iterable, check_circular=False)
-        self.assertRaises(TypeError, json.dumps, [set()], check_circular=False)
+        self.dumps([set()], default=default_iterable, check_circular=False)
+        self.assertRaises(TypeError, self.dumps, [set()], check_circular=False)
+
+
+class TestPyCheckCircular(TestCheckCircular, PyTest): pass
+class TestCCheckCircular(TestCheckCircular, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_decode.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_decode.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_decode.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_decode.py
@@ -1,18 +1,17 @@
 import decimal
-from unittest import TestCase
 from StringIO import StringIO
+from collections import OrderedDict
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json
-from collections import OrderedDict
 
-class TestDecode(TestCase):
+class TestDecode(object):
     def test_decimal(self):
-        rval = json.loads('1.1', parse_float=decimal.Decimal)
+        rval = self.loads('1.1', parse_float=decimal.Decimal)
         self.assertTrue(isinstance(rval, decimal.Decimal))
         self.assertEqual(rval, decimal.Decimal('1.1'))
 
     def test_float(self):
-        rval = json.loads('1', parse_int=float)
+        rval = self.loads('1', parse_int=float)
         self.assertTrue(isinstance(rval, float))
         self.assertEqual(rval, 1.0)
 
@@ -20,22 +19,32 @@
         # Several optimizations were made that skip over calls to
         # the whitespace regex, so this test is designed to try and
         # exercise the uncommon cases. The array cases are already covered.
-        rval = json.loads('{   "key"    :    "value"    ,  "k":"v"    }')
+        rval = self.loads('{   "key"    :    "value"    ,  "k":"v"    }')
         self.assertEqual(rval, {"key":"value", "k":"v"})
 
+    def test_empty_objects(self):
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads('{}'), {})
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads('[]'), [])
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads('""'), u"")
+        self.assertIsInstance(self.loads('""'), unicode)
+
     def test_object_pairs_hook(self):
         s = '{"xkd":1, "kcw":2, "art":3, "hxm":4, "qrt":5, "pad":6, "hoy":7}'
         p = [("xkd", 1), ("kcw", 2), ("art", 3), ("hxm", 4),
              ("qrt", 5), ("pad", 6), ("hoy", 7)]
-        self.assertEqual(json.loads(s), eval(s))
-        self.assertEqual(json.loads(s, object_pairs_hook=lambda x: x), p)
-        self.assertEqual(json.load(StringIO(s),
-                                   object_pairs_hook=lambda x: x), p)
-        od = json.loads(s, object_pairs_hook=OrderedDict)
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads(s), eval(s))
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads(s, object_pairs_hook=lambda x: x), p)
+        self.assertEqual(self.json.load(StringIO(s),
+                                        object_pairs_hook=lambda x: x), p)
+        od = self.loads(s, object_pairs_hook=OrderedDict)
         self.assertEqual(od, OrderedDict(p))
         self.assertEqual(type(od), OrderedDict)
         # the object_pairs_hook takes priority over the object_hook
-        self.assertEqual(json.loads(s,
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads(s,
                                     object_pairs_hook=OrderedDict,
                                     object_hook=lambda x: None),
                          OrderedDict(p))
+
+
+class TestPyDecode(TestDecode, PyTest): pass
+class TestCDecode(TestDecode, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_default.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_default.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_default.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_default.py
@@ -1,9 +1,12 @@
-from unittest import TestCase
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json
 
-class TestDefault(TestCase):
+class TestDefault(object):
     def test_default(self):
         self.assertEqual(
-            json.dumps(type, default=repr),
-            json.dumps(repr(type)))
+            self.dumps(type, default=repr),
+            self.dumps(repr(type)))
+
+
+class TestPyDefault(TestDefault, PyTest): pass
+class TestCDefault(TestDefault, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_dump.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_dump.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_dump.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_dump.py
@@ -1,21 +1,23 @@
-from unittest import TestCase
 from cStringIO import StringIO
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json
 
-class TestDump(TestCase):
+class TestDump(object):
     def test_dump(self):
         sio = StringIO()
-        json.dump({}, sio)
+        self.json.dump({}, sio)
         self.assertEqual(sio.getvalue(), '{}')
 
     def test_dumps(self):
-        self.assertEqual(json.dumps({}), '{}')
+        self.assertEqual(self.dumps({}), '{}')
 
     def test_encode_truefalse(self):
-        self.assertEqual(json.dumps(
+        self.assertEqual(self.dumps(
                  {True: False, False: True}, sort_keys=True),
                  '{"false": true, "true": false}')
-        self.assertEqual(json.dumps(
+        self.assertEqual(self.dumps(
                 {2: 3.0, 4.0: 5L, False: 1, 6L: True}, sort_keys=True),
                 '{"false": 1, "2": 3.0, "4.0": 5, "6": true}')
+
+class TestPyDump(TestDump, PyTest): pass
+class TestCDump(TestDump, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_encode_basestring_ascii.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_encode_basestring_ascii.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_encode_basestring_ascii.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_encode_basestring_ascii.py
@@ -1,8 +1,6 @@
-from unittest import TestCase
+from collections import OrderedDict
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json.encoder
-from json import dumps
-from collections import OrderedDict
 
 CASES = [
     (u'/\\"\ucafe\ubabe\uab98\ufcde\ubcda\uef4a\x08\x0c\n\r\t`1~!@#$%^&*()_+-=[]{}|;:\',./<>?', '"/\\\\\\"\\ucafe\\ubabe\\uab98\\ufcde\\ubcda\\uef4a\\b\\f\\n\\r\\t`1~!@#$%^&*()_+-=[]{}|;:\',./<>?"'),
@@ -23,19 +21,11 @@
     (u'\u0123\u4567\u89ab\ucdef\uabcd\uef4a', '"\\u0123\\u4567\\u89ab\\ucdef\\uabcd\\uef4a"'),
 ]
 
-class TestEncodeBaseStringAscii(TestCase):
-    def test_py_encode_basestring_ascii(self):
-        self._test_encode_basestring_ascii(json.encoder.py_encode_basestring_ascii)
-
-    def test_c_encode_basestring_ascii(self):
-        if not json.encoder.c_encode_basestring_ascii:
-            return
-        self._test_encode_basestring_ascii(json.encoder.c_encode_basestring_ascii)
-
-    def _test_encode_basestring_ascii(self, encode_basestring_ascii):
-        fname = encode_basestring_ascii.__name__
+class TestEncodeBasestringAscii(object):
+    def test_encode_basestring_ascii(self):
+        fname = self.json.encoder.encode_basestring_ascii.__name__
         for input_string, expect in CASES:
-            result = encode_basestring_ascii(input_string)
+            result = self.json.encoder.encode_basestring_ascii(input_string)
             self.assertEqual(result, expect,
                 '{0!r} != {1!r} for {2}({3!r})'.format(
                     result, expect, fname, input_string))
@@ -43,5 +33,9 @@
     def test_ordered_dict(self):
         # See issue 6105
         items = [('one', 1), ('two', 2), ('three', 3), ('four', 4), ('five', 5)]
-        s = json.dumps(OrderedDict(items))
+        s = self.dumps(OrderedDict(items))
         self.assertEqual(s, '{"one": 1, "two": 2, "three": 3, "four": 4, "five": 5}')
+
+
+class TestPyEncodeBasestringAscii(TestEncodeBasestringAscii, PyTest): pass
+class TestCEncodeBasestringAscii(TestEncodeBasestringAscii, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_fail.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_fail.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_fail.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_fail.py
@@ -1,6 +1,4 @@
-from unittest import TestCase
-
-import json
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
 # Fri Dec 30 18:57:26 2005
 JSONDOCS = [
@@ -61,15 +59,15 @@
     18: "spec doesn't specify any nesting limitations",
 }
 
-class TestFail(TestCase):
+class TestFail(object):
     def test_failures(self):
         for idx, doc in enumerate(JSONDOCS):
             idx = idx + 1
             if idx in SKIPS:
-                json.loads(doc)
+                self.loads(doc)
                 continue
             try:
-                json.loads(doc)
+                self.loads(doc)
             except ValueError:
                 pass
             else:
@@ -79,7 +77,11 @@
         data = {'a' : 1, (1, 2) : 2}
 
         #This is for c encoder
-        self.assertRaises(TypeError, json.dumps, data)
+        self.assertRaises(TypeError, self.dumps, data)
 
         #This is for python encoder
-        self.assertRaises(TypeError, json.dumps, data, indent=True)
+        self.assertRaises(TypeError, self.dumps, data, indent=True)
+
+
+class TestPyFail(TestFail, PyTest): pass
+class TestCFail(TestFail, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_float.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_float.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_float.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_float.py
@@ -1,19 +1,22 @@
 import math
-from unittest import TestCase
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json
 
-class TestFloat(TestCase):
+class TestFloat(object):
     def test_floats(self):
         for num in [1617161771.7650001, math.pi, math.pi**100,
                     math.pi**-100, 3.1]:
-            self.assertEqual(float(json.dumps(num)), num)
-            self.assertEqual(json.loads(json.dumps(num)), num)
-            self.assertEqual(json.loads(unicode(json.dumps(num))), num)
+            self.assertEqual(float(self.dumps(num)), num)
+            self.assertEqual(self.loads(self.dumps(num)), num)
+            self.assertEqual(self.loads(unicode(self.dumps(num))), num)
 
     def test_ints(self):
         for num in [1, 1L, 1<<32, 1<<64]:
-            self.assertEqual(json.dumps(num), str(num))
-            self.assertEqual(int(json.dumps(num)), num)
-            self.assertEqual(json.loads(json.dumps(num)), num)
-            self.assertEqual(json.loads(unicode(json.dumps(num))), num)
+            self.assertEqual(self.dumps(num), str(num))
+            self.assertEqual(int(self.dumps(num)), num)
+            self.assertEqual(self.loads(self.dumps(num)), num)
+            self.assertEqual(self.loads(unicode(self.dumps(num))), num)
+
+
+class TestPyFloat(TestFloat, PyTest): pass
+class TestCFloat(TestFloat, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_indent.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_indent.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_indent.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_indent.py
@@ -1,9 +1,9 @@
-from unittest import TestCase
+import textwrap
+from StringIO import StringIO
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json
-import textwrap
 
-class TestIndent(TestCase):
+class TestIndent(object):
     def test_indent(self):
         h = [['blorpie'], ['whoops'], [], 'd-shtaeou', 'd-nthiouh', 'i-vhbjkhnth',
              {'nifty': 87}, {'field': 'yes', 'morefield': False} ]
@@ -30,12 +30,31 @@
         ]""")
 
 
-        d1 = json.dumps(h)
-        d2 = json.dumps(h, indent=2, sort_keys=True, separators=(',', ': '))
+        d1 = self.dumps(h)
+        d2 = self.dumps(h, indent=2, sort_keys=True, separators=(',', ': '))
 
-        h1 = json.loads(d1)
-        h2 = json.loads(d2)
+        h1 = self.loads(d1)
+        h2 = self.loads(d2)
 
         self.assertEqual(h1, h)
         self.assertEqual(h2, h)
         self.assertEqual(d2, expect)
+
+    def test_indent0(self):
+        h = {3: 1}
+        def check(indent, expected):
+            d1 = self.dumps(h, indent=indent)
+            self.assertEqual(d1, expected)
+
+            sio = StringIO()
+            self.json.dump(h, sio, indent=indent)
+            self.assertEqual(sio.getvalue(), expected)
+
+        # indent=0 should emit newlines
+        check(0, '{\n"3": 1\n}')
+        # indent=None is more compact
+        check(None, '{"3": 1}')
+
+
+class TestPyIndent(TestIndent, PyTest): pass
+class TestCIndent(TestIndent, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass1.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass1.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass1.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass1.py
@@ -1,6 +1,5 @@
-from unittest import TestCase
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json
 
 # from http://json.org/JSON_checker/test/pass1.json
 JSON = r'''
@@ -62,15 +61,19 @@
 ,"rosebud"]
 '''
 
-class TestPass1(TestCase):
+class TestPass1(object):
     def test_parse(self):
         # test in/out equivalence and parsing
-        res = json.loads(JSON)
-        out = json.dumps(res)
-        self.assertEqual(res, json.loads(out))
+        res = self.loads(JSON)
+        out = self.dumps(res)
+        self.assertEqual(res, self.loads(out))
         try:
-            json.dumps(res, allow_nan=False)
+            self.dumps(res, allow_nan=False)
         except ValueError:
             pass
         else:
             self.fail("23456789012E666 should be out of range")
+
+
+class TestPyPass1(TestPass1, PyTest): pass
+class TestCPass1(TestPass1, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass2.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass2.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass2.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass2.py
@@ -1,14 +1,18 @@
-from unittest import TestCase
-import json
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
+
 
 # from http://json.org/JSON_checker/test/pass2.json
 JSON = r'''
 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["Not too deep"]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
 '''
 
-class TestPass2(TestCase):
+class TestPass2(object):
     def test_parse(self):
         # test in/out equivalence and parsing
-        res = json.loads(JSON)
-        out = json.dumps(res)
-        self.assertEqual(res, json.loads(out))
+        res = self.loads(JSON)
+        out = self.dumps(res)
+        self.assertEqual(res, self.loads(out))
+
+
+class TestPyPass2(TestPass2, PyTest): pass
+class TestCPass2(TestPass2, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass3.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass3.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass3.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_pass3.py
@@ -1,6 +1,5 @@
-from unittest import TestCase
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json
 
 # from http://json.org/JSON_checker/test/pass3.json
 JSON = r'''
@@ -12,9 +11,14 @@
 }
 '''
 
-class TestPass3(TestCase):
+
+class TestPass3(object):
     def test_parse(self):
         # test in/out equivalence and parsing
-        res = json.loads(JSON)
-        out = json.dumps(res)
-        self.assertEqual(res, json.loads(out))
+        res = self.loads(JSON)
+        out = self.dumps(res)
+        self.assertEqual(res, self.loads(out))
+
+
+class TestPyPass3(TestPass3, PyTest): pass
+class TestCPass3(TestPass3, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_recursion.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_recursion.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_recursion.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_recursion.py
@@ -1,28 +1,16 @@
-from unittest import TestCase
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json
 
 class JSONTestObject:
     pass
 
 
-class RecursiveJSONEncoder(json.JSONEncoder):
-    recurse = False
-    def default(self, o):
-        if o is JSONTestObject:
-            if self.recurse:
-                return [JSONTestObject]
-            else:
-                return 'JSONTestObject'
-        return json.JSONEncoder.default(o)
-
-
-class TestRecursion(TestCase):
+class TestRecursion(object):
     def test_listrecursion(self):
         x = []
         x.append(x)
         try:
-            json.dumps(x)
+            self.dumps(x)
         except ValueError:
             pass
         else:
@@ -31,7 +19,7 @@
         y = [x]
         x.append(y)
         try:
-            json.dumps(x)
+            self.dumps(x)
         except ValueError:
             pass
         else:
@@ -39,13 +27,13 @@
         y = []
         x = [y, y]
         # ensure that the marker is cleared
-        json.dumps(x)
+        self.dumps(x)
 
     def test_dictrecursion(self):
         x = {}
         x["test"] = x
         try:
-            json.dumps(x)
+            self.dumps(x)
         except ValueError:
             pass
         else:
@@ -53,9 +41,19 @@
         x = {}
         y = {"a": x, "b": x}
         # ensure that the marker is cleared
-        json.dumps(x)
+        self.dumps(x)
 
     def test_defaultrecursion(self):
+        class RecursiveJSONEncoder(self.json.JSONEncoder):
+            recurse = False
+            def default(self, o):
+                if o is JSONTestObject:
+                    if self.recurse:
+                        return [JSONTestObject]
+                    else:
+                        return 'JSONTestObject'
+                return pyjson.JSONEncoder.default(o)
+
         enc = RecursiveJSONEncoder()
         self.assertEqual(enc.encode(JSONTestObject), '"JSONTestObject"')
         enc.recurse = True
@@ -65,3 +63,46 @@
             pass
         else:
             self.fail("didn't raise ValueError on default recursion")
+
+
+    def test_highly_nested_objects_decoding(self):
+        # test that loading highly-nested objects doesn't segfault when C
+        # accelerations are used. See #12017
+        # str
+        with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
+            self.loads('{"a":' * 100000 + '1' + '}' * 100000)
+        with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
+            self.loads('{"a":' * 100000 + '[1]' + '}' * 100000)
+        with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
+            self.loads('[' * 100000 + '1' + ']' * 100000)
+        # unicode
+        with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
+            self.loads(u'{"a":' * 100000 + u'1' + u'}' * 100000)
+        with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
+            self.loads(u'{"a":' * 100000 + u'[1]' + u'}' * 100000)
+        with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
+            self.loads(u'[' * 100000 + u'1' + u']' * 100000)
+
+    def test_highly_nested_objects_encoding(self):
+        # See #12051
+        l, d = [], {}
+        for x in xrange(100000):
+            l, d = [l], {'k':d}
+        with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
+            self.dumps(l)
+        with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
+            self.dumps(d)
+
+    def test_endless_recursion(self):
+        # See #12051
+        class EndlessJSONEncoder(self.json.JSONEncoder):
+            def default(self, o):
+                """If check_circular is False, this will keep adding another list."""
+                return [o]
+
+        with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
+            EndlessJSONEncoder(check_circular=False).encode(5j)
+
+
+class TestPyRecursion(TestRecursion, PyTest): pass
+class TestCRecursion(TestRecursion, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_scanstring.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_scanstring.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_scanstring.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_scanstring.py
@@ -1,18 +1,10 @@
 import sys
-import decimal
-from unittest import TestCase
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json
-import json.decoder
 
-class TestScanString(TestCase):
-    def test_py_scanstring(self):
-        self._test_scanstring(json.decoder.py_scanstring)
-
-    def test_c_scanstring(self):
-        self._test_scanstring(json.decoder.c_scanstring)
-
-    def _test_scanstring(self, scanstring):
+class TestScanstring(object):
+    def test_scanstring(self):
+        scanstring = self.json.decoder.scanstring
         self.assertEqual(
             scanstring('"z\\ud834\\udd20x"', 1, None, True),
             (u'z\U0001d120x', 16))
@@ -103,10 +95,15 @@
             (u'Bad value', 12))
 
     def test_issue3623(self):
-        self.assertRaises(ValueError, json.decoder.scanstring, b"xxx", 1,
+        self.assertRaises(ValueError, self.json.decoder.scanstring, b"xxx", 1,
                           "xxx")
         self.assertRaises(UnicodeDecodeError,
-                          json.encoder.encode_basestring_ascii, b"xx\xff")
+                          self.json.encoder.encode_basestring_ascii, b"xx\xff")
 
     def test_overflow(self):
-        self.assertRaises(OverflowError, json.decoder.scanstring, b"xxx", sys.maxsize+1)
+        with self.assertRaises(OverflowError):
+            self.json.decoder.scanstring(b"xxx", sys.maxsize+1)
+
+
+class TestPyScanstring(TestScanstring, PyTest): pass
+class TestCScanstring(TestScanstring, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_separators.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_separators.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_separators.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_separators.py
@@ -1,10 +1,8 @@
 import textwrap
-from unittest import TestCase
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json
 
-
-class TestSeparators(TestCase):
+class TestSeparators(object):
     def test_separators(self):
         h = [['blorpie'], ['whoops'], [], 'd-shtaeou', 'd-nthiouh', 'i-vhbjkhnth',
              {'nifty': 87}, {'field': 'yes', 'morefield': False} ]
@@ -31,12 +29,16 @@
         ]""")
 
 
-        d1 = json.dumps(h)
-        d2 = json.dumps(h, indent=2, sort_keys=True, separators=(' ,', ' : '))
+        d1 = self.dumps(h)
+        d2 = self.dumps(h, indent=2, sort_keys=True, separators=(' ,', ' : '))
 
-        h1 = json.loads(d1)
-        h2 = json.loads(d2)
+        h1 = self.loads(d1)
+        h2 = self.loads(d2)
 
         self.assertEqual(h1, h)
         self.assertEqual(h2, h)
         self.assertEqual(d2, expect)
+
+
+class TestPySeparators(TestSeparators, PyTest): pass
+class TestCSeparators(TestSeparators, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_speedups.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_speedups.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_speedups.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_speedups.py
@@ -1,24 +1,23 @@
-import decimal
-from unittest import TestCase
+from json.tests import CTest
 
-from json import decoder, encoder, scanner
 
-class TestSpeedups(TestCase):
+class TestSpeedups(CTest):
     def test_scanstring(self):
-        self.assertEqual(decoder.scanstring.__module__, "_json")
-        self.assertTrue(decoder.scanstring is decoder.c_scanstring)
+        self.assertEqual(self.json.decoder.scanstring.__module__, "_json")
+        self.assertIs(self.json.decoder.scanstring, self.json.decoder.c_scanstring)
 
     def test_encode_basestring_ascii(self):
-        self.assertEqual(encoder.encode_basestring_ascii.__module__, "_json")
-        self.assertTrue(encoder.encode_basestring_ascii is
-                          encoder.c_encode_basestring_ascii)
+        self.assertEqual(self.json.encoder.encode_basestring_ascii.__module__,
+                         "_json")
+        self.assertIs(self.json.encoder.encode_basestring_ascii,
+                      self.json.encoder.c_encode_basestring_ascii)
 
-class TestDecode(TestCase):
+class TestDecode(CTest):
     def test_make_scanner(self):
-        self.assertRaises(AttributeError, scanner.c_make_scanner, 1)
+        self.assertRaises(AttributeError, self.json.scanner.c_make_scanner, 1)
 
     def test_make_encoder(self):
-        self.assertRaises(TypeError, encoder.c_make_encoder,
+        self.assertRaises(TypeError, self.json.encoder.c_make_encoder,
             None,
             "\xCD\x7D\x3D\x4E\x12\x4C\xF9\x79\xD7\x52\xBA\x82\xF2\x27\x4A\x7D\xA0\xCA\x75",
             None)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_unicode.py b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_unicode.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_unicode.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/json/tests/test_unicode.py
@@ -1,11 +1,10 @@
-from unittest import TestCase
+from collections import OrderedDict
+from json.tests import PyTest, CTest
 
-import json
-from collections import OrderedDict
 
-class TestUnicode(TestCase):
+class TestUnicode(object):
     def test_encoding1(self):
-        encoder = json.JSONEncoder(encoding='utf-8')
+        encoder = self.json.JSONEncoder(encoding='utf-8')
         u = u'\N{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}\N{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA}'
         s = u.encode('utf-8')
         ju = encoder.encode(u)
@@ -15,68 +14,72 @@
     def test_encoding2(self):
         u = u'\N{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}\N{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA}'
         s = u.encode('utf-8')
-        ju = json.dumps(u, encoding='utf-8')
-        js = json.dumps(s, encoding='utf-8')
+        ju = self.dumps(u, encoding='utf-8')
+        js = self.dumps(s, encoding='utf-8')
         self.assertEqual(ju, js)
 
     def test_encoding3(self):
         u = u'\N{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}\N{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA}'
-        j = json.dumps(u)
+        j = self.dumps(u)
         self.assertEqual(j, '"\\u03b1\\u03a9"')
 
     def test_encoding4(self):
         u = u'\N{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}\N{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA}'
-        j = json.dumps([u])
+        j = self.dumps([u])
         self.assertEqual(j, '["\\u03b1\\u03a9"]')
 
     def test_encoding5(self):
         u = u'\N{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}\N{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA}'
-        j = json.dumps(u, ensure_ascii=False)
+        j = self.dumps(u, ensure_ascii=False)
         self.assertEqual(j, u'"{0}"'.format(u))
 
     def test_encoding6(self):
         u = u'\N{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}\N{GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA}'
-        j = json.dumps([u], ensure_ascii=False)
+        j = self.dumps([u], ensure_ascii=False)
         self.assertEqual(j, u'["{0}"]'.format(u))
 
     def test_big_unicode_encode(self):
         u = u'\U0001d120'
-        self.assertEqual(json.dumps(u), '"\\ud834\\udd20"')
-        self.assertEqual(json.dumps(u, ensure_ascii=False), u'"\U0001d120"')
+        self.assertEqual(self.dumps(u), '"\\ud834\\udd20"')
+        self.assertEqual(self.dumps(u, ensure_ascii=False), u'"\U0001d120"')
 
     def test_big_unicode_decode(self):
         u = u'z\U0001d120x'
-        self.assertEqual(json.loads('"' + u + '"'), u)
-        self.assertEqual(json.loads('"z\\ud834\\udd20x"'), u)
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads('"' + u + '"'), u)
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads('"z\\ud834\\udd20x"'), u)
 
     def test_unicode_decode(self):
         for i in range(0, 0xd7ff):
             u = unichr(i)
             s = '"\\u{0:04x}"'.format(i)
-            self.assertEqual(json.loads(s), u)
+            self.assertEqual(self.loads(s), u)
 
     def test_object_pairs_hook_with_unicode(self):
         s = u'{"xkd":1, "kcw":2, "art":3, "hxm":4, "qrt":5, "pad":6, "hoy":7}'
         p = [(u"xkd", 1), (u"kcw", 2), (u"art", 3), (u"hxm", 4),
              (u"qrt", 5), (u"pad", 6), (u"hoy", 7)]
-        self.assertEqual(json.loads(s), eval(s))
-        self.assertEqual(json.loads(s, object_pairs_hook = lambda x: x), p)
-        od = json.loads(s, object_pairs_hook = OrderedDict)
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads(s), eval(s))
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads(s, object_pairs_hook = lambda x: x), p)
+        od = self.loads(s, object_pairs_hook = OrderedDict)
         self.assertEqual(od, OrderedDict(p))
         self.assertEqual(type(od), OrderedDict)
         # the object_pairs_hook takes priority over the object_hook
-        self.assertEqual(json.loads(s,
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads(s,
                                     object_pairs_hook = OrderedDict,
                                     object_hook = lambda x: None),
                          OrderedDict(p))
 
     def test_default_encoding(self):
-        self.assertEqual(json.loads(u'{"a": "\xe9"}'.encode('utf-8')),
+        self.assertEqual(self.loads(u'{"a": "\xe9"}'.encode('utf-8')),
             {'a': u'\xe9'})
 
     def test_unicode_preservation(self):
-        self.assertEqual(type(json.loads(u'""')), unicode)
-        self.assertEqual(type(json.loads(u'"a"')), unicode)
-        self.assertEqual(type(json.loads(u'["a"]')[0]), unicode)
+        self.assertEqual(type(self.loads(u'""')), unicode)
+        self.assertEqual(type(self.loads(u'"a"')), unicode)
+        self.assertEqual(type(self.loads(u'["a"]')[0]), unicode)
         # Issue 10038.
-        self.assertEqual(type(json.loads('"foo"')), unicode)
+        self.assertEqual(type(self.loads('"foo"')), unicode)
+
+
+class TestPyUnicode(TestUnicode, PyTest): pass
+class TestCUnicode(TestUnicode, CTest): pass
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/Tix.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/Tix.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/Tix.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/Tix.py
@@ -163,7 +163,7 @@
         extensions) exist, then the image type is chosen according to the
         depth of the X display: xbm images are chosen on monochrome
         displays and color images are chosen on color displays. By using
-        tix_ getimage, you can advoid hard coding the pathnames of the
+        tix_ getimage, you can avoid hard coding the pathnames of the
         image files in your application. When successful, this command
         returns the name of the newly created image, which can be used to
         configure the -image option of the Tk and Tix widgets.
@@ -171,7 +171,7 @@
         return self.tk.call('tix', 'getimage', name)
 
     def tix_option_get(self, name):
-        """Gets  the options  manitained  by  the  Tix
+        """Gets  the options  maintained  by  the  Tix
         scheme mechanism. Available options include:
 
             active_bg       active_fg      bg
@@ -576,7 +576,7 @@
 
 class ComboBox(TixWidget):
     """ComboBox - an Entry field with a dropdown menu. The user can select a
-    choice by either typing in the entry subwdget or selecting from the
+    choice by either typing in the entry subwidget or selecting from the
     listbox subwidget.
 
     Subwidget       Class
@@ -869,7 +869,7 @@
     """HList - Hierarchy display  widget can be used to display any data
     that have a hierarchical structure, for example, file system directory
     trees. The list entries are indented and connected by branch lines
-    according to their places in the hierachy.
+    according to their places in the hierarchy.
 
     Subwidgets - None"""
 
@@ -1520,7 +1520,7 @@
         self.tk.call(self._w, 'selection', 'set', first, last)
 
 class Tree(TixWidget):
-    """Tree - The tixTree widget can be used to display hierachical
+    """Tree - The tixTree widget can be used to display hierarchical
     data in a tree form. The user can adjust
     the view of the tree by opening or closing parts of the tree."""
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/Tkinter.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/Tkinter.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/Tkinter.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/Tkinter.py
@@ -1660,7 +1660,7 @@
 
 class Tk(Misc, Wm):
     """Toplevel widget of Tk which represents mostly the main window
-    of an appliation. It has an associated Tcl interpreter."""
+    of an application. It has an associated Tcl interpreter."""
     _w = '.'
     def __init__(self, screenName=None, baseName=None, className='Tk',
                  useTk=1, sync=0, use=None):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/test/test_ttk/test_functions.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/test/test_ttk/test_functions.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/test/test_ttk/test_functions.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/test/test_ttk/test_functions.py
@@ -136,7 +136,7 @@
         # minimum acceptable for image type
         self.assertEqual(ttk._format_elemcreate('image', False, 'test'),
             ("test ", ()))
-        # specifiyng a state spec
+        # specifying a state spec
         self.assertEqual(ttk._format_elemcreate('image', False, 'test',
             ('', 'a')), ("test {} a", ()))
         # state spec with multiple states
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/ttk.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/ttk.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/ttk.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/ttk.py
@@ -707,7 +707,7 @@
             textvariable, values, width
         """
         # The "values" option may need special formatting, so leave to
-        # _format_optdict the responsability to format it
+        # _format_optdict the responsibility to format it
         if "values" in kw:
             kw["values"] = _format_optdict({'v': kw["values"]})[1]
 
@@ -993,7 +993,7 @@
         pane is either an integer index or the name of a managed subwindow.
         If kw is not given, returns a dict of the pane option values. If
         option is specified then the value for that option is returned.
-        Otherwise, sets the options to the correspoding values."""
+        Otherwise, sets the options to the corresponding values."""
         if option is not None:
             kw[option] = None
         return _val_or_dict(kw, self.tk.call, self._w, "pane", pane)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/turtle.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/turtle.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/turtle.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib-tk/turtle.py
@@ -1385,7 +1385,7 @@
         Optional argument:
         picname -- a string, name of a gif-file or "nopic".
 
-        If picname is a filename, set the corresponing image as background.
+        If picname is a filename, set the corresponding image as background.
         If picname is "nopic", delete backgroundimage, if present.
         If picname is None, return the filename of the current backgroundimage.
 
@@ -1409,7 +1409,7 @@
         Optional arguments:
         canvwidth -- positive integer, new width of canvas in pixels
         canvheight --  positive integer, new height of canvas in pixels
-        bg -- colorstring or color-tupel, new backgroundcolor
+        bg -- colorstring or color-tuple, new backgroundcolor
         If no arguments are given, return current (canvaswidth, canvasheight)
 
         Do not alter the drawing window. To observe hidden parts of
@@ -3079,9 +3079,9 @@
                                                fill="", width=ps)
         # Turtle now at position old,
         self._position = old
-        ##  if undo is done during crating a polygon, the last vertex
-        ##  will be deleted. if the polygon is entirel deleted,
-        ##  creatigPoly will be set to False.
+        ##  if undo is done during creating a polygon, the last vertex
+        ##  will be deleted. if the polygon is entirely deleted,
+        ##  creatingPoly will be set to False.
         ##  Polygons created before the last one will not be affected by undo()
         if self._creatingPoly:
             if len(self._poly) > 0:
@@ -3221,7 +3221,7 @@
     def dot(self, size=None, *color):
         """Draw a dot with diameter size, using color.
 
-        Optional argumentS:
+        Optional arguments:
         size -- an integer >= 1 (if given)
         color -- a colorstring or a numeric color tuple
 
@@ -3691,7 +3691,7 @@
 
 
 class Turtle(RawTurtle):
-    """RawTurtle auto-crating (scrolled) canvas.
+    """RawTurtle auto-creating (scrolled) canvas.
 
     When a Turtle object is created or a function derived from some
     Turtle method is called a TurtleScreen object is automatically created.
@@ -3731,7 +3731,7 @@
     filename -- a string, used as filename
                 default value is turtle_docstringdict
 
-    Has to be called explicitely, (not used by the turtle-graphics classes)
+    Has to be called explicitly, (not used by the turtle-graphics classes)
     The docstring dictionary will be written to the Python script <filname>.py
     It is intended to serve as a template for translation of the docstrings
     into different languages.
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/__main__.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/__main__.py
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/__main__.py
@@ -0,0 +1,4 @@
+import sys
+from .main import main
+
+sys.exit(main("lib2to3.fixes"))
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_itertools.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_itertools.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_itertools.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_itertools.py
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
 
 class FixItertools(fixer_base.BaseFix):
     BM_compatible = True
-    it_funcs = "('imap'|'ifilter'|'izip'|'ifilterfalse')"
+    it_funcs = "('imap'|'ifilter'|'izip'|'izip_longest'|'ifilterfalse')"
     PATTERN = """
               power< it='itertools'
                   trailer<
@@ -28,7 +28,8 @@
     def transform(self, node, results):
         prefix = None
         func = results['func'][0]
-        if 'it' in results and func.value != u'ifilterfalse':
+        if ('it' in results and
+            func.value not in (u'ifilterfalse', u'izip_longest')):
             dot, it = (results['dot'], results['it'])
             # Remove the 'itertools'
             prefix = it.prefix
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_itertools_imports.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_itertools_imports.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_itertools_imports.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_itertools_imports.py
@@ -31,9 +31,10 @@
             if member_name in (u'imap', u'izip', u'ifilter'):
                 child.value = None
                 child.remove()
-            elif member_name == u'ifilterfalse':
+            elif member_name in (u'ifilterfalse', u'izip_longest'):
                 node.changed()
-                name_node.value = u'filterfalse'
+                name_node.value = (u'filterfalse' if member_name[1] == u'f'
+                                   else u'zip_longest')
 
         # Make sure the import statement is still sane
         children = imports.children[:] or [imports]
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_metaclass.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_metaclass.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_metaclass.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_metaclass.py
@@ -48,7 +48,7 @@
     """
     for node in cls_node.children:
         if node.type == syms.suite:
-            # already in the prefered format, do nothing
+            # already in the preferred format, do nothing
             return
 
     # !%@#! oneliners have no suite node, we have to fake one up
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_urllib.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_urllib.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_urllib.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/fixes/fix_urllib.py
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
 
 MAPPING = {"urllib":  [
                 ("urllib.request",
-                    ["URLOpener", "FancyURLOpener", "urlretrieve",
+                    ["URLopener", "FancyURLopener", "urlretrieve",
                      "_urlopener", "urlopen", "urlcleanup",
                      "pathname2url", "url2pathname"]),
                 ("urllib.parse",
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/main.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/main.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/main.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/main.py
@@ -101,7 +101,7 @@
     parser.add_option("-j", "--processes", action="store", default=1,
                       type="int", help="Run 2to3 concurrently")
     parser.add_option("-x", "--nofix", action="append", default=[],
-                      help="Prevent a fixer from being run.")
+                      help="Prevent a transformation from being run")
     parser.add_option("-l", "--list-fixes", action="store_true",
                       help="List available transformations")
     parser.add_option("-p", "--print-function", action="store_true",
@@ -113,7 +113,7 @@
     parser.add_option("-w", "--write", action="store_true",
                       help="Write back modified files")
     parser.add_option("-n", "--nobackups", action="store_true", default=False,
-                      help="Don't write backups for modified files.")
+                      help="Don't write backups for modified files")
 
     # Parse command line arguments
     refactor_stdin = False
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/patcomp.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/patcomp.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/patcomp.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/patcomp.py
@@ -12,6 +12,7 @@
 
 # Python imports
 import os
+import StringIO
 
 # Fairly local imports
 from .pgen2 import driver, literals, token, tokenize, parse, grammar
@@ -32,7 +33,7 @@
 def tokenize_wrapper(input):
     """Tokenizes a string suppressing significant whitespace."""
     skip = set((token.NEWLINE, token.INDENT, token.DEDENT))
-    tokens = tokenize.generate_tokens(driver.generate_lines(input).next)
+    tokens = tokenize.generate_tokens(StringIO.StringIO(input).readline)
     for quintuple in tokens:
         type, value, start, end, line_text = quintuple
         if type not in skip:
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pgen2/conv.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pgen2/conv.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pgen2/conv.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pgen2/conv.py
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
         self.finish_off()
 
     def parse_graminit_h(self, filename):
-        """Parse the .h file writen by pgen.  (Internal)
+        """Parse the .h file written by pgen.  (Internal)
 
         This file is a sequence of #define statements defining the
         nonterminals of the grammar as numbers.  We build two tables
@@ -82,7 +82,7 @@
         return True
 
     def parse_graminit_c(self, filename):
-        """Parse the .c file writen by pgen.  (Internal)
+        """Parse the .c file written by pgen.  (Internal)
 
         The file looks as follows.  The first two lines are always this:
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pgen2/driver.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pgen2/driver.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pgen2/driver.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pgen2/driver.py
@@ -19,6 +19,7 @@
 import codecs
 import os
 import logging
+import StringIO
 import sys
 
 # Pgen imports
@@ -101,18 +102,10 @@
 
     def parse_string(self, text, debug=False):
         """Parse a string and return the syntax tree."""
-        tokens = tokenize.generate_tokens(generate_lines(text).next)
+        tokens = tokenize.generate_tokens(StringIO.StringIO(text).readline)
         return self.parse_tokens(tokens, debug)
 
 
-def generate_lines(text):
-    """Generator that behaves like readline without using StringIO."""
-    for line in text.splitlines(True):
-        yield line
-    while True:
-        yield ""
-
-
 def load_grammar(gt="Grammar.txt", gp=None,
                  save=True, force=False, logger=None):
     """Load the grammar (maybe from a pickle)."""
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pytree.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pytree.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pytree.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/pytree.py
@@ -658,8 +658,8 @@
             content: optional sequence of subsequences of patterns;
                      if absent, matches one node;
                      if present, each subsequence is an alternative [*]
-            min: optinal minumum number of times to match, default 0
-            max: optional maximum number of times tro match, default HUGE
+            min: optional minimum number of times to match, default 0
+            max: optional maximum number of times to match, default HUGE
             name: optional name assigned to this match
 
         [*] Thus, if content is [[a, b, c], [d, e], [f, g, h]] this is
@@ -743,9 +743,11 @@
         else:
             # The reason for this is that hitting the recursion limit usually
             # results in some ugly messages about how RuntimeErrors are being
-            # ignored.
-            save_stderr = sys.stderr
-            sys.stderr = StringIO()
+            # ignored. We don't do this on non-CPython implementation because
+            # they don't have this problem.
+            if hasattr(sys, "getrefcount"):
+                save_stderr = sys.stderr
+                sys.stderr = StringIO()
             try:
                 for count, r in self._recursive_matches(nodes, 0):
                     if self.name:
@@ -759,7 +761,8 @@
                         r[self.name] = nodes[:count]
                     yield count, r
             finally:
-                sys.stderr = save_stderr
+                if hasattr(sys, "getrefcount"):
+                    sys.stderr = save_stderr
 
     def _iterative_matches(self, nodes):
         """Helper to iteratively yield the matches."""
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/refactor.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/refactor.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/refactor.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/refactor.py
@@ -302,13 +302,14 @@
 
         Files and subdirectories starting with '.' are skipped.
         """
+        py_ext = os.extsep + "py"
         for dirpath, dirnames, filenames in os.walk(dir_name):
             self.log_debug("Descending into %s", dirpath)
             dirnames.sort()
             filenames.sort()
             for name in filenames:
-                if not name.startswith(".") and \
-                        os.path.splitext(name)[1].endswith("py"):
+                if (not name.startswith(".") and
+                    os.path.splitext(name)[1] == py_ext):
                     fullname = os.path.join(dirpath, name)
                     self.refactor_file(fullname, write, doctests_only)
             # Modify dirnames in-place to remove subdirs with leading dots
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/data/py2_test_grammar.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/data/py2_test_grammar.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/data/py2_test_grammar.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/data/py2_test_grammar.py
@@ -316,7 +316,7 @@
         ### simple_stmt: small_stmt (';' small_stmt)* [';']
         x = 1; pass; del x
         def foo():
-            # verify statments that end with semi-colons
+            # verify statements that end with semi-colons
             x = 1; pass; del x;
         foo()
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/data/py3_test_grammar.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/data/py3_test_grammar.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/data/py3_test_grammar.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/data/py3_test_grammar.py
@@ -356,7 +356,7 @@
         ### simple_stmt: small_stmt (';' small_stmt)* [';']
         x = 1; pass; del x
         def foo():
-            # verify statments that end with semi-colons
+            # verify statements that end with semi-colons
             x = 1; pass; del x;
         foo()
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_fixers.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_fixers.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_fixers.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_fixers.py
@@ -3623,16 +3623,24 @@
         a = """%s(f, a)"""
         self.checkall(b, a)
 
-    def test_2(self):
+    def test_qualified(self):
         b = """itertools.ifilterfalse(a, b)"""
         a = """itertools.filterfalse(a, b)"""
         self.check(b, a)
 
-    def test_4(self):
+        b = """itertools.izip_longest(a, b)"""
+        a = """itertools.zip_longest(a, b)"""
+        self.check(b, a)
+
+    def test_2(self):
         b = """ifilterfalse(a, b)"""
         a = """filterfalse(a, b)"""
         self.check(b, a)
 
+        b = """izip_longest(a, b)"""
+        a = """zip_longest(a, b)"""
+        self.check(b, a)
+
     def test_space_1(self):
         b = """    %s(f, a)"""
         a = """    %s(f, a)"""
@@ -3643,9 +3651,14 @@
         a = """    itertools.filterfalse(a, b)"""
         self.check(b, a)
 
+        b = """    itertools.izip_longest(a, b)"""
+        a = """    itertools.zip_longest(a, b)"""
+        self.check(b, a)
+
     def test_run_order(self):
         self.assert_runs_after('map', 'zip', 'filter')
 
+
 class Test_itertools_imports(FixerTestCase):
     fixer = 'itertools_imports'
 
@@ -3696,18 +3709,19 @@
         s = "from itertools import bar as bang"
         self.unchanged(s)
 
-    def test_ifilter(self):
-        b = "from itertools import ifilterfalse"
-        a = "from itertools import filterfalse"
-        self.check(b, a)
-
-        b = "from itertools import imap, ifilterfalse, foo"
-        a = "from itertools import filterfalse, foo"
-        self.check(b, a)
-
-        b = "from itertools import bar, ifilterfalse, foo"
-        a = "from itertools import bar, filterfalse, foo"
-        self.check(b, a)
+    def test_ifilter_and_zip_longest(self):
+        for name in "filterfalse", "zip_longest":
+            b = "from itertools import i%s" % (name,)
+            a = "from itertools import %s" % (name,)
+            self.check(b, a)
+
+            b = "from itertools import imap, i%s, foo" % (name,)
+            a = "from itertools import %s, foo" % (name,)
+            self.check(b, a)
+
+            b = "from itertools import bar, i%s, foo" % (name,)
+            a = "from itertools import bar, %s, foo" % (name,)
+            self.check(b, a)
 
     def test_import_star(self):
         s = "from itertools import *"
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_parser.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_parser.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_parser.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_parser.py
@@ -19,6 +19,16 @@
 # Local imports
 from lib2to3.pgen2 import tokenize
 from ..pgen2.parse import ParseError
+from lib2to3.pygram import python_symbols as syms
+
+
+class TestDriver(support.TestCase):
+
+    def test_formfeed(self):
+        s = """print 1\n\x0Cprint 2\n"""
+        t = driver.parse_string(s)
+        self.assertEqual(t.children[0].children[0].type, syms.print_stmt)
+        self.assertEqual(t.children[1].children[0].type, syms.print_stmt)
 
 
 class GrammarTest(support.TestCase):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_refactor.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_refactor.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_refactor.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_refactor.py
@@ -223,6 +223,7 @@
                 "hi.py",
                 ".dumb",
                 ".after.py",
+                "notpy.npy",
                 "sappy"]
         expected = ["hi.py"]
         check(tree, expected)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_util.py b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_util.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_util.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/lib2to3/tests/test_util.py
@@ -568,8 +568,8 @@
 
     def test_from_import(self):
         node = parse('bar()')
-        fixer_util.touch_import("cgi", "escape", node)
-        self.assertEqual(str(node), 'from cgi import escape\nbar()\n\n')
+        fixer_util.touch_import("html", "escape", node)
+        self.assertEqual(str(node), 'from html import escape\nbar()\n\n')
 
     def test_name_import(self):
         node = parse('bar()')
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/locale.py b/lib-python/2.7/locale.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/locale.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/locale.py
@@ -621,7 +621,7 @@
     'tactis':                       'TACTIS',
     'euc_jp':                       'eucJP',
     'euc_kr':                       'eucKR',
-    'utf_8':                        'UTF8',
+    'utf_8':                        'UTF-8',
     'koi8_r':                       'KOI8-R',
     'koi8_u':                       'KOI8-U',
     # XXX This list is still incomplete. If you know more
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/logging/__init__.py b/lib-python/2.7/logging/__init__.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/logging/__init__.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/logging/__init__.py
@@ -1627,6 +1627,7 @@
             h = wr()
             if h:
                 try:
+                    h.acquire()
                     h.flush()
                     h.close()
                 except (IOError, ValueError):
@@ -1635,6 +1636,8 @@
                     # references to them are still around at
                     # application exit.
                     pass
+                finally:
+                    h.release()
         except:
             if raiseExceptions:
                 raise
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/logging/config.py b/lib-python/2.7/logging/config.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/logging/config.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/logging/config.py
@@ -226,14 +226,14 @@
             propagate = 1
         logger = logging.getLogger(qn)
         if qn in existing:
-            i = existing.index(qn)
+            i = existing.index(qn) + 1 # start with the entry after qn
             prefixed = qn + "."
             pflen = len(prefixed)
             num_existing = len(existing)
-            i = i + 1 # look at the entry after qn
-            while (i < num_existing) and (existing[i][:pflen] == prefixed):
-                child_loggers.append(existing[i])
-                i = i + 1
+            while i < num_existing:
+                if existing[i][:pflen] == prefixed:
+                    child_loggers.append(existing[i])
+                i += 1
             existing.remove(qn)
         if "level" in opts:
             level = cp.get(sectname, "level")
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/logging/handlers.py b/lib-python/2.7/logging/handlers.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/logging/handlers.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/logging/handlers.py
@@ -125,6 +125,7 @@
         """
         if self.stream:
             self.stream.close()
+            self.stream = None
         if self.backupCount > 0:
             for i in range(self.backupCount - 1, 0, -1):
                 sfn = "%s.%d" % (self.baseFilename, i)
@@ -324,6 +325,7 @@
         """
         if self.stream:
             self.stream.close()
+            self.stream = None
         # get the time that this sequence started at and make it a TimeTuple
         t = self.rolloverAt - self.interval
         if self.utc:
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/mailbox.py b/lib-python/2.7/mailbox.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/mailbox.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/mailbox.py
@@ -234,27 +234,35 @@
     def __init__(self, dirname, factory=rfc822.Message, create=True):
         """Initialize a Maildir instance."""
         Mailbox.__init__(self, dirname, factory, create)
+        self._paths = {
+            'tmp': os.path.join(self._path, 'tmp'),
+            'new': os.path.join(self._path, 'new'),
+            'cur': os.path.join(self._path, 'cur'),
+            }
         if not os.path.exists(self._path):
             if create:
                 os.mkdir(self._path, 0700)
-                os.mkdir(os.path.join(self._path, 'tmp'), 0700)
-                os.mkdir(os.path.join(self._path, 'new'), 0700)
-                os.mkdir(os.path.join(self._path, 'cur'), 0700)
+                for path in self._paths.values():
+                    os.mkdir(path, 0o700)
             else:
                 raise NoSuchMailboxError(self._path)
         self._toc = {}
-        self._last_read = None          # Records last time we read cur/new
-        # NOTE: we manually invalidate _last_read each time we do any
-        # modifications ourselves, otherwise we might get tripped up by
-        # bogus mtime behaviour on some systems (see issue #6896).
+        self._toc_mtimes = {}
+        for subdir in ('cur', 'new'):
+            self._toc_mtimes[subdir] = os.path.getmtime(self._paths[subdir])
+        self._last_read = time.time()  # Records last time we read cur/new
+        self._skewfactor = 0.1         # Adjust if os/fs clocks are skewing
 
     def add(self, message):
         """Add message and return assigned key."""
         tmp_file = self._create_tmp()
         try:
             self._dump_message(message, tmp_file)
-        finally:
-            _sync_close(tmp_file)
+        except BaseException:
+            tmp_file.close()
+            os.remove(tmp_file.name)
+            raise
+        _sync_close(tmp_file)
         if isinstance(message, MaildirMessage):
             subdir = message.get_subdir()
             suffix = self.colon + message.get_info()
@@ -280,15 +288,11 @@
                 raise
         if isinstance(message, MaildirMessage):
             os.utime(dest, (os.path.getatime(dest), message.get_date()))
-        # Invalidate cached toc
-        self._last_read = None
         return uniq
 
     def remove(self, key):
         """Remove the keyed message; raise KeyError if it doesn't exist."""
         os.remove(os.path.join(self._path, self._lookup(key)))
-        # Invalidate cached toc (only on success)
-        self._last_read = None
 
     def discard(self, key):
         """If the keyed message exists, remove it."""
@@ -323,8 +327,6 @@
         if isinstance(message, MaildirMessage):
             os.utime(new_path, (os.path.getatime(new_path),
                                 message.get_date()))
-        # Invalidate cached toc
-        self._last_read = None
 
     def get_message(self, key):
         """Return a Message representation or raise a KeyError."""
@@ -380,8 +382,8 @@
     def flush(self):
         """Write any pending changes to disk."""
         # Maildir changes are always written immediately, so there's nothing
-        # to do except invalidate our cached toc.
-        self._last_read = None
+        # to do.
+        pass
 
     def lock(self):
         """Lock the mailbox."""
@@ -479,36 +481,39 @@
 
     def _refresh(self):
         """Update table of contents mapping."""
-        if self._last_read is not None:
-            for subdir in ('new', 'cur'):
-                mtime = os.path.getmtime(os.path.join(self._path, subdir))
-                if mtime > self._last_read:
-                    break
-            else:
+        # If it has been less than two seconds since the last _refresh() call,
+        # we have to unconditionally re-read the mailbox just in case it has
+        # been modified, because os.path.mtime() has a 2 sec resolution in the
+        # most common worst case (FAT) and a 1 sec resolution typically.  This
+        # results in a few unnecessary re-reads when _refresh() is called
+        # multiple times in that interval, but once the clock ticks over, we
+        # will only re-read as needed.  Because the filesystem might be being
+        # served by an independent system with its own clock, we record and
+        # compare with the mtimes from the filesystem.  Because the other
+        # system's clock might be skewing relative to our clock, we add an
+        # extra delta to our wait.  The default is one tenth second, but is an
+        # instance variable and so can be adjusted if dealing with a
+        # particularly skewed or irregular system.
+        if time.time() - self._last_read > 2 + self._skewfactor:
+            refresh = False
+            for subdir in self._toc_mtimes:
+                mtime = os.path.getmtime(self._paths[subdir])
+                if mtime > self._toc_mtimes[subdir]:
+                    refresh = True
+                self._toc_mtimes[subdir] = mtime
+            if not refresh:
                 return
-
-        # We record the current time - 1sec so that, if _refresh() is called
-        # again in the same second, we will always re-read the mailbox
-        # just in case it's been modified.  (os.path.mtime() only has
-        # 1sec resolution.)  This results in a few unnecessary re-reads
-        # when _refresh() is called multiple times in the same second,
-        # but once the clock ticks over, we will only re-read as needed.
-        now = time.time() - 1
-
+        # Refresh toc
         self._toc = {}
-        def update_dir (subdir):
-            path = os.path.join(self._path, subdir)
+        for subdir in self._toc_mtimes:
+            path = self._paths[subdir]
             for entry in os.listdir(path):
                 p = os.path.join(path, entry)
                 if os.path.isdir(p):
                     continue
                 uniq = entry.split(self.colon)[0]
                 self._toc[uniq] = os.path.join(subdir, entry)
-
-        update_dir('new')
-        update_dir('cur')
-
-        self._last_read = now
+        self._last_read = time.time()
 
     def _lookup(self, key):
         """Use TOC to return subpath for given key, or raise a KeyError."""
@@ -551,7 +556,7 @@
                     f = open(self._path, 'wb+')
                 else:
                     raise NoSuchMailboxError(self._path)
-            elif e.errno == errno.EACCES:
+            elif e.errno in (errno.EACCES, errno.EROFS):
                 f = open(self._path, 'rb')
             else:
                 raise
@@ -700,9 +705,14 @@
     def _append_message(self, message):
         """Append message to mailbox and return (start, stop) offsets."""
         self._file.seek(0, 2)
-        self._pre_message_hook(self._file)
-        offsets = self._install_message(message)
-        self._post_message_hook(self._file)
+        before = self._file.tell()
+        try:
+            self._pre_message_hook(self._file)
+            offsets = self._install_message(message)
+            self._post_message_hook(self._file)
+        except BaseException:
+            self._file.truncate(before)
+            raise
         self._file.flush()
         self._file_length = self._file.tell()  # Record current length of mailbox
         return offsets
@@ -868,18 +878,29 @@
             new_key = max(keys) + 1
         new_path = os.path.join(self._path, str(new_key))
         f = _create_carefully(new_path)
+        closed = False
         try:
             if self._locked:
                 _lock_file(f)
             try:
-                self._dump_message(message, f)
+                try:
+                    self._dump_message(message, f)
+                except BaseException:
+                    # Unlock and close so it can be deleted on Windows
+                    if self._locked:
+                        _unlock_file(f)
+                    _sync_close(f)
+                    closed = True
+                    os.remove(new_path)
+                    raise
                 if isinstance(message, MHMessage):
                     self._dump_sequences(message, new_key)
             finally:
                 if self._locked:
                     _unlock_file(f)
         finally:
-            _sync_close(f)
+            if not closed:
+                _sync_close(f)
         return new_key
 
     def remove(self, key):
@@ -1886,7 +1907,7 @@
             try:
                 fcntl.lockf(f, fcntl.LOCK_EX | fcntl.LOCK_NB)
             except IOError, e:
-                if e.errno in (errno.EAGAIN, errno.EACCES):
+                if e.errno in (errno.EAGAIN, errno.EACCES, errno.EROFS):
                     raise ExternalClashError('lockf: lock unavailable: %s' %
                                              f.name)
                 else:
@@ -1896,7 +1917,7 @@
                 pre_lock = _create_temporary(f.name + '.lock')
                 pre_lock.close()
             except IOError, e:
-                if e.errno == errno.EACCES:
+                if e.errno in (errno.EACCES, errno.EROFS):
                     return  # Without write access, just skip dotlocking.
                 else:
                     raise
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/msilib/__init__.py b/lib-python/2.7/msilib/__init__.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/msilib/__init__.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/msilib/__init__.py
@@ -173,11 +173,10 @@
         add_data(db, table, getattr(module, table))
 
 def make_id(str):
-    #str = str.replace(".", "_") # colons are allowed
-    str = str.replace(" ", "_")
-    str = str.replace("-", "_")
-    if str[0] in string.digits:
-        str = "_"+str
+    identifier_chars = string.ascii_letters + string.digits + "._"
+    str = "".join([c if c in identifier_chars else "_" for c in str])
+    if str[0] in (string.digits + "."):
+        str = "_" + str
     assert re.match("^[A-Za-z_][A-Za-z0-9_.]*$", str), "FILE"+str
     return str
 
@@ -285,19 +284,28 @@
                         [(feature.id, component)])
 
     def make_short(self, file):
+        oldfile = file
+        file = file.replace('+', '_')
+        file = ''.join(c for c in file if not c in ' "/\[]:;=,')
         parts = file.split(".")
-        if len(parts)>1:
+        if len(parts) > 1:
+            prefix = "".join(parts[:-1]).upper()
             suffix = parts[-1].upper()
+            if not prefix:
+                prefix = suffix
+                suffix = None
         else:
+            prefix = file.upper()
             suffix = None
-        prefix = parts[0].upper()
-        if len(prefix) <= 8 and (not suffix or len(suffix)<=3):
+        if len(parts) < 3 and len(prefix) <= 8 and file == oldfile and (
+                                                not suffix or len(suffix) <= 3):
             if suffix:
                 file = prefix+"."+suffix
             else:
                 file = prefix
-            assert file not in self.short_names
         else:
+            file = None
+        if file is None or file in self.short_names:
             prefix = prefix[:6]
             if suffix:
                 suffix = suffix[:3]
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/__init__.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/__init__.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/__init__.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/__init__.py
@@ -38,6 +38,7 @@
 # HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
 # LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
 # OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 __version__ = '0.70a1'
@@ -115,8 +116,11 @@
         except (ValueError, KeyError):
             num = 0
     elif 'bsd' in sys.platform or sys.platform == 'darwin':
+        comm = '/sbin/sysctl -n hw.ncpu'
+        if sys.platform == 'darwin':
+            comm = '/usr' + comm
         try:
-            with os.popen('sysctl -n hw.ncpu') as p:
+            with os.popen(comm) as p:
                 num = int(p.read())
         except ValueError:
             num = 0
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/connection.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/connection.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/connection.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/connection.py
@@ -3,7 +3,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/connection.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 __all__ = [ 'Client', 'Listener', 'Pipe' ]
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/dummy/__init__.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/dummy/__init__.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/dummy/__init__.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/dummy/__init__.py
@@ -3,7 +3,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/dummy/__init__.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 __all__ = [
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/dummy/connection.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/dummy/connection.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/dummy/connection.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/dummy/connection.py
@@ -3,7 +3,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/dummy/connection.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 __all__ = [ 'Client', 'Listener', 'Pipe' ]
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/forking.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/forking.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/forking.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/forking.py
@@ -3,7 +3,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/forking.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 import os
@@ -172,6 +198,7 @@
 
     TERMINATE = 0x10000
     WINEXE = (sys.platform == 'win32' and getattr(sys, 'frozen', False))
+    WINSERVICE = sys.executable.lower().endswith("pythonservice.exe")
 
     exit = win32.ExitProcess
     close = win32.CloseHandle
@@ -181,7 +208,7 @@
     # People embedding Python want to modify it.
     #
 
-    if sys.executable.lower().endswith('pythonservice.exe'):
+    if WINSERVICE:
         _python_exe = os.path.join(sys.exec_prefix, 'python.exe')
     else:
         _python_exe = sys.executable
@@ -371,7 +398,7 @@
         if _logger is not None:
             d['log_level'] = _logger.getEffectiveLevel()
 
-        if not WINEXE:
+        if not WINEXE and not WINSERVICE:
             main_path = getattr(sys.modules['__main__'], '__file__', None)
             if not main_path and sys.argv[0] not in ('', '-c'):
                 main_path = sys.argv[0]
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/heap.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/heap.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/heap.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/heap.py
@@ -3,7 +3,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/heap.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2007-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 import bisect
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/managers.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/managers.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/managers.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/managers.py
@@ -4,7 +4,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/managers.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 __all__ = [ 'BaseManager', 'SyncManager', 'BaseProxy', 'Token' ]
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/pool.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/pool.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/pool.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/pool.py
@@ -3,7 +3,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/pool.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2007-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 __all__ = ['Pool']
@@ -269,6 +295,8 @@
         while pool._worker_handler._state == RUN and pool._state == RUN:
             pool._maintain_pool()
             time.sleep(0.1)
+        # send sentinel to stop workers
+        pool._taskqueue.put(None)
         debug('worker handler exiting')
 
     @staticmethod
@@ -387,7 +415,6 @@
         if self._state == RUN:
             self._state = CLOSE
             self._worker_handler._state = CLOSE
-            self._taskqueue.put(None)
 
     def terminate(self):
         debug('terminating pool')
@@ -421,7 +448,6 @@
 
         worker_handler._state = TERMINATE
         task_handler._state = TERMINATE
-        taskqueue.put(None)                 # sentinel
 
         debug('helping task handler/workers to finish')
         cls._help_stuff_finish(inqueue, task_handler, len(pool))
@@ -431,6 +457,11 @@
         result_handler._state = TERMINATE
         outqueue.put(None)                  # sentinel
 
+        # We must wait for the worker handler to exit before terminating
+        # workers because we don't want workers to be restarted behind our back.
+        debug('joining worker handler')
+        worker_handler.join()
+
         # Terminate workers which haven't already finished.
         if pool and hasattr(pool[0], 'terminate'):
             debug('terminating workers')
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/process.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/process.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/process.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/process.py
@@ -3,7 +3,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/process.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 __all__ = ['Process', 'current_process', 'active_children']
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/queues.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/queues.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/queues.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/queues.py
@@ -3,7 +3,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/queues.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 __all__ = ['Queue', 'SimpleQueue', 'JoinableQueue']
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/reduction.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/reduction.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/reduction.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/reduction.py
@@ -4,7 +4,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/reduction.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 __all__ = []
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/sharedctypes.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/sharedctypes.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/sharedctypes.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/sharedctypes.py
@@ -3,7 +3,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/sharedctypes.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2007-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 import sys
@@ -52,9 +78,11 @@
     Returns a ctypes array allocated from shared memory
     '''
     type_ = typecode_to_type.get(typecode_or_type, typecode_or_type)
-    if isinstance(size_or_initializer, int):
+    if isinstance(size_or_initializer, (int, long)):
         type_ = type_ * size_or_initializer
-        return _new_value(type_)
+        obj = _new_value(type_)
+        ctypes.memset(ctypes.addressof(obj), 0, ctypes.sizeof(obj))
+        return obj
     else:
         type_ = type_ * len(size_or_initializer)
         result = _new_value(type_)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/synchronize.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/synchronize.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/synchronize.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/synchronize.py
@@ -3,7 +3,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/synchronize.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 __all__ = [
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/util.py b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/util.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/util.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/multiprocessing/util.py
@@ -3,7 +3,33 @@
 #
 # multiprocessing/util.py
 #
-# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk --- see COPYING.txt
+# Copyright (c) 2006-2008, R Oudkerk
+# All rights reserved.
+#
+# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+# are met:
+#
+# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+# 3. Neither the name of author nor the names of any contributors may be
+#    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+#    without specific prior written permission.
+#
+# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
+# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+# SUCH DAMAGE.
 #
 
 import itertools
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/netrc.py b/lib-python/2.7/netrc.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/netrc.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/netrc.py
@@ -34,11 +34,19 @@
     def _parse(self, file, fp):
         lexer = shlex.shlex(fp)
         lexer.wordchars += r"""!"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\]^_`{|}~"""
+        lexer.commenters = lexer.commenters.replace('#', '')
         while 1:
             # Look for a machine, default, or macdef top-level keyword
             toplevel = tt = lexer.get_token()
             if not tt:
                 break
+            elif tt[0] == '#':
+                # seek to beginning of comment, in case reading the token put
+                # us on a new line, and then skip the rest of the line.
+                pos = len(tt) + 1
+                lexer.instream.seek(-pos, 1)
+                lexer.instream.readline()
+                continue
             elif tt == 'machine':
                 entryname = lexer.get_token()
             elif tt == 'default':
@@ -64,8 +72,8 @@
             self.hosts[entryname] = {}
             while 1:
                 tt = lexer.get_token()
-                if (tt=='' or tt == 'machine' or
-                    tt == 'default' or tt =='macdef'):
+                if (tt.startswith('#') or
+                    tt in {'', 'machine', 'default', 'macdef'}):
                     if password:
                         self.hosts[entryname] = (login, account, password)
                         lexer.push_token(tt)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/nntplib.py b/lib-python/2.7/nntplib.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/nntplib.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/nntplib.py
@@ -103,7 +103,7 @@
 
         readermode is sometimes necessary if you are connecting to an
         NNTP server on the local machine and intend to call
-        reader-specific comamnds, such as `group'.  If you get
+        reader-specific commands, such as `group'.  If you get
         unexpected NNTPPermanentErrors, you might need to set
         readermode.
         """
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ntpath.py b/lib-python/2.7/ntpath.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ntpath.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ntpath.py
@@ -310,7 +310,7 @@
 #       - $varname is accepted.
 #       - %varname% is accepted.
 #       - varnames can be made out of letters, digits and the characters '_-'
-#         (though is not verifed in the ${varname} and %varname% cases)
+#         (though is not verified in the ${varname} and %varname% cases)
 # XXX With COMMAND.COM you can use any characters in a variable name,
 # XXX except '^|<>='.
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/nturl2path.py b/lib-python/2.7/nturl2path.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/nturl2path.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/nturl2path.py
@@ -25,11 +25,14 @@
         error = 'Bad URL: ' + url
         raise IOError, error
     drive = comp[0][-1].upper()
+    path = drive + ':'
     components = comp[1].split('/')
-    path = drive + ':'
-    for  comp in components:
+    for comp in components:
         if comp:
             path = path + '\\' + urllib.unquote(comp)
+    # Issue #11474: url like '/C|/' should convert into 'C:\\'
+    if path.endswith(':') and url.endswith('/'):
+        path += '\\'
     return path
 
 def pathname2url(p):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/numbers.py b/lib-python/2.7/numbers.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/numbers.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/numbers.py
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@
 
     @abstractproperty
     def imag(self):
-        """Retrieve the real component of this number.
+        """Retrieve the imaginary component of this number.
 
         This should subclass Real.
         """
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/optparse.py b/lib-python/2.7/optparse.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/optparse.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/optparse.py
@@ -1131,6 +1131,11 @@
       prog : string
         the name of the current program (to override
         os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])).
+      description : string
+        A paragraph of text giving a brief overview of your program.
+        optparse reformats this paragraph to fit the current terminal
+        width and prints it when the user requests help (after usage,
+        but before the list of options).
       epilog : string
         paragraph of help text to print after option help
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/pickletools.py b/lib-python/2.7/pickletools.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/pickletools.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/pickletools.py
@@ -1370,7 +1370,7 @@
       proto=0,
       doc="""Read an object from the memo and push it on the stack.
 
-      The index of the memo object to push is given by the newline-teriminated
+      The index of the memo object to push is given by the newline-terminated
       decimal string following.  BINGET and LONG_BINGET are space-optimized
       versions.
       """),
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/pkgutil.py b/lib-python/2.7/pkgutil.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/pkgutil.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/pkgutil.py
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 
 __all__ = [
     'get_importer', 'iter_importers', 'get_loader', 'find_loader',
-    'walk_packages', 'iter_modules',
+    'walk_packages', 'iter_modules', 'get_data',
     'ImpImporter', 'ImpLoader', 'read_code', 'extend_path',
 ]
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/platform.py b/lib-python/2.7/platform.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/platform.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/platform.py
@@ -503,7 +503,7 @@
             info = pipe.read()
             if pipe.close():
                 raise os.error,'command failed'
-            # XXX How can I supress shell errors from being written
+            # XXX How can I suppress shell errors from being written
             #     to stderr ?
         except os.error,why:
             #print 'Command %s failed: %s' % (cmd,why)
@@ -1448,9 +1448,10 @@
     """ Returns a string identifying the Python implementation.
 
         Currently, the following implementations are identified:
-        'CPython' (C implementation of Python),
-        'IronPython' (.NET implementation of Python),
-        'Jython' (Java implementation of Python).
+          'CPython' (C implementation of Python),
+          'IronPython' (.NET implementation of Python),
+          'Jython' (Java implementation of Python),
+          'PyPy' (Python implementation of Python).
 
     """
     return _sys_version()[0]
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/pydoc.py b/lib-python/2.7/pydoc.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/pydoc.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/pydoc.py
@@ -156,7 +156,7 @@
             no.append(x)
     return yes, no
 
-def visiblename(name, all=None):
+def visiblename(name, all=None, obj=None):
     """Decide whether to show documentation on a variable."""
     # Certain special names are redundant.
     _hidden_names = ('__builtins__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__path__',
@@ -164,6 +164,9 @@
     if name in _hidden_names: return 0
     # Private names are hidden, but special names are displayed.
     if name.startswith('__') and name.endswith('__'): return 1
+    # Namedtuples have public fields and methods with a single leading underscore
+    if name.startswith('_') and hasattr(obj, '_fields'):
+        return 1
     if all is not None:
         # only document that which the programmer exported in __all__
         return name in all
@@ -475,9 +478,9 @@
     def multicolumn(self, list, format, cols=4):
         """Format a list of items into a multi-column list."""
         result = ''
-        rows = (len(list)+cols-1)/cols
+        rows = (len(list)+cols-1)//cols
         for col in range(cols):
-            result = result + '<td width="%d%%" valign=top>' % (100/cols)
+            result = result + '<td width="%d%%" valign=top>' % (100//cols)
             for i in range(rows*col, rows*col+rows):
                 if i < len(list):
                     result = result + format(list[i]) + '<br>\n'
@@ -627,7 +630,7 @@
             # if __all__ exists, believe it.  Otherwise use old heuristic.
             if (all is not None or
                 (inspect.getmodule(value) or object) is object):
-                if visiblename(key, all):
+                if visiblename(key, all, object):
                     classes.append((key, value))
                     cdict[key] = cdict[value] = '#' + key
         for key, value in classes:
@@ -643,13 +646,13 @@
             # if __all__ exists, believe it.  Otherwise use old heuristic.
             if (all is not None or
                 inspect.isbuiltin(value) or inspect.getmodule(value) is object):
-                if visiblename(key, all):
+                if visiblename(key, all, object):
                     funcs.append((key, value))
                     fdict[key] = '#-' + key
                     if inspect.isfunction(value): fdict[value] = fdict[key]
         data = []
         for key, value in inspect.getmembers(object, isdata):
-            if visiblename(key, all):
+            if visiblename(key, all, object):
                 data.append((key, value))
 
         doc = self.markup(getdoc(object), self.preformat, fdict, cdict)
@@ -773,7 +776,7 @@
                     push('\n')
             return attrs
 
-        attrs = filter(lambda data: visiblename(data[0]),
+        attrs = filter(lambda data: visiblename(data[0], obj=object),
                        classify_class_attrs(object))
         mdict = {}
         for key, kind, homecls, value in attrs:
@@ -1042,18 +1045,18 @@
             # if __all__ exists, believe it.  Otherwise use old heuristic.
             if (all is not None
                 or (inspect.getmodule(value) or object) is object):
-                if visiblename(key, all):
+                if visiblename(key, all, object):
                     classes.append((key, value))
         funcs = []
         for key, value in inspect.getmembers(object, inspect.isroutine):
             # if __all__ exists, believe it.  Otherwise use old heuristic.
             if (all is not None or
                 inspect.isbuiltin(value) or inspect.getmodule(value) is object):
-                if visiblename(key, all):
+                if visiblename(key, all, object):
                     funcs.append((key, value))
         data = []
         for key, value in inspect.getmembers(object, isdata):
-            if visiblename(key, all):
+            if visiblename(key, all, object):
                 data.append((key, value))
 
         modpkgs = []
@@ -1113,7 +1116,7 @@
             result = result + self.section('CREDITS', str(object.__credits__))
         return result
 
-    def docclass(self, object, name=None, mod=None):
+    def docclass(self, object, name=None, mod=None, *ignored):
         """Produce text documentation for a given class object."""
         realname = object.__name__
         name = name or realname
@@ -1186,7 +1189,7 @@
                                        name, mod, maxlen=70, doc=doc) + '\n')
             return attrs
 
-        attrs = filter(lambda data: visiblename(data[0]),
+        attrs = filter(lambda data: visiblename(data[0], obj=object),
                        classify_class_attrs(object))
         while attrs:
             if mro:
@@ -1718,8 +1721,9 @@
             return ''
         return '<pydoc.Helper instance>'
 
-    def __call__(self, request=None):
-        if request is not None:
+    _GoInteractive = object()
+    def __call__(self, request=_GoInteractive):
+        if request is not self._GoInteractive:
             self.help(request)
         else:
             self.intro()
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/pydoc_data/topics.py b/lib-python/2.7/pydoc_data/topics.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/pydoc_data/topics.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/pydoc_data/topics.py
@@ -1,16 +1,16 @@
-# Autogenerated by Sphinx on Sat Jul  3 08:52:04 2010
+# Autogenerated by Sphinx on Sat Jun 11 09:49:30 2011
 topics = {'assert': u'\nThe ``assert`` statement\n************************\n\nAssert statements are a convenient way to insert debugging assertions\ninto a program:\n\n   assert_stmt ::= "assert" expression ["," expression]\n\nThe simple form, ``assert expression``, is equivalent to\n\n   if __debug__:\n      if not expression: raise AssertionError\n\nThe extended form, ``assert expression1, expression2``, is equivalent\nto\n\n   if __debug__:\n      if not expression1: raise AssertionError(expression2)\n\nThese equivalences assume that ``__debug__`` and ``AssertionError``\nrefer to the built-in variables with those names.  In the current\nimplementation, the built-in variable ``__debug__`` is ``True`` under\nnormal circumstances, ``False`` when optimization is requested\n(command line option -O).  The current code generator emits no code\nfor an assert statement when optimization is requested at compile\ntime.  Note that it is unnecessary to include the source code for the\nexpression that failed in the error message; it will be displayed as\npart of the stack trace.\n\nAssignments to ``__debug__`` are illegal.  The value for the built-in\nvariable is determined when the interpreter starts.\n',
- 'assignment': u'\nAssignment statements\n*********************\n\nAssignment statements are used to (re)bind names to values and to\nmodify attributes or items of mutable objects:\n\n   assignment_stmt ::= (target_list "=")+ (expression_list | yield_expression)\n   target_list     ::= target ("," target)* [","]\n   target          ::= identifier\n              | "(" target_list ")"\n              | "[" target_list "]"\n              | attributeref\n              | subscription\n              | slicing\n\n(See section *Primaries* for the syntax definitions for the last three\nsymbols.)\n\nAn assignment statement evaluates the expression list (remember that\nthis can be a single expression or a comma-separated list, the latter\nyielding a tuple) and assigns the single resulting object to each of\nthe target lists, from left to right.\n\nAssignment is defined recursively depending on the form of the target\n(list). When a target is part of a mutable object (an attribute\nreference, subscription or slicing), the mutable object must\nultimately perform the assignment and decide about its validity, and\nmay raise an exception if the assignment is unacceptable.  The rules\nobserved by various types and the exceptions raised are given with the\ndefinition of the object types (see section *The standard type\nhierarchy*).\n\nAssignment of an object to a target list is recursively defined as\nfollows.\n\n* If the target list is a single target: The object is assigned to\n  that target.\n\n* If the target list is a comma-separated list of targets: The object\n  must be an iterable with the same number of items as there are\n  targets in the target list, and the items are assigned, from left to\n  right, to the corresponding targets. (This rule is relaxed as of\n  Python 1.5; in earlier versions, the object had to be a tuple.\n  Since strings are sequences, an assignment like ``a, b = "xy"`` is\n  now legal as long as the string has the right length.)\n\nAssignment of an object to a single target is recursively defined as\nfollows.\n\n* If the target is an identifier (name):\n\n  * If the name does not occur in a ``global`` statement in the\n    current code block: the name is bound to the object in the current\n    local namespace.\n\n  * Otherwise: the name is bound to the object in the current global\n    namespace.\n\n  The name is rebound if it was already bound.  This may cause the\n  reference count for the object previously bound to the name to reach\n  zero, causing the object to be deallocated and its destructor (if it\n  has one) to be called.\n\n* If the target is a target list enclosed in parentheses or in square\n  brackets: The object must be an iterable with the same number of\n  items as there are targets in the target list, and its items are\n  assigned, from left to right, to the corresponding targets.\n\n* If the target is an attribute reference: The primary expression in\n  the reference is evaluated.  It should yield an object with\n  assignable attributes; if this is not the case, ``TypeError`` is\n  raised.  That object is then asked to assign the assigned object to\n  the given attribute; if it cannot perform the assignment, it raises\n  an exception (usually but not necessarily ``AttributeError``).\n\n  Note: If the object is a class instance and the attribute reference\n  occurs on both sides of the assignment operator, the RHS expression,\n  ``a.x`` can access either an instance attribute or (if no instance\n  attribute exists) a class attribute.  The LHS target ``a.x`` is\n  always set as an instance attribute, creating it if necessary.\n  Thus, the two occurrences of ``a.x`` do not necessarily refer to the\n  same attribute: if the RHS expression refers to a class attribute,\n  the LHS creates a new instance attribute as the target of the\n  assignment:\n\n     class Cls:\n         x = 3             # class variable\n     inst = Cls()\n     inst.x = inst.x + 1   # writes inst.x as 4 leaving Cls.x as 3\n\n  This description does not necessarily apply to descriptor\n  attributes, such as properties created with ``property()``.\n\n* If the target is a subscription: The primary expression in the\n  reference is evaluated.  It should yield either a mutable sequence\n  object (such as a list) or a mapping object (such as a dictionary).\n  Next, the subscript expression is evaluated.\n\n  If the primary is a mutable sequence object (such as a list), the\n  subscript must yield a plain integer.  If it is negative, the\n  sequence\'s length is added to it. The resulting value must be a\n  nonnegative integer less than the sequence\'s length, and the\n  sequence is asked to assign the assigned object to its item with\n  that index.  If the index is out of range, ``IndexError`` is raised\n  (assignment to a subscripted sequence cannot add new items to a\n  list).\n\n  If the primary is a mapping object (such as a dictionary), the\n  subscript must have a type compatible with the mapping\'s key type,\n  and the mapping is then asked to create a key/datum pair which maps\n  the subscript to the assigned object.  This can either replace an\n  existing key/value pair with the same key value, or insert a new\n  key/value pair (if no key with the same value existed).\n\n* If the target is a slicing: The primary expression in the reference\n  is evaluated.  It should yield a mutable sequence object (such as a\n  list).  The assigned object should be a sequence object of the same\n  type.  Next, the lower and upper bound expressions are evaluated,\n  insofar they are present; defaults are zero and the sequence\'s\n  length.  The bounds should evaluate to (small) integers.  If either\n  bound is negative, the sequence\'s length is added to it. The\n  resulting bounds are clipped to lie between zero and the sequence\'s\n  length, inclusive.  Finally, the sequence object is asked to replace\n  the slice with the items of the assigned sequence.  The length of\n  the slice may be different from the length of the assigned sequence,\n  thus changing the length of the target sequence, if the object\n  allows it.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** In the current implementation, the\nsyntax for targets is taken to be the same as for expressions, and\ninvalid syntax is rejected during the code generation phase, causing\nless detailed error messages.\n\nWARNING: Although the definition of assignment implies that overlaps\nbetween the left-hand side and the right-hand side are \'safe\' (for\nexample ``a, b = b, a`` swaps two variables), overlaps *within* the\ncollection of assigned-to variables are not safe!  For instance, the\nfollowing program prints ``[0, 2]``:\n\n   x = [0, 1]\n   i = 0\n   i, x[i] = 1, 2\n   print x\n\n\nAugmented assignment statements\n===============================\n\nAugmented assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a\nbinary operation and an assignment statement:\n\n   augmented_assignment_stmt ::= augtarget augop (expression_list | yield_expression)\n   augtarget                 ::= identifier | attributeref | subscription | slicing\n   augop                     ::= "+=" | "-=" | "*=" | "/=" | "//=" | "%=" | "**="\n             | ">>=" | "<<=" | "&=" | "^=" | "|="\n\n(See section *Primaries* for the syntax definitions for the last three\nsymbols.)\n\nAn augmented assignment evaluates the target (which, unlike normal\nassignment statements, cannot be an unpacking) and the expression\nlist, performs the binary operation specific to the type of assignment\non the two operands, and assigns the result to the original target.\nThe target is only evaluated once.\n\nAn augmented assignment expression like ``x += 1`` can be rewritten as\n``x = x + 1`` to achieve a similar, but not exactly equal effect. In\nthe augmented version, ``x`` is only evaluated once. Also, when\npossible, the actual operation is performed *in-place*, meaning that\nrather than creating a new object and assigning that to the target,\nthe old object is modified instead.\n\nWith the exception of assigning to tuples and multiple targets in a\nsingle statement, the assignment done by augmented assignment\nstatements is handled the same way as normal assignments. Similarly,\nwith the exception of the possible *in-place* behavior, the binary\noperation performed by augmented assignment is the same as the normal\nbinary operations.\n\nFor targets which are attribute references, the same *caveat about\nclass and instance attributes* applies as for regular assignments.\n',
+ 'assignment': u'\nAssignment statements\n*********************\n\nAssignment statements are used to (re)bind names to values and to\nmodify attributes or items of mutable objects:\n\n   assignment_stmt ::= (target_list "=")+ (expression_list | yield_expression)\n   target_list     ::= target ("," target)* [","]\n   target          ::= identifier\n              | "(" target_list ")"\n              | "[" target_list "]"\n              | attributeref\n              | subscription\n              | slicing\n\n(See section *Primaries* for the syntax definitions for the last three\nsymbols.)\n\nAn assignment statement evaluates the expression list (remember that\nthis can be a single expression or a comma-separated list, the latter\nyielding a tuple) and assigns the single resulting object to each of\nthe target lists, from left to right.\n\nAssignment is defined recursively depending on the form of the target\n(list). When a target is part of a mutable object (an attribute\nreference, subscription or slicing), the mutable object must\nultimately perform the assignment and decide about its validity, and\nmay raise an exception if the assignment is unacceptable.  The rules\nobserved by various types and the exceptions raised are given with the\ndefinition of the object types (see section *The standard type\nhierarchy*).\n\nAssignment of an object to a target list is recursively defined as\nfollows.\n\n* If the target list is a single target: The object is assigned to\n  that target.\n\n* If the target list is a comma-separated list of targets: The object\n  must be an iterable with the same number of items as there are\n  targets in the target list, and the items are assigned, from left to\n  right, to the corresponding targets.\n\nAssignment of an object to a single target is recursively defined as\nfollows.\n\n* If the target is an identifier (name):\n\n  * If the name does not occur in a ``global`` statement in the\n    current code block: the name is bound to the object in the current\n    local namespace.\n\n  * Otherwise: the name is bound to the object in the current global\n    namespace.\n\n  The name is rebound if it was already bound.  This may cause the\n  reference count for the object previously bound to the name to reach\n  zero, causing the object to be deallocated and its destructor (if it\n  has one) to be called.\n\n* If the target is a target list enclosed in parentheses or in square\n  brackets: The object must be an iterable with the same number of\n  items as there are targets in the target list, and its items are\n  assigned, from left to right, to the corresponding targets.\n\n* If the target is an attribute reference: The primary expression in\n  the reference is evaluated.  It should yield an object with\n  assignable attributes; if this is not the case, ``TypeError`` is\n  raised.  That object is then asked to assign the assigned object to\n  the given attribute; if it cannot perform the assignment, it raises\n  an exception (usually but not necessarily ``AttributeError``).\n\n  Note: If the object is a class instance and the attribute reference\n  occurs on both sides of the assignment operator, the RHS expression,\n  ``a.x`` can access either an instance attribute or (if no instance\n  attribute exists) a class attribute.  The LHS target ``a.x`` is\n  always set as an instance attribute, creating it if necessary.\n  Thus, the two occurrences of ``a.x`` do not necessarily refer to the\n  same attribute: if the RHS expression refers to a class attribute,\n  the LHS creates a new instance attribute as the target of the\n  assignment:\n\n     class Cls:\n         x = 3             # class variable\n     inst = Cls()\n     inst.x = inst.x + 1   # writes inst.x as 4 leaving Cls.x as 3\n\n  This description does not necessarily apply to descriptor\n  attributes, such as properties created with ``property()``.\n\n* If the target is a subscription: The primary expression in the\n  reference is evaluated.  It should yield either a mutable sequence\n  object (such as a list) or a mapping object (such as a dictionary).\n  Next, the subscript expression is evaluated.\n\n  If the primary is a mutable sequence object (such as a list), the\n  subscript must yield a plain integer.  If it is negative, the\n  sequence\'s length is added to it. The resulting value must be a\n  nonnegative integer less than the sequence\'s length, and the\n  sequence is asked to assign the assigned object to its item with\n  that index.  If the index is out of range, ``IndexError`` is raised\n  (assignment to a subscripted sequence cannot add new items to a\n  list).\n\n  If the primary is a mapping object (such as a dictionary), the\n  subscript must have a type compatible with the mapping\'s key type,\n  and the mapping is then asked to create a key/datum pair which maps\n  the subscript to the assigned object.  This can either replace an\n  existing key/value pair with the same key value, or insert a new\n  key/value pair (if no key with the same value existed).\n\n* If the target is a slicing: The primary expression in the reference\n  is evaluated.  It should yield a mutable sequence object (such as a\n  list).  The assigned object should be a sequence object of the same\n  type.  Next, the lower and upper bound expressions are evaluated,\n  insofar they are present; defaults are zero and the sequence\'s\n  length.  The bounds should evaluate to (small) integers.  If either\n  bound is negative, the sequence\'s length is added to it. The\n  resulting bounds are clipped to lie between zero and the sequence\'s\n  length, inclusive.  Finally, the sequence object is asked to replace\n  the slice with the items of the assigned sequence.  The length of\n  the slice may be different from the length of the assigned sequence,\n  thus changing the length of the target sequence, if the object\n  allows it.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** In the current implementation, the\nsyntax for targets is taken to be the same as for expressions, and\ninvalid syntax is rejected during the code generation phase, causing\nless detailed error messages.\n\nWARNING: Although the definition of assignment implies that overlaps\nbetween the left-hand side and the right-hand side are \'safe\' (for\nexample ``a, b = b, a`` swaps two variables), overlaps *within* the\ncollection of assigned-to variables are not safe!  For instance, the\nfollowing program prints ``[0, 2]``:\n\n   x = [0, 1]\n   i = 0\n   i, x[i] = 1, 2\n   print x\n\n\nAugmented assignment statements\n===============================\n\nAugmented assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a\nbinary operation and an assignment statement:\n\n   augmented_assignment_stmt ::= augtarget augop (expression_list | yield_expression)\n   augtarget                 ::= identifier | attributeref | subscription | slicing\n   augop                     ::= "+=" | "-=" | "*=" | "/=" | "//=" | "%=" | "**="\n             | ">>=" | "<<=" | "&=" | "^=" | "|="\n\n(See section *Primaries* for the syntax definitions for the last three\nsymbols.)\n\nAn augmented assignment evaluates the target (which, unlike normal\nassignment statements, cannot be an unpacking) and the expression\nlist, performs the binary operation specific to the type of assignment\non the two operands, and assigns the result to the original target.\nThe target is only evaluated once.\n\nAn augmented assignment expression like ``x += 1`` can be rewritten as\n``x = x + 1`` to achieve a similar, but not exactly equal effect. In\nthe augmented version, ``x`` is only evaluated once. Also, when\npossible, the actual operation is performed *in-place*, meaning that\nrather than creating a new object and assigning that to the target,\nthe old object is modified instead.\n\nWith the exception of assigning to tuples and multiple targets in a\nsingle statement, the assignment done by augmented assignment\nstatements is handled the same way as normal assignments. Similarly,\nwith the exception of the possible *in-place* behavior, the binary\noperation performed by augmented assignment is the same as the normal\nbinary operations.\n\nFor targets which are attribute references, the same *caveat about\nclass and instance attributes* applies as for regular assignments.\n',
  'atom-identifiers': u'\nIdentifiers (Names)\n*******************\n\nAn identifier occurring as an atom is a name.  See section\n*Identifiers and keywords* for lexical definition and section *Naming\nand binding* for documentation of naming and binding.\n\nWhen the name is bound to an object, evaluation of the atom yields\nthat object. When a name is not bound, an attempt to evaluate it\nraises a ``NameError`` exception.\n\n**Private name mangling:** When an identifier that textually occurs in\na class definition begins with two or more underscore characters and\ndoes not end in two or more underscores, it is considered a *private\nname* of that class. Private names are transformed to a longer form\nbefore code is generated for them.  The transformation inserts the\nclass name in front of the name, with leading underscores removed, and\na single underscore inserted in front of the class name.  For example,\nthe identifier ``__spam`` occurring in a class named ``Ham`` will be\ntransformed to ``_Ham__spam``.  This transformation is independent of\nthe syntactical context in which the identifier is used.  If the\ntransformed name is extremely long (longer than 255 characters),\nimplementation defined truncation may happen.  If the class name\nconsists only of underscores, no transformation is done.\n',
  'atom-literals': u"\nLiterals\n********\n\nPython supports string literals and various numeric literals:\n\n   literal ::= stringliteral | integer | longinteger\n               | floatnumber | imagnumber\n\nEvaluation of a literal yields an object of the given type (string,\ninteger, long integer, floating point number, complex number) with the\ngiven value.  The value may be approximated in the case of floating\npoint and imaginary (complex) literals.  See section *Literals* for\ndetails.\n\nAll literals correspond to immutable data types, and hence the\nobject's identity is less important than its value.  Multiple\nevaluations of literals with the same value (either the same\noccurrence in the program text or a different occurrence) may obtain\nthe same object or a different object with the same value.\n",
- 'attribute-access': u'\nCustomizing attribute access\n****************************\n\nThe following methods can be defined to customize the meaning of\nattribute access (use of, assignment to, or deletion of ``x.name``)\nfor class instances.\n\nobject.__getattr__(self, name)\n\n   Called when an attribute lookup has not found the attribute in the\n   usual places (i.e. it is not an instance attribute nor is it found\n   in the class tree for ``self``).  ``name`` is the attribute name.\n   This method should return the (computed) attribute value or raise\n   an ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\n   Note that if the attribute is found through the normal mechanism,\n   ``__getattr__()`` is not called.  (This is an intentional asymmetry\n   between ``__getattr__()`` and ``__setattr__()``.) This is done both\n   for efficiency reasons and because otherwise ``__getattr__()``\n   would have no way to access other attributes of the instance.  Note\n   that at least for instance variables, you can fake total control by\n   not inserting any values in the instance attribute dictionary (but\n   instead inserting them in another object).  See the\n   ``__getattribute__()`` method below for a way to actually get total\n   control in new-style classes.\n\nobject.__setattr__(self, name, value)\n\n   Called when an attribute assignment is attempted.  This is called\n   instead of the normal mechanism (i.e. store the value in the\n   instance dictionary).  *name* is the attribute name, *value* is the\n   value to be assigned to it.\n\n   If ``__setattr__()`` wants to assign to an instance attribute, it\n   should not simply execute ``self.name = value`` --- this would\n   cause a recursive call to itself.  Instead, it should insert the\n   value in the dictionary of instance attributes, e.g.,\n   ``self.__dict__[name] = value``.  For new-style classes, rather\n   than accessing the instance dictionary, it should call the base\n   class method with the same name, for example,\n   ``object.__setattr__(self, name, value)``.\n\nobject.__delattr__(self, name)\n\n   Like ``__setattr__()`` but for attribute deletion instead of\n   assignment.  This should only be implemented if ``del obj.name`` is\n   meaningful for the object.\n\n\nMore attribute access for new-style classes\n===========================================\n\nThe following methods only apply to new-style classes.\n\nobject.__getattribute__(self, name)\n\n   Called unconditionally to implement attribute accesses for\n   instances of the class. If the class also defines\n   ``__getattr__()``, the latter will not be called unless\n   ``__getattribute__()`` either calls it explicitly or raises an\n   ``AttributeError``. This method should return the (computed)\n   attribute value or raise an ``AttributeError`` exception. In order\n   to avoid infinite recursion in this method, its implementation\n   should always call the base class method with the same name to\n   access any attributes it needs, for example,\n   ``object.__getattribute__(self, name)``.\n\n   Note: This method may still be bypassed when looking up special methods\n     as the result of implicit invocation via language syntax or\n     built-in functions. See *Special method lookup for new-style\n     classes*.\n\n\nImplementing Descriptors\n========================\n\nThe following methods only apply when an instance of the class\ncontaining the method (a so-called *descriptor* class) appears in the\nclass dictionary of another new-style class, known as the *owner*\nclass. In the examples below, "the attribute" refers to the attribute\nwhose name is the key of the property in the owner class\'\n``__dict__``.  Descriptors can only be implemented as new-style\nclasses themselves.\n\nobject.__get__(self, instance, owner)\n\n   Called to get the attribute of the owner class (class attribute\n   access) or of an instance of that class (instance attribute\n   access). *owner* is always the owner class, while *instance* is the\n   instance that the attribute was accessed through, or ``None`` when\n   the attribute is accessed through the *owner*.  This method should\n   return the (computed) attribute value or raise an\n   ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\nobject.__set__(self, instance, value)\n\n   Called to set the attribute on an instance *instance* of the owner\n   class to a new value, *value*.\n\nobject.__delete__(self, instance)\n\n   Called to delete the attribute on an instance *instance* of the\n   owner class.\n\n\nInvoking Descriptors\n====================\n\nIn general, a descriptor is an object attribute with "binding\nbehavior", one whose attribute access has been overridden by methods\nin the descriptor protocol:  ``__get__()``, ``__set__()``, and\n``__delete__()``. If any of those methods are defined for an object,\nit is said to be a descriptor.\n\nThe default behavior for attribute access is to get, set, or delete\nthe attribute from an object\'s dictionary. For instance, ``a.x`` has a\nlookup chain starting with ``a.__dict__[\'x\']``, then\n``type(a).__dict__[\'x\']``, and continuing through the base classes of\n``type(a)`` excluding metaclasses.\n\nHowever, if the looked-up value is an object defining one of the\ndescriptor methods, then Python may override the default behavior and\ninvoke the descriptor method instead.  Where this occurs in the\nprecedence chain depends on which descriptor methods were defined and\nhow they were called.  Note that descriptors are only invoked for new\nstyle objects or classes (ones that subclass ``object()`` or\n``type()``).\n\nThe starting point for descriptor invocation is a binding, ``a.x``.\nHow the arguments are assembled depends on ``a``:\n\nDirect Call\n   The simplest and least common call is when user code directly\n   invokes a descriptor method:    ``x.__get__(a)``.\n\nInstance Binding\n   If binding to a new-style object instance, ``a.x`` is transformed\n   into the call: ``type(a).__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(a, type(a))``.\n\nClass Binding\n   If binding to a new-style class, ``A.x`` is transformed into the\n   call: ``A.__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(None, A)``.\n\nSuper Binding\n   If ``a`` is an instance of ``super``, then the binding ``super(B,\n   obj).m()`` searches ``obj.__class__.__mro__`` for the base class\n   ``A`` immediately preceding ``B`` and then invokes the descriptor\n   with the call: ``A.__dict__[\'m\'].__get__(obj, A)``.\n\nFor instance bindings, the precedence of descriptor invocation depends\non the which descriptor methods are defined.  A descriptor can define\nany combination of ``__get__()``, ``__set__()`` and ``__delete__()``.\nIf it does not define ``__get__()``, then accessing the attribute will\nreturn the descriptor object itself unless there is a value in the\nobject\'s instance dictionary.  If the descriptor defines ``__set__()``\nand/or ``__delete__()``, it is a data descriptor; if it defines\nneither, it is a non-data descriptor.  Normally, data descriptors\ndefine both ``__get__()`` and ``__set__()``, while non-data\ndescriptors have just the ``__get__()`` method.  Data descriptors with\n``__set__()`` and ``__get__()`` defined always override a redefinition\nin an instance dictionary.  In contrast, non-data descriptors can be\noverridden by instances.\n\nPython methods (including ``staticmethod()`` and ``classmethod()``)\nare implemented as non-data descriptors.  Accordingly, instances can\nredefine and override methods.  This allows individual instances to\nacquire behaviors that differ from other instances of the same class.\n\nThe ``property()`` function is implemented as a data descriptor.\nAccordingly, instances cannot override the behavior of a property.\n\n\n__slots__\n=========\n\nBy default, instances of both old and new-style classes have a\ndictionary for attribute storage.  This wastes space for objects\nhaving very few instance variables.  The space consumption can become\nacute when creating large numbers of instances.\n\nThe default can be overridden by defining *__slots__* in a new-style\nclass definition.  The *__slots__* declaration takes a sequence of\ninstance variables and reserves just enough space in each instance to\nhold a value for each variable.  Space is saved because *__dict__* is\nnot created for each instance.\n\n__slots__\n\n   This class variable can be assigned a string, iterable, or sequence\n   of strings with variable names used by instances.  If defined in a\n   new-style class, *__slots__* reserves space for the declared\n   variables and prevents the automatic creation of *__dict__* and\n   *__weakref__* for each instance.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\nNotes on using *__slots__*\n\n* When inheriting from a class without *__slots__*, the *__dict__*\n  attribute of that class will always be accessible, so a *__slots__*\n  definition in the subclass is meaningless.\n\n* Without a *__dict__* variable, instances cannot be assigned new\n  variables not listed in the *__slots__* definition.  Attempts to\n  assign to an unlisted variable name raises ``AttributeError``. If\n  dynamic assignment of new variables is desired, then add\n  ``\'__dict__\'`` to the sequence of strings in the *__slots__*\n  declaration.\n\n  Changed in version 2.3: Previously, adding ``\'__dict__\'`` to the\n  *__slots__* declaration would not enable the assignment of new\n  attributes not specifically listed in the sequence of instance\n  variable names.\n\n* Without a *__weakref__* variable for each instance, classes defining\n  *__slots__* do not support weak references to its instances. If weak\n  reference support is needed, then add ``\'__weakref__\'`` to the\n  sequence of strings in the *__slots__* declaration.\n\n  Changed in version 2.3: Previously, adding ``\'__weakref__\'`` to the\n  *__slots__* declaration would not enable support for weak\n  references.\n\n* *__slots__* are implemented at the class level by creating\n  descriptors (*Implementing Descriptors*) for each variable name.  As\n  a result, class attributes cannot be used to set default values for\n  instance variables defined by *__slots__*; otherwise, the class\n  attribute would overwrite the descriptor assignment.\n\n* The action of a *__slots__* declaration is limited to the class\n  where it is defined.  As a result, subclasses will have a *__dict__*\n  unless they also define *__slots__* (which must only contain names\n  of any *additional* slots).\n\n* If a class defines a slot also defined in a base class, the instance\n  variable defined by the base class slot is inaccessible (except by\n  retrieving its descriptor directly from the base class). This\n  renders the meaning of the program undefined.  In the future, a\n  check may be added to prevent this.\n\n* Nonempty *__slots__* does not work for classes derived from\n  "variable-length" built-in types such as ``long``, ``str`` and\n  ``tuple``.\n\n* Any non-string iterable may be assigned to *__slots__*. Mappings may\n  also be used; however, in the future, special meaning may be\n  assigned to the values corresponding to each key.\n\n* *__class__* assignment works only if both classes have the same\n  *__slots__*.\n\n  Changed in version 2.6: Previously, *__class__* assignment raised an\n  error if either new or old class had *__slots__*.\n',
+ 'attribute-access': u'\nCustomizing attribute access\n****************************\n\nThe following methods can be defined to customize the meaning of\nattribute access (use of, assignment to, or deletion of ``x.name``)\nfor class instances.\n\nobject.__getattr__(self, name)\n\n   Called when an attribute lookup has not found the attribute in the\n   usual places (i.e. it is not an instance attribute nor is it found\n   in the class tree for ``self``).  ``name`` is the attribute name.\n   This method should return the (computed) attribute value or raise\n   an ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\n   Note that if the attribute is found through the normal mechanism,\n   ``__getattr__()`` is not called.  (This is an intentional asymmetry\n   between ``__getattr__()`` and ``__setattr__()``.) This is done both\n   for efficiency reasons and because otherwise ``__getattr__()``\n   would have no way to access other attributes of the instance.  Note\n   that at least for instance variables, you can fake total control by\n   not inserting any values in the instance attribute dictionary (but\n   instead inserting them in another object).  See the\n   ``__getattribute__()`` method below for a way to actually get total\n   control in new-style classes.\n\nobject.__setattr__(self, name, value)\n\n   Called when an attribute assignment is attempted.  This is called\n   instead of the normal mechanism (i.e. store the value in the\n   instance dictionary).  *name* is the attribute name, *value* is the\n   value to be assigned to it.\n\n   If ``__setattr__()`` wants to assign to an instance attribute, it\n   should not simply execute ``self.name = value`` --- this would\n   cause a recursive call to itself.  Instead, it should insert the\n   value in the dictionary of instance attributes, e.g.,\n   ``self.__dict__[name] = value``.  For new-style classes, rather\n   than accessing the instance dictionary, it should call the base\n   class method with the same name, for example,\n   ``object.__setattr__(self, name, value)``.\n\nobject.__delattr__(self, name)\n\n   Like ``__setattr__()`` but for attribute deletion instead of\n   assignment.  This should only be implemented if ``del obj.name`` is\n   meaningful for the object.\n\n\nMore attribute access for new-style classes\n===========================================\n\nThe following methods only apply to new-style classes.\n\nobject.__getattribute__(self, name)\n\n   Called unconditionally to implement attribute accesses for\n   instances of the class. If the class also defines\n   ``__getattr__()``, the latter will not be called unless\n   ``__getattribute__()`` either calls it explicitly or raises an\n   ``AttributeError``. This method should return the (computed)\n   attribute value or raise an ``AttributeError`` exception. In order\n   to avoid infinite recursion in this method, its implementation\n   should always call the base class method with the same name to\n   access any attributes it needs, for example,\n   ``object.__getattribute__(self, name)``.\n\n   Note: This method may still be bypassed when looking up special methods\n     as the result of implicit invocation via language syntax or\n     built-in functions. See *Special method lookup for new-style\n     classes*.\n\n\nImplementing Descriptors\n========================\n\nThe following methods only apply when an instance of the class\ncontaining the method (a so-called *descriptor* class) appears in an\n*owner* class (the descriptor must be in either the owner\'s class\ndictionary or in the class dictionary for one of its parents).  In the\nexamples below, "the attribute" refers to the attribute whose name is\nthe key of the property in the owner class\' ``__dict__``.\n\nobject.__get__(self, instance, owner)\n\n   Called to get the attribute of the owner class (class attribute\n   access) or of an instance of that class (instance attribute\n   access). *owner* is always the owner class, while *instance* is the\n   instance that the attribute was accessed through, or ``None`` when\n   the attribute is accessed through the *owner*.  This method should\n   return the (computed) attribute value or raise an\n   ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\nobject.__set__(self, instance, value)\n\n   Called to set the attribute on an instance *instance* of the owner\n   class to a new value, *value*.\n\nobject.__delete__(self, instance)\n\n   Called to delete the attribute on an instance *instance* of the\n   owner class.\n\n\nInvoking Descriptors\n====================\n\nIn general, a descriptor is an object attribute with "binding\nbehavior", one whose attribute access has been overridden by methods\nin the descriptor protocol:  ``__get__()``, ``__set__()``, and\n``__delete__()``. If any of those methods are defined for an object,\nit is said to be a descriptor.\n\nThe default behavior for attribute access is to get, set, or delete\nthe attribute from an object\'s dictionary. For instance, ``a.x`` has a\nlookup chain starting with ``a.__dict__[\'x\']``, then\n``type(a).__dict__[\'x\']``, and continuing through the base classes of\n``type(a)`` excluding metaclasses.\n\nHowever, if the looked-up value is an object defining one of the\ndescriptor methods, then Python may override the default behavior and\ninvoke the descriptor method instead.  Where this occurs in the\nprecedence chain depends on which descriptor methods were defined and\nhow they were called.  Note that descriptors are only invoked for new\nstyle objects or classes (ones that subclass ``object()`` or\n``type()``).\n\nThe starting point for descriptor invocation is a binding, ``a.x``.\nHow the arguments are assembled depends on ``a``:\n\nDirect Call\n   The simplest and least common call is when user code directly\n   invokes a descriptor method:    ``x.__get__(a)``.\n\nInstance Binding\n   If binding to a new-style object instance, ``a.x`` is transformed\n   into the call: ``type(a).__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(a, type(a))``.\n\nClass Binding\n   If binding to a new-style class, ``A.x`` is transformed into the\n   call: ``A.__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(None, A)``.\n\nSuper Binding\n   If ``a`` is an instance of ``super``, then the binding ``super(B,\n   obj).m()`` searches ``obj.__class__.__mro__`` for the base class\n   ``A`` immediately preceding ``B`` and then invokes the descriptor\n   with the call: ``A.__dict__[\'m\'].__get__(obj, obj.__class__)``.\n\nFor instance bindings, the precedence of descriptor invocation depends\non the which descriptor methods are defined.  A descriptor can define\nany combination of ``__get__()``, ``__set__()`` and ``__delete__()``.\nIf it does not define ``__get__()``, then accessing the attribute will\nreturn the descriptor object itself unless there is a value in the\nobject\'s instance dictionary.  If the descriptor defines ``__set__()``\nand/or ``__delete__()``, it is a data descriptor; if it defines\nneither, it is a non-data descriptor.  Normally, data descriptors\ndefine both ``__get__()`` and ``__set__()``, while non-data\ndescriptors have just the ``__get__()`` method.  Data descriptors with\n``__set__()`` and ``__get__()`` defined always override a redefinition\nin an instance dictionary.  In contrast, non-data descriptors can be\noverridden by instances.\n\nPython methods (including ``staticmethod()`` and ``classmethod()``)\nare implemented as non-data descriptors.  Accordingly, instances can\nredefine and override methods.  This allows individual instances to\nacquire behaviors that differ from other instances of the same class.\n\nThe ``property()`` function is implemented as a data descriptor.\nAccordingly, instances cannot override the behavior of a property.\n\n\n__slots__\n=========\n\nBy default, instances of both old and new-style classes have a\ndictionary for attribute storage.  This wastes space for objects\nhaving very few instance variables.  The space consumption can become\nacute when creating large numbers of instances.\n\nThe default can be overridden by defining *__slots__* in a new-style\nclass definition.  The *__slots__* declaration takes a sequence of\ninstance variables and reserves just enough space in each instance to\nhold a value for each variable.  Space is saved because *__dict__* is\nnot created for each instance.\n\n__slots__\n\n   This class variable can be assigned a string, iterable, or sequence\n   of strings with variable names used by instances.  If defined in a\n   new-style class, *__slots__* reserves space for the declared\n   variables and prevents the automatic creation of *__dict__* and\n   *__weakref__* for each instance.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\nNotes on using *__slots__*\n\n* When inheriting from a class without *__slots__*, the *__dict__*\n  attribute of that class will always be accessible, so a *__slots__*\n  definition in the subclass is meaningless.\n\n* Without a *__dict__* variable, instances cannot be assigned new\n  variables not listed in the *__slots__* definition.  Attempts to\n  assign to an unlisted variable name raises ``AttributeError``. If\n  dynamic assignment of new variables is desired, then add\n  ``\'__dict__\'`` to the sequence of strings in the *__slots__*\n  declaration.\n\n  Changed in version 2.3: Previously, adding ``\'__dict__\'`` to the\n  *__slots__* declaration would not enable the assignment of new\n  attributes not specifically listed in the sequence of instance\n  variable names.\n\n* Without a *__weakref__* variable for each instance, classes defining\n  *__slots__* do not support weak references to its instances. If weak\n  reference support is needed, then add ``\'__weakref__\'`` to the\n  sequence of strings in the *__slots__* declaration.\n\n  Changed in version 2.3: Previously, adding ``\'__weakref__\'`` to the\n  *__slots__* declaration would not enable support for weak\n  references.\n\n* *__slots__* are implemented at the class level by creating\n  descriptors (*Implementing Descriptors*) for each variable name.  As\n  a result, class attributes cannot be used to set default values for\n  instance variables defined by *__slots__*; otherwise, the class\n  attribute would overwrite the descriptor assignment.\n\n* The action of a *__slots__* declaration is limited to the class\n  where it is defined.  As a result, subclasses will have a *__dict__*\n  unless they also define *__slots__* (which must only contain names\n  of any *additional* slots).\n\n* If a class defines a slot also defined in a base class, the instance\n  variable defined by the base class slot is inaccessible (except by\n  retrieving its descriptor directly from the base class). This\n  renders the meaning of the program undefined.  In the future, a\n  check may be added to prevent this.\n\n* Nonempty *__slots__* does not work for classes derived from\n  "variable-length" built-in types such as ``long``, ``str`` and\n  ``tuple``.\n\n* Any non-string iterable may be assigned to *__slots__*. Mappings may\n  also be used; however, in the future, special meaning may be\n  assigned to the values corresponding to each key.\n\n* *__class__* assignment works only if both classes have the same\n  *__slots__*.\n\n  Changed in version 2.6: Previously, *__class__* assignment raised an\n  error if either new or old class had *__slots__*.\n',
  'attribute-references': u'\nAttribute references\n********************\n\nAn attribute reference is a primary followed by a period and a name:\n\n   attributeref ::= primary "." identifier\n\nThe primary must evaluate to an object of a type that supports\nattribute references, e.g., a module, list, or an instance.  This\nobject is then asked to produce the attribute whose name is the\nidentifier.  If this attribute is not available, the exception\n``AttributeError`` is raised. Otherwise, the type and value of the\nobject produced is determined by the object.  Multiple evaluations of\nthe same attribute reference may yield different objects.\n',
  'augassign': u'\nAugmented assignment statements\n*******************************\n\nAugmented assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a\nbinary operation and an assignment statement:\n\n   augmented_assignment_stmt ::= augtarget augop (expression_list | yield_expression)\n   augtarget                 ::= identifier | attributeref | subscription | slicing\n   augop                     ::= "+=" | "-=" | "*=" | "/=" | "//=" | "%=" | "**="\n             | ">>=" | "<<=" | "&=" | "^=" | "|="\n\n(See section *Primaries* for the syntax definitions for the last three\nsymbols.)\n\nAn augmented assignment evaluates the target (which, unlike normal\nassignment statements, cannot be an unpacking) and the expression\nlist, performs the binary operation specific to the type of assignment\non the two operands, and assigns the result to the original target.\nThe target is only evaluated once.\n\nAn augmented assignment expression like ``x += 1`` can be rewritten as\n``x = x + 1`` to achieve a similar, but not exactly equal effect. In\nthe augmented version, ``x`` is only evaluated once. Also, when\npossible, the actual operation is performed *in-place*, meaning that\nrather than creating a new object and assigning that to the target,\nthe old object is modified instead.\n\nWith the exception of assigning to tuples and multiple targets in a\nsingle statement, the assignment done by augmented assignment\nstatements is handled the same way as normal assignments. Similarly,\nwith the exception of the possible *in-place* behavior, the binary\noperation performed by augmented assignment is the same as the normal\nbinary operations.\n\nFor targets which are attribute references, the same *caveat about\nclass and instance attributes* applies as for regular assignments.\n',
  'binary': u'\nBinary arithmetic operations\n****************************\n\nThe binary arithmetic operations have the conventional priority\nlevels.  Note that some of these operations also apply to certain non-\nnumeric types.  Apart from the power operator, there are only two\nlevels, one for multiplicative operators and one for additive\noperators:\n\n   m_expr ::= u_expr | m_expr "*" u_expr | m_expr "//" u_expr | m_expr "/" u_expr\n              | m_expr "%" u_expr\n   a_expr ::= m_expr | a_expr "+" m_expr | a_expr "-" m_expr\n\nThe ``*`` (multiplication) operator yields the product of its\narguments.  The arguments must either both be numbers, or one argument\nmust be an integer (plain or long) and the other must be a sequence.\nIn the former case, the numbers are converted to a common type and\nthen multiplied together.  In the latter case, sequence repetition is\nperformed; a negative repetition factor yields an empty sequence.\n\nThe ``/`` (division) and ``//`` (floor division) operators yield the\nquotient of their arguments.  The numeric arguments are first\nconverted to a common type. Plain or long integer division yields an\ninteger of the same type; the result is that of mathematical division\nwith the \'floor\' function applied to the result. Division by zero\nraises the ``ZeroDivisionError`` exception.\n\nThe ``%`` (modulo) operator yields the remainder from the division of\nthe first argument by the second.  The numeric arguments are first\nconverted to a common type.  A zero right argument raises the\n``ZeroDivisionError`` exception.  The arguments may be floating point\nnumbers, e.g., ``3.14%0.7`` equals ``0.34`` (since ``3.14`` equals\n``4*0.7 + 0.34``.)  The modulo operator always yields a result with\nthe same sign as its second operand (or zero); the absolute value of\nthe result is strictly smaller than the absolute value of the second\noperand [2].\n\nThe integer division and modulo operators are connected by the\nfollowing identity: ``x == (x/y)*y + (x%y)``.  Integer division and\nmodulo are also connected with the built-in function ``divmod()``:\n``divmod(x, y) == (x/y, x%y)``.  These identities don\'t hold for\nfloating point numbers; there similar identities hold approximately\nwhere ``x/y`` is replaced by ``floor(x/y)`` or ``floor(x/y) - 1`` [3].\n\nIn addition to performing the modulo operation on numbers, the ``%``\noperator is also overloaded by string and unicode objects to perform\nstring formatting (also known as interpolation). The syntax for string\nformatting is described in the Python Library Reference, section\n*String Formatting Operations*.\n\nDeprecated since version 2.3: The floor division operator, the modulo\noperator, and the ``divmod()`` function are no longer defined for\ncomplex numbers.  Instead, convert to a floating point number using\nthe ``abs()`` function if appropriate.\n\nThe ``+`` (addition) operator yields the sum of its arguments. The\narguments must either both be numbers or both sequences of the same\ntype.  In the former case, the numbers are converted to a common type\nand then added together.  In the latter case, the sequences are\nconcatenated.\n\nThe ``-`` (subtraction) operator yields the difference of its\narguments.  The numeric arguments are first converted to a common\ntype.\n',
  'bitwise': u'\nBinary bitwise operations\n*************************\n\nEach of the three bitwise operations has a different priority level:\n\n   and_expr ::= shift_expr | and_expr "&" shift_expr\n   xor_expr ::= and_expr | xor_expr "^" and_expr\n   or_expr  ::= xor_expr | or_expr "|" xor_expr\n\nThe ``&`` operator yields the bitwise AND of its arguments, which must\nbe plain or long integers.  The arguments are converted to a common\ntype.\n\nThe ``^`` operator yields the bitwise XOR (exclusive OR) of its\narguments, which must be plain or long integers.  The arguments are\nconverted to a common type.\n\nThe ``|`` operator yields the bitwise (inclusive) OR of its arguments,\nwhich must be plain or long integers.  The arguments are converted to\na common type.\n',
  'bltin-code-objects': u'\nCode Objects\n************\n\nCode objects are used by the implementation to represent "pseudo-\ncompiled" executable Python code such as a function body. They differ\nfrom function objects because they don\'t contain a reference to their\nglobal execution environment.  Code objects are returned by the built-\nin ``compile()`` function and can be extracted from function objects\nthrough their ``func_code`` attribute. See also the ``code`` module.\n\nA code object can be executed or evaluated by passing it (instead of a\nsource string) to the ``exec`` statement or the built-in ``eval()``\nfunction.\n\nSee *The standard type hierarchy* for more information.\n',
  'bltin-ellipsis-object': u'\nThe Ellipsis Object\n*******************\n\nThis object is used by extended slice notation (see *Slicings*).  It\nsupports no special operations.  There is exactly one ellipsis object,\nnamed ``Ellipsis`` (a built-in name).\n\nIt is written as ``Ellipsis``.\n',
- 'bltin-file-objects': u'\nFile Objects\n************\n\nFile objects are implemented using C\'s ``stdio`` package and can be\ncreated with the built-in ``open()`` function.  File objects are also\nreturned by some other built-in functions and methods, such as\n``os.popen()`` and ``os.fdopen()`` and the ``makefile()`` method of\nsocket objects. Temporary files can be created using the ``tempfile``\nmodule, and high-level file operations such as copying, moving, and\ndeleting files and directories can be achieved with the ``shutil``\nmodule.\n\nWhen a file operation fails for an I/O-related reason, the exception\n``IOError`` is raised.  This includes situations where the operation\nis not defined for some reason, like ``seek()`` on a tty device or\nwriting a file opened for reading.\n\nFiles have the following methods:\n\nfile.close()\n\n   Close the file.  A closed file cannot be read or written any more.\n   Any operation which requires that the file be open will raise a\n   ``ValueError`` after the file has been closed.  Calling ``close()``\n   more than once is allowed.\n\n   As of Python 2.5, you can avoid having to call this method\n   explicitly if you use the ``with`` statement.  For example, the\n   following code will automatically close *f* when the ``with`` block\n   is exited:\n\n      from __future__ import with_statement # This isn\'t required in Python 2.6\n\n      with open("hello.txt") as f:\n          for line in f:\n              print line\n\n   In older versions of Python, you would have needed to do this to\n   get the same effect:\n\n      f = open("hello.txt")\n      try:\n          for line in f:\n              print line\n      finally:\n          f.close()\n\n   Note: Not all "file-like" types in Python support use as a context\n     manager for the ``with`` statement.  If your code is intended to\n     work with any file-like object, you can use the function\n     ``contextlib.closing()`` instead of using the object directly.\n\nfile.flush()\n\n   Flush the internal buffer, like ``stdio``\'s ``fflush()``.  This may\n   be a no-op on some file-like objects.\n\n   Note: ``flush()`` does not necessarily write the file\'s data to disk.\n     Use ``flush()`` followed by ``os.fsync()`` to ensure this\n     behavior.\n\nfile.fileno()\n\n   Return the integer "file descriptor" that is used by the underlying\n   implementation to request I/O operations from the operating system.\n   This can be useful for other, lower level interfaces that use file\n   descriptors, such as the ``fcntl`` module or ``os.read()`` and\n   friends.\n\n   Note: File-like objects which do not have a real file descriptor should\n     *not* provide this method!\n\nfile.isatty()\n\n   Return ``True`` if the file is connected to a tty(-like) device,\n   else ``False``.\n\n   Note: If a file-like object is not associated with a real file, this\n     method should *not* be implemented.\n\nfile.next()\n\n   A file object is its own iterator, for example ``iter(f)`` returns\n   *f* (unless *f* is closed).  When a file is used as an iterator,\n   typically in a ``for`` loop (for example, ``for line in f: print\n   line``), the ``next()`` method is called repeatedly.  This method\n   returns the next input line, or raises ``StopIteration`` when EOF\n   is hit when the file is open for reading (behavior is undefined\n   when the file is open for writing).  In order to make a ``for``\n   loop the most efficient way of looping over the lines of a file (a\n   very common operation), the ``next()`` method uses a hidden read-\n   ahead buffer.  As a consequence of using a read-ahead buffer,\n   combining ``next()`` with other file methods (like ``readline()``)\n   does not work right.  However, using ``seek()`` to reposition the\n   file to an absolute position will flush the read-ahead buffer.\n\n   New in version 2.3.\n\nfile.read([size])\n\n   Read at most *size* bytes from the file (less if the read hits EOF\n   before obtaining *size* bytes).  If the *size* argument is negative\n   or omitted, read all data until EOF is reached.  The bytes are\n   returned as a string object.  An empty string is returned when EOF\n   is encountered immediately.  (For certain files, like ttys, it\n   makes sense to continue reading after an EOF is hit.)  Note that\n   this method may call the underlying C function ``fread()`` more\n   than once in an effort to acquire as close to *size* bytes as\n   possible. Also note that when in non-blocking mode, less data than\n   was requested may be returned, even if no *size* parameter was\n   given.\n\n   Note: This function is simply a wrapper for the underlying ``fread()``\n     C function, and will behave the same in corner cases, such as\n     whether the EOF value is cached.\n\nfile.readline([size])\n\n   Read one entire line from the file.  A trailing newline character\n   is kept in the string (but may be absent when a file ends with an\n   incomplete line). [5]  If the *size* argument is present and non-\n   negative, it is a maximum byte count (including the trailing\n   newline) and an incomplete line may be returned. An empty string is\n   returned *only* when EOF is encountered immediately.\n\n   Note: Unlike ``stdio``\'s ``fgets()``, the returned string contains null\n     characters (``\'\\0\'``) if they occurred in the input.\n\nfile.readlines([sizehint])\n\n   Read until EOF using ``readline()`` and return a list containing\n   the lines thus read.  If the optional *sizehint* argument is\n   present, instead of reading up to EOF, whole lines totalling\n   approximately *sizehint* bytes (possibly after rounding up to an\n   internal buffer size) are read.  Objects implementing a file-like\n   interface may choose to ignore *sizehint* if it cannot be\n   implemented, or cannot be implemented efficiently.\n\nfile.xreadlines()\n\n   This method returns the same thing as ``iter(f)``.\n\n   New in version 2.1.\n\n   Deprecated since version 2.3: Use ``for line in file`` instead.\n\nfile.seek(offset[, whence])\n\n   Set the file\'s current position, like ``stdio``\'s ``fseek()``. The\n   *whence* argument is optional and defaults to  ``os.SEEK_SET`` or\n   ``0`` (absolute file positioning); other values are ``os.SEEK_CUR``\n   or ``1`` (seek relative to the current position) and\n   ``os.SEEK_END`` or ``2``  (seek relative to the file\'s end).  There\n   is no return value.\n\n   For example, ``f.seek(2, os.SEEK_CUR)`` advances the position by\n   two and ``f.seek(-3, os.SEEK_END)`` sets the position to the third\n   to last.\n\n   Note that if the file is opened for appending (mode ``\'a\'`` or\n   ``\'a+\'``), any ``seek()`` operations will be undone at the next\n   write.  If the file is only opened for writing in append mode (mode\n   ``\'a\'``), this method is essentially a no-op, but it remains useful\n   for files opened in append mode with reading enabled (mode\n   ``\'a+\'``).  If the file is opened in text mode (without ``\'b\'``),\n   only offsets returned by ``tell()`` are legal.  Use of other\n   offsets causes undefined behavior.\n\n   Note that not all file objects are seekable.\n\n   Changed in version 2.6: Passing float values as offset has been\n   deprecated.\n\nfile.tell()\n\n   Return the file\'s current position, like ``stdio``\'s ``ftell()``.\n\n   Note: On Windows, ``tell()`` can return illegal values (after an\n     ``fgets()``) when reading files with Unix-style line-endings. Use\n     binary mode (``\'rb\'``) to circumvent this problem.\n\nfile.truncate([size])\n\n   Truncate the file\'s size.  If the optional *size* argument is\n   present, the file is truncated to (at most) that size.  The size\n   defaults to the current position. The current file position is not\n   changed.  Note that if a specified size exceeds the file\'s current\n   size, the result is platform-dependent:  possibilities include that\n   the file may remain unchanged, increase to the specified size as if\n   zero-filled, or increase to the specified size with undefined new\n   content. Availability:  Windows, many Unix variants.\n\nfile.write(str)\n\n   Write a string to the file.  There is no return value.  Due to\n   buffering, the string may not actually show up in the file until\n   the ``flush()`` or ``close()`` method is called.\n\nfile.writelines(sequence)\n\n   Write a sequence of strings to the file.  The sequence can be any\n   iterable object producing strings, typically a list of strings.\n   There is no return value. (The name is intended to match\n   ``readlines()``; ``writelines()`` does not add line separators.)\n\nFiles support the iterator protocol.  Each iteration returns the same\nresult as ``file.readline()``, and iteration ends when the\n``readline()`` method returns an empty string.\n\nFile objects also offer a number of other interesting attributes.\nThese are not required for file-like objects, but should be\nimplemented if they make sense for the particular object.\n\nfile.closed\n\n   bool indicating the current state of the file object.  This is a\n   read-only attribute; the ``close()`` method changes the value. It\n   may not be available on all file-like objects.\n\nfile.encoding\n\n   The encoding that this file uses. When Unicode strings are written\n   to a file, they will be converted to byte strings using this\n   encoding. In addition, when the file is connected to a terminal,\n   the attribute gives the encoding that the terminal is likely to use\n   (that  information might be incorrect if the user has misconfigured\n   the  terminal). The attribute is read-only and may not be present\n   on all file-like objects. It may also be ``None``, in which case\n   the file uses the system default encoding for converting Unicode\n   strings.\n\n   New in version 2.3.\n\nfile.errors\n\n   The Unicode error handler used along with the encoding.\n\n   New in version 2.6.\n\nfile.mode\n\n   The I/O mode for the file.  If the file was created using the\n   ``open()`` built-in function, this will be the value of the *mode*\n   parameter.  This is a read-only attribute and may not be present on\n   all file-like objects.\n\nfile.name\n\n   If the file object was created using ``open()``, the name of the\n   file. Otherwise, some string that indicates the source of the file\n   object, of the form ``<...>``.  This is a read-only attribute and\n   may not be present on all file-like objects.\n\nfile.newlines\n\n   If Python was built with the *--with-universal-newlines* option to\n   **configure** (the default) this read-only attribute exists, and\n   for files opened in universal newline read mode it keeps track of\n   the types of newlines encountered while reading the file. The\n   values it can take are ``\'\\r\'``, ``\'\\n\'``, ``\'\\r\\n\'``, ``None``\n   (unknown, no newlines read yet) or a tuple containing all the\n   newline types seen, to indicate that multiple newline conventions\n   were encountered. For files not opened in universal newline read\n   mode the value of this attribute will be ``None``.\n\nfile.softspace\n\n   Boolean that indicates whether a space character needs to be\n   printed before another value when using the ``print`` statement.\n   Classes that are trying to simulate a file object should also have\n   a writable ``softspace`` attribute, which should be initialized to\n   zero.  This will be automatic for most classes implemented in\n   Python (care may be needed for objects that override attribute\n   access); types implemented in C will have to provide a writable\n   ``softspace`` attribute.\n\n   Note: This attribute is not used to control the ``print`` statement,\n     but to allow the implementation of ``print`` to keep track of its\n     internal state.\n',
+ 'bltin-file-objects': u'\nFile Objects\n************\n\nFile objects are implemented using C\'s ``stdio`` package and can be\ncreated with the built-in ``open()`` function.  File objects are also\nreturned by some other built-in functions and methods, such as\n``os.popen()`` and ``os.fdopen()`` and the ``makefile()`` method of\nsocket objects. Temporary files can be created using the ``tempfile``\nmodule, and high-level file operations such as copying, moving, and\ndeleting files and directories can be achieved with the ``shutil``\nmodule.\n\nWhen a file operation fails for an I/O-related reason, the exception\n``IOError`` is raised.  This includes situations where the operation\nis not defined for some reason, like ``seek()`` on a tty device or\nwriting a file opened for reading.\n\nFiles have the following methods:\n\nfile.close()\n\n   Close the file.  A closed file cannot be read or written any more.\n   Any operation which requires that the file be open will raise a\n   ``ValueError`` after the file has been closed.  Calling ``close()``\n   more than once is allowed.\n\n   As of Python 2.5, you can avoid having to call this method\n   explicitly if you use the ``with`` statement.  For example, the\n   following code will automatically close *f* when the ``with`` block\n   is exited:\n\n      from __future__ import with_statement # This isn\'t required in Python 2.6\n\n      with open("hello.txt") as f:\n          for line in f:\n              print line\n\n   In older versions of Python, you would have needed to do this to\n   get the same effect:\n\n      f = open("hello.txt")\n      try:\n          for line in f:\n              print line\n      finally:\n          f.close()\n\n   Note: Not all "file-like" types in Python support use as a context\n     manager for the ``with`` statement.  If your code is intended to\n     work with any file-like object, you can use the function\n     ``contextlib.closing()`` instead of using the object directly.\n\nfile.flush()\n\n   Flush the internal buffer, like ``stdio``\'s ``fflush()``.  This may\n   be a no-op on some file-like objects.\n\n   Note: ``flush()`` does not necessarily write the file\'s data to disk.\n     Use ``flush()`` followed by ``os.fsync()`` to ensure this\n     behavior.\n\nfile.fileno()\n\n   Return the integer "file descriptor" that is used by the underlying\n   implementation to request I/O operations from the operating system.\n   This can be useful for other, lower level interfaces that use file\n   descriptors, such as the ``fcntl`` module or ``os.read()`` and\n   friends.\n\n   Note: File-like objects which do not have a real file descriptor should\n     *not* provide this method!\n\nfile.isatty()\n\n   Return ``True`` if the file is connected to a tty(-like) device,\n   else ``False``.\n\n   Note: If a file-like object is not associated with a real file, this\n     method should *not* be implemented.\n\nfile.next()\n\n   A file object is its own iterator, for example ``iter(f)`` returns\n   *f* (unless *f* is closed).  When a file is used as an iterator,\n   typically in a ``for`` loop (for example, ``for line in f: print\n   line``), the ``next()`` method is called repeatedly.  This method\n   returns the next input line, or raises ``StopIteration`` when EOF\n   is hit when the file is open for reading (behavior is undefined\n   when the file is open for writing).  In order to make a ``for``\n   loop the most efficient way of looping over the lines of a file (a\n   very common operation), the ``next()`` method uses a hidden read-\n   ahead buffer.  As a consequence of using a read-ahead buffer,\n   combining ``next()`` with other file methods (like ``readline()``)\n   does not work right.  However, using ``seek()`` to reposition the\n   file to an absolute position will flush the read-ahead buffer.\n\n   New in version 2.3.\n\nfile.read([size])\n\n   Read at most *size* bytes from the file (less if the read hits EOF\n   before obtaining *size* bytes).  If the *size* argument is negative\n   or omitted, read all data until EOF is reached.  The bytes are\n   returned as a string object.  An empty string is returned when EOF\n   is encountered immediately.  (For certain files, like ttys, it\n   makes sense to continue reading after an EOF is hit.)  Note that\n   this method may call the underlying C function ``fread()`` more\n   than once in an effort to acquire as close to *size* bytes as\n   possible. Also note that when in non-blocking mode, less data than\n   was requested may be returned, even if no *size* parameter was\n   given.\n\n   Note: This function is simply a wrapper for the underlying ``fread()``\n     C function, and will behave the same in corner cases, such as\n     whether the EOF value is cached.\n\nfile.readline([size])\n\n   Read one entire line from the file.  A trailing newline character\n   is kept in the string (but may be absent when a file ends with an\n   incomplete line). [5] If the *size* argument is present and non-\n   negative, it is a maximum byte count (including the trailing\n   newline) and an incomplete line may be returned. When *size* is not\n   0, an empty string is returned *only* when EOF is encountered\n   immediately.\n\n   Note: Unlike ``stdio``\'s ``fgets()``, the returned string contains null\n     characters (``\'\\0\'``) if they occurred in the input.\n\nfile.readlines([sizehint])\n\n   Read until EOF using ``readline()`` and return a list containing\n   the lines thus read.  If the optional *sizehint* argument is\n   present, instead of reading up to EOF, whole lines totalling\n   approximately *sizehint* bytes (possibly after rounding up to an\n   internal buffer size) are read.  Objects implementing a file-like\n   interface may choose to ignore *sizehint* if it cannot be\n   implemented, or cannot be implemented efficiently.\n\nfile.xreadlines()\n\n   This method returns the same thing as ``iter(f)``.\n\n   New in version 2.1.\n\n   Deprecated since version 2.3: Use ``for line in file`` instead.\n\nfile.seek(offset[, whence])\n\n   Set the file\'s current position, like ``stdio``\'s ``fseek()``. The\n   *whence* argument is optional and defaults to  ``os.SEEK_SET`` or\n   ``0`` (absolute file positioning); other values are ``os.SEEK_CUR``\n   or ``1`` (seek relative to the current position) and\n   ``os.SEEK_END`` or ``2``  (seek relative to the file\'s end).  There\n   is no return value.\n\n   For example, ``f.seek(2, os.SEEK_CUR)`` advances the position by\n   two and ``f.seek(-3, os.SEEK_END)`` sets the position to the third\n   to last.\n\n   Note that if the file is opened for appending (mode ``\'a\'`` or\n   ``\'a+\'``), any ``seek()`` operations will be undone at the next\n   write.  If the file is only opened for writing in append mode (mode\n   ``\'a\'``), this method is essentially a no-op, but it remains useful\n   for files opened in append mode with reading enabled (mode\n   ``\'a+\'``).  If the file is opened in text mode (without ``\'b\'``),\n   only offsets returned by ``tell()`` are legal.  Use of other\n   offsets causes undefined behavior.\n\n   Note that not all file objects are seekable.\n\n   Changed in version 2.6: Passing float values as offset has been\n   deprecated.\n\nfile.tell()\n\n   Return the file\'s current position, like ``stdio``\'s ``ftell()``.\n\n   Note: On Windows, ``tell()`` can return illegal values (after an\n     ``fgets()``) when reading files with Unix-style line-endings. Use\n     binary mode (``\'rb\'``) to circumvent this problem.\n\nfile.truncate([size])\n\n   Truncate the file\'s size.  If the optional *size* argument is\n   present, the file is truncated to (at most) that size.  The size\n   defaults to the current position. The current file position is not\n   changed.  Note that if a specified size exceeds the file\'s current\n   size, the result is platform-dependent:  possibilities include that\n   the file may remain unchanged, increase to the specified size as if\n   zero-filled, or increase to the specified size with undefined new\n   content. Availability:  Windows, many Unix variants.\n\nfile.write(str)\n\n   Write a string to the file.  There is no return value.  Due to\n   buffering, the string may not actually show up in the file until\n   the ``flush()`` or ``close()`` method is called.\n\nfile.writelines(sequence)\n\n   Write a sequence of strings to the file.  The sequence can be any\n   iterable object producing strings, typically a list of strings.\n   There is no return value. (The name is intended to match\n   ``readlines()``; ``writelines()`` does not add line separators.)\n\nFiles support the iterator protocol.  Each iteration returns the same\nresult as ``file.readline()``, and iteration ends when the\n``readline()`` method returns an empty string.\n\nFile objects also offer a number of other interesting attributes.\nThese are not required for file-like objects, but should be\nimplemented if they make sense for the particular object.\n\nfile.closed\n\n   bool indicating the current state of the file object.  This is a\n   read-only attribute; the ``close()`` method changes the value. It\n   may not be available on all file-like objects.\n\nfile.encoding\n\n   The encoding that this file uses. When Unicode strings are written\n   to a file, they will be converted to byte strings using this\n   encoding. In addition, when the file is connected to a terminal,\n   the attribute gives the encoding that the terminal is likely to use\n   (that  information might be incorrect if the user has misconfigured\n   the  terminal). The attribute is read-only and may not be present\n   on all file-like objects. It may also be ``None``, in which case\n   the file uses the system default encoding for converting Unicode\n   strings.\n\n   New in version 2.3.\n\nfile.errors\n\n   The Unicode error handler used along with the encoding.\n\n   New in version 2.6.\n\nfile.mode\n\n   The I/O mode for the file.  If the file was created using the\n   ``open()`` built-in function, this will be the value of the *mode*\n   parameter.  This is a read-only attribute and may not be present on\n   all file-like objects.\n\nfile.name\n\n   If the file object was created using ``open()``, the name of the\n   file. Otherwise, some string that indicates the source of the file\n   object, of the form ``<...>``.  This is a read-only attribute and\n   may not be present on all file-like objects.\n\nfile.newlines\n\n   If Python was built with universal newlines enabled (the default)\n   this read-only attribute exists, and for files opened in universal\n   newline read mode it keeps track of the types of newlines\n   encountered while reading the file. The values it can take are\n   ``\'\\r\'``, ``\'\\n\'``, ``\'\\r\\n\'``, ``None`` (unknown, no newlines read\n   yet) or a tuple containing all the newline types seen, to indicate\n   that multiple newline conventions were encountered. For files not\n   opened in universal newline read mode the value of this attribute\n   will be ``None``.\n\nfile.softspace\n\n   Boolean that indicates whether a space character needs to be\n   printed before another value when using the ``print`` statement.\n   Classes that are trying to simulate a file object should also have\n   a writable ``softspace`` attribute, which should be initialized to\n   zero.  This will be automatic for most classes implemented in\n   Python (care may be needed for objects that override attribute\n   access); types implemented in C will have to provide a writable\n   ``softspace`` attribute.\n\n   Note: This attribute is not used to control the ``print`` statement,\n     but to allow the implementation of ``print`` to keep track of its\n     internal state.\n',
  'bltin-null-object': u"\nThe Null Object\n***************\n\nThis object is returned by functions that don't explicitly return a\nvalue.  It supports no special operations.  There is exactly one null\nobject, named ``None`` (a built-in name).\n\nIt is written as ``None``.\n",
  'bltin-type-objects': u"\nType Objects\n************\n\nType objects represent the various object types.  An object's type is\naccessed by the built-in function ``type()``.  There are no special\noperations on types.  The standard module ``types`` defines names for\nall standard built-in types.\n\nTypes are written like this: ``<type 'int'>``.\n",
  'booleans': u'\nBoolean operations\n******************\n\n   or_test  ::= and_test | or_test "or" and_test\n   and_test ::= not_test | and_test "and" not_test\n   not_test ::= comparison | "not" not_test\n\nIn the context of Boolean operations, and also when expressions are\nused by control flow statements, the following values are interpreted\nas false: ``False``, ``None``, numeric zero of all types, and empty\nstrings and containers (including strings, tuples, lists,\ndictionaries, sets and frozensets).  All other values are interpreted\nas true.  (See the ``__nonzero__()`` special method for a way to\nchange this.)\n\nThe operator ``not`` yields ``True`` if its argument is false,\n``False`` otherwise.\n\nThe expression ``x and y`` first evaluates *x*; if *x* is false, its\nvalue is returned; otherwise, *y* is evaluated and the resulting value\nis returned.\n\nThe expression ``x or y`` first evaluates *x*; if *x* is true, its\nvalue is returned; otherwise, *y* is evaluated and the resulting value\nis returned.\n\n(Note that neither ``and`` nor ``or`` restrict the value and type they\nreturn to ``False`` and ``True``, but rather return the last evaluated\nargument. This is sometimes useful, e.g., if ``s`` is a string that\nshould be replaced by a default value if it is empty, the expression\n``s or \'foo\'`` yields the desired value.  Because ``not`` has to\ninvent a value anyway, it does not bother to return a value of the\nsame type as its argument, so e.g., ``not \'foo\'`` yields ``False``,\nnot ``\'\'``.)\n',
@@ -20,39 +20,39 @@
  'class': u'\nClass definitions\n*****************\n\nA class definition defines a class object (see section *The standard\ntype hierarchy*):\n\n   classdef    ::= "class" classname [inheritance] ":" suite\n   inheritance ::= "(" [expression_list] ")"\n   classname   ::= identifier\n\nA class definition is an executable statement.  It first evaluates the\ninheritance list, if present.  Each item in the inheritance list\nshould evaluate to a class object or class type which allows\nsubclassing.  The class\'s suite is then executed in a new execution\nframe (see section *Naming and binding*), using a newly created local\nnamespace and the original global namespace. (Usually, the suite\ncontains only function definitions.)  When the class\'s suite finishes\nexecution, its execution frame is discarded but its local namespace is\nsaved. [4] A class object is then created using the inheritance list\nfor the base classes and the saved local namespace for the attribute\ndictionary.  The class name is bound to this class object in the\noriginal local namespace.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Variables defined in the class definition are\nclass variables; they are shared by all instances.  To create instance\nvariables, they can be set in a method with ``self.name = value``.\nBoth class and instance variables are accessible through the notation\n"``self.name``", and an instance variable hides a class variable with\nthe same name when accessed in this way. Class variables can be used\nas defaults for instance variables, but using mutable values there can\nlead to unexpected results.  For *new-style class*es, descriptors can\nbe used to create instance variables with different implementation\ndetails.\n\nClass definitions, like function definitions, may be wrapped by one or\nmore *decorator* expressions.  The evaluation rules for the decorator\nexpressions are the same as for functions.  The result must be a class\nobject, which is then bound to the class name.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] The exception is propagated to the invocation stack only if there\n    is no ``finally`` clause that negates the exception.\n\n[2] Currently, control "flows off the end" except in the case of an\n    exception or the execution of a ``return``, ``continue``, or\n    ``break`` statement.\n\n[3] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the function\n    body is transformed into the function\'s ``__doc__`` attribute and\n    therefore the function\'s *docstring*.\n\n[4] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the class\n    body is transformed into the namespace\'s ``__doc__`` item and\n    therefore the class\'s *docstring*.\n',
  'coercion-rules': u"\nCoercion rules\n**************\n\nThis section used to document the rules for coercion.  As the language\nhas evolved, the coercion rules have become hard to document\nprecisely; documenting what one version of one particular\nimplementation does is undesirable.  Instead, here are some informal\nguidelines regarding coercion.  In Python 3.0, coercion will not be\nsupported.\n\n* If the left operand of a % operator is a string or Unicode object,\n  no coercion takes place and the string formatting operation is\n  invoked instead.\n\n* It is no longer recommended to define a coercion operation. Mixed-\n  mode operations on types that don't define coercion pass the\n  original arguments to the operation.\n\n* New-style classes (those derived from ``object``) never invoke the\n  ``__coerce__()`` method in response to a binary operator; the only\n  time ``__coerce__()`` is invoked is when the built-in function\n  ``coerce()`` is called.\n\n* For most intents and purposes, an operator that returns\n  ``NotImplemented`` is treated the same as one that is not\n  implemented at all.\n\n* Below, ``__op__()`` and ``__rop__()`` are used to signify the\n  generic method names corresponding to an operator; ``__iop__()`` is\n  used for the corresponding in-place operator.  For example, for the\n  operator '``+``', ``__add__()`` and ``__radd__()`` are used for the\n  left and right variant of the binary operator, and ``__iadd__()``\n  for the in-place variant.\n\n* For objects *x* and *y*, first ``x.__op__(y)`` is tried.  If this is\n  not implemented or returns ``NotImplemented``, ``y.__rop__(x)`` is\n  tried.  If this is also not implemented or returns\n  ``NotImplemented``, a ``TypeError`` exception is raised.  But see\n  the following exception:\n\n* Exception to the previous item: if the left operand is an instance\n  of a built-in type or a new-style class, and the right operand is an\n  instance of a proper subclass of that type or class and overrides\n  the base's ``__rop__()`` method, the right operand's ``__rop__()``\n  method is tried *before* the left operand's ``__op__()`` method.\n\n  This is done so that a subclass can completely override binary\n  operators. Otherwise, the left operand's ``__op__()`` method would\n  always accept the right operand: when an instance of a given class\n  is expected, an instance of a subclass of that class is always\n  acceptable.\n\n* When either operand type defines a coercion, this coercion is called\n  before that type's ``__op__()`` or ``__rop__()`` method is called,\n  but no sooner.  If the coercion returns an object of a different\n  type for the operand whose coercion is invoked, part of the process\n  is redone using the new object.\n\n* When an in-place operator (like '``+=``') is used, if the left\n  operand implements ``__iop__()``, it is invoked without any\n  coercion.  When the operation falls back to ``__op__()`` and/or\n  ``__rop__()``, the normal coercion rules apply.\n\n* In ``x + y``, if *x* is a sequence that implements sequence\n  concatenation, sequence concatenation is invoked.\n\n* In ``x * y``, if one operator is a sequence that implements sequence\n  repetition, and the other is an integer (``int`` or ``long``),\n  sequence repetition is invoked.\n\n* Rich comparisons (implemented by methods ``__eq__()`` and so on)\n  never use coercion.  Three-way comparison (implemented by\n  ``__cmp__()``) does use coercion under the same conditions as other\n  binary operations use it.\n\n* In the current implementation, the built-in numeric types ``int``,\n  ``long``, ``float``, and ``complex`` do not use coercion. All these\n  types implement a ``__coerce__()`` method, for use by the built-in\n  ``coerce()`` function.\n\n  Changed in version 2.7.\n",
  'comparisons': u'\nComparisons\n***********\n\nUnlike C, all comparison operations in Python have the same priority,\nwhich is lower than that of any arithmetic, shifting or bitwise\noperation.  Also unlike C, expressions like ``a < b < c`` have the\ninterpretation that is conventional in mathematics:\n\n   comparison    ::= or_expr ( comp_operator or_expr )*\n   comp_operator ::= "<" | ">" | "==" | ">=" | "<=" | "<>" | "!="\n                     | "is" ["not"] | ["not"] "in"\n\nComparisons yield boolean values: ``True`` or ``False``.\n\nComparisons can be chained arbitrarily, e.g., ``x < y <= z`` is\nequivalent to ``x < y and y <= z``, except that ``y`` is evaluated\nonly once (but in both cases ``z`` is not evaluated at all when ``x <\ny`` is found to be false).\n\nFormally, if *a*, *b*, *c*, ..., *y*, *z* are expressions and *op1*,\n*op2*, ..., *opN* are comparison operators, then ``a op1 b op2 c ... y\nopN z`` is equivalent to ``a op1 b and b op2 c and ... y opN z``,\nexcept that each expression is evaluated at most once.\n\nNote that ``a op1 b op2 c`` doesn\'t imply any kind of comparison\nbetween *a* and *c*, so that, e.g., ``x < y > z`` is perfectly legal\n(though perhaps not pretty).\n\nThe forms ``<>`` and ``!=`` are equivalent; for consistency with C,\n``!=`` is preferred; where ``!=`` is mentioned below ``<>`` is also\naccepted.  The ``<>`` spelling is considered obsolescent.\n\nThe operators ``<``, ``>``, ``==``, ``>=``, ``<=``, and ``!=`` compare\nthe values of two objects.  The objects need not have the same type.\nIf both are numbers, they are converted to a common type.  Otherwise,\nobjects of different types *always* compare unequal, and are ordered\nconsistently but arbitrarily. You can control comparison behavior of\nobjects of non-built-in types by defining a ``__cmp__`` method or rich\ncomparison methods like ``__gt__``, described in section *Special\nmethod names*.\n\n(This unusual definition of comparison was used to simplify the\ndefinition of operations like sorting and the ``in`` and ``not in``\noperators. In the future, the comparison rules for objects of\ndifferent types are likely to change.)\n\nComparison of objects of the same type depends on the type:\n\n* Numbers are compared arithmetically.\n\n* Strings are compared lexicographically using the numeric equivalents\n  (the result of the built-in function ``ord()``) of their characters.\n  Unicode and 8-bit strings are fully interoperable in this behavior.\n  [4]\n\n* Tuples and lists are compared lexicographically using comparison of\n  corresponding elements.  This means that to compare equal, each\n  element must compare equal and the two sequences must be of the same\n  type and have the same length.\n\n  If not equal, the sequences are ordered the same as their first\n  differing elements.  For example, ``cmp([1,2,x], [1,2,y])`` returns\n  the same as ``cmp(x,y)``.  If the corresponding element does not\n  exist, the shorter sequence is ordered first (for example, ``[1,2] <\n  [1,2,3]``).\n\n* Mappings (dictionaries) compare equal if and only if their sorted\n  (key, value) lists compare equal. [5] Outcomes other than equality\n  are resolved consistently, but are not otherwise defined. [6]\n\n* Most other objects of built-in types compare unequal unless they are\n  the same object; the choice whether one object is considered smaller\n  or larger than another one is made arbitrarily but consistently\n  within one execution of a program.\n\nThe operators ``in`` and ``not in`` test for collection membership.\n``x in s`` evaluates to true if *x* is a member of the collection *s*,\nand false otherwise.  ``x not in s`` returns the negation of ``x in\ns``. The collection membership test has traditionally been bound to\nsequences; an object is a member of a collection if the collection is\na sequence and contains an element equal to that object.  However, it\nmake sense for many other object types to support membership tests\nwithout being a sequence.  In particular, dictionaries (for keys) and\nsets support membership testing.\n\nFor the list and tuple types, ``x in y`` is true if and only if there\nexists an index *i* such that ``x == y[i]`` is true.\n\nFor the Unicode and string types, ``x in y`` is true if and only if\n*x* is a substring of *y*.  An equivalent test is ``y.find(x) != -1``.\nNote, *x* and *y* need not be the same type; consequently, ``u\'ab\' in\n\'abc\'`` will return ``True``. Empty strings are always considered to\nbe a substring of any other string, so ``"" in "abc"`` will return\n``True``.\n\nChanged in version 2.3: Previously, *x* was required to be a string of\nlength ``1``.\n\nFor user-defined classes which define the ``__contains__()`` method,\n``x in y`` is true if and only if ``y.__contains__(x)`` is true.\n\nFor user-defined classes which do not define ``__contains__()`` but do\ndefine ``__iter__()``, ``x in y`` is true if some value ``z`` with ``x\n== z`` is produced while iterating over ``y``.  If an exception is\nraised during the iteration, it is as if ``in`` raised that exception.\n\nLastly, the old-style iteration protocol is tried: if a class defines\n``__getitem__()``, ``x in y`` is true if and only if there is a non-\nnegative integer index *i* such that ``x == y[i]``, and all lower\ninteger indices do not raise ``IndexError`` exception. (If any other\nexception is raised, it is as if ``in`` raised that exception).\n\nThe operator ``not in`` is defined to have the inverse true value of\n``in``.\n\nThe operators ``is`` and ``is not`` test for object identity: ``x is\ny`` is true if and only if *x* and *y* are the same object.  ``x is\nnot y`` yields the inverse truth value. [7]\n',
- 'compound': u'\nCompound statements\n*******************\n\nCompound statements contain (groups of) other statements; they affect\nor control the execution of those other statements in some way.  In\ngeneral, compound statements span multiple lines, although in simple\nincarnations a whole compound statement may be contained in one line.\n\nThe ``if``, ``while`` and ``for`` statements implement traditional\ncontrol flow constructs.  ``try`` specifies exception handlers and/or\ncleanup code for a group of statements.  Function and class\ndefinitions are also syntactically compound statements.\n\nCompound statements consist of one or more \'clauses.\'  A clause\nconsists of a header and a \'suite.\'  The clause headers of a\nparticular compound statement are all at the same indentation level.\nEach clause header begins with a uniquely identifying keyword and ends\nwith a colon.  A suite is a group of statements controlled by a\nclause.  A suite can be one or more semicolon-separated simple\nstatements on the same line as the header, following the header\'s\ncolon, or it can be one or more indented statements on subsequent\nlines.  Only the latter form of suite can contain nested compound\nstatements; the following is illegal, mostly because it wouldn\'t be\nclear to which ``if`` clause a following ``else`` clause would belong:\n\n   if test1: if test2: print x\n\nAlso note that the semicolon binds tighter than the colon in this\ncontext, so that in the following example, either all or none of the\n``print`` statements are executed:\n\n   if x < y < z: print x; print y; print z\n\nSummarizing:\n\n   compound_stmt ::= if_stmt\n                     | while_stmt\n                     | for_stmt\n                     | try_stmt\n                     | with_stmt\n                     | funcdef\n                     | classdef\n                     | decorated\n   suite         ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | NEWLINE INDENT statement+ DEDENT\n   statement     ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | compound_stmt\n   stmt_list     ::= simple_stmt (";" simple_stmt)* [";"]\n\nNote that statements always end in a ``NEWLINE`` possibly followed by\na ``DEDENT``. Also note that optional continuation clauses always\nbegin with a keyword that cannot start a statement, thus there are no\nambiguities (the \'dangling ``else``\' problem is solved in Python by\nrequiring nested ``if`` statements to be indented).\n\nThe formatting of the grammar rules in the following sections places\neach clause on a separate line for clarity.\n\n\nThe ``if`` statement\n====================\n\nThe ``if`` statement is used for conditional execution:\n\n   if_stmt ::= "if" expression ":" suite\n               ( "elif" expression ":" suite )*\n               ["else" ":" suite]\n\nIt selects exactly one of the suites by evaluating the expressions one\nby one until one is found to be true (see section *Boolean operations*\nfor the definition of true and false); then that suite is executed\n(and no other part of the ``if`` statement is executed or evaluated).\nIf all expressions are false, the suite of the ``else`` clause, if\npresent, is executed.\n\n\nThe ``while`` statement\n=======================\n\nThe ``while`` statement is used for repeated execution as long as an\nexpression is true:\n\n   while_stmt ::= "while" expression ":" suite\n                  ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThis repeatedly tests the expression and, if it is true, executes the\nfirst suite; if the expression is false (which may be the first time\nit is tested) the suite of the ``else`` clause, if present, is\nexecuted and the loop terminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ngoes back to testing the expression.\n\n\nThe ``for`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``for`` statement is used to iterate over the elements of a\nsequence (such as a string, tuple or list) or other iterable object:\n\n   for_stmt ::= "for" target_list "in" expression_list ":" suite\n                ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThe expression list is evaluated once; it should yield an iterable\nobject.  An iterator is created for the result of the\n``expression_list``.  The suite is then executed once for each item\nprovided by the iterator, in the order of ascending indices.  Each\nitem in turn is assigned to the target list using the standard rules\nfor assignments, and then the suite is executed.  When the items are\nexhausted (which is immediately when the sequence is empty), the suite\nin the ``else`` clause, if present, is executed, and the loop\nterminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ncontinues with the next item, or with the ``else`` clause if there was\nno next item.\n\nThe suite may assign to the variable(s) in the target list; this does\nnot affect the next item assigned to it.\n\nThe target list is not deleted when the loop is finished, but if the\nsequence is empty, it will not have been assigned to at all by the\nloop.  Hint: the built-in function ``range()`` returns a sequence of\nintegers suitable to emulate the effect of Pascal\'s ``for i := a to b\ndo``; e.g., ``range(3)`` returns the list ``[0, 1, 2]``.\n\nNote: There is a subtlety when the sequence is being modified by the loop\n  (this can only occur for mutable sequences, i.e. lists). An internal\n  counter is used to keep track of which item is used next, and this\n  is incremented on each iteration.  When this counter has reached the\n  length of the sequence the loop terminates.  This means that if the\n  suite deletes the current (or a previous) item from the sequence,\n  the next item will be skipped (since it gets the index of the\n  current item which has already been treated).  Likewise, if the\n  suite inserts an item in the sequence before the current item, the\n  current item will be treated again the next time through the loop.\n  This can lead to nasty bugs that can be avoided by making a\n  temporary copy using a slice of the whole sequence, e.g.,\n\n     for x in a[:]:\n         if x < 0: a.remove(x)\n\n\nThe ``try`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``try`` statement specifies exception handlers and/or cleanup code\nfor a group of statements:\n\n   try_stmt  ::= try1_stmt | try2_stmt\n   try1_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 ("except" [expression [("as" | ",") target]] ":" suite)+\n                 ["else" ":" suite]\n                 ["finally" ":" suite]\n   try2_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 "finally" ":" suite\n\nChanged in version 2.5: In previous versions of Python,\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` did not work. ``try``...``except``\nhad to be nested in ``try``...``finally``.\n\nThe ``except`` clause(s) specify one or more exception handlers. When\nno exception occurs in the ``try`` clause, no exception handler is\nexecuted. When an exception occurs in the ``try`` suite, a search for\nan exception handler is started.  This search inspects the except\nclauses in turn until one is found that matches the exception.  An\nexpression-less except clause, if present, must be last; it matches\nany exception.  For an except clause with an expression, that\nexpression is evaluated, and the clause matches the exception if the\nresulting object is "compatible" with the exception.  An object is\ncompatible with an exception if it is the class or a base class of the\nexception object, a tuple containing an item compatible with the\nexception, or, in the (deprecated) case of string exceptions, is the\nraised string itself (note that the object identities must match, i.e.\nit must be the same string object, not just a string with the same\nvalue).\n\nIf no except clause matches the exception, the search for an exception\nhandler continues in the surrounding code and on the invocation stack.\n[1]\n\nIf the evaluation of an expression in the header of an except clause\nraises an exception, the original search for a handler is canceled and\na search starts for the new exception in the surrounding code and on\nthe call stack (it is treated as if the entire ``try`` statement\nraised the exception).\n\nWhen a matching except clause is found, the exception is assigned to\nthe target specified in that except clause, if present, and the except\nclause\'s suite is executed.  All except clauses must have an\nexecutable block.  When the end of this block is reached, execution\ncontinues normally after the entire try statement.  (This means that\nif two nested handlers exist for the same exception, and the exception\noccurs in the try clause of the inner handler, the outer handler will\nnot handle the exception.)\n\nBefore an except clause\'s suite is executed, details about the\nexception are assigned to three variables in the ``sys`` module:\n``sys.exc_type`` receives the object identifying the exception;\n``sys.exc_value`` receives the exception\'s parameter;\n``sys.exc_traceback`` receives a traceback object (see section *The\nstandard type hierarchy*) identifying the point in the program where\nthe exception occurred. These details are also available through the\n``sys.exc_info()`` function, which returns a tuple ``(exc_type,\nexc_value, exc_traceback)``.  Use of the corresponding variables is\ndeprecated in favor of this function, since their use is unsafe in a\nthreaded program.  As of Python 1.5, the variables are restored to\ntheir previous values (before the call) when returning from a function\nthat handled an exception.\n\nThe optional ``else`` clause is executed if and when control flows off\nthe end of the ``try`` clause. [2] Exceptions in the ``else`` clause\nare not handled by the preceding ``except`` clauses.\n\nIf ``finally`` is present, it specifies a \'cleanup\' handler.  The\n``try`` clause is executed, including any ``except`` and ``else``\nclauses.  If an exception occurs in any of the clauses and is not\nhandled, the exception is temporarily saved. The ``finally`` clause is\nexecuted.  If there is a saved exception, it is re-raised at the end\nof the ``finally`` clause. If the ``finally`` clause raises another\nexception or executes a ``return`` or ``break`` statement, the saved\nexception is lost.  The exception information is not available to the\nprogram during execution of the ``finally`` clause.\n\nWhen a ``return``, ``break`` or ``continue`` statement is executed in\nthe ``try`` suite of a ``try``...``finally`` statement, the\n``finally`` clause is also executed \'on the way out.\' A ``continue``\nstatement is illegal in the ``finally`` clause. (The reason is a\nproblem with the current implementation --- this restriction may be\nlifted in the future).\n\nAdditional information on exceptions can be found in section\n*Exceptions*, and information on using the ``raise`` statement to\ngenerate exceptions may be found in section *The raise statement*.\n\n\nThe ``with`` statement\n======================\n\nNew in version 2.5.\n\nThe ``with`` statement is used to wrap the execution of a block with\nmethods defined by a context manager (see section *With Statement\nContext Managers*). This allows common\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` usage patterns to be encapsulated\nfor convenient reuse.\n\n   with_stmt ::= "with" with_item ("," with_item)* ":" suite\n   with_item ::= expression ["as" target]\n\nThe execution of the ``with`` statement with one "item" proceeds as\nfollows:\n\n1. The context expression is evaluated to obtain a context manager.\n\n2. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` is loaded for later use.\n\n3. The context manager\'s ``__enter__()`` method is invoked.\n\n4. If a target was included in the ``with`` statement, the return\n   value from ``__enter__()`` is assigned to it.\n\n   Note: The ``with`` statement guarantees that if the ``__enter__()``\n     method returns without an error, then ``__exit__()`` will always\n     be called. Thus, if an error occurs during the assignment to the\n     target list, it will be treated the same as an error occurring\n     within the suite would be. See step 6 below.\n\n5. The suite is executed.\n\n6. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` method is invoked. If an\n   exception caused the suite to be exited, its type, value, and\n   traceback are passed as arguments to ``__exit__()``. Otherwise,\n   three ``None`` arguments are supplied.\n\n   If the suite was exited due to an exception, and the return value\n   from the ``__exit__()`` method was false, the exception is\n   reraised. If the return value was true, the exception is\n   suppressed, and execution continues with the statement following\n   the ``with`` statement.\n\n   If the suite was exited for any reason other than an exception, the\n   return value from ``__exit__()`` is ignored, and execution proceeds\n   at the normal location for the kind of exit that was taken.\n\nWith more than one item, the context managers are processed as if\nmultiple ``with`` statements were nested:\n\n   with A() as a, B() as b:\n       suite\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   with A() as a:\n       with B() as b:\n           suite\n\nNote: In Python 2.5, the ``with`` statement is only allowed when the\n  ``with_statement`` feature has been enabled.  It is always enabled\n  in Python 2.6.\n\nChanged in version 2.7: Support for multiple context expressions.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n\n\nFunction definitions\n====================\n\nA function definition defines a user-defined function object (see\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*):\n\n   decorated      ::= decorators (classdef | funcdef)\n   decorators     ::= decorator+\n   decorator      ::= "@" dotted_name ["(" [argument_list [","]] ")"] NEWLINE\n   funcdef        ::= "def" funcname "(" [parameter_list] ")" ":" suite\n   dotted_name    ::= identifier ("." identifier)*\n   parameter_list ::= (defparameter ",")*\n                      (  "*" identifier [, "**" identifier]\n                      | "**" identifier\n                      | defparameter [","] )\n   defparameter   ::= parameter ["=" expression]\n   sublist        ::= parameter ("," parameter)* [","]\n   parameter      ::= identifier | "(" sublist ")"\n   funcname       ::= identifier\n\nA function definition is an executable statement.  Its execution binds\nthe function name in the current local namespace to a function object\n(a wrapper around the executable code for the function).  This\nfunction object contains a reference to the current global namespace\nas the global namespace to be used when the function is called.\n\nThe function definition does not execute the function body; this gets\nexecuted only when the function is called. [3]\n\nA function definition may be wrapped by one or more *decorator*\nexpressions. Decorator expressions are evaluated when the function is\ndefined, in the scope that contains the function definition.  The\nresult must be a callable, which is invoked with the function object\nas the only argument. The returned value is bound to the function name\ninstead of the function object.  Multiple decorators are applied in\nnested fashion. For example, the following code:\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   def func(): pass\n\nis equivalent to:\n\n   def func(): pass\n   func = f1(arg)(f2(func))\n\nWhen one or more top-level parameters have the form *parameter* ``=``\n*expression*, the function is said to have "default parameter values."\nFor a parameter with a default value, the corresponding argument may\nbe omitted from a call, in which case the parameter\'s default value is\nsubstituted.  If a parameter has a default value, all following\nparameters must also have a default value --- this is a syntactic\nrestriction that is not expressed by the grammar.\n\n**Default parameter values are evaluated when the function definition\nis executed.**  This means that the expression is evaluated once, when\nthe function is defined, and that that same "pre-computed" value is\nused for each call.  This is especially important to understand when a\ndefault parameter is a mutable object, such as a list or a dictionary:\nif the function modifies the object (e.g. by appending an item to a\nlist), the default value is in effect modified. This is generally not\nwhat was intended.  A way around this  is to use ``None`` as the\ndefault, and explicitly test for it in the body of the function, e.g.:\n\n   def whats_on_the_telly(penguin=None):\n       if penguin is None:\n           penguin = []\n       penguin.append("property of the zoo")\n       return penguin\n\nFunction call semantics are described in more detail in section\n*Calls*. A function call always assigns values to all parameters\nmentioned in the parameter list, either from position arguments, from\nkeyword arguments, or from default values.  If the form\n"``*identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a tuple receiving\nany excess positional parameters, defaulting to the empty tuple.  If\nthe form "``**identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a new\ndictionary receiving any excess keyword arguments, defaulting to a new\nempty dictionary.\n\nIt is also possible to create anonymous functions (functions not bound\nto a name), for immediate use in expressions.  This uses lambda forms,\ndescribed in section *Lambdas*.  Note that the lambda form is merely a\nshorthand for a simplified function definition; a function defined in\na "``def``" statement can be passed around or assigned to another name\njust like a function defined by a lambda form.  The "``def``" form is\nactually more powerful since it allows the execution of multiple\nstatements.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Functions are first-class objects.  A "``def``"\nform executed inside a function definition defines a local function\nthat can be returned or passed around.  Free variables used in the\nnested function can access the local variables of the function\ncontaining the def.  See section *Naming and binding* for details.\n\n\nClass definitions\n=================\n\nA class definition defines a class object (see section *The standard\ntype hierarchy*):\n\n   classdef    ::= "class" classname [inheritance] ":" suite\n   inheritance ::= "(" [expression_list] ")"\n   classname   ::= identifier\n\nA class definition is an executable statement.  It first evaluates the\ninheritance list, if present.  Each item in the inheritance list\nshould evaluate to a class object or class type which allows\nsubclassing.  The class\'s suite is then executed in a new execution\nframe (see section *Naming and binding*), using a newly created local\nnamespace and the original global namespace. (Usually, the suite\ncontains only function definitions.)  When the class\'s suite finishes\nexecution, its execution frame is discarded but its local namespace is\nsaved. [4] A class object is then created using the inheritance list\nfor the base classes and the saved local namespace for the attribute\ndictionary.  The class name is bound to this class object in the\noriginal local namespace.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Variables defined in the class definition are\nclass variables; they are shared by all instances.  To create instance\nvariables, they can be set in a method with ``self.name = value``.\nBoth class and instance variables are accessible through the notation\n"``self.name``", and an instance variable hides a class variable with\nthe same name when accessed in this way. Class variables can be used\nas defaults for instance variables, but using mutable values there can\nlead to unexpected results.  For *new-style class*es, descriptors can\nbe used to create instance variables with different implementation\ndetails.\n\nClass definitions, like function definitions, may be wrapped by one or\nmore *decorator* expressions.  The evaluation rules for the decorator\nexpressions are the same as for functions.  The result must be a class\nobject, which is then bound to the class name.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] The exception is propagated to the invocation stack only if there\n    is no ``finally`` clause that negates the exception.\n\n[2] Currently, control "flows off the end" except in the case of an\n    exception or the execution of a ``return``, ``continue``, or\n    ``break`` statement.\n\n[3] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the function\n    body is transformed into the function\'s ``__doc__`` attribute and\n    therefore the function\'s *docstring*.\n\n[4] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the class\n    body is transformed into the namespace\'s ``__doc__`` item and\n    therefore the class\'s *docstring*.\n',
+ 'compound': u'\nCompound statements\n*******************\n\nCompound statements contain (groups of) other statements; they affect\nor control the execution of those other statements in some way.  In\ngeneral, compound statements span multiple lines, although in simple\nincarnations a whole compound statement may be contained in one line.\n\nThe ``if``, ``while`` and ``for`` statements implement traditional\ncontrol flow constructs.  ``try`` specifies exception handlers and/or\ncleanup code for a group of statements.  Function and class\ndefinitions are also syntactically compound statements.\n\nCompound statements consist of one or more \'clauses.\'  A clause\nconsists of a header and a \'suite.\'  The clause headers of a\nparticular compound statement are all at the same indentation level.\nEach clause header begins with a uniquely identifying keyword and ends\nwith a colon.  A suite is a group of statements controlled by a\nclause.  A suite can be one or more semicolon-separated simple\nstatements on the same line as the header, following the header\'s\ncolon, or it can be one or more indented statements on subsequent\nlines.  Only the latter form of suite can contain nested compound\nstatements; the following is illegal, mostly because it wouldn\'t be\nclear to which ``if`` clause a following ``else`` clause would belong:\n\n   if test1: if test2: print x\n\nAlso note that the semicolon binds tighter than the colon in this\ncontext, so that in the following example, either all or none of the\n``print`` statements are executed:\n\n   if x < y < z: print x; print y; print z\n\nSummarizing:\n\n   compound_stmt ::= if_stmt\n                     | while_stmt\n                     | for_stmt\n                     | try_stmt\n                     | with_stmt\n                     | funcdef\n                     | classdef\n                     | decorated\n   suite         ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | NEWLINE INDENT statement+ DEDENT\n   statement     ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | compound_stmt\n   stmt_list     ::= simple_stmt (";" simple_stmt)* [";"]\n\nNote that statements always end in a ``NEWLINE`` possibly followed by\na ``DEDENT``. Also note that optional continuation clauses always\nbegin with a keyword that cannot start a statement, thus there are no\nambiguities (the \'dangling ``else``\' problem is solved in Python by\nrequiring nested ``if`` statements to be indented).\n\nThe formatting of the grammar rules in the following sections places\neach clause on a separate line for clarity.\n\n\nThe ``if`` statement\n====================\n\nThe ``if`` statement is used for conditional execution:\n\n   if_stmt ::= "if" expression ":" suite\n               ( "elif" expression ":" suite )*\n               ["else" ":" suite]\n\nIt selects exactly one of the suites by evaluating the expressions one\nby one until one is found to be true (see section *Boolean operations*\nfor the definition of true and false); then that suite is executed\n(and no other part of the ``if`` statement is executed or evaluated).\nIf all expressions are false, the suite of the ``else`` clause, if\npresent, is executed.\n\n\nThe ``while`` statement\n=======================\n\nThe ``while`` statement is used for repeated execution as long as an\nexpression is true:\n\n   while_stmt ::= "while" expression ":" suite\n                  ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThis repeatedly tests the expression and, if it is true, executes the\nfirst suite; if the expression is false (which may be the first time\nit is tested) the suite of the ``else`` clause, if present, is\nexecuted and the loop terminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ngoes back to testing the expression.\n\n\nThe ``for`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``for`` statement is used to iterate over the elements of a\nsequence (such as a string, tuple or list) or other iterable object:\n\n   for_stmt ::= "for" target_list "in" expression_list ":" suite\n                ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThe expression list is evaluated once; it should yield an iterable\nobject.  An iterator is created for the result of the\n``expression_list``.  The suite is then executed once for each item\nprovided by the iterator, in the order of ascending indices.  Each\nitem in turn is assigned to the target list using the standard rules\nfor assignments, and then the suite is executed.  When the items are\nexhausted (which is immediately when the sequence is empty), the suite\nin the ``else`` clause, if present, is executed, and the loop\nterminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ncontinues with the next item, or with the ``else`` clause if there was\nno next item.\n\nThe suite may assign to the variable(s) in the target list; this does\nnot affect the next item assigned to it.\n\nThe target list is not deleted when the loop is finished, but if the\nsequence is empty, it will not have been assigned to at all by the\nloop.  Hint: the built-in function ``range()`` returns a sequence of\nintegers suitable to emulate the effect of Pascal\'s ``for i := a to b\ndo``; e.g., ``range(3)`` returns the list ``[0, 1, 2]``.\n\nNote: There is a subtlety when the sequence is being modified by the loop\n  (this can only occur for mutable sequences, i.e. lists). An internal\n  counter is used to keep track of which item is used next, and this\n  is incremented on each iteration.  When this counter has reached the\n  length of the sequence the loop terminates.  This means that if the\n  suite deletes the current (or a previous) item from the sequence,\n  the next item will be skipped (since it gets the index of the\n  current item which has already been treated).  Likewise, if the\n  suite inserts an item in the sequence before the current item, the\n  current item will be treated again the next time through the loop.\n  This can lead to nasty bugs that can be avoided by making a\n  temporary copy using a slice of the whole sequence, e.g.,\n\n     for x in a[:]:\n         if x < 0: a.remove(x)\n\n\nThe ``try`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``try`` statement specifies exception handlers and/or cleanup code\nfor a group of statements:\n\n   try_stmt  ::= try1_stmt | try2_stmt\n   try1_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 ("except" [expression [("as" | ",") target]] ":" suite)+\n                 ["else" ":" suite]\n                 ["finally" ":" suite]\n   try2_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 "finally" ":" suite\n\nChanged in version 2.5: In previous versions of Python,\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` did not work. ``try``...``except``\nhad to be nested in ``try``...``finally``.\n\nThe ``except`` clause(s) specify one or more exception handlers. When\nno exception occurs in the ``try`` clause, no exception handler is\nexecuted. When an exception occurs in the ``try`` suite, a search for\nan exception handler is started.  This search inspects the except\nclauses in turn until one is found that matches the exception.  An\nexpression-less except clause, if present, must be last; it matches\nany exception.  For an except clause with an expression, that\nexpression is evaluated, and the clause matches the exception if the\nresulting object is "compatible" with the exception.  An object is\ncompatible with an exception if it is the class or a base class of the\nexception object, a tuple containing an item compatible with the\nexception, or, in the (deprecated) case of string exceptions, is the\nraised string itself (note that the object identities must match, i.e.\nit must be the same string object, not just a string with the same\nvalue).\n\nIf no except clause matches the exception, the search for an exception\nhandler continues in the surrounding code and on the invocation stack.\n[1]\n\nIf the evaluation of an expression in the header of an except clause\nraises an exception, the original search for a handler is canceled and\na search starts for the new exception in the surrounding code and on\nthe call stack (it is treated as if the entire ``try`` statement\nraised the exception).\n\nWhen a matching except clause is found, the exception is assigned to\nthe target specified in that except clause, if present, and the except\nclause\'s suite is executed.  All except clauses must have an\nexecutable block.  When the end of this block is reached, execution\ncontinues normally after the entire try statement.  (This means that\nif two nested handlers exist for the same exception, and the exception\noccurs in the try clause of the inner handler, the outer handler will\nnot handle the exception.)\n\nBefore an except clause\'s suite is executed, details about the\nexception are assigned to three variables in the ``sys`` module:\n``sys.exc_type`` receives the object identifying the exception;\n``sys.exc_value`` receives the exception\'s parameter;\n``sys.exc_traceback`` receives a traceback object (see section *The\nstandard type hierarchy*) identifying the point in the program where\nthe exception occurred. These details are also available through the\n``sys.exc_info()`` function, which returns a tuple ``(exc_type,\nexc_value, exc_traceback)``.  Use of the corresponding variables is\ndeprecated in favor of this function, since their use is unsafe in a\nthreaded program.  As of Python 1.5, the variables are restored to\ntheir previous values (before the call) when returning from a function\nthat handled an exception.\n\nThe optional ``else`` clause is executed if and when control flows off\nthe end of the ``try`` clause. [2] Exceptions in the ``else`` clause\nare not handled by the preceding ``except`` clauses.\n\nIf ``finally`` is present, it specifies a \'cleanup\' handler.  The\n``try`` clause is executed, including any ``except`` and ``else``\nclauses.  If an exception occurs in any of the clauses and is not\nhandled, the exception is temporarily saved. The ``finally`` clause is\nexecuted.  If there is a saved exception, it is re-raised at the end\nof the ``finally`` clause. If the ``finally`` clause raises another\nexception or executes a ``return`` or ``break`` statement, the saved\nexception is lost.  The exception information is not available to the\nprogram during execution of the ``finally`` clause.\n\nWhen a ``return``, ``break`` or ``continue`` statement is executed in\nthe ``try`` suite of a ``try``...``finally`` statement, the\n``finally`` clause is also executed \'on the way out.\' A ``continue``\nstatement is illegal in the ``finally`` clause. (The reason is a\nproblem with the current implementation --- this restriction may be\nlifted in the future).\n\nAdditional information on exceptions can be found in section\n*Exceptions*, and information on using the ``raise`` statement to\ngenerate exceptions may be found in section *The raise statement*.\n\n\nThe ``with`` statement\n======================\n\nNew in version 2.5.\n\nThe ``with`` statement is used to wrap the execution of a block with\nmethods defined by a context manager (see section *With Statement\nContext Managers*). This allows common\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` usage patterns to be encapsulated\nfor convenient reuse.\n\n   with_stmt ::= "with" with_item ("," with_item)* ":" suite\n   with_item ::= expression ["as" target]\n\nThe execution of the ``with`` statement with one "item" proceeds as\nfollows:\n\n1. The context expression (the expression given in the **with_item**)\n   is evaluated to obtain a context manager.\n\n2. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` is loaded for later use.\n\n3. The context manager\'s ``__enter__()`` method is invoked.\n\n4. If a target was included in the ``with`` statement, the return\n   value from ``__enter__()`` is assigned to it.\n\n   Note: The ``with`` statement guarantees that if the ``__enter__()``\n     method returns without an error, then ``__exit__()`` will always\n     be called. Thus, if an error occurs during the assignment to the\n     target list, it will be treated the same as an error occurring\n     within the suite would be. See step 6 below.\n\n5. The suite is executed.\n\n6. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` method is invoked. If an\n   exception caused the suite to be exited, its type, value, and\n   traceback are passed as arguments to ``__exit__()``. Otherwise,\n   three ``None`` arguments are supplied.\n\n   If the suite was exited due to an exception, and the return value\n   from the ``__exit__()`` method was false, the exception is\n   reraised. If the return value was true, the exception is\n   suppressed, and execution continues with the statement following\n   the ``with`` statement.\n\n   If the suite was exited for any reason other than an exception, the\n   return value from ``__exit__()`` is ignored, and execution proceeds\n   at the normal location for the kind of exit that was taken.\n\nWith more than one item, the context managers are processed as if\nmultiple ``with`` statements were nested:\n\n   with A() as a, B() as b:\n       suite\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   with A() as a:\n       with B() as b:\n           suite\n\nNote: In Python 2.5, the ``with`` statement is only allowed when the\n  ``with_statement`` feature has been enabled.  It is always enabled\n  in Python 2.6.\n\nChanged in version 2.7: Support for multiple context expressions.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n\n\nFunction definitions\n====================\n\nA function definition defines a user-defined function object (see\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*):\n\n   decorated      ::= decorators (classdef | funcdef)\n   decorators     ::= decorator+\n   decorator      ::= "@" dotted_name ["(" [argument_list [","]] ")"] NEWLINE\n   funcdef        ::= "def" funcname "(" [parameter_list] ")" ":" suite\n   dotted_name    ::= identifier ("." identifier)*\n   parameter_list ::= (defparameter ",")*\n                      (  "*" identifier [, "**" identifier]\n                      | "**" identifier\n                      | defparameter [","] )\n   defparameter   ::= parameter ["=" expression]\n   sublist        ::= parameter ("," parameter)* [","]\n   parameter      ::= identifier | "(" sublist ")"\n   funcname       ::= identifier\n\nA function definition is an executable statement.  Its execution binds\nthe function name in the current local namespace to a function object\n(a wrapper around the executable code for the function).  This\nfunction object contains a reference to the current global namespace\nas the global namespace to be used when the function is called.\n\nThe function definition does not execute the function body; this gets\nexecuted only when the function is called. [3]\n\nA function definition may be wrapped by one or more *decorator*\nexpressions. Decorator expressions are evaluated when the function is\ndefined, in the scope that contains the function definition.  The\nresult must be a callable, which is invoked with the function object\nas the only argument. The returned value is bound to the function name\ninstead of the function object.  Multiple decorators are applied in\nnested fashion. For example, the following code:\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   def func(): pass\n\nis equivalent to:\n\n   def func(): pass\n   func = f1(arg)(f2(func))\n\nWhen one or more top-level parameters have the form *parameter* ``=``\n*expression*, the function is said to have "default parameter values."\nFor a parameter with a default value, the corresponding argument may\nbe omitted from a call, in which case the parameter\'s default value is\nsubstituted.  If a parameter has a default value, all following\nparameters must also have a default value --- this is a syntactic\nrestriction that is not expressed by the grammar.\n\n**Default parameter values are evaluated when the function definition\nis executed.**  This means that the expression is evaluated once, when\nthe function is defined, and that that same "pre-computed" value is\nused for each call.  This is especially important to understand when a\ndefault parameter is a mutable object, such as a list or a dictionary:\nif the function modifies the object (e.g. by appending an item to a\nlist), the default value is in effect modified. This is generally not\nwhat was intended.  A way around this  is to use ``None`` as the\ndefault, and explicitly test for it in the body of the function, e.g.:\n\n   def whats_on_the_telly(penguin=None):\n       if penguin is None:\n           penguin = []\n       penguin.append("property of the zoo")\n       return penguin\n\nFunction call semantics are described in more detail in section\n*Calls*. A function call always assigns values to all parameters\nmentioned in the parameter list, either from position arguments, from\nkeyword arguments, or from default values.  If the form\n"``*identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a tuple receiving\nany excess positional parameters, defaulting to the empty tuple.  If\nthe form "``**identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a new\ndictionary receiving any excess keyword arguments, defaulting to a new\nempty dictionary.\n\nIt is also possible to create anonymous functions (functions not bound\nto a name), for immediate use in expressions.  This uses lambda forms,\ndescribed in section *Lambdas*.  Note that the lambda form is merely a\nshorthand for a simplified function definition; a function defined in\na "``def``" statement can be passed around or assigned to another name\njust like a function defined by a lambda form.  The "``def``" form is\nactually more powerful since it allows the execution of multiple\nstatements.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Functions are first-class objects.  A "``def``"\nform executed inside a function definition defines a local function\nthat can be returned or passed around.  Free variables used in the\nnested function can access the local variables of the function\ncontaining the def.  See section *Naming and binding* for details.\n\n\nClass definitions\n=================\n\nA class definition defines a class object (see section *The standard\ntype hierarchy*):\n\n   classdef    ::= "class" classname [inheritance] ":" suite\n   inheritance ::= "(" [expression_list] ")"\n   classname   ::= identifier\n\nA class definition is an executable statement.  It first evaluates the\ninheritance list, if present.  Each item in the inheritance list\nshould evaluate to a class object or class type which allows\nsubclassing.  The class\'s suite is then executed in a new execution\nframe (see section *Naming and binding*), using a newly created local\nnamespace and the original global namespace. (Usually, the suite\ncontains only function definitions.)  When the class\'s suite finishes\nexecution, its execution frame is discarded but its local namespace is\nsaved. [4] A class object is then created using the inheritance list\nfor the base classes and the saved local namespace for the attribute\ndictionary.  The class name is bound to this class object in the\noriginal local namespace.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Variables defined in the class definition are\nclass variables; they are shared by all instances.  To create instance\nvariables, they can be set in a method with ``self.name = value``.\nBoth class and instance variables are accessible through the notation\n"``self.name``", and an instance variable hides a class variable with\nthe same name when accessed in this way. Class variables can be used\nas defaults for instance variables, but using mutable values there can\nlead to unexpected results.  For *new-style class*es, descriptors can\nbe used to create instance variables with different implementation\ndetails.\n\nClass definitions, like function definitions, may be wrapped by one or\nmore *decorator* expressions.  The evaluation rules for the decorator\nexpressions are the same as for functions.  The result must be a class\nobject, which is then bound to the class name.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] The exception is propagated to the invocation stack only if there\n    is no ``finally`` clause that negates the exception.\n\n[2] Currently, control "flows off the end" except in the case of an\n    exception or the execution of a ``return``, ``continue``, or\n    ``break`` statement.\n\n[3] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the function\n    body is transformed into the function\'s ``__doc__`` attribute and\n    therefore the function\'s *docstring*.\n\n[4] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the class\n    body is transformed into the namespace\'s ``__doc__`` item and\n    therefore the class\'s *docstring*.\n',
  'context-managers': u'\nWith Statement Context Managers\n*******************************\n\nNew in version 2.5.\n\nA *context manager* is an object that defines the runtime context to\nbe established when executing a ``with`` statement. The context\nmanager handles the entry into, and the exit from, the desired runtime\ncontext for the execution of the block of code.  Context managers are\nnormally invoked using the ``with`` statement (described in section\n*The with statement*), but can also be used by directly invoking their\nmethods.\n\nTypical uses of context managers include saving and restoring various\nkinds of global state, locking and unlocking resources, closing opened\nfiles, etc.\n\nFor more information on context managers, see *Context Manager Types*.\n\nobject.__enter__(self)\n\n   Enter the runtime context related to this object. The ``with``\n   statement will bind this method\'s return value to the target(s)\n   specified in the ``as`` clause of the statement, if any.\n\nobject.__exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback)\n\n   Exit the runtime context related to this object. The parameters\n   describe the exception that caused the context to be exited. If the\n   context was exited without an exception, all three arguments will\n   be ``None``.\n\n   If an exception is supplied, and the method wishes to suppress the\n   exception (i.e., prevent it from being propagated), it should\n   return a true value. Otherwise, the exception will be processed\n   normally upon exit from this method.\n\n   Note that ``__exit__()`` methods should not reraise the passed-in\n   exception; this is the caller\'s responsibility.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n',
  'continue': u'\nThe ``continue`` statement\n**************************\n\n   continue_stmt ::= "continue"\n\n``continue`` may only occur syntactically nested in a ``for`` or\n``while`` loop, but not nested in a function or class definition or\n``finally`` clause within that loop.  It continues with the next cycle\nof the nearest enclosing loop.\n\nWhen ``continue`` passes control out of a ``try`` statement with a\n``finally`` clause, that ``finally`` clause is executed before really\nstarting the next loop cycle.\n',
  'conversions': u'\nArithmetic conversions\n**********************\n\nWhen a description of an arithmetic operator below uses the phrase\n"the numeric arguments are converted to a common type," the arguments\nare coerced using the coercion rules listed at  *Coercion rules*.  If\nboth arguments are standard numeric types, the following coercions are\napplied:\n\n* If either argument is a complex number, the other is converted to\n  complex;\n\n* otherwise, if either argument is a floating point number, the other\n  is converted to floating point;\n\n* otherwise, if either argument is a long integer, the other is\n  converted to long integer;\n\n* otherwise, both must be plain integers and no conversion is\n  necessary.\n\nSome additional rules apply for certain operators (e.g., a string left\nargument to the \'%\' operator). Extensions can define their own\ncoercions.\n',
  'customization': u'\nBasic customization\n*******************\n\nobject.__new__(cls[, ...])\n\n   Called to create a new instance of class *cls*.  ``__new__()`` is a\n   static method (special-cased so you need not declare it as such)\n   that takes the class of which an instance was requested as its\n   first argument.  The remaining arguments are those passed to the\n   object constructor expression (the call to the class).  The return\n   value of ``__new__()`` should be the new object instance (usually\n   an instance of *cls*).\n\n   Typical implementations create a new instance of the class by\n   invoking the superclass\'s ``__new__()`` method using\n   ``super(currentclass, cls).__new__(cls[, ...])`` with appropriate\n   arguments and then modifying the newly-created instance as\n   necessary before returning it.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` returns an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will be invoked like\n   ``__init__(self[, ...])``, where *self* is the new instance and the\n   remaining arguments are the same as were passed to ``__new__()``.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` does not return an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will not be invoked.\n\n   ``__new__()`` is intended mainly to allow subclasses of immutable\n   types (like int, str, or tuple) to customize instance creation.  It\n   is also commonly overridden in custom metaclasses in order to\n   customize class creation.\n\nobject.__init__(self[, ...])\n\n   Called when the instance is created.  The arguments are those\n   passed to the class constructor expression.  If a base class has an\n   ``__init__()`` method, the derived class\'s ``__init__()`` method,\n   if any, must explicitly call it to ensure proper initialization of\n   the base class part of the instance; for example:\n   ``BaseClass.__init__(self, [args...])``.  As a special constraint\n   on constructors, no value may be returned; doing so will cause a\n   ``TypeError`` to be raised at runtime.\n\nobject.__del__(self)\n\n   Called when the instance is about to be destroyed.  This is also\n   called a destructor.  If a base class has a ``__del__()`` method,\n   the derived class\'s ``__del__()`` method, if any, must explicitly\n   call it to ensure proper deletion of the base class part of the\n   instance.  Note that it is possible (though not recommended!) for\n   the ``__del__()`` method to postpone destruction of the instance by\n   creating a new reference to it.  It may then be called at a later\n   time when this new reference is deleted.  It is not guaranteed that\n   ``__del__()`` methods are called for objects that still exist when\n   the interpreter exits.\n\n   Note: ``del x`` doesn\'t directly call ``x.__del__()`` --- the former\n     decrements the reference count for ``x`` by one, and the latter\n     is only called when ``x``\'s reference count reaches zero.  Some\n     common situations that may prevent the reference count of an\n     object from going to zero include: circular references between\n     objects (e.g., a doubly-linked list or a tree data structure with\n     parent and child pointers); a reference to the object on the\n     stack frame of a function that caught an exception (the traceback\n     stored in ``sys.exc_traceback`` keeps the stack frame alive); or\n     a reference to the object on the stack frame that raised an\n     unhandled exception in interactive mode (the traceback stored in\n     ``sys.last_traceback`` keeps the stack frame alive).  The first\n     situation can only be remedied by explicitly breaking the cycles;\n     the latter two situations can be resolved by storing ``None`` in\n     ``sys.exc_traceback`` or ``sys.last_traceback``.  Circular\n     references which are garbage are detected when the option cycle\n     detector is enabled (it\'s on by default), but can only be cleaned\n     up if there are no Python-level ``__del__()`` methods involved.\n     Refer to the documentation for the ``gc`` module for more\n     information about how ``__del__()`` methods are handled by the\n     cycle detector, particularly the description of the ``garbage``\n     value.\n\n   Warning: Due to the precarious circumstances under which ``__del__()``\n     methods are invoked, exceptions that occur during their execution\n     are ignored, and a warning is printed to ``sys.stderr`` instead.\n     Also, when ``__del__()`` is invoked in response to a module being\n     deleted (e.g., when execution of the program is done), other\n     globals referenced by the ``__del__()`` method may already have\n     been deleted or in the process of being torn down (e.g. the\n     import machinery shutting down).  For this reason, ``__del__()``\n     methods should do the absolute minimum needed to maintain\n     external invariants.  Starting with version 1.5, Python\n     guarantees that globals whose name begins with a single\n     underscore are deleted from their module before other globals are\n     deleted; if no other references to such globals exist, this may\n     help in assuring that imported modules are still available at the\n     time when the ``__del__()`` method is called.\n\nobject.__repr__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``repr()`` built-in function and by string\n   conversions (reverse quotes) to compute the "official" string\n   representation of an object.  If at all possible, this should look\n   like a valid Python expression that could be used to recreate an\n   object with the same value (given an appropriate environment).  If\n   this is not possible, a string of the form ``<...some useful\n   description...>`` should be returned.  The return value must be a\n   string object. If a class defines ``__repr__()`` but not\n   ``__str__()``, then ``__repr__()`` is also used when an "informal"\n   string representation of instances of that class is required.\n\n   This is typically used for debugging, so it is important that the\n   representation is information-rich and unambiguous.\n\nobject.__str__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``str()`` built-in function and by the ``print``\n   statement to compute the "informal" string representation of an\n   object.  This differs from ``__repr__()`` in that it does not have\n   to be a valid Python expression: a more convenient or concise\n   representation may be used instead. The return value must be a\n   string object.\n\nobject.__lt__(self, other)\nobject.__le__(self, other)\nobject.__eq__(self, other)\nobject.__ne__(self, other)\nobject.__gt__(self, other)\nobject.__ge__(self, other)\n\n   New in version 2.1.\n\n   These are the so-called "rich comparison" methods, and are called\n   for comparison operators in preference to ``__cmp__()`` below. The\n   correspondence between operator symbols and method names is as\n   follows: ``x<y`` calls ``x.__lt__(y)``, ``x<=y`` calls\n   ``x.__le__(y)``, ``x==y`` calls ``x.__eq__(y)``, ``x!=y`` and\n   ``x<>y`` call ``x.__ne__(y)``, ``x>y`` calls ``x.__gt__(y)``, and\n   ``x>=y`` calls ``x.__ge__(y)``.\n\n   A rich comparison method may return the singleton\n   ``NotImplemented`` if it does not implement the operation for a\n   given pair of arguments. By convention, ``False`` and ``True`` are\n   returned for a successful comparison. However, these methods can\n   return any value, so if the comparison operator is used in a\n   Boolean context (e.g., in the condition of an ``if`` statement),\n   Python will call ``bool()`` on the value to determine if the result\n   is true or false.\n\n   There are no implied relationships among the comparison operators.\n   The truth of ``x==y`` does not imply that ``x!=y`` is false.\n   Accordingly, when defining ``__eq__()``, one should also define\n   ``__ne__()`` so that the operators will behave as expected.  See\n   the paragraph on ``__hash__()`` for some important notes on\n   creating *hashable* objects which support custom comparison\n   operations and are usable as dictionary keys.\n\n   There are no swapped-argument versions of these methods (to be used\n   when the left argument does not support the operation but the right\n   argument does); rather, ``__lt__()`` and ``__gt__()`` are each\n   other\'s reflection, ``__le__()`` and ``__ge__()`` are each other\'s\n   reflection, and ``__eq__()`` and ``__ne__()`` are their own\n   reflection.\n\n   Arguments to rich comparison methods are never coerced.\n\n   To automatically generate ordering operations from a single root\n   operation, see ``functools.total_ordering()``.\n\nobject.__cmp__(self, other)\n\n   Called by comparison operations if rich comparison (see above) is\n   not defined.  Should return a negative integer if ``self < other``,\n   zero if ``self == other``, a positive integer if ``self > other``.\n   If no ``__cmp__()``, ``__eq__()`` or ``__ne__()`` operation is\n   defined, class instances are compared by object identity\n   ("address").  See also the description of ``__hash__()`` for some\n   important notes on creating *hashable* objects which support custom\n   comparison operations and are usable as dictionary keys. (Note: the\n   restriction that exceptions are not propagated by ``__cmp__()`` has\n   been removed since Python 1.5.)\n\nobject.__rcmp__(self, other)\n\n   Changed in version 2.1: No longer supported.\n\nobject.__hash__(self)\n\n   Called by built-in function ``hash()`` and for operations on\n   members of hashed collections including ``set``, ``frozenset``, and\n   ``dict``.  ``__hash__()`` should return an integer.  The only\n   required property is that objects which compare equal have the same\n   hash value; it is advised to somehow mix together (e.g. using\n   exclusive or) the hash values for the components of the object that\n   also play a part in comparison of objects.\n\n   If a class does not define a ``__cmp__()`` or ``__eq__()`` method\n   it should not define a ``__hash__()`` operation either; if it\n   defines ``__cmp__()`` or ``__eq__()`` but not ``__hash__()``, its\n   instances will not be usable in hashed collections.  If a class\n   defines mutable objects and implements a ``__cmp__()`` or\n   ``__eq__()`` method, it should not implement ``__hash__()``, since\n   hashable collection implementations require that a object\'s hash\n   value is immutable (if the object\'s hash value changes, it will be\n   in the wrong hash bucket).\n\n   User-defined classes have ``__cmp__()`` and ``__hash__()`` methods\n   by default; with them, all objects compare unequal (except with\n   themselves) and ``x.__hash__()`` returns ``id(x)``.\n\n   Classes which inherit a ``__hash__()`` method from a parent class\n   but change the meaning of ``__cmp__()`` or ``__eq__()`` such that\n   the hash value returned is no longer appropriate (e.g. by switching\n   to a value-based concept of equality instead of the default\n   identity based equality) can explicitly flag themselves as being\n   unhashable by setting ``__hash__ = None`` in the class definition.\n   Doing so means that not only will instances of the class raise an\n   appropriate ``TypeError`` when a program attempts to retrieve their\n   hash value, but they will also be correctly identified as\n   unhashable when checking ``isinstance(obj, collections.Hashable)``\n   (unlike classes which define their own ``__hash__()`` to explicitly\n   raise ``TypeError``).\n\n   Changed in version 2.5: ``__hash__()`` may now also return a long\n   integer object; the 32-bit integer is then derived from the hash of\n   that object.\n\n   Changed in version 2.6: ``__hash__`` may now be set to ``None`` to\n   explicitly flag instances of a class as unhashable.\n\nobject.__nonzero__(self)\n\n   Called to implement truth value testing and the built-in operation\n   ``bool()``; should return ``False`` or ``True``, or their integer\n   equivalents ``0`` or ``1``.  When this method is not defined,\n   ``__len__()`` is called, if it is defined, and the object is\n   considered true if its result is nonzero. If a class defines\n   neither ``__len__()`` nor ``__nonzero__()``, all its instances are\n   considered true.\n\nobject.__unicode__(self)\n\n   Called to implement ``unicode()`` built-in; should return a Unicode\n   object. When this method is not defined, string conversion is\n   attempted, and the result of string conversion is converted to\n   Unicode using the system default encoding.\n',
- 'debugger': u'\n``pdb`` --- The Python Debugger\n*******************************\n\nThe module ``pdb`` defines an interactive source code debugger for\nPython programs.  It supports setting (conditional) breakpoints and\nsingle stepping at the source line level, inspection of stack frames,\nsource code listing, and evaluation of arbitrary Python code in the\ncontext of any stack frame.  It also supports post-mortem debugging\nand can be called under program control.\n\nThe debugger is extensible --- it is actually defined as the class\n``Pdb``. This is currently undocumented but easily understood by\nreading the source.  The extension interface uses the modules ``bdb``\nand ``cmd``.\n\nThe debugger\'s prompt is ``(Pdb)``. Typical usage to run a program\nunder control of the debugger is:\n\n   >>> import pdb\n   >>> import mymodule\n   >>> pdb.run(\'mymodule.test()\')\n   > <string>(0)?()\n   (Pdb) continue\n   > <string>(1)?()\n   (Pdb) continue\n   NameError: \'spam\'\n   > <string>(1)?()\n   (Pdb)\n\n``pdb.py`` can also be invoked as a script to debug other scripts.\nFor example:\n\n   python -m pdb myscript.py\n\nWhen invoked as a script, pdb will automatically enter post-mortem\ndebugging if the program being debugged exits abnormally. After post-\nmortem debugging (or after normal exit of the program), pdb will\nrestart the program. Automatic restarting preserves pdb\'s state (such\nas breakpoints) and in most cases is more useful than quitting the\ndebugger upon program\'s exit.\n\nNew in version 2.4: Restarting post-mortem behavior added.\n\nThe typical usage to break into the debugger from a running program is\nto insert\n\n   import pdb; pdb.set_trace()\n\nat the location you want to break into the debugger.  You can then\nstep through the code following this statement, and continue running\nwithout the debugger using the ``c`` command.\n\nThe typical usage to inspect a crashed program is:\n\n   >>> import pdb\n   >>> import mymodule\n   >>> mymodule.test()\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?\n     File "./mymodule.py", line 4, in test\n       test2()\n     File "./mymodule.py", line 3, in test2\n       print spam\n   NameError: spam\n   >>> pdb.pm()\n   > ./mymodule.py(3)test2()\n   -> print spam\n   (Pdb)\n\nThe module defines the following functions; each enters the debugger\nin a slightly different way:\n\npdb.run(statement[, globals[, locals]])\n\n   Execute the *statement* (given as a string) under debugger control.\n   The debugger prompt appears before any code is executed; you can\n   set breakpoints and type ``continue``, or you can step through the\n   statement using ``step`` or ``next`` (all these commands are\n   explained below).  The optional *globals* and *locals* arguments\n   specify the environment in which the code is executed; by default\n   the dictionary of the module ``__main__`` is used.  (See the\n   explanation of the ``exec`` statement or the ``eval()`` built-in\n   function.)\n\npdb.runeval(expression[, globals[, locals]])\n\n   Evaluate the *expression* (given as a string) under debugger\n   control.  When ``runeval()`` returns, it returns the value of the\n   expression.  Otherwise this function is similar to ``run()``.\n\npdb.runcall(function[, argument, ...])\n\n   Call the *function* (a function or method object, not a string)\n   with the given arguments.  When ``runcall()`` returns, it returns\n   whatever the function call returned.  The debugger prompt appears\n   as soon as the function is entered.\n\npdb.set_trace()\n\n   Enter the debugger at the calling stack frame.  This is useful to\n   hard-code a breakpoint at a given point in a program, even if the\n   code is not otherwise being debugged (e.g. when an assertion\n   fails).\n\npdb.post_mortem([traceback])\n\n   Enter post-mortem debugging of the given *traceback* object.  If no\n   *traceback* is given, it uses the one of the exception that is\n   currently being handled (an exception must be being handled if the\n   default is to be used).\n\npdb.pm()\n\n   Enter post-mortem debugging of the traceback found in\n   ``sys.last_traceback``.\n\nThe ``run_*`` functions and ``set_trace()`` are aliases for\ninstantiating the ``Pdb`` class and calling the method of the same\nname.  If you want to access further features, you have to do this\nyourself:\n\nclass class pdb.Pdb(completekey=\'tab\', stdin=None, stdout=None, skip=None)\n\n   ``Pdb`` is the debugger class.\n\n   The *completekey*, *stdin* and *stdout* arguments are passed to the\n   underlying ``cmd.Cmd`` class; see the description there.\n\n   The *skip* argument, if given, must be an iterable of glob-style\n   module name patterns.  The debugger will not step into frames that\n   originate in a module that matches one of these patterns. [1]\n\n   Example call to enable tracing with *skip*:\n\n      import pdb; pdb.Pdb(skip=[\'django.*\']).set_trace()\n\n   New in version 2.7: The *skip* argument.\n\n   run(statement[, globals[, locals]])\n   runeval(expression[, globals[, locals]])\n   runcall(function[, argument, ...])\n   set_trace()\n\n      See the documentation for the functions explained above.\n',
+ 'debugger': u'\n``pdb`` --- The Python Debugger\n*******************************\n\nThe module ``pdb`` defines an interactive source code debugger for\nPython programs.  It supports setting (conditional) breakpoints and\nsingle stepping at the source line level, inspection of stack frames,\nsource code listing, and evaluation of arbitrary Python code in the\ncontext of any stack frame.  It also supports post-mortem debugging\nand can be called under program control.\n\nThe debugger is extensible --- it is actually defined as the class\n``Pdb``. This is currently undocumented but easily understood by\nreading the source.  The extension interface uses the modules ``bdb``\nand ``cmd``.\n\nThe debugger\'s prompt is ``(Pdb)``. Typical usage to run a program\nunder control of the debugger is:\n\n   >>> import pdb\n   >>> import mymodule\n   >>> pdb.run(\'mymodule.test()\')\n   > <string>(0)?()\n   (Pdb) continue\n   > <string>(1)?()\n   (Pdb) continue\n   NameError: \'spam\'\n   > <string>(1)?()\n   (Pdb)\n\n``pdb.py`` can also be invoked as a script to debug other scripts.\nFor example:\n\n   python -m pdb myscript.py\n\nWhen invoked as a script, pdb will automatically enter post-mortem\ndebugging if the program being debugged exits abnormally. After post-\nmortem debugging (or after normal exit of the program), pdb will\nrestart the program. Automatic restarting preserves pdb\'s state (such\nas breakpoints) and in most cases is more useful than quitting the\ndebugger upon program\'s exit.\n\nNew in version 2.4: Restarting post-mortem behavior added.\n\nThe typical usage to break into the debugger from a running program is\nto insert\n\n   import pdb; pdb.set_trace()\n\nat the location you want to break into the debugger.  You can then\nstep through the code following this statement, and continue running\nwithout the debugger using the ``c`` command.\n\nThe typical usage to inspect a crashed program is:\n\n   >>> import pdb\n   >>> import mymodule\n   >>> mymodule.test()\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?\n     File "./mymodule.py", line 4, in test\n       test2()\n     File "./mymodule.py", line 3, in test2\n       print spam\n   NameError: spam\n   >>> pdb.pm()\n   > ./mymodule.py(3)test2()\n   -> print spam\n   (Pdb)\n\nThe module defines the following functions; each enters the debugger\nin a slightly different way:\n\npdb.run(statement[, globals[, locals]])\n\n   Execute the *statement* (given as a string) under debugger control.\n   The debugger prompt appears before any code is executed; you can\n   set breakpoints and type ``continue``, or you can step through the\n   statement using ``step`` or ``next`` (all these commands are\n   explained below).  The optional *globals* and *locals* arguments\n   specify the environment in which the code is executed; by default\n   the dictionary of the module ``__main__`` is used.  (See the\n   explanation of the ``exec`` statement or the ``eval()`` built-in\n   function.)\n\npdb.runeval(expression[, globals[, locals]])\n\n   Evaluate the *expression* (given as a string) under debugger\n   control.  When ``runeval()`` returns, it returns the value of the\n   expression.  Otherwise this function is similar to ``run()``.\n\npdb.runcall(function[, argument, ...])\n\n   Call the *function* (a function or method object, not a string)\n   with the given arguments.  When ``runcall()`` returns, it returns\n   whatever the function call returned.  The debugger prompt appears\n   as soon as the function is entered.\n\npdb.set_trace()\n\n   Enter the debugger at the calling stack frame.  This is useful to\n   hard-code a breakpoint at a given point in a program, even if the\n   code is not otherwise being debugged (e.g. when an assertion\n   fails).\n\npdb.post_mortem([traceback])\n\n   Enter post-mortem debugging of the given *traceback* object.  If no\n   *traceback* is given, it uses the one of the exception that is\n   currently being handled (an exception must be being handled if the\n   default is to be used).\n\npdb.pm()\n\n   Enter post-mortem debugging of the traceback found in\n   ``sys.last_traceback``.\n\nThe ``run*`` functions and ``set_trace()`` are aliases for\ninstantiating the ``Pdb`` class and calling the method of the same\nname.  If you want to access further features, you have to do this\nyourself:\n\nclass class pdb.Pdb(completekey=\'tab\', stdin=None, stdout=None, skip=None)\n\n   ``Pdb`` is the debugger class.\n\n   The *completekey*, *stdin* and *stdout* arguments are passed to the\n   underlying ``cmd.Cmd`` class; see the description there.\n\n   The *skip* argument, if given, must be an iterable of glob-style\n   module name patterns.  The debugger will not step into frames that\n   originate in a module that matches one of these patterns. [1]\n\n   Example call to enable tracing with *skip*:\n\n      import pdb; pdb.Pdb(skip=[\'django.*\']).set_trace()\n\n   New in version 2.7: The *skip* argument.\n\n   run(statement[, globals[, locals]])\n   runeval(expression[, globals[, locals]])\n   runcall(function[, argument, ...])\n   set_trace()\n\n      See the documentation for the functions explained above.\n',
  'del': u'\nThe ``del`` statement\n*********************\n\n   del_stmt ::= "del" target_list\n\nDeletion is recursively defined very similar to the way assignment is\ndefined. Rather that spelling it out in full details, here are some\nhints.\n\nDeletion of a target list recursively deletes each target, from left\nto right.\n\nDeletion of a name removes the binding of that name  from the local or\nglobal namespace, depending on whether the name occurs in a ``global``\nstatement in the same code block.  If the name is unbound, a\n``NameError`` exception will be raised.\n\nIt is illegal to delete a name from the local namespace if it occurs\nas a free variable in a nested block.\n\nDeletion of attribute references, subscriptions and slicings is passed\nto the primary object involved; deletion of a slicing is in general\nequivalent to assignment of an empty slice of the right type (but even\nthis is determined by the sliced object).\n',
  'dict': u'\nDictionary displays\n*******************\n\nA dictionary display is a possibly empty series of key/datum pairs\nenclosed in curly braces:\n\n   dict_display       ::= "{" [key_datum_list | dict_comprehension] "}"\n   key_datum_list     ::= key_datum ("," key_datum)* [","]\n   key_datum          ::= expression ":" expression\n   dict_comprehension ::= expression ":" expression comp_for\n\nA dictionary display yields a new dictionary object.\n\nIf a comma-separated sequence of key/datum pairs is given, they are\nevaluated from left to right to define the entries of the dictionary:\neach key object is used as a key into the dictionary to store the\ncorresponding datum.  This means that you can specify the same key\nmultiple times in the key/datum list, and the final dictionary\'s value\nfor that key will be the last one given.\n\nA dict comprehension, in contrast to list and set comprehensions,\nneeds two expressions separated with a colon followed by the usual\n"for" and "if" clauses. When the comprehension is run, the resulting\nkey and value elements are inserted in the new dictionary in the order\nthey are produced.\n\nRestrictions on the types of the key values are listed earlier in\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*.  (To summarize, the key type\nshould be *hashable*, which excludes all mutable objects.)  Clashes\nbetween duplicate keys are not detected; the last datum (textually\nrightmost in the display) stored for a given key value prevails.\n',
  'dynamic-features': u'\nInteraction with dynamic features\n*********************************\n\nThere are several cases where Python statements are illegal when used\nin conjunction with nested scopes that contain free variables.\n\nIf a variable is referenced in an enclosing scope, it is illegal to\ndelete the name.  An error will be reported at compile time.\n\nIf the wild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a\nfunction and the function contains or is a nested block with free\nvariables, the compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nIf ``exec`` is used in a function and the function contains or is a\nnested block with free variables, the compiler will raise a\n``SyntaxError`` unless the exec explicitly specifies the local\nnamespace for the ``exec``.  (In other words, ``exec obj`` would be\nillegal, but ``exec obj in ns`` would be legal.)\n\nThe ``eval()``, ``execfile()``, and ``input()`` functions and the\n``exec`` statement do not have access to the full environment for\nresolving names.  Names may be resolved in the local and global\nnamespaces of the caller.  Free variables are not resolved in the\nnearest enclosing namespace, but in the global namespace. [1] The\n``exec`` statement and the ``eval()`` and ``execfile()`` functions\nhave optional arguments to override the global and local namespace.\nIf only one namespace is specified, it is used for both.\n',
  'else': u'\nThe ``if`` statement\n********************\n\nThe ``if`` statement is used for conditional execution:\n\n   if_stmt ::= "if" expression ":" suite\n               ( "elif" expression ":" suite )*\n               ["else" ":" suite]\n\nIt selects exactly one of the suites by evaluating the expressions one\nby one until one is found to be true (see section *Boolean operations*\nfor the definition of true and false); then that suite is executed\n(and no other part of the ``if`` statement is executed or evaluated).\nIf all expressions are false, the suite of the ``else`` clause, if\npresent, is executed.\n',
  'exceptions': u'\nExceptions\n**********\n\nExceptions are a means of breaking out of the normal flow of control\nof a code block in order to handle errors or other exceptional\nconditions.  An exception is *raised* at the point where the error is\ndetected; it may be *handled* by the surrounding code block or by any\ncode block that directly or indirectly invoked the code block where\nthe error occurred.\n\nThe Python interpreter raises an exception when it detects a run-time\nerror (such as division by zero).  A Python program can also\nexplicitly raise an exception with the ``raise`` statement. Exception\nhandlers are specified with the ``try`` ... ``except`` statement.  The\n``finally`` clause of such a statement can be used to specify cleanup\ncode which does not handle the exception, but is executed whether an\nexception occurred or not in the preceding code.\n\nPython uses the "termination" model of error handling: an exception\nhandler can find out what happened and continue execution at an outer\nlevel, but it cannot repair the cause of the error and retry the\nfailing operation (except by re-entering the offending piece of code\nfrom the top).\n\nWhen an exception is not handled at all, the interpreter terminates\nexecution of the program, or returns to its interactive main loop.  In\neither case, it prints a stack backtrace, except when the exception is\n``SystemExit``.\n\nExceptions are identified by class instances.  The ``except`` clause\nis selected depending on the class of the instance: it must reference\nthe class of the instance or a base class thereof.  The instance can\nbe received by the handler and can carry additional information about\nthe exceptional condition.\n\nExceptions can also be identified by strings, in which case the\n``except`` clause is selected by object identity.  An arbitrary value\ncan be raised along with the identifying string which can be passed to\nthe handler.\n\nNote: Messages to exceptions are not part of the Python API.  Their\n  contents may change from one version of Python to the next without\n  warning and should not be relied on by code which will run under\n  multiple versions of the interpreter.\n\nSee also the description of the ``try`` statement in section *The try\nstatement* and ``raise`` statement in section *The raise statement*.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] This limitation occurs because the code that is executed by these\n    operations is not available at the time the module is compiled.\n',
  'exec': u'\nThe ``exec`` statement\n**********************\n\n   exec_stmt ::= "exec" or_expr ["in" expression ["," expression]]\n\nThis statement supports dynamic execution of Python code.  The first\nexpression should evaluate to either a string, an open file object, or\na code object.  If it is a string, the string is parsed as a suite of\nPython statements which is then executed (unless a syntax error\noccurs). [1]  If it is an open file, the file is parsed until EOF and\nexecuted.  If it is a code object, it is simply executed.  In all\ncases, the code that\'s executed is expected to be valid as file input\n(see section *File input*).  Be aware that the ``return`` and\n``yield`` statements may not be used outside of function definitions\neven within the context of code passed to the ``exec`` statement.\n\nIn all cases, if the optional parts are omitted, the code is executed\nin the current scope.  If only the first expression after ``in`` is\nspecified, it should be a dictionary, which will be used for both the\nglobal and the local variables.  If two expressions are given, they\nare used for the global and local variables, respectively. If\nprovided, *locals* can be any mapping object.\n\nChanged in version 2.4: Formerly, *locals* was required to be a\ndictionary.\n\nAs a side effect, an implementation may insert additional keys into\nthe dictionaries given besides those corresponding to variable names\nset by the executed code.  For example, the current implementation may\nadd a reference to the dictionary of the built-in module\n``__builtin__`` under the key ``__builtins__`` (!).\n\n**Programmer\'s hints:** dynamic evaluation of expressions is supported\nby the built-in function ``eval()``.  The built-in functions\n``globals()`` and ``locals()`` return the current global and local\ndictionary, respectively, which may be useful to pass around for use\nby ``exec``.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] Note that the parser only accepts the Unix-style end of line\n    convention. If you are reading the code from a file, make sure to\n    use universal newline mode to convert Windows or Mac-style\n    newlines.\n',
- 'execmodel': u'\nExecution model\n***************\n\n\nNaming and binding\n==================\n\n*Names* refer to objects.  Names are introduced by name binding\noperations. Each occurrence of a name in the program text refers to\nthe *binding* of that name established in the innermost function block\ncontaining the use.\n\nA *block* is a piece of Python program text that is executed as a\nunit. The following are blocks: a module, a function body, and a class\ndefinition. Each command typed interactively is a block.  A script\nfile (a file given as standard input to the interpreter or specified\non the interpreter command line the first argument) is a code block.\nA script command (a command specified on the interpreter command line\nwith the \'**-c**\' option) is a code block.  The file read by the\nbuilt-in function ``execfile()`` is a code block.  The string argument\npassed to the built-in function ``eval()`` and to the ``exec``\nstatement is a code block. The expression read and evaluated by the\nbuilt-in function ``input()`` is a code block.\n\nA code block is executed in an *execution frame*.  A frame contains\nsome administrative information (used for debugging) and determines\nwhere and how execution continues after the code block\'s execution has\ncompleted.\n\nA *scope* defines the visibility of a name within a block.  If a local\nvariable is defined in a block, its scope includes that block.  If the\ndefinition occurs in a function block, the scope extends to any blocks\ncontained within the defining one, unless a contained block introduces\na different binding for the name.  The scope of names defined in a\nclass block is limited to the class block; it does not extend to the\ncode blocks of methods -- this includes generator expressions since\nthey are implemented using a function scope.  This means that the\nfollowing will fail:\n\n   class A:\n       a = 42\n       b = list(a + i for i in range(10))\n\nWhen a name is used in a code block, it is resolved using the nearest\nenclosing scope.  The set of all such scopes visible to a code block\nis called the block\'s *environment*.\n\nIf a name is bound in a block, it is a local variable of that block.\nIf a name is bound at the module level, it is a global variable.  (The\nvariables of the module code block are local and global.)  If a\nvariable is used in a code block but not defined there, it is a *free\nvariable*.\n\nWhen a name is not found at all, a ``NameError`` exception is raised.\nIf the name refers to a local variable that has not been bound, a\n``UnboundLocalError`` exception is raised.  ``UnboundLocalError`` is a\nsubclass of ``NameError``.\n\nThe following constructs bind names: formal parameters to functions,\n``import`` statements, class and function definitions (these bind the\nclass or function name in the defining block), and targets that are\nidentifiers if occurring in an assignment, ``for`` loop header, in the\nsecond position of an ``except`` clause header or after ``as`` in a\n``with`` statement.  The ``import`` statement of the form ``from ...\nimport *`` binds all names defined in the imported module, except\nthose beginning with an underscore.  This form may only be used at the\nmodule level.\n\nA target occurring in a ``del`` statement is also considered bound for\nthis purpose (though the actual semantics are to unbind the name).  It\nis illegal to unbind a name that is referenced by an enclosing scope;\nthe compiler will report a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nEach assignment or import statement occurs within a block defined by a\nclass or function definition or at the module level (the top-level\ncode block).\n\nIf a name binding operation occurs anywhere within a code block, all\nuses of the name within the block are treated as references to the\ncurrent block.  This can lead to errors when a name is used within a\nblock before it is bound. This rule is subtle.  Python lacks\ndeclarations and allows name binding operations to occur anywhere\nwithin a code block.  The local variables of a code block can be\ndetermined by scanning the entire text of the block for name binding\noperations.\n\nIf the global statement occurs within a block, all uses of the name\nspecified in the statement refer to the binding of that name in the\ntop-level namespace. Names are resolved in the top-level namespace by\nsearching the global namespace, i.e. the namespace of the module\ncontaining the code block, and the builtins namespace, the namespace\nof the module ``__builtin__``.  The global namespace is searched\nfirst.  If the name is not found there, the builtins namespace is\nsearched.  The global statement must precede all uses of the name.\n\nThe builtins namespace associated with the execution of a code block\nis actually found by looking up the name ``__builtins__`` in its\nglobal namespace; this should be a dictionary or a module (in the\nlatter case the module\'s dictionary is used).  By default, when in the\n``__main__`` module, ``__builtins__`` is the built-in module\n``__builtin__`` (note: no \'s\'); when in any other module,\n``__builtins__`` is an alias for the dictionary of the ``__builtin__``\nmodule itself.  ``__builtins__`` can be set to a user-created\ndictionary to create a weak form of restricted execution.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** Users should not touch\n``__builtins__``; it is strictly an implementation detail.  Users\nwanting to override values in the builtins namespace should ``import``\nthe ``__builtin__`` (no \'s\') module and modify its attributes\nappropriately.\n\nThe namespace for a module is automatically created the first time a\nmodule is imported.  The main module for a script is always called\n``__main__``.\n\nThe global statement has the same scope as a name binding operation in\nthe same block.  If the nearest enclosing scope for a free variable\ncontains a global statement, the free variable is treated as a global.\n\nA class definition is an executable statement that may use and define\nnames. These references follow the normal rules for name resolution.\nThe namespace of the class definition becomes the attribute dictionary\nof the class.  Names defined at the class scope are not visible in\nmethods.\n\n\nInteraction with dynamic features\n---------------------------------\n\nThere are several cases where Python statements are illegal when used\nin conjunction with nested scopes that contain free variables.\n\nIf a variable is referenced in an enclosing scope, it is illegal to\ndelete the name.  An error will be reported at compile time.\n\nIf the wild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a\nfunction and the function contains or is a nested block with free\nvariables, the compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nIf ``exec`` is used in a function and the function contains or is a\nnested block with free variables, the compiler will raise a\n``SyntaxError`` unless the exec explicitly specifies the local\nnamespace for the ``exec``.  (In other words, ``exec obj`` would be\nillegal, but ``exec obj in ns`` would be legal.)\n\nThe ``eval()``, ``execfile()``, and ``input()`` functions and the\n``exec`` statement do not have access to the full environment for\nresolving names.  Names may be resolved in the local and global\nnamespaces of the caller.  Free variables are not resolved in the\nnearest enclosing namespace, but in the global namespace. [1] The\n``exec`` statement and the ``eval()`` and ``execfile()`` functions\nhave optional arguments to override the global and local namespace.\nIf only one namespace is specified, it is used for both.\n\n\nExceptions\n==========\n\nExceptions are a means of breaking out of the normal flow of control\nof a code block in order to handle errors or other exceptional\nconditions.  An exception is *raised* at the point where the error is\ndetected; it may be *handled* by the surrounding code block or by any\ncode block that directly or indirectly invoked the code block where\nthe error occurred.\n\nThe Python interpreter raises an exception when it detects a run-time\nerror (such as division by zero).  A Python program can also\nexplicitly raise an exception with the ``raise`` statement. Exception\nhandlers are specified with the ``try`` ... ``except`` statement.  The\n``finally`` clause of such a statement can be used to specify cleanup\ncode which does not handle the exception, but is executed whether an\nexception occurred or not in the preceding code.\n\nPython uses the "termination" model of error handling: an exception\nhandler can find out what happened and continue execution at an outer\nlevel, but it cannot repair the cause of the error and retry the\nfailing operation (except by re-entering the offending piece of code\nfrom the top).\n\nWhen an exception is not handled at all, the interpreter terminates\nexecution of the program, or returns to its interactive main loop.  In\neither case, it prints a stack backtrace, except when the exception is\n``SystemExit``.\n\nExceptions are identified by class instances.  The ``except`` clause\nis selected depending on the class of the instance: it must reference\nthe class of the instance or a base class thereof.  The instance can\nbe received by the handler and can carry additional information about\nthe exceptional condition.\n\nExceptions can also be identified by strings, in which case the\n``except`` clause is selected by object identity.  An arbitrary value\ncan be raised along with the identifying string which can be passed to\nthe handler.\n\nNote: Messages to exceptions are not part of the Python API.  Their\n  contents may change from one version of Python to the next without\n  warning and should not be relied on by code which will run under\n  multiple versions of the interpreter.\n\nSee also the description of the ``try`` statement in section *The try\nstatement* and ``raise`` statement in section *The raise statement*.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] This limitation occurs because the code that is executed by these\n    operations is not available at the time the module is compiled.\n',
+ 'execmodel': u'\nExecution model\n***************\n\n\nNaming and binding\n==================\n\n*Names* refer to objects.  Names are introduced by name binding\noperations. Each occurrence of a name in the program text refers to\nthe *binding* of that name established in the innermost function block\ncontaining the use.\n\nA *block* is a piece of Python program text that is executed as a\nunit. The following are blocks: a module, a function body, and a class\ndefinition. Each command typed interactively is a block.  A script\nfile (a file given as standard input to the interpreter or specified\non the interpreter command line the first argument) is a code block.\nA script command (a command specified on the interpreter command line\nwith the \'**-c**\' option) is a code block.  The file read by the\nbuilt-in function ``execfile()`` is a code block.  The string argument\npassed to the built-in function ``eval()`` and to the ``exec``\nstatement is a code block. The expression read and evaluated by the\nbuilt-in function ``input()`` is a code block.\n\nA code block is executed in an *execution frame*.  A frame contains\nsome administrative information (used for debugging) and determines\nwhere and how execution continues after the code block\'s execution has\ncompleted.\n\nA *scope* defines the visibility of a name within a block.  If a local\nvariable is defined in a block, its scope includes that block.  If the\ndefinition occurs in a function block, the scope extends to any blocks\ncontained within the defining one, unless a contained block introduces\na different binding for the name.  The scope of names defined in a\nclass block is limited to the class block; it does not extend to the\ncode blocks of methods -- this includes generator expressions since\nthey are implemented using a function scope.  This means that the\nfollowing will fail:\n\n   class A:\n       a = 42\n       b = list(a + i for i in range(10))\n\nWhen a name is used in a code block, it is resolved using the nearest\nenclosing scope.  The set of all such scopes visible to a code block\nis called the block\'s *environment*.\n\nIf a name is bound in a block, it is a local variable of that block.\nIf a name is bound at the module level, it is a global variable.  (The\nvariables of the module code block are local and global.)  If a\nvariable is used in a code block but not defined there, it is a *free\nvariable*.\n\nWhen a name is not found at all, a ``NameError`` exception is raised.\nIf the name refers to a local variable that has not been bound, a\n``UnboundLocalError`` exception is raised.  ``UnboundLocalError`` is a\nsubclass of ``NameError``.\n\nThe following constructs bind names: formal parameters to functions,\n``import`` statements, class and function definitions (these bind the\nclass or function name in the defining block), and targets that are\nidentifiers if occurring in an assignment, ``for`` loop header, in the\nsecond position of an ``except`` clause header or after ``as`` in a\n``with`` statement.  The ``import`` statement of the form ``from ...\nimport *`` binds all names defined in the imported module, except\nthose beginning with an underscore.  This form may only be used at the\nmodule level.\n\nA target occurring in a ``del`` statement is also considered bound for\nthis purpose (though the actual semantics are to unbind the name).  It\nis illegal to unbind a name that is referenced by an enclosing scope;\nthe compiler will report a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nEach assignment or import statement occurs within a block defined by a\nclass or function definition or at the module level (the top-level\ncode block).\n\nIf a name binding operation occurs anywhere within a code block, all\nuses of the name within the block are treated as references to the\ncurrent block.  This can lead to errors when a name is used within a\nblock before it is bound. This rule is subtle.  Python lacks\ndeclarations and allows name binding operations to occur anywhere\nwithin a code block.  The local variables of a code block can be\ndetermined by scanning the entire text of the block for name binding\noperations.\n\nIf the global statement occurs within a block, all uses of the name\nspecified in the statement refer to the binding of that name in the\ntop-level namespace. Names are resolved in the top-level namespace by\nsearching the global namespace, i.e. the namespace of the module\ncontaining the code block, and the builtins namespace, the namespace\nof the module ``__builtin__``.  The global namespace is searched\nfirst.  If the name is not found there, the builtins namespace is\nsearched.  The global statement must precede all uses of the name.\n\nThe builtins namespace associated with the execution of a code block\nis actually found by looking up the name ``__builtins__`` in its\nglobal namespace; this should be a dictionary or a module (in the\nlatter case the module\'s dictionary is used).  By default, when in the\n``__main__`` module, ``__builtins__`` is the built-in module\n``__builtin__`` (note: no \'s\'); when in any other module,\n``__builtins__`` is an alias for the dictionary of the ``__builtin__``\nmodule itself.  ``__builtins__`` can be set to a user-created\ndictionary to create a weak form of restricted execution.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** Users should not touch\n``__builtins__``; it is strictly an implementation detail.  Users\nwanting to override values in the builtins namespace should ``import``\nthe ``__builtin__`` (no \'s\') module and modify its attributes\nappropriately.\n\nThe namespace for a module is automatically created the first time a\nmodule is imported.  The main module for a script is always called\n``__main__``.\n\nThe ``global`` statement has the same scope as a name binding\noperation in the same block.  If the nearest enclosing scope for a\nfree variable contains a global statement, the free variable is\ntreated as a global.\n\nA class definition is an executable statement that may use and define\nnames. These references follow the normal rules for name resolution.\nThe namespace of the class definition becomes the attribute dictionary\nof the class.  Names defined at the class scope are not visible in\nmethods.\n\n\nInteraction with dynamic features\n---------------------------------\n\nThere are several cases where Python statements are illegal when used\nin conjunction with nested scopes that contain free variables.\n\nIf a variable is referenced in an enclosing scope, it is illegal to\ndelete the name.  An error will be reported at compile time.\n\nIf the wild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a\nfunction and the function contains or is a nested block with free\nvariables, the compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nIf ``exec`` is used in a function and the function contains or is a\nnested block with free variables, the compiler will raise a\n``SyntaxError`` unless the exec explicitly specifies the local\nnamespace for the ``exec``.  (In other words, ``exec obj`` would be\nillegal, but ``exec obj in ns`` would be legal.)\n\nThe ``eval()``, ``execfile()``, and ``input()`` functions and the\n``exec`` statement do not have access to the full environment for\nresolving names.  Names may be resolved in the local and global\nnamespaces of the caller.  Free variables are not resolved in the\nnearest enclosing namespace, but in the global namespace. [1] The\n``exec`` statement and the ``eval()`` and ``execfile()`` functions\nhave optional arguments to override the global and local namespace.\nIf only one namespace is specified, it is used for both.\n\n\nExceptions\n==========\n\nExceptions are a means of breaking out of the normal flow of control\nof a code block in order to handle errors or other exceptional\nconditions.  An exception is *raised* at the point where the error is\ndetected; it may be *handled* by the surrounding code block or by any\ncode block that directly or indirectly invoked the code block where\nthe error occurred.\n\nThe Python interpreter raises an exception when it detects a run-time\nerror (such as division by zero).  A Python program can also\nexplicitly raise an exception with the ``raise`` statement. Exception\nhandlers are specified with the ``try`` ... ``except`` statement.  The\n``finally`` clause of such a statement can be used to specify cleanup\ncode which does not handle the exception, but is executed whether an\nexception occurred or not in the preceding code.\n\nPython uses the "termination" model of error handling: an exception\nhandler can find out what happened and continue execution at an outer\nlevel, but it cannot repair the cause of the error and retry the\nfailing operation (except by re-entering the offending piece of code\nfrom the top).\n\nWhen an exception is not handled at all, the interpreter terminates\nexecution of the program, or returns to its interactive main loop.  In\neither case, it prints a stack backtrace, except when the exception is\n``SystemExit``.\n\nExceptions are identified by class instances.  The ``except`` clause\nis selected depending on the class of the instance: it must reference\nthe class of the instance or a base class thereof.  The instance can\nbe received by the handler and can carry additional information about\nthe exceptional condition.\n\nExceptions can also be identified by strings, in which case the\n``except`` clause is selected by object identity.  An arbitrary value\ncan be raised along with the identifying string which can be passed to\nthe handler.\n\nNote: Messages to exceptions are not part of the Python API.  Their\n  contents may change from one version of Python to the next without\n  warning and should not be relied on by code which will run under\n  multiple versions of the interpreter.\n\nSee also the description of the ``try`` statement in section *The try\nstatement* and ``raise`` statement in section *The raise statement*.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] This limitation occurs because the code that is executed by these\n    operations is not available at the time the module is compiled.\n',
  'exprlists': u'\nExpression lists\n****************\n\n   expression_list ::= expression ( "," expression )* [","]\n\nAn expression list containing at least one comma yields a tuple.  The\nlength of the tuple is the number of expressions in the list.  The\nexpressions are evaluated from left to right.\n\nThe trailing comma is required only to create a single tuple (a.k.a. a\n*singleton*); it is optional in all other cases.  A single expression\nwithout a trailing comma doesn\'t create a tuple, but rather yields the\nvalue of that expression. (To create an empty tuple, use an empty pair\nof parentheses: ``()``.)\n',
  'floating': u'\nFloating point literals\n***********************\n\nFloating point literals are described by the following lexical\ndefinitions:\n\n   floatnumber   ::= pointfloat | exponentfloat\n   pointfloat    ::= [intpart] fraction | intpart "."\n   exponentfloat ::= (intpart | pointfloat) exponent\n   intpart       ::= digit+\n   fraction      ::= "." digit+\n   exponent      ::= ("e" | "E") ["+" | "-"] digit+\n\nNote that the integer and exponent parts of floating point numbers can\nlook like octal integers, but are interpreted using radix 10.  For\nexample, ``077e010`` is legal, and denotes the same number as\n``77e10``. The allowed range of floating point literals is\nimplementation-dependent. Some examples of floating point literals:\n\n   3.14    10.    .001    1e100    3.14e-10    0e0\n\nNote that numeric literals do not include a sign; a phrase like ``-1``\nis actually an expression composed of the unary operator ``-`` and the\nliteral ``1``.\n',
  'for': u'\nThe ``for`` statement\n*********************\n\nThe ``for`` statement is used to iterate over the elements of a\nsequence (such as a string, tuple or list) or other iterable object:\n\n   for_stmt ::= "for" target_list "in" expression_list ":" suite\n                ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThe expression list is evaluated once; it should yield an iterable\nobject.  An iterator is created for the result of the\n``expression_list``.  The suite is then executed once for each item\nprovided by the iterator, in the order of ascending indices.  Each\nitem in turn is assigned to the target list using the standard rules\nfor assignments, and then the suite is executed.  When the items are\nexhausted (which is immediately when the sequence is empty), the suite\nin the ``else`` clause, if present, is executed, and the loop\nterminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ncontinues with the next item, or with the ``else`` clause if there was\nno next item.\n\nThe suite may assign to the variable(s) in the target list; this does\nnot affect the next item assigned to it.\n\nThe target list is not deleted when the loop is finished, but if the\nsequence is empty, it will not have been assigned to at all by the\nloop.  Hint: the built-in function ``range()`` returns a sequence of\nintegers suitable to emulate the effect of Pascal\'s ``for i := a to b\ndo``; e.g., ``range(3)`` returns the list ``[0, 1, 2]``.\n\nNote: There is a subtlety when the sequence is being modified by the loop\n  (this can only occur for mutable sequences, i.e. lists). An internal\n  counter is used to keep track of which item is used next, and this\n  is incremented on each iteration.  When this counter has reached the\n  length of the sequence the loop terminates.  This means that if the\n  suite deletes the current (or a previous) item from the sequence,\n  the next item will be skipped (since it gets the index of the\n  current item which has already been treated).  Likewise, if the\n  suite inserts an item in the sequence before the current item, the\n  current item will be treated again the next time through the loop.\n  This can lead to nasty bugs that can be avoided by making a\n  temporary copy using a slice of the whole sequence, e.g.,\n\n     for x in a[:]:\n         if x < 0: a.remove(x)\n',
- 'formatstrings': u'\nFormat String Syntax\n********************\n\nThe ``str.format()`` method and the ``Formatter`` class share the same\nsyntax for format strings (although in the case of ``Formatter``,\nsubclasses can define their own format string syntax).\n\nFormat strings contain "replacement fields" surrounded by curly braces\n``{}``. Anything that is not contained in braces is considered literal\ntext, which is copied unchanged to the output.  If you need to include\na brace character in the literal text, it can be escaped by doubling:\n``{{`` and ``}}``.\n\nThe grammar for a replacement field is as follows:\n\n      replacement_field ::= "{" [field_name] ["!" conversion] [":" format_spec] "}"\n      field_name        ::= arg_name ("." attribute_name | "[" element_index "]")*\n      arg_name          ::= [identifier | integer]\n      attribute_name    ::= identifier\n      element_index     ::= integer | index_string\n      index_string      ::= <any source character except "]"> +\n      conversion        ::= "r" | "s"\n      format_spec       ::= <described in the next section>\n\nIn less formal terms, the replacement field can start with a\n*field_name* that specifies the object whose value is to be formatted\nand inserted into the output instead of the replacement field. The\n*field_name* is optionally followed by a  *conversion* field, which is\npreceded by an exclamation point ``\'!\'``, and a *format_spec*, which\nis preceded by a colon ``\':\'``.  These specify a non-default format\nfor the replacement value.\n\nSee also the *Format Specification Mini-Language* section.\n\nThe *field_name* itself begins with an *arg_name* that is either\neither a number or a keyword.  If it\'s a number, it refers to a\npositional argument, and if it\'s a keyword, it refers to a named\nkeyword argument.  If the numerical arg_names in a format string are\n0, 1, 2, ... in sequence, they can all be omitted (not just some) and\nthe numbers 0, 1, 2, ... will be automatically inserted in that order.\nThe *arg_name* can be followed by any number of index or attribute\nexpressions. An expression of the form ``\'.name\'`` selects the named\nattribute using ``getattr()``, while an expression of the form\n``\'[index]\'`` does an index lookup using ``__getitem__()``.\n\nChanged in version 2.7: The positional argument specifiers can be\nomitted, so ``\'{} {}\'`` is equivalent to ``\'{0} {1}\'``.\n\nSome simple format string examples:\n\n   "First, thou shalt count to {0}" # References first positional argument\n   "Bring me a {}"                  # Implicitly references the first positional argument\n   "From {} to {}"                  # Same as "From {0} to {1}"\n   "My quest is {name}"             # References keyword argument \'name\'\n   "Weight in tons {0.weight}"      # \'weight\' attribute of first positional arg\n   "Units destroyed: {players[0]}"  # First element of keyword argument \'players\'.\n\nThe *conversion* field causes a type coercion before formatting.\nNormally, the job of formatting a value is done by the\n``__format__()`` method of the value itself.  However, in some cases\nit is desirable to force a type to be formatted as a string,\noverriding its own definition of formatting.  By converting the value\nto a string before calling ``__format__()``, the normal formatting\nlogic is bypassed.\n\nTwo conversion flags are currently supported: ``\'!s\'`` which calls\n``str()`` on the value, and ``\'!r\'`` which calls ``repr()``.\n\nSome examples:\n\n   "Harold\'s a clever {0!s}"        # Calls str() on the argument first\n   "Bring out the holy {name!r}"    # Calls repr() on the argument first\n\nThe *format_spec* field contains a specification of how the value\nshould be presented, including such details as field width, alignment,\npadding, decimal precision and so on.  Each value type can define its\nown "formatting mini-language" or interpretation of the *format_spec*.\n\nMost built-in types support a common formatting mini-language, which\nis described in the next section.\n\nA *format_spec* field can also include nested replacement fields\nwithin it. These nested replacement fields can contain only a field\nname; conversion flags and format specifications are not allowed.  The\nreplacement fields within the format_spec are substituted before the\n*format_spec* string is interpreted. This allows the formatting of a\nvalue to be dynamically specified.\n\nSee the *Format examples* section for some examples.\n\n\nFormat Specification Mini-Language\n==================================\n\n"Format specifications" are used within replacement fields contained\nwithin a format string to define how individual values are presented\n(see *Format String Syntax*).  They can also be passed directly to the\nbuilt-in ``format()`` function.  Each formattable type may define how\nthe format specification is to be interpreted.\n\nMost built-in types implement the following options for format\nspecifications, although some of the formatting options are only\nsupported by the numeric types.\n\nA general convention is that an empty format string (``""``) produces\nthe same result as if you had called ``str()`` on the value. A non-\nempty format string typically modifies the result.\n\nThe general form of a *standard format specifier* is:\n\n   format_spec ::= [[fill]align][sign][#][0][width][,][.precision][type]\n   fill        ::= <a character other than \'}\'>\n   align       ::= "<" | ">" | "=" | "^"\n   sign        ::= "+" | "-" | " "\n   width       ::= integer\n   precision   ::= integer\n   type        ::= "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "E" | "f" | "F" | "g" | "G" | "n" | "o" | "s" | "x" | "X" | "%"\n\nThe *fill* character can be any character other than \'}\' (which\nsignifies the end of the field).  The presence of a fill character is\nsignaled by the *next* character, which must be one of the alignment\noptions. If the second character of *format_spec* is not a valid\nalignment option, then it is assumed that both the fill character and\nthe alignment option are absent.\n\nThe meaning of the various alignment options is as follows:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Option    | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'<\'``   | Forces the field to be left-aligned within the available   |\n   |           | space (this is the default).                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'>\'``   | Forces the field to be right-aligned within the available  |\n   |           | space.                                                     |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'=\'``   | Forces the padding to be placed after the sign (if any)    |\n   |           | but before the digits.  This is used for printing fields   |\n   |           | in the form \'+000000120\'. This alignment option is only    |\n   |           | valid for numeric types.                                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'^\'``   | Forces the field to be centered within the available       |\n   |           | space.                                                     |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nNote that unless a minimum field width is defined, the field width\nwill always be the same size as the data to fill it, so that the\nalignment option has no meaning in this case.\n\nThe *sign* option is only valid for number types, and can be one of\nthe following:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Option    | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'+\'``   | indicates that a sign should be used for both positive as  |\n   |           | well as negative numbers.                                  |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'-\'``   | indicates that a sign should be used only for negative     |\n   |           | numbers (this is the default behavior).                    |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | space     | indicates that a leading space should be used on positive  |\n   |           | numbers, and a minus sign on negative numbers.             |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nThe ``\'#\'`` option is only valid for integers, and only for binary,\noctal, or hexadecimal output.  If present, it specifies that the\noutput will be prefixed by ``\'0b\'``, ``\'0o\'``, or ``\'0x\'``,\nrespectively.\n\nThe ``\',\'`` option signals the use of a comma for a thousands\nseparator. For a locale aware separator, use the ``\'n\'`` integer\npresentation type instead.\n\nChanged in version 2.7: Added the ``\',\'`` option (see also **PEP\n378**).\n\n*width* is a decimal integer defining the minimum field width.  If not\nspecified, then the field width will be determined by the content.\n\nIf the *width* field is preceded by a zero (``\'0\'``) character, this\nenables zero-padding.  This is equivalent to an *alignment* type of\n``\'=\'`` and a *fill* character of ``\'0\'``.\n\nThe *precision* is a decimal number indicating how many digits should\nbe displayed after the decimal point for a floating point value\nformatted with ``\'f\'`` and ``\'F\'``, or before and after the decimal\npoint for a floating point value formatted with ``\'g\'`` or ``\'G\'``.\nFor non-number types the field indicates the maximum field size - in\nother words, how many characters will be used from the field content.\nThe *precision* is not allowed for integer values.\n\nFinally, the *type* determines how the data should be presented.\n\nThe available string presentation types are:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'s\'``   | String format. This is the default type for strings and    |\n   |           | may be omitted.                                            |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'s\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nThe available integer presentation types are:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'b\'``   | Binary format. Outputs the number in base 2.               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'c\'``   | Character. Converts the integer to the corresponding       |\n   |           | unicode character before printing.                         |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'d\'``   | Decimal Integer. Outputs the number in base 10.            |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'o\'``   | Octal format. Outputs the number in base 8.                |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'x\'``   | Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using lower-    |\n   |           | case letters for the digits above 9.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'X\'``   | Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using upper-    |\n   |           | case letters for the digits above 9.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'n\'``   | Number. This is the same as ``\'d\'``, except that it uses   |\n   |           | the current locale setting to insert the appropriate       |\n   |           | number separator characters.                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'d\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nIn addition to the above presentation types, integers can be formatted\nwith the floating point presentation types listed below (except\n``\'n\'`` and None). When doing so, ``float()`` is used to convert the\ninteger to a floating point number before formatting.\n\nThe available presentation types for floating point and decimal values\nare:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'e\'``   | Exponent notation. Prints the number in scientific         |\n   |           | notation using the letter \'e\' to indicate the exponent.    |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'E\'``   | Exponent notation. Same as ``\'e\'`` except it uses an upper |\n   |           | case \'E\' as the separator character.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'f\'``   | Fixed point. Displays the number as a fixed-point number.  |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'F\'``   | Fixed point. Same as ``\'f\'``.                              |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'g\'``   | General format.  For a given precision ``p >= 1``, this    |\n   |           | rounds the number to ``p`` significant digits and then     |\n   |           | formats the result in either fixed-point format or in      |\n   |           | scientific notation, depending on its magnitude.  The      |\n   |           | precise rules are as follows: suppose that the result      |\n   |           | formatted with presentation type ``\'e\'`` and precision     |\n   |           | ``p-1`` would have exponent ``exp``.  Then if ``-4 <= exp  |\n   |           | < p``, the number is formatted with presentation type      |\n   |           | ``\'f\'`` and precision ``p-1-exp``. Otherwise, the number   |\n   |           | is formatted with presentation type ``\'e\'`` and precision  |\n   |           | ``p-1``. In both cases insignificant trailing zeros are    |\n   |           | removed from the significand, and the decimal point is     |\n   |           | also removed if there are no remaining digits following    |\n   |           | it.  Postive and negative infinity, positive and negative  |\n   |           | zero, and nans, are formatted as ``inf``, ``-inf``, ``0``, |\n   |           | ``-0`` and ``nan`` respectively, regardless of the         |\n   |           | precision.  A precision of ``0`` is treated as equivalent  |\n   |           | to a precision of ``1``.                                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'G\'``   | General format. Same as ``\'g\'`` except switches to ``\'E\'`` |\n   |           | if the number gets too large. The representations of       |\n   |           | infinity and NaN are uppercased, too.                      |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'n\'``   | Number. This is the same as ``\'g\'``, except that it uses   |\n   |           | the current locale setting to insert the appropriate       |\n   |           | number separator characters.                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'%\'``   | Percentage. Multiplies the number by 100 and displays in   |\n   |           | fixed (``\'f\'``) format, followed by a percent sign.        |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'g\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\n\nFormat examples\n===============\n\nThis section contains examples of the new format syntax and comparison\nwith the old ``%``-formatting.\n\nIn most of the cases the syntax is similar to the old\n``%``-formatting, with the addition of the ``{}`` and with ``:`` used\ninstead of ``%``. For example, ``\'%03.2f\'`` can be translated to\n``\'{:03.2f}\'``.\n\nThe new format syntax also supports new and different options, shown\nin the follow examples.\n\nAccessing arguments by position:\n\n   >>> \'{0}, {1}, {2}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')\n   \'a, b, c\'\n   >>> \'{}, {}, {}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')  # 2.7+ only\n   \'a, b, c\'\n   >>> \'{2}, {1}, {0}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')\n   \'c, b, a\'\n   >>> \'{2}, {1}, {0}\'.format(*\'abc\')      # unpacking argument sequence\n   \'c, b, a\'\n   >>> \'{0}{1}{0}\'.format(\'abra\', \'cad\')   # arguments\' indices can be repeated\n   \'abracadabra\'\n\nAccessing arguments by name:\n\n   >>> \'Coordinates: {latitude}, {longitude}\'.format(latitude=\'37.24N\', longitude=\'-115.81W\')\n   \'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W\'\n   >>> coord = {\'latitude\': \'37.24N\', \'longitude\': \'-115.81W\'}\n   >>> \'Coordinates: {latitude}, {longitude}\'.format(**coord)\n   \'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W\'\n\nAccessing arguments\' attributes:\n\n   >>> c = 3-5j\n   >>> (\'The complex number {0} is formed from the real part {0.real} \'\n   ...  \'and the imaginary part {0.imag}.\').format(c)\n   \'The complex number (3-5j) is formed from the real part 3.0 and the imaginary part -5.0.\'\n   >>> class Point(object):\n   ...     def __init__(self, x, y):\n   ...         self.x, self.y = x, y\n   ...     def __str__(self):\n   ...         return \'Point({self.x}, {self.y})\'.format(self=self)\n   ...\n   >>> str(Point(4, 2))\n   \'Point(4, 2)\'\n\nAccessing arguments\' items:\n\n   >>> coord = (3, 5)\n   >>> \'X: {0[0]};  Y: {0[1]}\'.format(coord)\n   \'X: 3;  Y: 5\'\n\nReplacing ``%s`` and ``%r``:\n\n   >>> "repr() shows quotes: {!r}; str() doesn\'t: {!s}".format(\'test1\', \'test2\')\n   "repr() shows quotes: \'test1\'; str() doesn\'t: test2"\n\nAligning the text and specifying a width:\n\n   >>> \'{:<30}\'.format(\'left aligned\')\n   \'left aligned                  \'\n   >>> \'{:>30}\'.format(\'right aligned\')\n   \'                 right aligned\'\n   >>> \'{:^30}\'.format(\'centered\')\n   \'           centered           \'\n   >>> \'{:*^30}\'.format(\'centered\')  # use \'*\' as a fill char\n   \'***********centered***********\'\n\nReplacing ``%+f``, ``%-f``, and ``% f`` and specifying a sign:\n\n   >>> \'{:+f}; {:+f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show it always\n   \'+3.140000; -3.140000\'\n   >>> \'{: f}; {: f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show a space for positive numbers\n   \' 3.140000; -3.140000\'\n   >>> \'{:-f}; {:-f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show only the minus -- same as \'{:f}; {:f}\'\n   \'3.140000; -3.140000\'\n\nReplacing ``%x`` and ``%o`` and converting the value to different\nbases:\n\n   >>> # format also supports binary numbers\n   >>> "int: {0:d};  hex: {0:x};  oct: {0:o};  bin: {0:b}".format(42)\n   \'int: 42;  hex: 2a;  oct: 52;  bin: 101010\'\n   >>> # with 0x, 0o, or 0b as prefix:\n   >>> "int: {0:d};  hex: {0:#x};  oct: {0:#o};  bin: {0:#b}".format(42)\n   \'int: 42;  hex: 0x2a;  oct: 0o52;  bin: 0b101010\'\n\nUsing the comma as a thousands separator:\n\n   >>> \'{:,}\'.format(1234567890)\n   \'1,234,567,890\'\n\nExpressing a percentage:\n\n   >>> points = 19.5\n   >>> total = 22\n   >>> \'Correct answers: {:.2%}.\'.format(points/total)\n   \'Correct answers: 88.64%\'\n\nUsing type-specific formatting:\n\n   >>> import datetime\n   >>> d = datetime.datetime(2010, 7, 4, 12, 15, 58)\n   >>> \'{:%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S}\'.format(d)\n   \'2010-07-04 12:15:58\'\n\nNesting arguments and more complex examples:\n\n   >>> for align, text in zip(\'<^>\', [\'left\', \'center\', \'right\']):\n   ...     \'{0:{align}{fill}16}\'.format(text, fill=align, align=align)\n   ...\n   \'left<<<<<<<<<<<<\'\n   \'^^^^^center^^^^^\'\n   \'>>>>>>>>>>>right\'\n   >>>\n   >>> octets = [192, 168, 0, 1]\n   >>> \'{:02X}{:02X}{:02X}{:02X}\'.format(*octets)\n   \'C0A80001\'\n   >>> int(_, 16)\n   3232235521\n   >>>\n   >>> width = 5\n   >>> for num in range(5,12):\n   ...     for base in \'dXob\':\n   ...         print \'{0:{width}{base}}\'.format(num, base=base, width=width),\n   ...     print\n   ...\n       5     5     5   101\n       6     6     6   110\n       7     7     7   111\n       8     8    10  1000\n       9     9    11  1001\n      10     A    12  1010\n      11     B    13  1011\n',
+ 'formatstrings': u'\nFormat String Syntax\n********************\n\nThe ``str.format()`` method and the ``Formatter`` class share the same\nsyntax for format strings (although in the case of ``Formatter``,\nsubclasses can define their own format string syntax).\n\nFormat strings contain "replacement fields" surrounded by curly braces\n``{}``. Anything that is not contained in braces is considered literal\ntext, which is copied unchanged to the output.  If you need to include\na brace character in the literal text, it can be escaped by doubling:\n``{{`` and ``}}``.\n\nThe grammar for a replacement field is as follows:\n\n      replacement_field ::= "{" [field_name] ["!" conversion] [":" format_spec] "}"\n      field_name        ::= arg_name ("." attribute_name | "[" element_index "]")*\n      arg_name          ::= [identifier | integer]\n      attribute_name    ::= identifier\n      element_index     ::= integer | index_string\n      index_string      ::= <any source character except "]"> +\n      conversion        ::= "r" | "s"\n      format_spec       ::= <described in the next section>\n\nIn less formal terms, the replacement field can start with a\n*field_name* that specifies the object whose value is to be formatted\nand inserted into the output instead of the replacement field. The\n*field_name* is optionally followed by a  *conversion* field, which is\npreceded by an exclamation point ``\'!\'``, and a *format_spec*, which\nis preceded by a colon ``\':\'``.  These specify a non-default format\nfor the replacement value.\n\nSee also the *Format Specification Mini-Language* section.\n\nThe *field_name* itself begins with an *arg_name* that is either\neither a number or a keyword.  If it\'s a number, it refers to a\npositional argument, and if it\'s a keyword, it refers to a named\nkeyword argument.  If the numerical arg_names in a format string are\n0, 1, 2, ... in sequence, they can all be omitted (not just some) and\nthe numbers 0, 1, 2, ... will be automatically inserted in that order.\nThe *arg_name* can be followed by any number of index or attribute\nexpressions. An expression of the form ``\'.name\'`` selects the named\nattribute using ``getattr()``, while an expression of the form\n``\'[index]\'`` does an index lookup using ``__getitem__()``.\n\nChanged in version 2.7: The positional argument specifiers can be\nomitted, so ``\'{} {}\'`` is equivalent to ``\'{0} {1}\'``.\n\nSome simple format string examples:\n\n   "First, thou shalt count to {0}" # References first positional argument\n   "Bring me a {}"                  # Implicitly references the first positional argument\n   "From {} to {}"                  # Same as "From {0} to {1}"\n   "My quest is {name}"             # References keyword argument \'name\'\n   "Weight in tons {0.weight}"      # \'weight\' attribute of first positional arg\n   "Units destroyed: {players[0]}"  # First element of keyword argument \'players\'.\n\nThe *conversion* field causes a type coercion before formatting.\nNormally, the job of formatting a value is done by the\n``__format__()`` method of the value itself.  However, in some cases\nit is desirable to force a type to be formatted as a string,\noverriding its own definition of formatting.  By converting the value\nto a string before calling ``__format__()``, the normal formatting\nlogic is bypassed.\n\nTwo conversion flags are currently supported: ``\'!s\'`` which calls\n``str()`` on the value, and ``\'!r\'`` which calls ``repr()``.\n\nSome examples:\n\n   "Harold\'s a clever {0!s}"        # Calls str() on the argument first\n   "Bring out the holy {name!r}"    # Calls repr() on the argument first\n\nThe *format_spec* field contains a specification of how the value\nshould be presented, including such details as field width, alignment,\npadding, decimal precision and so on.  Each value type can define its\nown "formatting mini-language" or interpretation of the *format_spec*.\n\nMost built-in types support a common formatting mini-language, which\nis described in the next section.\n\nA *format_spec* field can also include nested replacement fields\nwithin it. These nested replacement fields can contain only a field\nname; conversion flags and format specifications are not allowed.  The\nreplacement fields within the format_spec are substituted before the\n*format_spec* string is interpreted. This allows the formatting of a\nvalue to be dynamically specified.\n\nSee the *Format examples* section for some examples.\n\n\nFormat Specification Mini-Language\n==================================\n\n"Format specifications" are used within replacement fields contained\nwithin a format string to define how individual values are presented\n(see *Format String Syntax*).  They can also be passed directly to the\nbuilt-in ``format()`` function.  Each formattable type may define how\nthe format specification is to be interpreted.\n\nMost built-in types implement the following options for format\nspecifications, although some of the formatting options are only\nsupported by the numeric types.\n\nA general convention is that an empty format string (``""``) produces\nthe same result as if you had called ``str()`` on the value. A non-\nempty format string typically modifies the result.\n\nThe general form of a *standard format specifier* is:\n\n   format_spec ::= [[fill]align][sign][#][0][width][,][.precision][type]\n   fill        ::= <a character other than \'}\'>\n   align       ::= "<" | ">" | "=" | "^"\n   sign        ::= "+" | "-" | " "\n   width       ::= integer\n   precision   ::= integer\n   type        ::= "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "E" | "f" | "F" | "g" | "G" | "n" | "o" | "s" | "x" | "X" | "%"\n\nThe *fill* character can be any character other than \'{\' or \'}\'.  The\npresence of a fill character is signaled by the character following\nit, which must be one of the alignment options.  If the second\ncharacter of *format_spec* is not a valid alignment option, then it is\nassumed that both the fill character and the alignment option are\nabsent.\n\nThe meaning of the various alignment options is as follows:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Option    | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'<\'``   | Forces the field to be left-aligned within the available   |\n   |           | space (this is the default for most objects).              |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'>\'``   | Forces the field to be right-aligned within the available  |\n   |           | space (this is the default for numbers).                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'=\'``   | Forces the padding to be placed after the sign (if any)    |\n   |           | but before the digits.  This is used for printing fields   |\n   |           | in the form \'+000000120\'. This alignment option is only    |\n   |           | valid for numeric types.                                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'^\'``   | Forces the field to be centered within the available       |\n   |           | space.                                                     |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nNote that unless a minimum field width is defined, the field width\nwill always be the same size as the data to fill it, so that the\nalignment option has no meaning in this case.\n\nThe *sign* option is only valid for number types, and can be one of\nthe following:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Option    | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'+\'``   | indicates that a sign should be used for both positive as  |\n   |           | well as negative numbers.                                  |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'-\'``   | indicates that a sign should be used only for negative     |\n   |           | numbers (this is the default behavior).                    |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | space     | indicates that a leading space should be used on positive  |\n   |           | numbers, and a minus sign on negative numbers.             |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nThe ``\'#\'`` option is only valid for integers, and only for binary,\noctal, or hexadecimal output.  If present, it specifies that the\noutput will be prefixed by ``\'0b\'``, ``\'0o\'``, or ``\'0x\'``,\nrespectively.\n\nThe ``\',\'`` option signals the use of a comma for a thousands\nseparator. For a locale aware separator, use the ``\'n\'`` integer\npresentation type instead.\n\nChanged in version 2.7: Added the ``\',\'`` option (see also **PEP\n378**).\n\n*width* is a decimal integer defining the minimum field width.  If not\nspecified, then the field width will be determined by the content.\n\nIf the *width* field is preceded by a zero (``\'0\'``) character, this\nenables zero-padding.  This is equivalent to an *alignment* type of\n``\'=\'`` and a *fill* character of ``\'0\'``.\n\nThe *precision* is a decimal number indicating how many digits should\nbe displayed after the decimal point for a floating point value\nformatted with ``\'f\'`` and ``\'F\'``, or before and after the decimal\npoint for a floating point value formatted with ``\'g\'`` or ``\'G\'``.\nFor non-number types the field indicates the maximum field size - in\nother words, how many characters will be used from the field content.\nThe *precision* is not allowed for integer values.\n\nFinally, the *type* determines how the data should be presented.\n\nThe available string presentation types are:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'s\'``   | String format. This is the default type for strings and    |\n   |           | may be omitted.                                            |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'s\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nThe available integer presentation types are:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'b\'``   | Binary format. Outputs the number in base 2.               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'c\'``   | Character. Converts the integer to the corresponding       |\n   |           | unicode character before printing.                         |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'d\'``   | Decimal Integer. Outputs the number in base 10.            |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'o\'``   | Octal format. Outputs the number in base 8.                |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'x\'``   | Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using lower-    |\n   |           | case letters for the digits above 9.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'X\'``   | Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using upper-    |\n   |           | case letters for the digits above 9.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'n\'``   | Number. This is the same as ``\'d\'``, except that it uses   |\n   |           | the current locale setting to insert the appropriate       |\n   |           | number separator characters.                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'d\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nIn addition to the above presentation types, integers can be formatted\nwith the floating point presentation types listed below (except\n``\'n\'`` and None). When doing so, ``float()`` is used to convert the\ninteger to a floating point number before formatting.\n\nThe available presentation types for floating point and decimal values\nare:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'e\'``   | Exponent notation. Prints the number in scientific         |\n   |           | notation using the letter \'e\' to indicate the exponent.    |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'E\'``   | Exponent notation. Same as ``\'e\'`` except it uses an upper |\n   |           | case \'E\' as the separator character.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'f\'``   | Fixed point. Displays the number as a fixed-point number.  |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'F\'``   | Fixed point. Same as ``\'f\'``.                              |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'g\'``   | General format.  For a given precision ``p >= 1``, this    |\n   |           | rounds the number to ``p`` significant digits and then     |\n   |           | formats the result in either fixed-point format or in      |\n   |           | scientific notation, depending on its magnitude.  The      |\n   |           | precise rules are as follows: suppose that the result      |\n   |           | formatted with presentation type ``\'e\'`` and precision     |\n   |           | ``p-1`` would have exponent ``exp``.  Then if ``-4 <= exp  |\n   |           | < p``, the number is formatted with presentation type      |\n   |           | ``\'f\'`` and precision ``p-1-exp``. Otherwise, the number   |\n   |           | is formatted with presentation type ``\'e\'`` and precision  |\n   |           | ``p-1``. In both cases insignificant trailing zeros are    |\n   |           | removed from the significand, and the decimal point is     |\n   |           | also removed if there are no remaining digits following    |\n   |           | it.  Positive and negative infinity, positive and negative |\n   |           | zero, and nans, are formatted as ``inf``, ``-inf``, ``0``, |\n   |           | ``-0`` and ``nan`` respectively, regardless of the         |\n   |           | precision.  A precision of ``0`` is treated as equivalent  |\n   |           | to a precision of ``1``.                                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'G\'``   | General format. Same as ``\'g\'`` except switches to ``\'E\'`` |\n   |           | if the number gets too large. The representations of       |\n   |           | infinity and NaN are uppercased, too.                      |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'n\'``   | Number. This is the same as ``\'g\'``, except that it uses   |\n   |           | the current locale setting to insert the appropriate       |\n   |           | number separator characters.                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'%\'``   | Percentage. Multiplies the number by 100 and displays in   |\n   |           | fixed (``\'f\'``) format, followed by a percent sign.        |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'g\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\n\nFormat examples\n===============\n\nThis section contains examples of the new format syntax and comparison\nwith the old ``%``-formatting.\n\nIn most of the cases the syntax is similar to the old\n``%``-formatting, with the addition of the ``{}`` and with ``:`` used\ninstead of ``%``. For example, ``\'%03.2f\'`` can be translated to\n``\'{:03.2f}\'``.\n\nThe new format syntax also supports new and different options, shown\nin the follow examples.\n\nAccessing arguments by position:\n\n   >>> \'{0}, {1}, {2}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')\n   \'a, b, c\'\n   >>> \'{}, {}, {}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')  # 2.7+ only\n   \'a, b, c\'\n   >>> \'{2}, {1}, {0}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')\n   \'c, b, a\'\n   >>> \'{2}, {1}, {0}\'.format(*\'abc\')      # unpacking argument sequence\n   \'c, b, a\'\n   >>> \'{0}{1}{0}\'.format(\'abra\', \'cad\')   # arguments\' indices can be repeated\n   \'abracadabra\'\n\nAccessing arguments by name:\n\n   >>> \'Coordinates: {latitude}, {longitude}\'.format(latitude=\'37.24N\', longitude=\'-115.81W\')\n   \'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W\'\n   >>> coord = {\'latitude\': \'37.24N\', \'longitude\': \'-115.81W\'}\n   >>> \'Coordinates: {latitude}, {longitude}\'.format(**coord)\n   \'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W\'\n\nAccessing arguments\' attributes:\n\n   >>> c = 3-5j\n   >>> (\'The complex number {0} is formed from the real part {0.real} \'\n   ...  \'and the imaginary part {0.imag}.\').format(c)\n   \'The complex number (3-5j) is formed from the real part 3.0 and the imaginary part -5.0.\'\n   >>> class Point(object):\n   ...     def __init__(self, x, y):\n   ...         self.x, self.y = x, y\n   ...     def __str__(self):\n   ...         return \'Point({self.x}, {self.y})\'.format(self=self)\n   ...\n   >>> str(Point(4, 2))\n   \'Point(4, 2)\'\n\nAccessing arguments\' items:\n\n   >>> coord = (3, 5)\n   >>> \'X: {0[0]};  Y: {0[1]}\'.format(coord)\n   \'X: 3;  Y: 5\'\n\nReplacing ``%s`` and ``%r``:\n\n   >>> "repr() shows quotes: {!r}; str() doesn\'t: {!s}".format(\'test1\', \'test2\')\n   "repr() shows quotes: \'test1\'; str() doesn\'t: test2"\n\nAligning the text and specifying a width:\n\n   >>> \'{:<30}\'.format(\'left aligned\')\n   \'left aligned                  \'\n   >>> \'{:>30}\'.format(\'right aligned\')\n   \'                 right aligned\'\n   >>> \'{:^30}\'.format(\'centered\')\n   \'           centered           \'\n   >>> \'{:*^30}\'.format(\'centered\')  # use \'*\' as a fill char\n   \'***********centered***********\'\n\nReplacing ``%+f``, ``%-f``, and ``% f`` and specifying a sign:\n\n   >>> \'{:+f}; {:+f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show it always\n   \'+3.140000; -3.140000\'\n   >>> \'{: f}; {: f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show a space for positive numbers\n   \' 3.140000; -3.140000\'\n   >>> \'{:-f}; {:-f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show only the minus -- same as \'{:f}; {:f}\'\n   \'3.140000; -3.140000\'\n\nReplacing ``%x`` and ``%o`` and converting the value to different\nbases:\n\n   >>> # format also supports binary numbers\n   >>> "int: {0:d};  hex: {0:x};  oct: {0:o};  bin: {0:b}".format(42)\n   \'int: 42;  hex: 2a;  oct: 52;  bin: 101010\'\n   >>> # with 0x, 0o, or 0b as prefix:\n   >>> "int: {0:d};  hex: {0:#x};  oct: {0:#o};  bin: {0:#b}".format(42)\n   \'int: 42;  hex: 0x2a;  oct: 0o52;  bin: 0b101010\'\n\nUsing the comma as a thousands separator:\n\n   >>> \'{:,}\'.format(1234567890)\n   \'1,234,567,890\'\n\nExpressing a percentage:\n\n   >>> points = 19.5\n   >>> total = 22\n   >>> \'Correct answers: {:.2%}.\'.format(points/total)\n   \'Correct answers: 88.64%\'\n\nUsing type-specific formatting:\n\n   >>> import datetime\n   >>> d = datetime.datetime(2010, 7, 4, 12, 15, 58)\n   >>> \'{:%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S}\'.format(d)\n   \'2010-07-04 12:15:58\'\n\nNesting arguments and more complex examples:\n\n   >>> for align, text in zip(\'<^>\', [\'left\', \'center\', \'right\']):\n   ...     \'{0:{fill}{align}16}\'.format(text, fill=align, align=align)\n   ...\n   \'left<<<<<<<<<<<<\'\n   \'^^^^^center^^^^^\'\n   \'>>>>>>>>>>>right\'\n   >>>\n   >>> octets = [192, 168, 0, 1]\n   >>> \'{:02X}{:02X}{:02X}{:02X}\'.format(*octets)\n   \'C0A80001\'\n   >>> int(_, 16)\n   3232235521\n   >>>\n   >>> width = 5\n   >>> for num in range(5,12):\n   ...     for base in \'dXob\':\n   ...         print \'{0:{width}{base}}\'.format(num, base=base, width=width),\n   ...     print\n   ...\n       5     5     5   101\n       6     6     6   110\n       7     7     7   111\n       8     8    10  1000\n       9     9    11  1001\n      10     A    12  1010\n      11     B    13  1011\n',
  'function': u'\nFunction definitions\n********************\n\nA function definition defines a user-defined function object (see\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*):\n\n   decorated      ::= decorators (classdef | funcdef)\n   decorators     ::= decorator+\n   decorator      ::= "@" dotted_name ["(" [argument_list [","]] ")"] NEWLINE\n   funcdef        ::= "def" funcname "(" [parameter_list] ")" ":" suite\n   dotted_name    ::= identifier ("." identifier)*\n   parameter_list ::= (defparameter ",")*\n                      (  "*" identifier [, "**" identifier]\n                      | "**" identifier\n                      | defparameter [","] )\n   defparameter   ::= parameter ["=" expression]\n   sublist        ::= parameter ("," parameter)* [","]\n   parameter      ::= identifier | "(" sublist ")"\n   funcname       ::= identifier\n\nA function definition is an executable statement.  Its execution binds\nthe function name in the current local namespace to a function object\n(a wrapper around the executable code for the function).  This\nfunction object contains a reference to the current global namespace\nas the global namespace to be used when the function is called.\n\nThe function definition does not execute the function body; this gets\nexecuted only when the function is called. [3]\n\nA function definition may be wrapped by one or more *decorator*\nexpressions. Decorator expressions are evaluated when the function is\ndefined, in the scope that contains the function definition.  The\nresult must be a callable, which is invoked with the function object\nas the only argument. The returned value is bound to the function name\ninstead of the function object.  Multiple decorators are applied in\nnested fashion. For example, the following code:\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   def func(): pass\n\nis equivalent to:\n\n   def func(): pass\n   func = f1(arg)(f2(func))\n\nWhen one or more top-level parameters have the form *parameter* ``=``\n*expression*, the function is said to have "default parameter values."\nFor a parameter with a default value, the corresponding argument may\nbe omitted from a call, in which case the parameter\'s default value is\nsubstituted.  If a parameter has a default value, all following\nparameters must also have a default value --- this is a syntactic\nrestriction that is not expressed by the grammar.\n\n**Default parameter values are evaluated when the function definition\nis executed.**  This means that the expression is evaluated once, when\nthe function is defined, and that that same "pre-computed" value is\nused for each call.  This is especially important to understand when a\ndefault parameter is a mutable object, such as a list or a dictionary:\nif the function modifies the object (e.g. by appending an item to a\nlist), the default value is in effect modified. This is generally not\nwhat was intended.  A way around this  is to use ``None`` as the\ndefault, and explicitly test for it in the body of the function, e.g.:\n\n   def whats_on_the_telly(penguin=None):\n       if penguin is None:\n           penguin = []\n       penguin.append("property of the zoo")\n       return penguin\n\nFunction call semantics are described in more detail in section\n*Calls*. A function call always assigns values to all parameters\nmentioned in the parameter list, either from position arguments, from\nkeyword arguments, or from default values.  If the form\n"``*identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a tuple receiving\nany excess positional parameters, defaulting to the empty tuple.  If\nthe form "``**identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a new\ndictionary receiving any excess keyword arguments, defaulting to a new\nempty dictionary.\n\nIt is also possible to create anonymous functions (functions not bound\nto a name), for immediate use in expressions.  This uses lambda forms,\ndescribed in section *Lambdas*.  Note that the lambda form is merely a\nshorthand for a simplified function definition; a function defined in\na "``def``" statement can be passed around or assigned to another name\njust like a function defined by a lambda form.  The "``def``" form is\nactually more powerful since it allows the execution of multiple\nstatements.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Functions are first-class objects.  A "``def``"\nform executed inside a function definition defines a local function\nthat can be returned or passed around.  Free variables used in the\nnested function can access the local variables of the function\ncontaining the def.  See section *Naming and binding* for details.\n',
  'global': u'\nThe ``global`` statement\n************************\n\n   global_stmt ::= "global" identifier ("," identifier)*\n\nThe ``global`` statement is a declaration which holds for the entire\ncurrent code block.  It means that the listed identifiers are to be\ninterpreted as globals.  It would be impossible to assign to a global\nvariable without ``global``, although free variables may refer to\nglobals without being declared global.\n\nNames listed in a ``global`` statement must not be used in the same\ncode block textually preceding that ``global`` statement.\n\nNames listed in a ``global`` statement must not be defined as formal\nparameters or in a ``for`` loop control target, ``class`` definition,\nfunction definition, or ``import`` statement.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** The current implementation does not\nenforce the latter two restrictions, but programs should not abuse\nthis freedom, as future implementations may enforce them or silently\nchange the meaning of the program.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** the ``global`` is a directive to the parser.\nIt applies only to code parsed at the same time as the ``global``\nstatement. In particular, a ``global`` statement contained in an\n``exec`` statement does not affect the code block *containing* the\n``exec`` statement, and code contained in an ``exec`` statement is\nunaffected by ``global`` statements in the code containing the\n``exec`` statement.  The same applies to the ``eval()``,\n``execfile()`` and ``compile()`` functions.\n',
- 'id-classes': u'\nReserved classes of identifiers\n*******************************\n\nCertain classes of identifiers (besides keywords) have special\nmeanings.  These classes are identified by the patterns of leading and\ntrailing underscore characters:\n\n``_*``\n   Not imported by ``from module import *``.  The special identifier\n   ``_`` is used in the interactive interpreter to store the result of\n   the last evaluation; it is stored in the ``__builtin__`` module.\n   When not in interactive mode, ``_`` has no special meaning and is\n   not defined. See section *The import statement*.\n\n   Note: The name ``_`` is often used in conjunction with\n     internationalization; refer to the documentation for the\n     ``gettext`` module for more information on this convention.\n\n``__*__``\n   System-defined names.  These names are defined by the interpreter\n   and its implementation (including the standard library);\n   applications should not expect to define additional names using\n   this convention.  The set of names of this class defined by Python\n   may be extended in future versions. See section *Special method\n   names*.\n\n``__*``\n   Class-private names.  Names in this category, when used within the\n   context of a class definition, are re-written to use a mangled form\n   to help avoid name clashes between "private" attributes of base and\n   derived classes. See section *Identifiers (Names)*.\n',
- 'identifiers': u'\nIdentifiers and keywords\n************************\n\nIdentifiers (also referred to as *names*) are described by the\nfollowing lexical definitions:\n\n   identifier ::= (letter|"_") (letter | digit | "_")*\n   letter     ::= lowercase | uppercase\n   lowercase  ::= "a"..."z"\n   uppercase  ::= "A"..."Z"\n   digit      ::= "0"..."9"\n\nIdentifiers are unlimited in length.  Case is significant.\n\n\nKeywords\n========\n\nThe following identifiers are used as reserved words, or *keywords* of\nthe language, and cannot be used as ordinary identifiers.  They must\nbe spelled exactly as written here:\n\n   and       del       from      not       while\n   as        elif      global    or        with\n   assert    else      if        pass      yield\n   break     except    import    print\n   class     exec      in        raise\n   continue  finally   is        return\n   def       for       lambda    try\n\nChanged in version 2.4: ``None`` became a constant and is now\nrecognized by the compiler as a name for the built-in object ``None``.\nAlthough it is not a keyword, you cannot assign a different object to\nit.\n\nChanged in version 2.5: Both ``as`` and ``with`` are only recognized\nwhen the ``with_statement`` future feature has been enabled. It will\nalways be enabled in Python 2.6.  See section *The with statement* for\ndetails.  Note that using ``as`` and ``with`` as identifiers will\nalways issue a warning, even when the ``with_statement`` future\ndirective is not in effect.\n\n\nReserved classes of identifiers\n===============================\n\nCertain classes of identifiers (besides keywords) have special\nmeanings.  These classes are identified by the patterns of leading and\ntrailing underscore characters:\n\n``_*``\n   Not imported by ``from module import *``.  The special identifier\n   ``_`` is used in the interactive interpreter to store the result of\n   the last evaluation; it is stored in the ``__builtin__`` module.\n   When not in interactive mode, ``_`` has no special meaning and is\n   not defined. See section *The import statement*.\n\n   Note: The name ``_`` is often used in conjunction with\n     internationalization; refer to the documentation for the\n     ``gettext`` module for more information on this convention.\n\n``__*__``\n   System-defined names.  These names are defined by the interpreter\n   and its implementation (including the standard library);\n   applications should not expect to define additional names using\n   this convention.  The set of names of this class defined by Python\n   may be extended in future versions. See section *Special method\n   names*.\n\n``__*``\n   Class-private names.  Names in this category, when used within the\n   context of a class definition, are re-written to use a mangled form\n   to help avoid name clashes between "private" attributes of base and\n   derived classes. See section *Identifiers (Names)*.\n',
+ 'id-classes': u'\nReserved classes of identifiers\n*******************************\n\nCertain classes of identifiers (besides keywords) have special\nmeanings.  These classes are identified by the patterns of leading and\ntrailing underscore characters:\n\n``_*``\n   Not imported by ``from module import *``.  The special identifier\n   ``_`` is used in the interactive interpreter to store the result of\n   the last evaluation; it is stored in the ``__builtin__`` module.\n   When not in interactive mode, ``_`` has no special meaning and is\n   not defined. See section *The import statement*.\n\n   Note: The name ``_`` is often used in conjunction with\n     internationalization; refer to the documentation for the\n     ``gettext`` module for more information on this convention.\n\n``__*__``\n   System-defined names. These names are defined by the interpreter\n   and its implementation (including the standard library).  Current\n   system names are discussed in the *Special method names* section\n   and elsewhere.  More will likely be defined in future versions of\n   Python.  *Any* use of ``__*__`` names, in any context, that does\n   not follow explicitly documented use, is subject to breakage\n   without warning.\n\n``__*``\n   Class-private names.  Names in this category, when used within the\n   context of a class definition, are re-written to use a mangled form\n   to help avoid name clashes between "private" attributes of base and\n   derived classes. See section *Identifiers (Names)*.\n',
+ 'identifiers': u'\nIdentifiers and keywords\n************************\n\nIdentifiers (also referred to as *names*) are described by the\nfollowing lexical definitions:\n\n   identifier ::= (letter|"_") (letter | digit | "_")*\n   letter     ::= lowercase | uppercase\n   lowercase  ::= "a"..."z"\n   uppercase  ::= "A"..."Z"\n   digit      ::= "0"..."9"\n\nIdentifiers are unlimited in length.  Case is significant.\n\n\nKeywords\n========\n\nThe following identifiers are used as reserved words, or *keywords* of\nthe language, and cannot be used as ordinary identifiers.  They must\nbe spelled exactly as written here:\n\n   and       del       from      not       while\n   as        elif      global    or        with\n   assert    else      if        pass      yield\n   break     except    import    print\n   class     exec      in        raise\n   continue  finally   is        return\n   def       for       lambda    try\n\nChanged in version 2.4: ``None`` became a constant and is now\nrecognized by the compiler as a name for the built-in object ``None``.\nAlthough it is not a keyword, you cannot assign a different object to\nit.\n\nChanged in version 2.5: Both ``as`` and ``with`` are only recognized\nwhen the ``with_statement`` future feature has been enabled. It will\nalways be enabled in Python 2.6.  See section *The with statement* for\ndetails.  Note that using ``as`` and ``with`` as identifiers will\nalways issue a warning, even when the ``with_statement`` future\ndirective is not in effect.\n\n\nReserved classes of identifiers\n===============================\n\nCertain classes of identifiers (besides keywords) have special\nmeanings.  These classes are identified by the patterns of leading and\ntrailing underscore characters:\n\n``_*``\n   Not imported by ``from module import *``.  The special identifier\n   ``_`` is used in the interactive interpreter to store the result of\n   the last evaluation; it is stored in the ``__builtin__`` module.\n   When not in interactive mode, ``_`` has no special meaning and is\n   not defined. See section *The import statement*.\n\n   Note: The name ``_`` is often used in conjunction with\n     internationalization; refer to the documentation for the\n     ``gettext`` module for more information on this convention.\n\n``__*__``\n   System-defined names. These names are defined by the interpreter\n   and its implementation (including the standard library).  Current\n   system names are discussed in the *Special method names* section\n   and elsewhere.  More will likely be defined in future versions of\n   Python.  *Any* use of ``__*__`` names, in any context, that does\n   not follow explicitly documented use, is subject to breakage\n   without warning.\n\n``__*``\n   Class-private names.  Names in this category, when used within the\n   context of a class definition, are re-written to use a mangled form\n   to help avoid name clashes between "private" attributes of base and\n   derived classes. See section *Identifiers (Names)*.\n',
  'if': u'\nThe ``if`` statement\n********************\n\nThe ``if`` statement is used for conditional execution:\n\n   if_stmt ::= "if" expression ":" suite\n               ( "elif" expression ":" suite )*\n               ["else" ":" suite]\n\nIt selects exactly one of the suites by evaluating the expressions one\nby one until one is found to be true (see section *Boolean operations*\nfor the definition of true and false); then that suite is executed\n(and no other part of the ``if`` statement is executed or evaluated).\nIf all expressions are false, the suite of the ``else`` clause, if\npresent, is executed.\n',
  'imaginary': u'\nImaginary literals\n******************\n\nImaginary literals are described by the following lexical definitions:\n\n   imagnumber ::= (floatnumber | intpart) ("j" | "J")\n\nAn imaginary literal yields a complex number with a real part of 0.0.\nComplex numbers are represented as a pair of floating point numbers\nand have the same restrictions on their range.  To create a complex\nnumber with a nonzero real part, add a floating point number to it,\ne.g., ``(3+4j)``.  Some examples of imaginary literals:\n\n   3.14j   10.j    10j     .001j   1e100j  3.14e-10j\n',
- 'import': u'\nThe ``import`` statement\n************************\n\n   import_stmt     ::= "import" module ["as" name] ( "," module ["as" name] )*\n                   | "from" relative_module "import" identifier ["as" name]\n                   ( "," identifier ["as" name] )*\n                   | "from" relative_module "import" "(" identifier ["as" name]\n                   ( "," identifier ["as" name] )* [","] ")"\n                   | "from" module "import" "*"\n   module          ::= (identifier ".")* identifier\n   relative_module ::= "."* module | "."+\n   name            ::= identifier\n\nImport statements are executed in two steps: (1) find a module, and\ninitialize it if necessary; (2) define a name or names in the local\nnamespace (of the scope where the ``import`` statement occurs). The\nstatement comes in two forms differing on whether it uses the ``from``\nkeyword. The first form (without ``from``) repeats these steps for\neach identifier in the list. The form with ``from`` performs step (1)\nonce, and then performs step (2) repeatedly.\n\nTo understand how step (1) occurs, one must first understand how\nPython handles hierarchical naming of modules. To help organize\nmodules and provide a hierarchy in naming, Python has a concept of\npackages. A package can contain other packages and modules while\nmodules cannot contain other modules or packages. From a file system\nperspective, packages are directories and modules are files. The\noriginal specification for packages is still available to read,\nalthough minor details have changed since the writing of that\ndocument.\n\nOnce the name of the module is known (unless otherwise specified, the\nterm "module" will refer to both packages and modules), searching for\nthe module or package can begin. The first place checked is\n``sys.modules``, the cache of all modules that have been imported\npreviously. If the module is found there then it is used in step (2)\nof import.\n\nIf the module is not found in the cache, then ``sys.meta_path`` is\nsearched (the specification for ``sys.meta_path`` can be found in\n**PEP 302**). The object is a list of *finder* objects which are\nqueried in order as to whether they know how to load the module by\ncalling their ``find_module()`` method with the name of the module. If\nthe module happens to be contained within a package (as denoted by the\nexistence of a dot in the name), then a second argument to\n``find_module()`` is given as the value of the ``__path__`` attribute\nfrom the parent package (everything up to the last dot in the name of\nthe module being imported). If a finder can find the module it returns\na *loader* (discussed later) or returns ``None``.\n\nIf none of the finders on ``sys.meta_path`` are able to find the\nmodule then some implicitly defined finders are queried.\nImplementations of Python vary in what implicit meta path finders are\ndefined. The one they all do define, though, is one that handles\n``sys.path_hooks``, ``sys.path_importer_cache``, and ``sys.path``.\n\nThe implicit finder searches for the requested module in the "paths"\nspecified in one of two places ("paths" do not have to be file system\npaths). If the module being imported is supposed to be contained\nwithin a package then the second argument passed to ``find_module()``,\n``__path__`` on the parent package, is used as the source of paths. If\nthe module is not contained in a package then ``sys.path`` is used as\nthe source of paths.\n\nOnce the source of paths is chosen it is iterated over to find a\nfinder that can handle that path. The dict at\n``sys.path_importer_cache`` caches finders for paths and is checked\nfor a finder. If the path does not have a finder cached then\n``sys.path_hooks`` is searched by calling each object in the list with\na single argument of the path, returning a finder or raises\n``ImportError``. If a finder is returned then it is cached in\n``sys.path_importer_cache`` and then used for that path entry. If no\nfinder can be found but the path exists then a value of ``None`` is\nstored in ``sys.path_importer_cache`` to signify that an implicit,\nfile-based finder that handles modules stored as individual files\nshould be used for that path. If the path does not exist then a finder\nwhich always returns ``None`` is placed in the cache for the path.\n\nIf no finder can find the module then ``ImportError`` is raised.\nOtherwise some finder returned a loader whose ``load_module()`` method\nis called with the name of the module to load (see **PEP 302** for the\noriginal definition of loaders). A loader has several responsibilities\nto perform on a module it loads. First, if the module already exists\nin ``sys.modules`` (a possibility if the loader is called outside of\nthe import machinery) then it is to use that module for initialization\nand not a new module. But if the module does not exist in\n``sys.modules`` then it is to be added to that dict before\ninitialization begins. If an error occurs during loading of the module\nand it was added to ``sys.modules`` it is to be removed from the dict.\nIf an error occurs but the module was already in ``sys.modules`` it is\nleft in the dict.\n\nThe loader must set several attributes on the module. ``__name__`` is\nto be set to the name of the module. ``__file__`` is to be the "path"\nto the file unless the module is built-in (and thus listed in\n``sys.builtin_module_names``) in which case the attribute is not set.\nIf what is being imported is a package then ``__path__`` is to be set\nto a list of paths to be searched when looking for modules and\npackages contained within the package being imported. ``__package__``\nis optional but should be set to the name of package that contains the\nmodule or package (the empty string is used for module not contained\nin a package). ``__loader__`` is also optional but should be set to\nthe loader object that is loading the module.\n\nIf an error occurs during loading then the loader raises\n``ImportError`` if some other exception is not already being\npropagated. Otherwise the loader returns the module that was loaded\nand initialized.\n\nWhen step (1) finishes without raising an exception, step (2) can\nbegin.\n\nThe first form of ``import`` statement binds the module name in the\nlocal namespace to the module object, and then goes on to import the\nnext identifier, if any.  If the module name is followed by ``as``,\nthe name following ``as`` is used as the local name for the module.\n\nThe ``from`` form does not bind the module name: it goes through the\nlist of identifiers, looks each one of them up in the module found in\nstep (1), and binds the name in the local namespace to the object thus\nfound.  As with the first form of ``import``, an alternate local name\ncan be supplied by specifying "``as`` localname".  If a name is not\nfound, ``ImportError`` is raised.  If the list of identifiers is\nreplaced by a star (``\'*\'``), all public names defined in the module\nare bound in the local namespace of the ``import`` statement..\n\nThe *public names* defined by a module are determined by checking the\nmodule\'s namespace for a variable named ``__all__``; if defined, it\nmust be a sequence of strings which are names defined or imported by\nthat module.  The names given in ``__all__`` are all considered public\nand are required to exist.  If ``__all__`` is not defined, the set of\npublic names includes all names found in the module\'s namespace which\ndo not begin with an underscore character (``\'_\'``). ``__all__``\nshould contain the entire public API. It is intended to avoid\naccidentally exporting items that are not part of the API (such as\nlibrary modules which were imported and used within the module).\n\nThe ``from`` form with ``*`` may only occur in a module scope.  If the\nwild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a function\nand the function contains or is a nested block with free variables,\nthe compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nWhen specifying what module to import you do not have to specify the\nabsolute name of the module. When a module or package is contained\nwithin another package it is possible to make a relative import within\nthe same top package without having to mention the package name. By\nusing leading dots in the specified module or package after ``from``\nyou can specify how high to traverse up the current package hierarchy\nwithout specifying exact names. One leading dot means the current\npackage where the module making the import exists. Two dots means up\none package level. Three dots is up two levels, etc. So if you execute\n``from . import mod`` from a module in the ``pkg`` package then you\nwill end up importing ``pkg.mod``. If you execute ``from ..subpkg2\nimprt mod`` from within ``pkg.subpkg1`` you will import\n``pkg.subpkg2.mod``. The specification for relative imports is\ncontained within **PEP 328**.\n\n``importlib.import_module()`` is provided to support applications that\ndetermine which modules need to be loaded dynamically.\n\n\nFuture statements\n=================\n\nA *future statement* is a directive to the compiler that a particular\nmodule should be compiled using syntax or semantics that will be\navailable in a specified future release of Python.  The future\nstatement is intended to ease migration to future versions of Python\nthat introduce incompatible changes to the language.  It allows use of\nthe new features on a per-module basis before the release in which the\nfeature becomes standard.\n\n   future_statement ::= "from" "__future__" "import" feature ["as" name]\n                        ("," feature ["as" name])*\n                        | "from" "__future__" "import" "(" feature ["as" name]\n                        ("," feature ["as" name])* [","] ")"\n   feature          ::= identifier\n   name             ::= identifier\n\nA future statement must appear near the top of the module.  The only\nlines that can appear before a future statement are:\n\n* the module docstring (if any),\n\n* comments,\n\n* blank lines, and\n\n* other future statements.\n\nThe features recognized by Python 2.6 are ``unicode_literals``,\n``print_function``, ``absolute_import``, ``division``, ``generators``,\n``nested_scopes`` and ``with_statement``.  ``generators``,\n``with_statement``, ``nested_scopes`` are redundant in Python version\n2.6 and above because they are always enabled.\n\nA future statement is recognized and treated specially at compile\ntime: Changes to the semantics of core constructs are often\nimplemented by generating different code.  It may even be the case\nthat a new feature introduces new incompatible syntax (such as a new\nreserved word), in which case the compiler may need to parse the\nmodule differently.  Such decisions cannot be pushed off until\nruntime.\n\nFor any given release, the compiler knows which feature names have\nbeen defined, and raises a compile-time error if a future statement\ncontains a feature not known to it.\n\nThe direct runtime semantics are the same as for any import statement:\nthere is a standard module ``__future__``, described later, and it\nwill be imported in the usual way at the time the future statement is\nexecuted.\n\nThe interesting runtime semantics depend on the specific feature\nenabled by the future statement.\n\nNote that there is nothing special about the statement:\n\n   import __future__ [as name]\n\nThat is not a future statement; it\'s an ordinary import statement with\nno special semantics or syntax restrictions.\n\nCode compiled by an ``exec`` statement or calls to the built-in\nfunctions ``compile()`` and ``execfile()`` that occur in a module\n``M`` containing a future statement will, by default, use the new\nsyntax or semantics associated with the future statement.  This can,\nstarting with Python 2.2 be controlled by optional arguments to\n``compile()`` --- see the documentation of that function for details.\n\nA future statement typed at an interactive interpreter prompt will\ntake effect for the rest of the interpreter session.  If an\ninterpreter is started with the *-i* option, is passed a script name\nto execute, and the script includes a future statement, it will be in\neffect in the interactive session started after the script is\nexecuted.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 236** - Back to the __future__\n      The original proposal for the __future__ mechanism.\n',
+ 'import': u'\nThe ``import`` statement\n************************\n\n   import_stmt     ::= "import" module ["as" name] ( "," module ["as" name] )*\n                   | "from" relative_module "import" identifier ["as" name]\n                   ( "," identifier ["as" name] )*\n                   | "from" relative_module "import" "(" identifier ["as" name]\n                   ( "," identifier ["as" name] )* [","] ")"\n                   | "from" module "import" "*"\n   module          ::= (identifier ".")* identifier\n   relative_module ::= "."* module | "."+\n   name            ::= identifier\n\nImport statements are executed in two steps: (1) find a module, and\ninitialize it if necessary; (2) define a name or names in the local\nnamespace (of the scope where the ``import`` statement occurs). The\nstatement comes in two forms differing on whether it uses the ``from``\nkeyword. The first form (without ``from``) repeats these steps for\neach identifier in the list. The form with ``from`` performs step (1)\nonce, and then performs step (2) repeatedly.\n\nTo understand how step (1) occurs, one must first understand how\nPython handles hierarchical naming of modules. To help organize\nmodules and provide a hierarchy in naming, Python has a concept of\npackages. A package can contain other packages and modules while\nmodules cannot contain other modules or packages. From a file system\nperspective, packages are directories and modules are files. The\noriginal specification for packages is still available to read,\nalthough minor details have changed since the writing of that\ndocument.\n\nOnce the name of the module is known (unless otherwise specified, the\nterm "module" will refer to both packages and modules), searching for\nthe module or package can begin. The first place checked is\n``sys.modules``, the cache of all modules that have been imported\npreviously. If the module is found there then it is used in step (2)\nof import.\n\nIf the module is not found in the cache, then ``sys.meta_path`` is\nsearched (the specification for ``sys.meta_path`` can be found in\n**PEP 302**). The object is a list of *finder* objects which are\nqueried in order as to whether they know how to load the module by\ncalling their ``find_module()`` method with the name of the module. If\nthe module happens to be contained within a package (as denoted by the\nexistence of a dot in the name), then a second argument to\n``find_module()`` is given as the value of the ``__path__`` attribute\nfrom the parent package (everything up to the last dot in the name of\nthe module being imported). If a finder can find the module it returns\na *loader* (discussed later) or returns ``None``.\n\nIf none of the finders on ``sys.meta_path`` are able to find the\nmodule then some implicitly defined finders are queried.\nImplementations of Python vary in what implicit meta path finders are\ndefined. The one they all do define, though, is one that handles\n``sys.path_hooks``, ``sys.path_importer_cache``, and ``sys.path``.\n\nThe implicit finder searches for the requested module in the "paths"\nspecified in one of two places ("paths" do not have to be file system\npaths). If the module being imported is supposed to be contained\nwithin a package then the second argument passed to ``find_module()``,\n``__path__`` on the parent package, is used as the source of paths. If\nthe module is not contained in a package then ``sys.path`` is used as\nthe source of paths.\n\nOnce the source of paths is chosen it is iterated over to find a\nfinder that can handle that path. The dict at\n``sys.path_importer_cache`` caches finders for paths and is checked\nfor a finder. If the path does not have a finder cached then\n``sys.path_hooks`` is searched by calling each object in the list with\na single argument of the path, returning a finder or raises\n``ImportError``. If a finder is returned then it is cached in\n``sys.path_importer_cache`` and then used for that path entry. If no\nfinder can be found but the path exists then a value of ``None`` is\nstored in ``sys.path_importer_cache`` to signify that an implicit,\nfile-based finder that handles modules stored as individual files\nshould be used for that path. If the path does not exist then a finder\nwhich always returns ``None`` is placed in the cache for the path.\n\nIf no finder can find the module then ``ImportError`` is raised.\nOtherwise some finder returned a loader whose ``load_module()`` method\nis called with the name of the module to load (see **PEP 302** for the\noriginal definition of loaders). A loader has several responsibilities\nto perform on a module it loads. First, if the module already exists\nin ``sys.modules`` (a possibility if the loader is called outside of\nthe import machinery) then it is to use that module for initialization\nand not a new module. But if the module does not exist in\n``sys.modules`` then it is to be added to that dict before\ninitialization begins. If an error occurs during loading of the module\nand it was added to ``sys.modules`` it is to be removed from the dict.\nIf an error occurs but the module was already in ``sys.modules`` it is\nleft in the dict.\n\nThe loader must set several attributes on the module. ``__name__`` is\nto be set to the name of the module. ``__file__`` is to be the "path"\nto the file unless the module is built-in (and thus listed in\n``sys.builtin_module_names``) in which case the attribute is not set.\nIf what is being imported is a package then ``__path__`` is to be set\nto a list of paths to be searched when looking for modules and\npackages contained within the package being imported. ``__package__``\nis optional but should be set to the name of package that contains the\nmodule or package (the empty string is used for module not contained\nin a package). ``__loader__`` is also optional but should be set to\nthe loader object that is loading the module.\n\nIf an error occurs during loading then the loader raises\n``ImportError`` if some other exception is not already being\npropagated. Otherwise the loader returns the module that was loaded\nand initialized.\n\nWhen step (1) finishes without raising an exception, step (2) can\nbegin.\n\nThe first form of ``import`` statement binds the module name in the\nlocal namespace to the module object, and then goes on to import the\nnext identifier, if any.  If the module name is followed by ``as``,\nthe name following ``as`` is used as the local name for the module.\n\nThe ``from`` form does not bind the module name: it goes through the\nlist of identifiers, looks each one of them up in the module found in\nstep (1), and binds the name in the local namespace to the object thus\nfound.  As with the first form of ``import``, an alternate local name\ncan be supplied by specifying "``as`` localname".  If a name is not\nfound, ``ImportError`` is raised.  If the list of identifiers is\nreplaced by a star (``\'*\'``), all public names defined in the module\nare bound in the local namespace of the ``import`` statement..\n\nThe *public names* defined by a module are determined by checking the\nmodule\'s namespace for a variable named ``__all__``; if defined, it\nmust be a sequence of strings which are names defined or imported by\nthat module.  The names given in ``__all__`` are all considered public\nand are required to exist.  If ``__all__`` is not defined, the set of\npublic names includes all names found in the module\'s namespace which\ndo not begin with an underscore character (``\'_\'``). ``__all__``\nshould contain the entire public API. It is intended to avoid\naccidentally exporting items that are not part of the API (such as\nlibrary modules which were imported and used within the module).\n\nThe ``from`` form with ``*`` may only occur in a module scope.  If the\nwild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a function\nand the function contains or is a nested block with free variables,\nthe compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nWhen specifying what module to import you do not have to specify the\nabsolute name of the module. When a module or package is contained\nwithin another package it is possible to make a relative import within\nthe same top package without having to mention the package name. By\nusing leading dots in the specified module or package after ``from``\nyou can specify how high to traverse up the current package hierarchy\nwithout specifying exact names. One leading dot means the current\npackage where the module making the import exists. Two dots means up\none package level. Three dots is up two levels, etc. So if you execute\n``from . import mod`` from a module in the ``pkg`` package then you\nwill end up importing ``pkg.mod``. If you execute ``from ..subpkg2\nimport mod`` from within ``pkg.subpkg1`` you will import\n``pkg.subpkg2.mod``. The specification for relative imports is\ncontained within **PEP 328**.\n\n``importlib.import_module()`` is provided to support applications that\ndetermine which modules need to be loaded dynamically.\n\n\nFuture statements\n=================\n\nA *future statement* is a directive to the compiler that a particular\nmodule should be compiled using syntax or semantics that will be\navailable in a specified future release of Python.  The future\nstatement is intended to ease migration to future versions of Python\nthat introduce incompatible changes to the language.  It allows use of\nthe new features on a per-module basis before the release in which the\nfeature becomes standard.\n\n   future_statement ::= "from" "__future__" "import" feature ["as" name]\n                        ("," feature ["as" name])*\n                        | "from" "__future__" "import" "(" feature ["as" name]\n                        ("," feature ["as" name])* [","] ")"\n   feature          ::= identifier\n   name             ::= identifier\n\nA future statement must appear near the top of the module.  The only\nlines that can appear before a future statement are:\n\n* the module docstring (if any),\n\n* comments,\n\n* blank lines, and\n\n* other future statements.\n\nThe features recognized by Python 2.6 are ``unicode_literals``,\n``print_function``, ``absolute_import``, ``division``, ``generators``,\n``nested_scopes`` and ``with_statement``.  ``generators``,\n``with_statement``, ``nested_scopes`` are redundant in Python version\n2.6 and above because they are always enabled.\n\nA future statement is recognized and treated specially at compile\ntime: Changes to the semantics of core constructs are often\nimplemented by generating different code.  It may even be the case\nthat a new feature introduces new incompatible syntax (such as a new\nreserved word), in which case the compiler may need to parse the\nmodule differently.  Such decisions cannot be pushed off until\nruntime.\n\nFor any given release, the compiler knows which feature names have\nbeen defined, and raises a compile-time error if a future statement\ncontains a feature not known to it.\n\nThe direct runtime semantics are the same as for any import statement:\nthere is a standard module ``__future__``, described later, and it\nwill be imported in the usual way at the time the future statement is\nexecuted.\n\nThe interesting runtime semantics depend on the specific feature\nenabled by the future statement.\n\nNote that there is nothing special about the statement:\n\n   import __future__ [as name]\n\nThat is not a future statement; it\'s an ordinary import statement with\nno special semantics or syntax restrictions.\n\nCode compiled by an ``exec`` statement or calls to the built-in\nfunctions ``compile()`` and ``execfile()`` that occur in a module\n``M`` containing a future statement will, by default, use the new\nsyntax or semantics associated with the future statement.  This can,\nstarting with Python 2.2 be controlled by optional arguments to\n``compile()`` --- see the documentation of that function for details.\n\nA future statement typed at an interactive interpreter prompt will\ntake effect for the rest of the interpreter session.  If an\ninterpreter is started with the *-i* option, is passed a script name\nto execute, and the script includes a future statement, it will be in\neffect in the interactive session started after the script is\nexecuted.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 236** - Back to the __future__\n      The original proposal for the __future__ mechanism.\n',
  'in': u'\nComparisons\n***********\n\nUnlike C, all comparison operations in Python have the same priority,\nwhich is lower than that of any arithmetic, shifting or bitwise\noperation.  Also unlike C, expressions like ``a < b < c`` have the\ninterpretation that is conventional in mathematics:\n\n   comparison    ::= or_expr ( comp_operator or_expr )*\n   comp_operator ::= "<" | ">" | "==" | ">=" | "<=" | "<>" | "!="\n                     | "is" ["not"] | ["not"] "in"\n\nComparisons yield boolean values: ``True`` or ``False``.\n\nComparisons can be chained arbitrarily, e.g., ``x < y <= z`` is\nequivalent to ``x < y and y <= z``, except that ``y`` is evaluated\nonly once (but in both cases ``z`` is not evaluated at all when ``x <\ny`` is found to be false).\n\nFormally, if *a*, *b*, *c*, ..., *y*, *z* are expressions and *op1*,\n*op2*, ..., *opN* are comparison operators, then ``a op1 b op2 c ... y\nopN z`` is equivalent to ``a op1 b and b op2 c and ... y opN z``,\nexcept that each expression is evaluated at most once.\n\nNote that ``a op1 b op2 c`` doesn\'t imply any kind of comparison\nbetween *a* and *c*, so that, e.g., ``x < y > z`` is perfectly legal\n(though perhaps not pretty).\n\nThe forms ``<>`` and ``!=`` are equivalent; for consistency with C,\n``!=`` is preferred; where ``!=`` is mentioned below ``<>`` is also\naccepted.  The ``<>`` spelling is considered obsolescent.\n\nThe operators ``<``, ``>``, ``==``, ``>=``, ``<=``, and ``!=`` compare\nthe values of two objects.  The objects need not have the same type.\nIf both are numbers, they are converted to a common type.  Otherwise,\nobjects of different types *always* compare unequal, and are ordered\nconsistently but arbitrarily. You can control comparison behavior of\nobjects of non-built-in types by defining a ``__cmp__`` method or rich\ncomparison methods like ``__gt__``, described in section *Special\nmethod names*.\n\n(This unusual definition of comparison was used to simplify the\ndefinition of operations like sorting and the ``in`` and ``not in``\noperators. In the future, the comparison rules for objects of\ndifferent types are likely to change.)\n\nComparison of objects of the same type depends on the type:\n\n* Numbers are compared arithmetically.\n\n* Strings are compared lexicographically using the numeric equivalents\n  (the result of the built-in function ``ord()``) of their characters.\n  Unicode and 8-bit strings are fully interoperable in this behavior.\n  [4]\n\n* Tuples and lists are compared lexicographically using comparison of\n  corresponding elements.  This means that to compare equal, each\n  element must compare equal and the two sequences must be of the same\n  type and have the same length.\n\n  If not equal, the sequences are ordered the same as their first\n  differing elements.  For example, ``cmp([1,2,x], [1,2,y])`` returns\n  the same as ``cmp(x,y)``.  If the corresponding element does not\n  exist, the shorter sequence is ordered first (for example, ``[1,2] <\n  [1,2,3]``).\n\n* Mappings (dictionaries) compare equal if and only if their sorted\n  (key, value) lists compare equal. [5] Outcomes other than equality\n  are resolved consistently, but are not otherwise defined. [6]\n\n* Most other objects of built-in types compare unequal unless they are\n  the same object; the choice whether one object is considered smaller\n  or larger than another one is made arbitrarily but consistently\n  within one execution of a program.\n\nThe operators ``in`` and ``not in`` test for collection membership.\n``x in s`` evaluates to true if *x* is a member of the collection *s*,\nand false otherwise.  ``x not in s`` returns the negation of ``x in\ns``. The collection membership test has traditionally been bound to\nsequences; an object is a member of a collection if the collection is\na sequence and contains an element equal to that object.  However, it\nmake sense for many other object types to support membership tests\nwithout being a sequence.  In particular, dictionaries (for keys) and\nsets support membership testing.\n\nFor the list and tuple types, ``x in y`` is true if and only if there\nexists an index *i* such that ``x == y[i]`` is true.\n\nFor the Unicode and string types, ``x in y`` is true if and only if\n*x* is a substring of *y*.  An equivalent test is ``y.find(x) != -1``.\nNote, *x* and *y* need not be the same type; consequently, ``u\'ab\' in\n\'abc\'`` will return ``True``. Empty strings are always considered to\nbe a substring of any other string, so ``"" in "abc"`` will return\n``True``.\n\nChanged in version 2.3: Previously, *x* was required to be a string of\nlength ``1``.\n\nFor user-defined classes which define the ``__contains__()`` method,\n``x in y`` is true if and only if ``y.__contains__(x)`` is true.\n\nFor user-defined classes which do not define ``__contains__()`` but do\ndefine ``__iter__()``, ``x in y`` is true if some value ``z`` with ``x\n== z`` is produced while iterating over ``y``.  If an exception is\nraised during the iteration, it is as if ``in`` raised that exception.\n\nLastly, the old-style iteration protocol is tried: if a class defines\n``__getitem__()``, ``x in y`` is true if and only if there is a non-\nnegative integer index *i* such that ``x == y[i]``, and all lower\ninteger indices do not raise ``IndexError`` exception. (If any other\nexception is raised, it is as if ``in`` raised that exception).\n\nThe operator ``not in`` is defined to have the inverse true value of\n``in``.\n\nThe operators ``is`` and ``is not`` test for object identity: ``x is\ny`` is true if and only if *x* and *y* are the same object.  ``x is\nnot y`` yields the inverse truth value. [7]\n',
  'integers': u'\nInteger and long integer literals\n*********************************\n\nInteger and long integer literals are described by the following\nlexical definitions:\n\n   longinteger    ::= integer ("l" | "L")\n   integer        ::= decimalinteger | octinteger | hexinteger | bininteger\n   decimalinteger ::= nonzerodigit digit* | "0"\n   octinteger     ::= "0" ("o" | "O") octdigit+ | "0" octdigit+\n   hexinteger     ::= "0" ("x" | "X") hexdigit+\n   bininteger     ::= "0" ("b" | "B") bindigit+\n   nonzerodigit   ::= "1"..."9"\n   octdigit       ::= "0"..."7"\n   bindigit       ::= "0" | "1"\n   hexdigit       ::= digit | "a"..."f" | "A"..."F"\n\nAlthough both lower case ``\'l\'`` and upper case ``\'L\'`` are allowed as\nsuffix for long integers, it is strongly recommended to always use\n``\'L\'``, since the letter ``\'l\'`` looks too much like the digit\n``\'1\'``.\n\nPlain integer literals that are above the largest representable plain\ninteger (e.g., 2147483647 when using 32-bit arithmetic) are accepted\nas if they were long integers instead. [1]  There is no limit for long\ninteger literals apart from what can be stored in available memory.\n\nSome examples of plain integer literals (first row) and long integer\nliterals (second and third rows):\n\n   7     2147483647                        0177\n   3L    79228162514264337593543950336L    0377L   0x100000000L\n         79228162514264337593543950336             0xdeadbeef\n',
  'lambda': u'\nLambdas\n*******\n\n   lambda_form     ::= "lambda" [parameter_list]: expression\n   old_lambda_form ::= "lambda" [parameter_list]: old_expression\n\nLambda forms (lambda expressions) have the same syntactic position as\nexpressions.  They are a shorthand to create anonymous functions; the\nexpression ``lambda arguments: expression`` yields a function object.\nThe unnamed object behaves like a function object defined with\n\n   def name(arguments):\n       return expression\n\nSee section *Function definitions* for the syntax of parameter lists.\nNote that functions created with lambda forms cannot contain\nstatements.\n',
  'lists': u'\nList displays\n*************\n\nA list display is a possibly empty series of expressions enclosed in\nsquare brackets:\n\n   list_display        ::= "[" [expression_list | list_comprehension] "]"\n   list_comprehension  ::= expression list_for\n   list_for            ::= "for" target_list "in" old_expression_list [list_iter]\n   old_expression_list ::= old_expression [("," old_expression)+ [","]]\n   old_expression      ::= or_test | old_lambda_form\n   list_iter           ::= list_for | list_if\n   list_if             ::= "if" old_expression [list_iter]\n\nA list display yields a new list object.  Its contents are specified\nby providing either a list of expressions or a list comprehension.\nWhen a comma-separated list of expressions is supplied, its elements\nare evaluated from left to right and placed into the list object in\nthat order.  When a list comprehension is supplied, it consists of a\nsingle expression followed by at least one ``for`` clause and zero or\nmore ``for`` or ``if`` clauses.  In this case, the elements of the new\nlist are those that would be produced by considering each of the\n``for`` or ``if`` clauses a block, nesting from left to right, and\nevaluating the expression to produce a list element each time the\ninnermost block is reached [1].\n',
- 'naming': u"\nNaming and binding\n******************\n\n*Names* refer to objects.  Names are introduced by name binding\noperations. Each occurrence of a name in the program text refers to\nthe *binding* of that name established in the innermost function block\ncontaining the use.\n\nA *block* is a piece of Python program text that is executed as a\nunit. The following are blocks: a module, a function body, and a class\ndefinition. Each command typed interactively is a block.  A script\nfile (a file given as standard input to the interpreter or specified\non the interpreter command line the first argument) is a code block.\nA script command (a command specified on the interpreter command line\nwith the '**-c**' option) is a code block.  The file read by the\nbuilt-in function ``execfile()`` is a code block.  The string argument\npassed to the built-in function ``eval()`` and to the ``exec``\nstatement is a code block. The expression read and evaluated by the\nbuilt-in function ``input()`` is a code block.\n\nA code block is executed in an *execution frame*.  A frame contains\nsome administrative information (used for debugging) and determines\nwhere and how execution continues after the code block's execution has\ncompleted.\n\nA *scope* defines the visibility of a name within a block.  If a local\nvariable is defined in a block, its scope includes that block.  If the\ndefinition occurs in a function block, the scope extends to any blocks\ncontained within the defining one, unless a contained block introduces\na different binding for the name.  The scope of names defined in a\nclass block is limited to the class block; it does not extend to the\ncode blocks of methods -- this includes generator expressions since\nthey are implemented using a function scope.  This means that the\nfollowing will fail:\n\n   class A:\n       a = 42\n       b = list(a + i for i in range(10))\n\nWhen a name is used in a code block, it is resolved using the nearest\nenclosing scope.  The set of all such scopes visible to a code block\nis called the block's *environment*.\n\nIf a name is bound in a block, it is a local variable of that block.\nIf a name is bound at the module level, it is a global variable.  (The\nvariables of the module code block are local and global.)  If a\nvariable is used in a code block but not defined there, it is a *free\nvariable*.\n\nWhen a name is not found at all, a ``NameError`` exception is raised.\nIf the name refers to a local variable that has not been bound, a\n``UnboundLocalError`` exception is raised.  ``UnboundLocalError`` is a\nsubclass of ``NameError``.\n\nThe following constructs bind names: formal parameters to functions,\n``import`` statements, class and function definitions (these bind the\nclass or function name in the defining block), and targets that are\nidentifiers if occurring in an assignment, ``for`` loop header, in the\nsecond position of an ``except`` clause header or after ``as`` in a\n``with`` statement.  The ``import`` statement of the form ``from ...\nimport *`` binds all names defined in the imported module, except\nthose beginning with an underscore.  This form may only be used at the\nmodule level.\n\nA target occurring in a ``del`` statement is also considered bound for\nthis purpose (though the actual semantics are to unbind the name).  It\nis illegal to unbind a name that is referenced by an enclosing scope;\nthe compiler will report a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nEach assignment or import statement occurs within a block defined by a\nclass or function definition or at the module level (the top-level\ncode block).\n\nIf a name binding operation occurs anywhere within a code block, all\nuses of the name within the block are treated as references to the\ncurrent block.  This can lead to errors when a name is used within a\nblock before it is bound. This rule is subtle.  Python lacks\ndeclarations and allows name binding operations to occur anywhere\nwithin a code block.  The local variables of a code block can be\ndetermined by scanning the entire text of the block for name binding\noperations.\n\nIf the global statement occurs within a block, all uses of the name\nspecified in the statement refer to the binding of that name in the\ntop-level namespace. Names are resolved in the top-level namespace by\nsearching the global namespace, i.e. the namespace of the module\ncontaining the code block, and the builtins namespace, the namespace\nof the module ``__builtin__``.  The global namespace is searched\nfirst.  If the name is not found there, the builtins namespace is\nsearched.  The global statement must precede all uses of the name.\n\nThe builtins namespace associated with the execution of a code block\nis actually found by looking up the name ``__builtins__`` in its\nglobal namespace; this should be a dictionary or a module (in the\nlatter case the module's dictionary is used).  By default, when in the\n``__main__`` module, ``__builtins__`` is the built-in module\n``__builtin__`` (note: no 's'); when in any other module,\n``__builtins__`` is an alias for the dictionary of the ``__builtin__``\nmodule itself.  ``__builtins__`` can be set to a user-created\ndictionary to create a weak form of restricted execution.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** Users should not touch\n``__builtins__``; it is strictly an implementation detail.  Users\nwanting to override values in the builtins namespace should ``import``\nthe ``__builtin__`` (no 's') module and modify its attributes\nappropriately.\n\nThe namespace for a module is automatically created the first time a\nmodule is imported.  The main module for a script is always called\n``__main__``.\n\nThe global statement has the same scope as a name binding operation in\nthe same block.  If the nearest enclosing scope for a free variable\ncontains a global statement, the free variable is treated as a global.\n\nA class definition is an executable statement that may use and define\nnames. These references follow the normal rules for name resolution.\nThe namespace of the class definition becomes the attribute dictionary\nof the class.  Names defined at the class scope are not visible in\nmethods.\n\n\nInteraction with dynamic features\n=================================\n\nThere are several cases where Python statements are illegal when used\nin conjunction with nested scopes that contain free variables.\n\nIf a variable is referenced in an enclosing scope, it is illegal to\ndelete the name.  An error will be reported at compile time.\n\nIf the wild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a\nfunction and the function contains or is a nested block with free\nvariables, the compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nIf ``exec`` is used in a function and the function contains or is a\nnested block with free variables, the compiler will raise a\n``SyntaxError`` unless the exec explicitly specifies the local\nnamespace for the ``exec``.  (In other words, ``exec obj`` would be\nillegal, but ``exec obj in ns`` would be legal.)\n\nThe ``eval()``, ``execfile()``, and ``input()`` functions and the\n``exec`` statement do not have access to the full environment for\nresolving names.  Names may be resolved in the local and global\nnamespaces of the caller.  Free variables are not resolved in the\nnearest enclosing namespace, but in the global namespace. [1] The\n``exec`` statement and the ``eval()`` and ``execfile()`` functions\nhave optional arguments to override the global and local namespace.\nIf only one namespace is specified, it is used for both.\n",
+ 'naming': u"\nNaming and binding\n******************\n\n*Names* refer to objects.  Names are introduced by name binding\noperations. Each occurrence of a name in the program text refers to\nthe *binding* of that name established in the innermost function block\ncontaining the use.\n\nA *block* is a piece of Python program text that is executed as a\nunit. The following are blocks: a module, a function body, and a class\ndefinition. Each command typed interactively is a block.  A script\nfile (a file given as standard input to the interpreter or specified\non the interpreter command line the first argument) is a code block.\nA script command (a command specified on the interpreter command line\nwith the '**-c**' option) is a code block.  The file read by the\nbuilt-in function ``execfile()`` is a code block.  The string argument\npassed to the built-in function ``eval()`` and to the ``exec``\nstatement is a code block. The expression read and evaluated by the\nbuilt-in function ``input()`` is a code block.\n\nA code block is executed in an *execution frame*.  A frame contains\nsome administrative information (used for debugging) and determines\nwhere and how execution continues after the code block's execution has\ncompleted.\n\nA *scope* defines the visibility of a name within a block.  If a local\nvariable is defined in a block, its scope includes that block.  If the\ndefinition occurs in a function block, the scope extends to any blocks\ncontained within the defining one, unless a contained block introduces\na different binding for the name.  The scope of names defined in a\nclass block is limited to the class block; it does not extend to the\ncode blocks of methods -- this includes generator expressions since\nthey are implemented using a function scope.  This means that the\nfollowing will fail:\n\n   class A:\n       a = 42\n       b = list(a + i for i in range(10))\n\nWhen a name is used in a code block, it is resolved using the nearest\nenclosing scope.  The set of all such scopes visible to a code block\nis called the block's *environment*.\n\nIf a name is bound in a block, it is a local variable of that block.\nIf a name is bound at the module level, it is a global variable.  (The\nvariables of the module code block are local and global.)  If a\nvariable is used in a code block but not defined there, it is a *free\nvariable*.\n\nWhen a name is not found at all, a ``NameError`` exception is raised.\nIf the name refers to a local variable that has not been bound, a\n``UnboundLocalError`` exception is raised.  ``UnboundLocalError`` is a\nsubclass of ``NameError``.\n\nThe following constructs bind names: formal parameters to functions,\n``import`` statements, class and function definitions (these bind the\nclass or function name in the defining block), and targets that are\nidentifiers if occurring in an assignment, ``for`` loop header, in the\nsecond position of an ``except`` clause header or after ``as`` in a\n``with`` statement.  The ``import`` statement of the form ``from ...\nimport *`` binds all names defined in the imported module, except\nthose beginning with an underscore.  This form may only be used at the\nmodule level.\n\nA target occurring in a ``del`` statement is also considered bound for\nthis purpose (though the actual semantics are to unbind the name).  It\nis illegal to unbind a name that is referenced by an enclosing scope;\nthe compiler will report a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nEach assignment or import statement occurs within a block defined by a\nclass or function definition or at the module level (the top-level\ncode block).\n\nIf a name binding operation occurs anywhere within a code block, all\nuses of the name within the block are treated as references to the\ncurrent block.  This can lead to errors when a name is used within a\nblock before it is bound. This rule is subtle.  Python lacks\ndeclarations and allows name binding operations to occur anywhere\nwithin a code block.  The local variables of a code block can be\ndetermined by scanning the entire text of the block for name binding\noperations.\n\nIf the global statement occurs within a block, all uses of the name\nspecified in the statement refer to the binding of that name in the\ntop-level namespace. Names are resolved in the top-level namespace by\nsearching the global namespace, i.e. the namespace of the module\ncontaining the code block, and the builtins namespace, the namespace\nof the module ``__builtin__``.  The global namespace is searched\nfirst.  If the name is not found there, the builtins namespace is\nsearched.  The global statement must precede all uses of the name.\n\nThe builtins namespace associated with the execution of a code block\nis actually found by looking up the name ``__builtins__`` in its\nglobal namespace; this should be a dictionary or a module (in the\nlatter case the module's dictionary is used).  By default, when in the\n``__main__`` module, ``__builtins__`` is the built-in module\n``__builtin__`` (note: no 's'); when in any other module,\n``__builtins__`` is an alias for the dictionary of the ``__builtin__``\nmodule itself.  ``__builtins__`` can be set to a user-created\ndictionary to create a weak form of restricted execution.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** Users should not touch\n``__builtins__``; it is strictly an implementation detail.  Users\nwanting to override values in the builtins namespace should ``import``\nthe ``__builtin__`` (no 's') module and modify its attributes\nappropriately.\n\nThe namespace for a module is automatically created the first time a\nmodule is imported.  The main module for a script is always called\n``__main__``.\n\nThe ``global`` statement has the same scope as a name binding\noperation in the same block.  If the nearest enclosing scope for a\nfree variable contains a global statement, the free variable is\ntreated as a global.\n\nA class definition is an executable statement that may use and define\nnames. These references follow the normal rules for name resolution.\nThe namespace of the class definition becomes the attribute dictionary\nof the class.  Names defined at the class scope are not visible in\nmethods.\n\n\nInteraction with dynamic features\n=================================\n\nThere are several cases where Python statements are illegal when used\nin conjunction with nested scopes that contain free variables.\n\nIf a variable is referenced in an enclosing scope, it is illegal to\ndelete the name.  An error will be reported at compile time.\n\nIf the wild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a\nfunction and the function contains or is a nested block with free\nvariables, the compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nIf ``exec`` is used in a function and the function contains or is a\nnested block with free variables, the compiler will raise a\n``SyntaxError`` unless the exec explicitly specifies the local\nnamespace for the ``exec``.  (In other words, ``exec obj`` would be\nillegal, but ``exec obj in ns`` would be legal.)\n\nThe ``eval()``, ``execfile()``, and ``input()`` functions and the\n``exec`` statement do not have access to the full environment for\nresolving names.  Names may be resolved in the local and global\nnamespaces of the caller.  Free variables are not resolved in the\nnearest enclosing namespace, but in the global namespace. [1] The\n``exec`` statement and the ``eval()`` and ``execfile()`` functions\nhave optional arguments to override the global and local namespace.\nIf only one namespace is specified, it is used for both.\n",
  'numbers': u"\nNumeric literals\n****************\n\nThere are four types of numeric literals: plain integers, long\nintegers, floating point numbers, and imaginary numbers.  There are no\ncomplex literals (complex numbers can be formed by adding a real\nnumber and an imaginary number).\n\nNote that numeric literals do not include a sign; a phrase like ``-1``\nis actually an expression composed of the unary operator '``-``' and\nthe literal ``1``.\n",
  'numeric-types': u'\nEmulating numeric types\n***********************\n\nThe following methods can be defined to emulate numeric objects.\nMethods corresponding to operations that are not supported by the\nparticular kind of number implemented (e.g., bitwise operations for\nnon-integral numbers) should be left undefined.\n\nobject.__add__(self, other)\nobject.__sub__(self, other)\nobject.__mul__(self, other)\nobject.__floordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__mod__(self, other)\nobject.__divmod__(self, other)\nobject.__pow__(self, other[, modulo])\nobject.__lshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rshift__(self, other)\nobject.__and__(self, other)\nobject.__xor__(self, other)\nobject.__or__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the binary arithmetic\n   operations (``+``, ``-``, ``*``, ``//``, ``%``, ``divmod()``,\n   ``pow()``, ``**``, ``<<``, ``>>``, ``&``, ``^``, ``|``).  For\n   instance, to evaluate the expression ``x + y``, where *x* is an\n   instance of a class that has an ``__add__()`` method,\n   ``x.__add__(y)`` is called.  The ``__divmod__()`` method should be\n   the equivalent to using ``__floordiv__()`` and ``__mod__()``; it\n   should not be related to ``__truediv__()`` (described below).  Note\n   that ``__pow__()`` should be defined to accept an optional third\n   argument if the ternary version of the built-in ``pow()`` function\n   is to be supported.\n\n   If one of those methods does not support the operation with the\n   supplied arguments, it should return ``NotImplemented``.\n\nobject.__div__(self, other)\nobject.__truediv__(self, other)\n\n   The division operator (``/``) is implemented by these methods.  The\n   ``__truediv__()`` method is used when ``__future__.division`` is in\n   effect, otherwise ``__div__()`` is used.  If only one of these two\n   methods is defined, the object will not support division in the\n   alternate context; ``TypeError`` will be raised instead.\n\nobject.__radd__(self, other)\nobject.__rsub__(self, other)\nobject.__rmul__(self, other)\nobject.__rdiv__(self, other)\nobject.__rtruediv__(self, other)\nobject.__rfloordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__rmod__(self, other)\nobject.__rdivmod__(self, other)\nobject.__rpow__(self, other)\nobject.__rlshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rrshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rand__(self, other)\nobject.__rxor__(self, other)\nobject.__ror__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the binary arithmetic\n   operations (``+``, ``-``, ``*``, ``/``, ``%``, ``divmod()``,\n   ``pow()``, ``**``, ``<<``, ``>>``, ``&``, ``^``, ``|``) with\n   reflected (swapped) operands.  These functions are only called if\n   the left operand does not support the corresponding operation and\n   the operands are of different types. [2] For instance, to evaluate\n   the expression ``x - y``, where *y* is an instance of a class that\n   has an ``__rsub__()`` method, ``y.__rsub__(x)`` is called if\n   ``x.__sub__(y)`` returns *NotImplemented*.\n\n   Note that ternary ``pow()`` will not try calling ``__rpow__()``\n   (the coercion rules would become too complicated).\n\n   Note: If the right operand\'s type is a subclass of the left operand\'s\n     type and that subclass provides the reflected method for the\n     operation, this method will be called before the left operand\'s\n     non-reflected method.  This behavior allows subclasses to\n     override their ancestors\' operations.\n\nobject.__iadd__(self, other)\nobject.__isub__(self, other)\nobject.__imul__(self, other)\nobject.__idiv__(self, other)\nobject.__itruediv__(self, other)\nobject.__ifloordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__imod__(self, other)\nobject.__ipow__(self, other[, modulo])\nobject.__ilshift__(self, other)\nobject.__irshift__(self, other)\nobject.__iand__(self, other)\nobject.__ixor__(self, other)\nobject.__ior__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the augmented arithmetic\n   assignments (``+=``, ``-=``, ``*=``, ``/=``, ``//=``, ``%=``,\n   ``**=``, ``<<=``, ``>>=``, ``&=``, ``^=``, ``|=``).  These methods\n   should attempt to do the operation in-place (modifying *self*) and\n   return the result (which could be, but does not have to be,\n   *self*).  If a specific method is not defined, the augmented\n   assignment falls back to the normal methods.  For instance, to\n   execute the statement ``x += y``, where *x* is an instance of a\n   class that has an ``__iadd__()`` method, ``x.__iadd__(y)`` is\n   called.  If *x* is an instance of a class that does not define a\n   ``__iadd__()`` method, ``x.__add__(y)`` and ``y.__radd__(x)`` are\n   considered, as with the evaluation of ``x + y``.\n\nobject.__neg__(self)\nobject.__pos__(self)\nobject.__abs__(self)\nobject.__invert__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the unary arithmetic operations (``-``, ``+``,\n   ``abs()`` and ``~``).\n\nobject.__complex__(self)\nobject.__int__(self)\nobject.__long__(self)\nobject.__float__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the built-in functions ``complex()``,\n   ``int()``, ``long()``, and ``float()``.  Should return a value of\n   the appropriate type.\n\nobject.__oct__(self)\nobject.__hex__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the built-in functions ``oct()`` and ``hex()``.\n   Should return a string value.\n\nobject.__index__(self)\n\n   Called to implement ``operator.index()``.  Also called whenever\n   Python needs an integer object (such as in slicing).  Must return\n   an integer (int or long).\n\n   New in version 2.5.\n\nobject.__coerce__(self, other)\n\n   Called to implement "mixed-mode" numeric arithmetic.  Should either\n   return a 2-tuple containing *self* and *other* converted to a\n   common numeric type, or ``None`` if conversion is impossible.  When\n   the common type would be the type of ``other``, it is sufficient to\n   return ``None``, since the interpreter will also ask the other\n   object to attempt a coercion (but sometimes, if the implementation\n   of the other type cannot be changed, it is useful to do the\n   conversion to the other type here).  A return value of\n   ``NotImplemented`` is equivalent to returning ``None``.\n',
- 'objects': u'\nObjects, values and types\n*************************\n\n*Objects* are Python\'s abstraction for data.  All data in a Python\nprogram is represented by objects or by relations between objects. (In\na sense, and in conformance to Von Neumann\'s model of a "stored\nprogram computer," code is also represented by objects.)\n\nEvery object has an identity, a type and a value.  An object\'s\n*identity* never changes once it has been created; you may think of it\nas the object\'s address in memory.  The \'``is``\' operator compares the\nidentity of two objects; the ``id()`` function returns an integer\nrepresenting its identity (currently implemented as its address). An\nobject\'s *type* is also unchangeable. [1] An object\'s type determines\nthe operations that the object supports (e.g., "does it have a\nlength?") and also defines the possible values for objects of that\ntype.  The ``type()`` function returns an object\'s type (which is an\nobject itself).  The *value* of some objects can change.  Objects\nwhose value can change are said to be *mutable*; objects whose value\nis unchangeable once they are created are called *immutable*. (The\nvalue of an immutable container object that contains a reference to a\nmutable object can change when the latter\'s value is changed; however\nthe container is still considered immutable, because the collection of\nobjects it contains cannot be changed.  So, immutability is not\nstrictly the same as having an unchangeable value, it is more subtle.)\nAn object\'s mutability is determined by its type; for instance,\nnumbers, strings and tuples are immutable, while dictionaries and\nlists are mutable.\n\nObjects are never explicitly destroyed; however, when they become\nunreachable they may be garbage-collected.  An implementation is\nallowed to postpone garbage collection or omit it altogether --- it is\na matter of implementation quality how garbage collection is\nimplemented, as long as no objects are collected that are still\nreachable.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** CPython currently uses a reference-\ncounting scheme with (optional) delayed detection of cyclically linked\ngarbage, which collects most objects as soon as they become\nunreachable, but is not guaranteed to collect garbage containing\ncircular references.  See the documentation of the ``gc`` module for\ninformation on controlling the collection of cyclic garbage. Other\nimplementations act differently and CPython may change.\n\nNote that the use of the implementation\'s tracing or debugging\nfacilities may keep objects alive that would normally be collectable.\nAlso note that catching an exception with a \'``try``...``except``\'\nstatement may keep objects alive.\n\nSome objects contain references to "external" resources such as open\nfiles or windows.  It is understood that these resources are freed\nwhen the object is garbage-collected, but since garbage collection is\nnot guaranteed to happen, such objects also provide an explicit way to\nrelease the external resource, usually a ``close()`` method. Programs\nare strongly recommended to explicitly close such objects.  The\n\'``try``...``finally``\' statement provides a convenient way to do\nthis.\n\nSome objects contain references to other objects; these are called\n*containers*. Examples of containers are tuples, lists and\ndictionaries.  The references are part of a container\'s value.  In\nmost cases, when we talk about the value of a container, we imply the\nvalues, not the identities of the contained objects; however, when we\ntalk about the mutability of a container, only the identities of the\nimmediately contained objects are implied.  So, if an immutable\ncontainer (like a tuple) contains a reference to a mutable object, its\nvalue changes if that mutable object is changed.\n\nTypes affect almost all aspects of object behavior.  Even the\nimportance of object identity is affected in some sense: for immutable\ntypes, operations that compute new values may actually return a\nreference to any existing object with the same type and value, while\nfor mutable objects this is not allowed.  E.g., after ``a = 1; b =\n1``, ``a`` and ``b`` may or may not refer to the same object with the\nvalue one, depending on the implementation, but after ``c = []; d =\n[]``, ``c`` and ``d`` are guaranteed to refer to two different,\nunique, newly created empty lists. (Note that ``c = d = []`` assigns\nthe same object to both ``c`` and ``d``.)\n',
- 'operator-summary': u'\nSummary\n*******\n\nThe following table summarizes the operator precedences in Python,\nfrom lowest precedence (least binding) to highest precedence (most\nbinding). Operators in the same box have the same precedence.  Unless\nthe syntax is explicitly given, operators are binary.  Operators in\nthe same box group left to right (except for comparisons, including\ntests, which all have the same precedence and chain from left to right\n--- see section *Comparisons* --- and exponentiation, which groups\nfrom right to left).\n\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| Operator                                        | Description                           |\n+=================================================+=======================================+\n| ``lambda``                                      | Lambda expression                     |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``if`` -- ``else``                              | Conditional expression                |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``or``                                          | Boolean OR                            |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``and``                                         | Boolean AND                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``not`` *x*                                     | Boolean NOT                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``in``, ``not`` ``in``, ``is``, ``is not``,     | Comparisons, including membership     |\n| ``<``, ``<=``, ``>``, ``>=``, ``<>``, ``!=``,   | tests and identity tests,             |\n| ``==``                                          |                                       |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``|``                                           | Bitwise OR                            |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``^``                                           | Bitwise XOR                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``&``                                           | Bitwise AND                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``<<``, ``>>``                                  | Shifts                                |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``+``, ``-``                                    | Addition and subtraction              |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``*``, ``/``, ``//``, ``%``                     | Multiplication, division, remainder   |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``+x``, ``-x``, ``~x``                          | Positive, negative, bitwise NOT       |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``**``                                          | Exponentiation [8]                    |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``x[index]``, ``x[index:index]``,               | Subscription, slicing, call,          |\n| ``x(arguments...)``, ``x.attribute``            | attribute reference                   |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``(expressions...)``, ``[expressions...]``,     | Binding or tuple display, list        |\n| ``{key:datum...}``, ```expressions...```        | display, dictionary display, string   |\n|                                                 | conversion                            |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] In Python 2.3 and later releases, a list comprehension "leaks" the\n    control variables of each ``for`` it contains into the containing\n    scope.  However, this behavior is deprecated, and relying on it\n    will not work in Python 3.0\n\n[2] While ``abs(x%y) < abs(y)`` is true mathematically, for floats it\n    may not be true numerically due to roundoff.  For example, and\n    assuming a platform on which a Python float is an IEEE 754 double-\n    precision number, in order that ``-1e-100 % 1e100`` have the same\n    sign as ``1e100``, the computed result is ``-1e-100 + 1e100``,\n    which is numerically exactly equal to ``1e100``.  Function\n    ``fmod()`` in the ``math`` module returns a result whose sign\n    matches the sign of the first argument instead, and so returns\n    ``-1e-100`` in this case. Which approach is more appropriate\n    depends on the application.\n\n[3] If x is very close to an exact integer multiple of y, it\'s\n    possible for ``floor(x/y)`` to be one larger than ``(x-x%y)/y``\n    due to rounding.  In such cases, Python returns the latter result,\n    in order to preserve that ``divmod(x,y)[0] * y + x % y`` be very\n    close to ``x``.\n\n[4] While comparisons between unicode strings make sense at the byte\n    level, they may be counter-intuitive to users. For example, the\n    strings ``u"\\u00C7"`` and ``u"\\u0043\\u0327"`` compare differently,\n    even though they both represent the same unicode character (LATIN\n    CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA). To compare strings in a human\n    recognizable way, compare using ``unicodedata.normalize()``.\n\n[5] The implementation computes this efficiently, without constructing\n    lists or sorting.\n\n[6] Earlier versions of Python used lexicographic comparison of the\n    sorted (key, value) lists, but this was very expensive for the\n    common case of comparing for equality.  An even earlier version of\n    Python compared dictionaries by identity only, but this caused\n    surprises because people expected to be able to test a dictionary\n    for emptiness by comparing it to ``{}``.\n\n[7] Due to automatic garbage-collection, free lists, and the dynamic\n    nature of descriptors, you may notice seemingly unusual behaviour\n    in certain uses of the ``is`` operator, like those involving\n    comparisons between instance methods, or constants.  Check their\n    documentation for more info.\n\n[8] The power operator ``**`` binds less tightly than an arithmetic or\n    bitwise unary operator on its right, that is, ``2**-1`` is\n    ``0.5``.\n',
+ 'objects': u'\nObjects, values and types\n*************************\n\n*Objects* are Python\'s abstraction for data.  All data in a Python\nprogram is represented by objects or by relations between objects. (In\na sense, and in conformance to Von Neumann\'s model of a "stored\nprogram computer," code is also represented by objects.)\n\nEvery object has an identity, a type and a value.  An object\'s\n*identity* never changes once it has been created; you may think of it\nas the object\'s address in memory.  The \'``is``\' operator compares the\nidentity of two objects; the ``id()`` function returns an integer\nrepresenting its identity (currently implemented as its address). An\nobject\'s *type* is also unchangeable. [1] An object\'s type determines\nthe operations that the object supports (e.g., "does it have a\nlength?") and also defines the possible values for objects of that\ntype.  The ``type()`` function returns an object\'s type (which is an\nobject itself).  The *value* of some objects can change.  Objects\nwhose value can change are said to be *mutable*; objects whose value\nis unchangeable once they are created are called *immutable*. (The\nvalue of an immutable container object that contains a reference to a\nmutable object can change when the latter\'s value is changed; however\nthe container is still considered immutable, because the collection of\nobjects it contains cannot be changed.  So, immutability is not\nstrictly the same as having an unchangeable value, it is more subtle.)\nAn object\'s mutability is determined by its type; for instance,\nnumbers, strings and tuples are immutable, while dictionaries and\nlists are mutable.\n\nObjects are never explicitly destroyed; however, when they become\nunreachable they may be garbage-collected.  An implementation is\nallowed to postpone garbage collection or omit it altogether --- it is\na matter of implementation quality how garbage collection is\nimplemented, as long as no objects are collected that are still\nreachable.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** CPython currently uses a reference-\ncounting scheme with (optional) delayed detection of cyclically linked\ngarbage, which collects most objects as soon as they become\nunreachable, but is not guaranteed to collect garbage containing\ncircular references.  See the documentation of the ``gc`` module for\ninformation on controlling the collection of cyclic garbage. Other\nimplementations act differently and CPython may change. Do not depend\non immediate finalization of objects when they become unreachable (ex:\nalways close files).\n\nNote that the use of the implementation\'s tracing or debugging\nfacilities may keep objects alive that would normally be collectable.\nAlso note that catching an exception with a \'``try``...``except``\'\nstatement may keep objects alive.\n\nSome objects contain references to "external" resources such as open\nfiles or windows.  It is understood that these resources are freed\nwhen the object is garbage-collected, but since garbage collection is\nnot guaranteed to happen, such objects also provide an explicit way to\nrelease the external resource, usually a ``close()`` method. Programs\nare strongly recommended to explicitly close such objects.  The\n\'``try``...``finally``\' statement provides a convenient way to do\nthis.\n\nSome objects contain references to other objects; these are called\n*containers*. Examples of containers are tuples, lists and\ndictionaries.  The references are part of a container\'s value.  In\nmost cases, when we talk about the value of a container, we imply the\nvalues, not the identities of the contained objects; however, when we\ntalk about the mutability of a container, only the identities of the\nimmediately contained objects are implied.  So, if an immutable\ncontainer (like a tuple) contains a reference to a mutable object, its\nvalue changes if that mutable object is changed.\n\nTypes affect almost all aspects of object behavior.  Even the\nimportance of object identity is affected in some sense: for immutable\ntypes, operations that compute new values may actually return a\nreference to any existing object with the same type and value, while\nfor mutable objects this is not allowed.  E.g., after ``a = 1; b =\n1``, ``a`` and ``b`` may or may not refer to the same object with the\nvalue one, depending on the implementation, but after ``c = []; d =\n[]``, ``c`` and ``d`` are guaranteed to refer to two different,\nunique, newly created empty lists. (Note that ``c = d = []`` assigns\nthe same object to both ``c`` and ``d``.)\n',
+ 'operator-summary': u'\nSummary\n*******\n\nThe following table summarizes the operator precedences in Python,\nfrom lowest precedence (least binding) to highest precedence (most\nbinding). Operators in the same box have the same precedence.  Unless\nthe syntax is explicitly given, operators are binary.  Operators in\nthe same box group left to right (except for comparisons, including\ntests, which all have the same precedence and chain from left to right\n--- see section *Comparisons* --- and exponentiation, which groups\nfrom right to left).\n\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| Operator                                        | Description                           |\n+=================================================+=======================================+\n| ``lambda``                                      | Lambda expression                     |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``if`` -- ``else``                              | Conditional expression                |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``or``                                          | Boolean OR                            |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``and``                                         | Boolean AND                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``not`` *x*                                     | Boolean NOT                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``in``, ``not`` ``in``, ``is``, ``is not``,     | Comparisons, including membership     |\n| ``<``, ``<=``, ``>``, ``>=``, ``<>``, ``!=``,   | tests and identity tests,             |\n| ``==``                                          |                                       |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``|``                                           | Bitwise OR                            |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``^``                                           | Bitwise XOR                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``&``                                           | Bitwise AND                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``<<``, ``>>``                                  | Shifts                                |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``+``, ``-``                                    | Addition and subtraction              |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``*``, ``/``, ``//``, ``%``                     | Multiplication, division, remainder   |\n|                                                 | [8]                                   |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``+x``, ``-x``, ``~x``                          | Positive, negative, bitwise NOT       |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``**``                                          | Exponentiation [9]                    |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``x[index]``, ``x[index:index]``,               | Subscription, slicing, call,          |\n| ``x(arguments...)``, ``x.attribute``            | attribute reference                   |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``(expressions...)``, ``[expressions...]``,     | Binding or tuple display, list        |\n| ``{key:datum...}``, ```expressions...```        | display, dictionary display, string   |\n|                                                 | conversion                            |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] In Python 2.3 and later releases, a list comprehension "leaks" the\n    control variables of each ``for`` it contains into the containing\n    scope.  However, this behavior is deprecated, and relying on it\n    will not work in Python 3.0\n\n[2] While ``abs(x%y) < abs(y)`` is true mathematically, for floats it\n    may not be true numerically due to roundoff.  For example, and\n    assuming a platform on which a Python float is an IEEE 754 double-\n    precision number, in order that ``-1e-100 % 1e100`` have the same\n    sign as ``1e100``, the computed result is ``-1e-100 + 1e100``,\n    which is numerically exactly equal to ``1e100``.  The function\n    ``math.fmod()`` returns a result whose sign matches the sign of\n    the first argument instead, and so returns ``-1e-100`` in this\n    case. Which approach is more appropriate depends on the\n    application.\n\n[3] If x is very close to an exact integer multiple of y, it\'s\n    possible for ``floor(x/y)`` to be one larger than ``(x-x%y)/y``\n    due to rounding.  In such cases, Python returns the latter result,\n    in order to preserve that ``divmod(x,y)[0] * y + x % y`` be very\n    close to ``x``.\n\n[4] While comparisons between unicode strings make sense at the byte\n    level, they may be counter-intuitive to users. For example, the\n    strings ``u"\\u00C7"`` and ``u"\\u0043\\u0327"`` compare differently,\n    even though they both represent the same unicode character (LATIN\n    CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA). To compare strings in a human\n    recognizable way, compare using ``unicodedata.normalize()``.\n\n[5] The implementation computes this efficiently, without constructing\n    lists or sorting.\n\n[6] Earlier versions of Python used lexicographic comparison of the\n    sorted (key, value) lists, but this was very expensive for the\n    common case of comparing for equality.  An even earlier version of\n    Python compared dictionaries by identity only, but this caused\n    surprises because people expected to be able to test a dictionary\n    for emptiness by comparing it to ``{}``.\n\n[7] Due to automatic garbage-collection, free lists, and the dynamic\n    nature of descriptors, you may notice seemingly unusual behaviour\n    in certain uses of the ``is`` operator, like those involving\n    comparisons between instance methods, or constants.  Check their\n    documentation for more info.\n\n[8] The ``%`` operator is also used for string formatting; the same\n    precedence applies.\n\n[9] The power operator ``**`` binds less tightly than an arithmetic or\n    bitwise unary operator on its right, that is, ``2**-1`` is\n    ``0.5``.\n',
  'pass': u'\nThe ``pass`` statement\n**********************\n\n   pass_stmt ::= "pass"\n\n``pass`` is a null operation --- when it is executed, nothing happens.\nIt is useful as a placeholder when a statement is required\nsyntactically, but no code needs to be executed, for example:\n\n   def f(arg): pass    # a function that does nothing (yet)\n\n   class C: pass       # a class with no methods (yet)\n',
  'power': u'\nThe power operator\n******************\n\nThe power operator binds more tightly than unary operators on its\nleft; it binds less tightly than unary operators on its right.  The\nsyntax is:\n\n   power ::= primary ["**" u_expr]\n\nThus, in an unparenthesized sequence of power and unary operators, the\noperators are evaluated from right to left (this does not constrain\nthe evaluation order for the operands): ``-1**2`` results in ``-1``.\n\nThe power operator has the same semantics as the built-in ``pow()``\nfunction, when called with two arguments: it yields its left argument\nraised to the power of its right argument.  The numeric arguments are\nfirst converted to a common type.  The result type is that of the\narguments after coercion.\n\nWith mixed operand types, the coercion rules for binary arithmetic\noperators apply. For int and long int operands, the result has the\nsame type as the operands (after coercion) unless the second argument\nis negative; in that case, all arguments are converted to float and a\nfloat result is delivered. For example, ``10**2`` returns ``100``, but\n``10**-2`` returns ``0.01``. (This last feature was added in Python\n2.2. In Python 2.1 and before, if both arguments were of integer types\nand the second argument was negative, an exception was raised).\n\nRaising ``0.0`` to a negative power results in a\n``ZeroDivisionError``. Raising a negative number to a fractional power\nresults in a ``ValueError``.\n',
  'print': u'\nThe ``print`` statement\n***********************\n\n   print_stmt ::= "print" ([expression ("," expression)* [","]]\n                  | ">>" expression [("," expression)+ [","]])\n\n``print`` evaluates each expression in turn and writes the resulting\nobject to standard output (see below).  If an object is not a string,\nit is first converted to a string using the rules for string\nconversions.  The (resulting or original) string is then written.  A\nspace is written before each object is (converted and) written, unless\nthe output system believes it is positioned at the beginning of a\nline.  This is the case (1) when no characters have yet been written\nto standard output, (2) when the last character written to standard\noutput is a whitespace character except ``\' \'``, or (3) when the last\nwrite operation on standard output was not a ``print`` statement. (In\nsome cases it may be functional to write an empty string to standard\noutput for this reason.)\n\nNote: Objects which act like file objects but which are not the built-in\n  file objects often do not properly emulate this aspect of the file\n  object\'s behavior, so it is best not to rely on this.\n\nA ``\'\\n\'`` character is written at the end, unless the ``print``\nstatement ends with a comma.  This is the only action if the statement\ncontains just the keyword ``print``.\n\nStandard output is defined as the file object named ``stdout`` in the\nbuilt-in module ``sys``.  If no such object exists, or if it does not\nhave a ``write()`` method, a ``RuntimeError`` exception is raised.\n\n``print`` also has an extended form, defined by the second portion of\nthe syntax described above. This form is sometimes referred to as\n"``print`` chevron." In this form, the first expression after the\n``>>`` must evaluate to a "file-like" object, specifically an object\nthat has a ``write()`` method as described above.  With this extended\nform, the subsequent expressions are printed to this file object.  If\nthe first expression evaluates to ``None``, then ``sys.stdout`` is\nused as the file for output.\n',
@@ -63,21 +63,21 @@
  'shifting': u'\nShifting operations\n*******************\n\nThe shifting operations have lower priority than the arithmetic\noperations:\n\n   shift_expr ::= a_expr | shift_expr ( "<<" | ">>" ) a_expr\n\nThese operators accept plain or long integers as arguments.  The\narguments are converted to a common type.  They shift the first\nargument to the left or right by the number of bits given by the\nsecond argument.\n\nA right shift by *n* bits is defined as division by ``pow(2, n)``.  A\nleft shift by *n* bits is defined as multiplication with ``pow(2,\nn)``.  Negative shift counts raise a ``ValueError`` exception.\n\nNote: In the current implementation, the right-hand operand is required to\n  be at most ``sys.maxsize``.  If the right-hand operand is larger\n  than ``sys.maxsize`` an ``OverflowError`` exception is raised.\n',
  'slicings': u'\nSlicings\n********\n\nA slicing selects a range of items in a sequence object (e.g., a\nstring, tuple or list).  Slicings may be used as expressions or as\ntargets in assignment or ``del`` statements.  The syntax for a\nslicing:\n\n   slicing          ::= simple_slicing | extended_slicing\n   simple_slicing   ::= primary "[" short_slice "]"\n   extended_slicing ::= primary "[" slice_list "]"\n   slice_list       ::= slice_item ("," slice_item)* [","]\n   slice_item       ::= expression | proper_slice | ellipsis\n   proper_slice     ::= short_slice | long_slice\n   short_slice      ::= [lower_bound] ":" [upper_bound]\n   long_slice       ::= short_slice ":" [stride]\n   lower_bound      ::= expression\n   upper_bound      ::= expression\n   stride           ::= expression\n   ellipsis         ::= "..."\n\nThere is ambiguity in the formal syntax here: anything that looks like\nan expression list also looks like a slice list, so any subscription\ncan be interpreted as a slicing.  Rather than further complicating the\nsyntax, this is disambiguated by defining that in this case the\ninterpretation as a subscription takes priority over the\ninterpretation as a slicing (this is the case if the slice list\ncontains no proper slice nor ellipses).  Similarly, when the slice\nlist has exactly one short slice and no trailing comma, the\ninterpretation as a simple slicing takes priority over that as an\nextended slicing.\n\nThe semantics for a simple slicing are as follows.  The primary must\nevaluate to a sequence object.  The lower and upper bound expressions,\nif present, must evaluate to plain integers; defaults are zero and the\n``sys.maxint``, respectively.  If either bound is negative, the\nsequence\'s length is added to it.  The slicing now selects all items\nwith index *k* such that ``i <= k < j`` where *i* and *j* are the\nspecified lower and upper bounds.  This may be an empty sequence.  It\nis not an error if *i* or *j* lie outside the range of valid indexes\n(such items don\'t exist so they aren\'t selected).\n\nThe semantics for an extended slicing are as follows.  The primary\nmust evaluate to a mapping object, and it is indexed with a key that\nis constructed from the slice list, as follows.  If the slice list\ncontains at least one comma, the key is a tuple containing the\nconversion of the slice items; otherwise, the conversion of the lone\nslice item is the key.  The conversion of a slice item that is an\nexpression is that expression.  The conversion of an ellipsis slice\nitem is the built-in ``Ellipsis`` object.  The conversion of a proper\nslice is a slice object (see section *The standard type hierarchy*)\nwhose ``start``, ``stop`` and ``step`` attributes are the values of\nthe expressions given as lower bound, upper bound and stride,\nrespectively, substituting ``None`` for missing expressions.\n',
  'specialattrs': u"\nSpecial Attributes\n******************\n\nThe implementation adds a few special read-only attributes to several\nobject types, where they are relevant.  Some of these are not reported\nby the ``dir()`` built-in function.\n\nobject.__dict__\n\n   A dictionary or other mapping object used to store an object's\n   (writable) attributes.\n\nobject.__methods__\n\n   Deprecated since version 2.2: Use the built-in function ``dir()``\n   to get a list of an object's attributes. This attribute is no\n   longer available.\n\nobject.__members__\n\n   Deprecated since version 2.2: Use the built-in function ``dir()``\n   to get a list of an object's attributes. This attribute is no\n   longer available.\n\ninstance.__class__\n\n   The class to which a class instance belongs.\n\nclass.__bases__\n\n   The tuple of base classes of a class object.\n\nclass.__name__\n\n   The name of the class or type.\n\nThe following attributes are only supported by *new-style class*es.\n\nclass.__mro__\n\n   This attribute is a tuple of classes that are considered when\n   looking for base classes during method resolution.\n\nclass.mro()\n\n   This method can be overridden by a metaclass to customize the\n   method resolution order for its instances.  It is called at class\n   instantiation, and its result is stored in ``__mro__``.\n\nclass.__subclasses__()\n\n   Each new-style class keeps a list of weak references to its\n   immediate subclasses.  This method returns a list of all those\n   references still alive. Example:\n\n      >>> int.__subclasses__()\n      [<type 'bool'>]\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] Additional information on these special methods may be found in\n    the Python Reference Manual (*Basic customization*).\n\n[2] As a consequence, the list ``[1, 2]`` is considered equal to\n    ``[1.0, 2.0]``, and similarly for tuples.\n\n[3] They must have since the parser can't tell the type of the\n    operands.\n\n[4] To format only a tuple you should therefore provide a singleton\n    tuple whose only element is the tuple to be formatted.\n\n[5] The advantage of leaving the newline on is that returning an empty\n    string is then an unambiguous EOF indication.  It is also possible\n    (in cases where it might matter, for example, if you want to make\n    an exact copy of a file while scanning its lines) to tell whether\n    the last line of a file ended in a newline or not (yes this\n    happens!).\n",
- 'specialnames': u'\nSpecial method names\n********************\n\nA class can implement certain operations that are invoked by special\nsyntax (such as arithmetic operations or subscripting and slicing) by\ndefining methods with special names. This is Python\'s approach to\n*operator overloading*, allowing classes to define their own behavior\nwith respect to language operators.  For instance, if a class defines\na method named ``__getitem__()``, and ``x`` is an instance of this\nclass, then ``x[i]`` is roughly equivalent to ``x.__getitem__(i)`` for\nold-style classes and ``type(x).__getitem__(x, i)`` for new-style\nclasses.  Except where mentioned, attempts to execute an operation\nraise an exception when no appropriate method is defined (typically\n``AttributeError`` or ``TypeError``).\n\nWhen implementing a class that emulates any built-in type, it is\nimportant that the emulation only be implemented to the degree that it\nmakes sense for the object being modelled.  For example, some\nsequences may work well with retrieval of individual elements, but\nextracting a slice may not make sense.  (One example of this is the\n``NodeList`` interface in the W3C\'s Document Object Model.)\n\n\nBasic customization\n===================\n\nobject.__new__(cls[, ...])\n\n   Called to create a new instance of class *cls*.  ``__new__()`` is a\n   static method (special-cased so you need not declare it as such)\n   that takes the class of which an instance was requested as its\n   first argument.  The remaining arguments are those passed to the\n   object constructor expression (the call to the class).  The return\n   value of ``__new__()`` should be the new object instance (usually\n   an instance of *cls*).\n\n   Typical implementations create a new instance of the class by\n   invoking the superclass\'s ``__new__()`` method using\n   ``super(currentclass, cls).__new__(cls[, ...])`` with appropriate\n   arguments and then modifying the newly-created instance as\n   necessary before returning it.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` returns an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will be invoked like\n   ``__init__(self[, ...])``, where *self* is the new instance and the\n   remaining arguments are the same as were passed to ``__new__()``.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` does not return an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will not be invoked.\n\n   ``__new__()`` is intended mainly to allow subclasses of immutable\n   types (like int, str, or tuple) to customize instance creation.  It\n   is also commonly overridden in custom metaclasses in order to\n   customize class creation.\n\nobject.__init__(self[, ...])\n\n   Called when the instance is created.  The arguments are those\n   passed to the class constructor expression.  If a base class has an\n   ``__init__()`` method, the derived class\'s ``__init__()`` method,\n   if any, must explicitly call it to ensure proper initialization of\n   the base class part of the instance; for example:\n   ``BaseClass.__init__(self, [args...])``.  As a special constraint\n   on constructors, no value may be returned; doing so will cause a\n   ``TypeError`` to be raised at runtime.\n\nobject.__del__(self)\n\n   Called when the instance is about to be destroyed.  This is also\n   called a destructor.  If a base class has a ``__del__()`` method,\n   the derived class\'s ``__del__()`` method, if any, must explicitly\n   call it to ensure proper deletion of the base class part of the\n   instance.  Note that it is possible (though not recommended!) for\n   the ``__del__()`` method to postpone destruction of the instance by\n   creating a new reference to it.  It may then be called at a later\n   time when this new reference is deleted.  It is not guaranteed that\n   ``__del__()`` methods are called for objects that still exist when\n   the interpreter exits.\n\n   Note: ``del x`` doesn\'t directly call ``x.__del__()`` --- the former\n     decrements the reference count for ``x`` by one, and the latter\n     is only called when ``x``\'s reference count reaches zero.  Some\n     common situations that may prevent the reference count of an\n     object from going to zero include: circular references between\n     objects (e.g., a doubly-linked list or a tree data structure with\n     parent and child pointers); a reference to the object on the\n     stack frame of a function that caught an exception (the traceback\n     stored in ``sys.exc_traceback`` keeps the stack frame alive); or\n     a reference to the object on the stack frame that raised an\n     unhandled exception in interactive mode (the traceback stored in\n     ``sys.last_traceback`` keeps the stack frame alive).  The first\n     situation can only be remedied by explicitly breaking the cycles;\n     the latter two situations can be resolved by storing ``None`` in\n     ``sys.exc_traceback`` or ``sys.last_traceback``.  Circular\n     references which are garbage are detected when the option cycle\n     detector is enabled (it\'s on by default), but can only be cleaned\n     up if there are no Python-level ``__del__()`` methods involved.\n     Refer to the documentation for the ``gc`` module for more\n     information about how ``__del__()`` methods are handled by the\n     cycle detector, particularly the description of the ``garbage``\n     value.\n\n   Warning: Due to the precarious circumstances under which ``__del__()``\n     methods are invoked, exceptions that occur during their execution\n     are ignored, and a warning is printed to ``sys.stderr`` instead.\n     Also, when ``__del__()`` is invoked in response to a module being\n     deleted (e.g., when execution of the program is done), other\n     globals referenced by the ``__del__()`` method may already have\n     been deleted or in the process of being torn down (e.g. the\n     import machinery shutting down).  For this reason, ``__del__()``\n     methods should do the absolute minimum needed to maintain\n     external invariants.  Starting with version 1.5, Python\n     guarantees that globals whose name begins with a single\n     underscore are deleted from their module before other globals are\n     deleted; if no other references to such globals exist, this may\n     help in assuring that imported modules are still available at the\n     time when the ``__del__()`` method is called.\n\nobject.__repr__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``repr()`` built-in function and by string\n   conversions (reverse quotes) to compute the "official" string\n   representation of an object.  If at all possible, this should look\n   like a valid Python expression that could be used to recreate an\n   object with the same value (given an appropriate environment).  If\n   this is not possible, a string of the form ``<...some useful\n   description...>`` should be returned.  The return value must be a\n   string object. If a class defines ``__repr__()`` but not\n   ``__str__()``, then ``__repr__()`` is also used when an "informal"\n   string representation of instances of that class is required.\n\n   This is typically used for debugging, so it is important that the\n   representation is information-rich and unambiguous.\n\nobject.__str__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``str()`` built-in function and by the ``print``\n   statement to compute the "informal" string representation of an\n   object.  This differs from ``__repr__()`` in that it does not have\n   to be a valid Python expression: a more convenient or concise\n   representation may be used instead. The return value must be a\n   string object.\n\nobject.__lt__(self, other)\nobject.__le__(self, other)\nobject.__eq__(self, other)\nobject.__ne__(self, other)\nobject.__gt__(self, other)\nobject.__ge__(self, other)\n\n   New in version 2.1.\n\n   These are the so-called "rich comparison" methods, and are called\n   for comparison operators in preference to ``__cmp__()`` below. The\n   correspondence between operator symbols and method names is as\n   follows: ``x<y`` calls ``x.__lt__(y)``, ``x<=y`` calls\n   ``x.__le__(y)``, ``x==y`` calls ``x.__eq__(y)``, ``x!=y`` and\n   ``x<>y`` call ``x.__ne__(y)``, ``x>y`` calls ``x.__gt__(y)``, and\n   ``x>=y`` calls ``x.__ge__(y)``.\n\n   A rich comparison method may return the singleton\n   ``NotImplemented`` if it does not implement the operation for a\n   given pair of arguments. By convention, ``False`` and ``True`` are\n   returned for a successful comparison. However, these methods can\n   return any value, so if the comparison operator is used in a\n   Boolean context (e.g., in the condition of an ``if`` statement),\n   Python will call ``bool()`` on the value to determine if the result\n   is true or false.\n\n   There are no implied relationships among the comparison operators.\n   The truth of ``x==y`` does not imply that ``x!=y`` is false.\n   Accordingly, when defining ``__eq__()``, one should also define\n   ``__ne__()`` so that the operators will behave as expected.  See\n   the paragraph on ``__hash__()`` for some important notes on\n   creating *hashable* objects which support custom comparison\n   operations and are usable as dictionary keys.\n\n   There are no swapped-argument versions of these methods (to be used\n   when the left argument does not support the operation but the right\n   argument does); rather, ``__lt__()`` and ``__gt__()`` are each\n   other\'s reflection, ``__le__()`` and ``__ge__()`` are each other\'s\n   reflection, and ``__eq__()`` and ``__ne__()`` are their own\n   reflection.\n\n   Arguments to rich comparison methods are never coerced.\n\n   To automatically generate ordering operations from a single root\n   operation, see ``functools.total_ordering()``.\n\nobject.__cmp__(self, other)\n\n   Called by comparison operations if rich comparison (see above) is\n   not defined.  Should return a negative integer if ``self < other``,\n   zero if ``self == other``, a positive integer if ``self > other``.\n   If no ``__cmp__()``, ``__eq__()`` or ``__ne__()`` operation is\n   defined, class instances are compared by object identity\n   ("address").  See also the description of ``__hash__()`` for some\n   important notes on creating *hashable* objects which support custom\n   comparison operations and are usable as dictionary keys. (Note: the\n   restriction that exceptions are not propagated by ``__cmp__()`` has\n   been removed since Python 1.5.)\n\nobject.__rcmp__(self, other)\n\n   Changed in version 2.1: No longer supported.\n\nobject.__hash__(self)\n\n   Called by built-in function ``hash()`` and for operations on\n   members of hashed collections including ``set``, ``frozenset``, and\n   ``dict``.  ``__hash__()`` should return an integer.  The only\n   required property is that objects which compare equal have the same\n   hash value; it is advised to somehow mix together (e.g. using\n   exclusive or) the hash values for the components of the object that\n   also play a part in comparison of objects.\n\n   If a class does not define a ``__cmp__()`` or ``__eq__()`` method\n   it should not define a ``__hash__()`` operation either; if it\n   defines ``__cmp__()`` or ``__eq__()`` but not ``__hash__()``, its\n   instances will not be usable in hashed collections.  If a class\n   defines mutable objects and implements a ``__cmp__()`` or\n   ``__eq__()`` method, it should not implement ``__hash__()``, since\n   hashable collection implementations require that a object\'s hash\n   value is immutable (if the object\'s hash value changes, it will be\n   in the wrong hash bucket).\n\n   User-defined classes have ``__cmp__()`` and ``__hash__()`` methods\n   by default; with them, all objects compare unequal (except with\n   themselves) and ``x.__hash__()`` returns ``id(x)``.\n\n   Classes which inherit a ``__hash__()`` method from a parent class\n   but change the meaning of ``__cmp__()`` or ``__eq__()`` such that\n   the hash value returned is no longer appropriate (e.g. by switching\n   to a value-based concept of equality instead of the default\n   identity based equality) can explicitly flag themselves as being\n   unhashable by setting ``__hash__ = None`` in the class definition.\n   Doing so means that not only will instances of the class raise an\n   appropriate ``TypeError`` when a program attempts to retrieve their\n   hash value, but they will also be correctly identified as\n   unhashable when checking ``isinstance(obj, collections.Hashable)``\n   (unlike classes which define their own ``__hash__()`` to explicitly\n   raise ``TypeError``).\n\n   Changed in version 2.5: ``__hash__()`` may now also return a long\n   integer object; the 32-bit integer is then derived from the hash of\n   that object.\n\n   Changed in version 2.6: ``__hash__`` may now be set to ``None`` to\n   explicitly flag instances of a class as unhashable.\n\nobject.__nonzero__(self)\n\n   Called to implement truth value testing and the built-in operation\n   ``bool()``; should return ``False`` or ``True``, or their integer\n   equivalents ``0`` or ``1``.  When this method is not defined,\n   ``__len__()`` is called, if it is defined, and the object is\n   considered true if its result is nonzero. If a class defines\n   neither ``__len__()`` nor ``__nonzero__()``, all its instances are\n   considered true.\n\nobject.__unicode__(self)\n\n   Called to implement ``unicode()`` built-in; should return a Unicode\n   object. When this method is not defined, string conversion is\n   attempted, and the result of string conversion is converted to\n   Unicode using the system default encoding.\n\n\nCustomizing attribute access\n============================\n\nThe following methods can be defined to customize the meaning of\nattribute access (use of, assignment to, or deletion of ``x.name``)\nfor class instances.\n\nobject.__getattr__(self, name)\n\n   Called when an attribute lookup has not found the attribute in the\n   usual places (i.e. it is not an instance attribute nor is it found\n   in the class tree for ``self``).  ``name`` is the attribute name.\n   This method should return the (computed) attribute value or raise\n   an ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\n   Note that if the attribute is found through the normal mechanism,\n   ``__getattr__()`` is not called.  (This is an intentional asymmetry\n   between ``__getattr__()`` and ``__setattr__()``.) This is done both\n   for efficiency reasons and because otherwise ``__getattr__()``\n   would have no way to access other attributes of the instance.  Note\n   that at least for instance variables, you can fake total control by\n   not inserting any values in the instance attribute dictionary (but\n   instead inserting them in another object).  See the\n   ``__getattribute__()`` method below for a way to actually get total\n   control in new-style classes.\n\nobject.__setattr__(self, name, value)\n\n   Called when an attribute assignment is attempted.  This is called\n   instead of the normal mechanism (i.e. store the value in the\n   instance dictionary).  *name* is the attribute name, *value* is the\n   value to be assigned to it.\n\n   If ``__setattr__()`` wants to assign to an instance attribute, it\n   should not simply execute ``self.name = value`` --- this would\n   cause a recursive call to itself.  Instead, it should insert the\n   value in the dictionary of instance attributes, e.g.,\n   ``self.__dict__[name] = value``.  For new-style classes, rather\n   than accessing the instance dictionary, it should call the base\n   class method with the same name, for example,\n   ``object.__setattr__(self, name, value)``.\n\nobject.__delattr__(self, name)\n\n   Like ``__setattr__()`` but for attribute deletion instead of\n   assignment.  This should only be implemented if ``del obj.name`` is\n   meaningful for the object.\n\n\nMore attribute access for new-style classes\n-------------------------------------------\n\nThe following methods only apply to new-style classes.\n\nobject.__getattribute__(self, name)\n\n   Called unconditionally to implement attribute accesses for\n   instances of the class. If the class also defines\n   ``__getattr__()``, the latter will not be called unless\n   ``__getattribute__()`` either calls it explicitly or raises an\n   ``AttributeError``. This method should return the (computed)\n   attribute value or raise an ``AttributeError`` exception. In order\n   to avoid infinite recursion in this method, its implementation\n   should always call the base class method with the same name to\n   access any attributes it needs, for example,\n   ``object.__getattribute__(self, name)``.\n\n   Note: This method may still be bypassed when looking up special methods\n     as the result of implicit invocation via language syntax or\n     built-in functions. See *Special method lookup for new-style\n     classes*.\n\n\nImplementing Descriptors\n------------------------\n\nThe following methods only apply when an instance of the class\ncontaining the method (a so-called *descriptor* class) appears in the\nclass dictionary of another new-style class, known as the *owner*\nclass. In the examples below, "the attribute" refers to the attribute\nwhose name is the key of the property in the owner class\'\n``__dict__``.  Descriptors can only be implemented as new-style\nclasses themselves.\n\nobject.__get__(self, instance, owner)\n\n   Called to get the attribute of the owner class (class attribute\n   access) or of an instance of that class (instance attribute\n   access). *owner* is always the owner class, while *instance* is the\n   instance that the attribute was accessed through, or ``None`` when\n   the attribute is accessed through the *owner*.  This method should\n   return the (computed) attribute value or raise an\n   ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\nobject.__set__(self, instance, value)\n\n   Called to set the attribute on an instance *instance* of the owner\n   class to a new value, *value*.\n\nobject.__delete__(self, instance)\n\n   Called to delete the attribute on an instance *instance* of the\n   owner class.\n\n\nInvoking Descriptors\n--------------------\n\nIn general, a descriptor is an object attribute with "binding\nbehavior", one whose attribute access has been overridden by methods\nin the descriptor protocol:  ``__get__()``, ``__set__()``, and\n``__delete__()``. If any of those methods are defined for an object,\nit is said to be a descriptor.\n\nThe default behavior for attribute access is to get, set, or delete\nthe attribute from an object\'s dictionary. For instance, ``a.x`` has a\nlookup chain starting with ``a.__dict__[\'x\']``, then\n``type(a).__dict__[\'x\']``, and continuing through the base classes of\n``type(a)`` excluding metaclasses.\n\nHowever, if the looked-up value is an object defining one of the\ndescriptor methods, then Python may override the default behavior and\ninvoke the descriptor method instead.  Where this occurs in the\nprecedence chain depends on which descriptor methods were defined and\nhow they were called.  Note that descriptors are only invoked for new\nstyle objects or classes (ones that subclass ``object()`` or\n``type()``).\n\nThe starting point for descriptor invocation is a binding, ``a.x``.\nHow the arguments are assembled depends on ``a``:\n\nDirect Call\n   The simplest and least common call is when user code directly\n   invokes a descriptor method:    ``x.__get__(a)``.\n\nInstance Binding\n   If binding to a new-style object instance, ``a.x`` is transformed\n   into the call: ``type(a).__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(a, type(a))``.\n\nClass Binding\n   If binding to a new-style class, ``A.x`` is transformed into the\n   call: ``A.__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(None, A)``.\n\nSuper Binding\n   If ``a`` is an instance of ``super``, then the binding ``super(B,\n   obj).m()`` searches ``obj.__class__.__mro__`` for the base class\n   ``A`` immediately preceding ``B`` and then invokes the descriptor\n   with the call: ``A.__dict__[\'m\'].__get__(obj, A)``.\n\nFor instance bindings, the precedence of descriptor invocation depends\non the which descriptor methods are defined.  A descriptor can define\nany combination of ``__get__()``, ``__set__()`` and ``__delete__()``.\nIf it does not define ``__get__()``, then accessing the attribute will\nreturn the descriptor object itself unless there is a value in the\nobject\'s instance dictionary.  If the descriptor defines ``__set__()``\nand/or ``__delete__()``, it is a data descriptor; if it defines\nneither, it is a non-data descriptor.  Normally, data descriptors\ndefine both ``__get__()`` and ``__set__()``, while non-data\ndescriptors have just the ``__get__()`` method.  Data descriptors with\n``__set__()`` and ``__get__()`` defined always override a redefinition\nin an instance dictionary.  In contrast, non-data descriptors can be\noverridden by instances.\n\nPython methods (including ``staticmethod()`` and ``classmethod()``)\nare implemented as non-data descriptors.  Accordingly, instances can\nredefine and override methods.  This allows individual instances to\nacquire behaviors that differ from other instances of the same class.\n\nThe ``property()`` function is implemented as a data descriptor.\nAccordingly, instances cannot override the behavior of a property.\n\n\n__slots__\n---------\n\nBy default, instances of both old and new-style classes have a\ndictionary for attribute storage.  This wastes space for objects\nhaving very few instance variables.  The space consumption can become\nacute when creating large numbers of instances.\n\nThe default can be overridden by defining *__slots__* in a new-style\nclass definition.  The *__slots__* declaration takes a sequence of\ninstance variables and reserves just enough space in each instance to\nhold a value for each variable.  Space is saved because *__dict__* is\nnot created for each instance.\n\n__slots__\n\n   This class variable can be assigned a string, iterable, or sequence\n   of strings with variable names used by instances.  If defined in a\n   new-style class, *__slots__* reserves space for the declared\n   variables and prevents the automatic creation of *__dict__* and\n   *__weakref__* for each instance.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\nNotes on using *__slots__*\n\n* When inheriting from a class without *__slots__*, the *__dict__*\n  attribute of that class will always be accessible, so a *__slots__*\n  definition in the subclass is meaningless.\n\n* Without a *__dict__* variable, instances cannot be assigned new\n  variables not listed in the *__slots__* definition.  Attempts to\n  assign to an unlisted variable name raises ``AttributeError``. If\n  dynamic assignment of new variables is desired, then add\n  ``\'__dict__\'`` to the sequence of strings in the *__slots__*\n  declaration.\n\n  Changed in version 2.3: Previously, adding ``\'__dict__\'`` to the\n  *__slots__* declaration would not enable the assignment of new\n  attributes not specifically listed in the sequence of instance\n  variable names.\n\n* Without a *__weakref__* variable for each instance, classes defining\n  *__slots__* do not support weak references to its instances. If weak\n  reference support is needed, then add ``\'__weakref__\'`` to the\n  sequence of strings in the *__slots__* declaration.\n\n  Changed in version 2.3: Previously, adding ``\'__weakref__\'`` to the\n  *__slots__* declaration would not enable support for weak\n  references.\n\n* *__slots__* are implemented at the class level by creating\n  descriptors (*Implementing Descriptors*) for each variable name.  As\n  a result, class attributes cannot be used to set default values for\n  instance variables defined by *__slots__*; otherwise, the class\n  attribute would overwrite the descriptor assignment.\n\n* The action of a *__slots__* declaration is limited to the class\n  where it is defined.  As a result, subclasses will have a *__dict__*\n  unless they also define *__slots__* (which must only contain names\n  of any *additional* slots).\n\n* If a class defines a slot also defined in a base class, the instance\n  variable defined by the base class slot is inaccessible (except by\n  retrieving its descriptor directly from the base class). This\n  renders the meaning of the program undefined.  In the future, a\n  check may be added to prevent this.\n\n* Nonempty *__slots__* does not work for classes derived from\n  "variable-length" built-in types such as ``long``, ``str`` and\n  ``tuple``.\n\n* Any non-string iterable may be assigned to *__slots__*. Mappings may\n  also be used; however, in the future, special meaning may be\n  assigned to the values corresponding to each key.\n\n* *__class__* assignment works only if both classes have the same\n  *__slots__*.\n\n  Changed in version 2.6: Previously, *__class__* assignment raised an\n  error if either new or old class had *__slots__*.\n\n\nCustomizing class creation\n==========================\n\nBy default, new-style classes are constructed using ``type()``. A\nclass definition is read into a separate namespace and the value of\nclass name is bound to the result of ``type(name, bases, dict)``.\n\nWhen the class definition is read, if *__metaclass__* is defined then\nthe callable assigned to it will be called instead of ``type()``. This\nallows classes or functions to be written which monitor or alter the\nclass creation process:\n\n* Modifying the class dictionary prior to the class being created.\n\n* Returning an instance of another class -- essentially performing the\n  role of a factory function.\n\nThese steps will have to be performed in the metaclass\'s ``__new__()``\nmethod -- ``type.__new__()`` can then be called from this method to\ncreate a class with different properties.  This example adds a new\nelement to the class dictionary before creating the class:\n\n   class metacls(type):\n       def __new__(mcs, name, bases, dict):\n           dict[\'foo\'] = \'metacls was here\'\n           return type.__new__(mcs, name, bases, dict)\n\nYou can of course also override other class methods (or add new\nmethods); for example defining a custom ``__call__()`` method in the\nmetaclass allows custom behavior when the class is called, e.g. not\nalways creating a new instance.\n\n__metaclass__\n\n   This variable can be any callable accepting arguments for ``name``,\n   ``bases``, and ``dict``.  Upon class creation, the callable is used\n   instead of the built-in ``type()``.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\nThe appropriate metaclass is determined by the following precedence\nrules:\n\n* If ``dict[\'__metaclass__\']`` exists, it is used.\n\n* Otherwise, if there is at least one base class, its metaclass is\n  used (this looks for a *__class__* attribute first and if not found,\n  uses its type).\n\n* Otherwise, if a global variable named __metaclass__ exists, it is\n  used.\n\n* Otherwise, the old-style, classic metaclass (types.ClassType) is\n  used.\n\nThe potential uses for metaclasses are boundless. Some ideas that have\nbeen explored including logging, interface checking, automatic\ndelegation, automatic property creation, proxies, frameworks, and\nautomatic resource locking/synchronization.\n\n\nCustomizing instance and subclass checks\n========================================\n\nNew in version 2.6.\n\nThe following methods are used to override the default behavior of the\n``isinstance()`` and ``issubclass()`` built-in functions.\n\nIn particular, the metaclass ``abc.ABCMeta`` implements these methods\nin order to allow the addition of Abstract Base Classes (ABCs) as\n"virtual base classes" to any class or type (including built-in\ntypes), including other ABCs.\n\nclass.__instancecheck__(self, instance)\n\n   Return true if *instance* should be considered a (direct or\n   indirect) instance of *class*. If defined, called to implement\n   ``isinstance(instance, class)``.\n\nclass.__subclasscheck__(self, subclass)\n\n   Return true if *subclass* should be considered a (direct or\n   indirect) subclass of *class*.  If defined, called to implement\n   ``issubclass(subclass, class)``.\n\nNote that these methods are looked up on the type (metaclass) of a\nclass.  They cannot be defined as class methods in the actual class.\nThis is consistent with the lookup of special methods that are called\non instances, only in this case the instance is itself a class.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 3119** - Introducing Abstract Base Classes\n      Includes the specification for customizing ``isinstance()`` and\n      ``issubclass()`` behavior through ``__instancecheck__()`` and\n      ``__subclasscheck__()``, with motivation for this functionality\n      in the context of adding Abstract Base Classes (see the ``abc``\n      module) to the language.\n\n\nEmulating callable objects\n==========================\n\nobject.__call__(self[, args...])\n\n   Called when the instance is "called" as a function; if this method\n   is defined, ``x(arg1, arg2, ...)`` is a shorthand for\n   ``x.__call__(arg1, arg2, ...)``.\n\n\nEmulating container types\n=========================\n\nThe following methods can be defined to implement container objects.\nContainers usually are sequences (such as lists or tuples) or mappings\n(like dictionaries), but can represent other containers as well.  The\nfirst set of methods is used either to emulate a sequence or to\nemulate a mapping; the difference is that for a sequence, the\nallowable keys should be the integers *k* for which ``0 <= k < N``\nwhere *N* is the length of the sequence, or slice objects, which\ndefine a range of items. (For backwards compatibility, the method\n``__getslice__()`` (see below) can also be defined to handle simple,\nbut not extended slices.) It is also recommended that mappings provide\nthe methods ``keys()``, ``values()``, ``items()``, ``has_key()``,\n``get()``, ``clear()``, ``setdefault()``, ``iterkeys()``,\n``itervalues()``, ``iteritems()``, ``pop()``, ``popitem()``,\n``copy()``, and ``update()`` behaving similar to those for Python\'s\nstandard dictionary objects.  The ``UserDict`` module provides a\n``DictMixin`` class to help create those methods from a base set of\n``__getitem__()``, ``__setitem__()``, ``__delitem__()``, and\n``keys()``. Mutable sequences should provide methods ``append()``,\n``count()``, ``index()``, ``extend()``, ``insert()``, ``pop()``,\n``remove()``, ``reverse()`` and ``sort()``, like Python standard list\nobjects.  Finally, sequence types should implement addition (meaning\nconcatenation) and multiplication (meaning repetition) by defining the\nmethods ``__add__()``, ``__radd__()``, ``__iadd__()``, ``__mul__()``,\n``__rmul__()`` and ``__imul__()`` described below; they should not\ndefine ``__coerce__()`` or other numerical operators.  It is\nrecommended that both mappings and sequences implement the\n``__contains__()`` method to allow efficient use of the ``in``\noperator; for mappings, ``in`` should be equivalent of ``has_key()``;\nfor sequences, it should search through the values.  It is further\nrecommended that both mappings and sequences implement the\n``__iter__()`` method to allow efficient iteration through the\ncontainer; for mappings, ``__iter__()`` should be the same as\n``iterkeys()``; for sequences, it should iterate through the values.\n\nobject.__len__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the built-in function ``len()``.  Should return\n   the length of the object, an integer ``>=`` 0.  Also, an object\n   that doesn\'t define a ``__nonzero__()`` method and whose\n   ``__len__()`` method returns zero is considered to be false in a\n   Boolean context.\n\nobject.__getitem__(self, key)\n\n   Called to implement evaluation of ``self[key]``. For sequence\n   types, the accepted keys should be integers and slice objects.\n   Note that the special interpretation of negative indexes (if the\n   class wishes to emulate a sequence type) is up to the\n   ``__getitem__()`` method. If *key* is of an inappropriate type,\n   ``TypeError`` may be raised; if of a value outside the set of\n   indexes for the sequence (after any special interpretation of\n   negative values), ``IndexError`` should be raised. For mapping\n   types, if *key* is missing (not in the container), ``KeyError``\n   should be raised.\n\n   Note: ``for`` loops expect that an ``IndexError`` will be raised for\n     illegal indexes to allow proper detection of the end of the\n     sequence.\n\nobject.__setitem__(self, key, value)\n\n   Called to implement assignment to ``self[key]``.  Same note as for\n   ``__getitem__()``.  This should only be implemented for mappings if\n   the objects support changes to the values for keys, or if new keys\n   can be added, or for sequences if elements can be replaced.  The\n   same exceptions should be raised for improper *key* values as for\n   the ``__getitem__()`` method.\n\nobject.__delitem__(self, key)\n\n   Called to implement deletion of ``self[key]``.  Same note as for\n   ``__getitem__()``.  This should only be implemented for mappings if\n   the objects support removal of keys, or for sequences if elements\n   can be removed from the sequence.  The same exceptions should be\n   raised for improper *key* values as for the ``__getitem__()``\n   method.\n\nobject.__iter__(self)\n\n   This method is called when an iterator is required for a container.\n   This method should return a new iterator object that can iterate\n   over all the objects in the container.  For mappings, it should\n   iterate over the keys of the container, and should also be made\n   available as the method ``iterkeys()``.\n\n   Iterator objects also need to implement this method; they are\n   required to return themselves.  For more information on iterator\n   objects, see *Iterator Types*.\n\nobject.__reversed__(self)\n\n   Called (if present) by the ``reversed()`` built-in to implement\n   reverse iteration.  It should return a new iterator object that\n   iterates over all the objects in the container in reverse order.\n\n   If the ``__reversed__()`` method is not provided, the\n   ``reversed()`` built-in will fall back to using the sequence\n   protocol (``__len__()`` and ``__getitem__()``).  Objects that\n   support the sequence protocol should only provide\n   ``__reversed__()`` if they can provide an implementation that is\n   more efficient than the one provided by ``reversed()``.\n\n   New in version 2.6.\n\nThe membership test operators (``in`` and ``not in``) are normally\nimplemented as an iteration through a sequence.  However, container\nobjects can supply the following special method with a more efficient\nimplementation, which also does not require the object be a sequence.\n\nobject.__contains__(self, item)\n\n   Called to implement membership test operators.  Should return true\n   if *item* is in *self*, false otherwise.  For mapping objects, this\n   should consider the keys of the mapping rather than the values or\n   the key-item pairs.\n\n   For objects that don\'t define ``__contains__()``, the membership\n   test first tries iteration via ``__iter__()``, then the old\n   sequence iteration protocol via ``__getitem__()``, see *this\n   section in the language reference*.\n\n\nAdditional methods for emulation of sequence types\n==================================================\n\nThe following optional methods can be defined to further emulate\nsequence objects.  Immutable sequences methods should at most only\ndefine ``__getslice__()``; mutable sequences might define all three\nmethods.\n\nobject.__getslice__(self, i, j)\n\n   Deprecated since version 2.0: Support slice objects as parameters\n   to the ``__getitem__()`` method. (However, built-in types in\n   CPython currently still implement ``__getslice__()``.  Therefore,\n   you have to override it in derived classes when implementing\n   slicing.)\n\n   Called to implement evaluation of ``self[i:j]``. The returned\n   object should be of the same type as *self*.  Note that missing *i*\n   or *j* in the slice expression are replaced by zero or\n   ``sys.maxint``, respectively.  If negative indexes are used in the\n   slice, the length of the sequence is added to that index. If the\n   instance does not implement the ``__len__()`` method, an\n   ``AttributeError`` is raised. No guarantee is made that indexes\n   adjusted this way are not still negative.  Indexes which are\n   greater than the length of the sequence are not modified. If no\n   ``__getslice__()`` is found, a slice object is created instead, and\n   passed to ``__getitem__()`` instead.\n\nobject.__setslice__(self, i, j, sequence)\n\n   Called to implement assignment to ``self[i:j]``. Same notes for *i*\n   and *j* as for ``__getslice__()``.\n\n   This method is deprecated. If no ``__setslice__()`` is found, or\n   for extended slicing of the form ``self[i:j:k]``, a slice object is\n   created, and passed to ``__setitem__()``, instead of\n   ``__setslice__()`` being called.\n\nobject.__delslice__(self, i, j)\n\n   Called to implement deletion of ``self[i:j]``. Same notes for *i*\n   and *j* as for ``__getslice__()``. This method is deprecated. If no\n   ``__delslice__()`` is found, or for extended slicing of the form\n   ``self[i:j:k]``, a slice object is created, and passed to\n   ``__delitem__()``, instead of ``__delslice__()`` being called.\n\nNotice that these methods are only invoked when a single slice with a\nsingle colon is used, and the slice method is available.  For slice\noperations involving extended slice notation, or in absence of the\nslice methods, ``__getitem__()``, ``__setitem__()`` or\n``__delitem__()`` is called with a slice object as argument.\n\nThe following example demonstrate how to make your program or module\ncompatible with earlier versions of Python (assuming that methods\n``__getitem__()``, ``__setitem__()`` and ``__delitem__()`` support\nslice objects as arguments):\n\n   class MyClass:\n       ...\n       def __getitem__(self, index):\n           ...\n       def __setitem__(self, index, value):\n           ...\n       def __delitem__(self, index):\n           ...\n\n       if sys.version_info < (2, 0):\n           # They won\'t be defined if version is at least 2.0 final\n\n           def __getslice__(self, i, j):\n               return self[max(0, i):max(0, j):]\n           def __setslice__(self, i, j, seq):\n               self[max(0, i):max(0, j):] = seq\n           def __delslice__(self, i, j):\n               del self[max(0, i):max(0, j):]\n       ...\n\nNote the calls to ``max()``; these are necessary because of the\nhandling of negative indices before the ``__*slice__()`` methods are\ncalled.  When negative indexes are used, the ``__*item__()`` methods\nreceive them as provided, but the ``__*slice__()`` methods get a\n"cooked" form of the index values.  For each negative index value, the\nlength of the sequence is added to the index before calling the method\n(which may still result in a negative index); this is the customary\nhandling of negative indexes by the built-in sequence types, and the\n``__*item__()`` methods are expected to do this as well.  However,\nsince they should already be doing that, negative indexes cannot be\npassed in; they must be constrained to the bounds of the sequence\nbefore being passed to the ``__*item__()`` methods. Calling ``max(0,\ni)`` conveniently returns the proper value.\n\n\nEmulating numeric types\n=======================\n\nThe following methods can be defined to emulate numeric objects.\nMethods corresponding to operations that are not supported by the\nparticular kind of number implemented (e.g., bitwise operations for\nnon-integral numbers) should be left undefined.\n\nobject.__add__(self, other)\nobject.__sub__(self, other)\nobject.__mul__(self, other)\nobject.__floordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__mod__(self, other)\nobject.__divmod__(self, other)\nobject.__pow__(self, other[, modulo])\nobject.__lshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rshift__(self, other)\nobject.__and__(self, other)\nobject.__xor__(self, other)\nobject.__or__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the binary arithmetic\n   operations (``+``, ``-``, ``*``, ``//``, ``%``, ``divmod()``,\n   ``pow()``, ``**``, ``<<``, ``>>``, ``&``, ``^``, ``|``).  For\n   instance, to evaluate the expression ``x + y``, where *x* is an\n   instance of a class that has an ``__add__()`` method,\n   ``x.__add__(y)`` is called.  The ``__divmod__()`` method should be\n   the equivalent to using ``__floordiv__()`` and ``__mod__()``; it\n   should not be related to ``__truediv__()`` (described below).  Note\n   that ``__pow__()`` should be defined to accept an optional third\n   argument if the ternary version of the built-in ``pow()`` function\n   is to be supported.\n\n   If one of those methods does not support the operation with the\n   supplied arguments, it should return ``NotImplemented``.\n\nobject.__div__(self, other)\nobject.__truediv__(self, other)\n\n   The division operator (``/``) is implemented by these methods.  The\n   ``__truediv__()`` method is used when ``__future__.division`` is in\n   effect, otherwise ``__div__()`` is used.  If only one of these two\n   methods is defined, the object will not support division in the\n   alternate context; ``TypeError`` will be raised instead.\n\nobject.__radd__(self, other)\nobject.__rsub__(self, other)\nobject.__rmul__(self, other)\nobject.__rdiv__(self, other)\nobject.__rtruediv__(self, other)\nobject.__rfloordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__rmod__(self, other)\nobject.__rdivmod__(self, other)\nobject.__rpow__(self, other)\nobject.__rlshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rrshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rand__(self, other)\nobject.__rxor__(self, other)\nobject.__ror__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the binary arithmetic\n   operations (``+``, ``-``, ``*``, ``/``, ``%``, ``divmod()``,\n   ``pow()``, ``**``, ``<<``, ``>>``, ``&``, ``^``, ``|``) with\n   reflected (swapped) operands.  These functions are only called if\n   the left operand does not support the corresponding operation and\n   the operands are of different types. [2] For instance, to evaluate\n   the expression ``x - y``, where *y* is an instance of a class that\n   has an ``__rsub__()`` method, ``y.__rsub__(x)`` is called if\n   ``x.__sub__(y)`` returns *NotImplemented*.\n\n   Note that ternary ``pow()`` will not try calling ``__rpow__()``\n   (the coercion rules would become too complicated).\n\n   Note: If the right operand\'s type is a subclass of the left operand\'s\n     type and that subclass provides the reflected method for the\n     operation, this method will be called before the left operand\'s\n     non-reflected method.  This behavior allows subclasses to\n     override their ancestors\' operations.\n\nobject.__iadd__(self, other)\nobject.__isub__(self, other)\nobject.__imul__(self, other)\nobject.__idiv__(self, other)\nobject.__itruediv__(self, other)\nobject.__ifloordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__imod__(self, other)\nobject.__ipow__(self, other[, modulo])\nobject.__ilshift__(self, other)\nobject.__irshift__(self, other)\nobject.__iand__(self, other)\nobject.__ixor__(self, other)\nobject.__ior__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the augmented arithmetic\n   assignments (``+=``, ``-=``, ``*=``, ``/=``, ``//=``, ``%=``,\n   ``**=``, ``<<=``, ``>>=``, ``&=``, ``^=``, ``|=``).  These methods\n   should attempt to do the operation in-place (modifying *self*) and\n   return the result (which could be, but does not have to be,\n   *self*).  If a specific method is not defined, the augmented\n   assignment falls back to the normal methods.  For instance, to\n   execute the statement ``x += y``, where *x* is an instance of a\n   class that has an ``__iadd__()`` method, ``x.__iadd__(y)`` is\n   called.  If *x* is an instance of a class that does not define a\n   ``__iadd__()`` method, ``x.__add__(y)`` and ``y.__radd__(x)`` are\n   considered, as with the evaluation of ``x + y``.\n\nobject.__neg__(self)\nobject.__pos__(self)\nobject.__abs__(self)\nobject.__invert__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the unary arithmetic operations (``-``, ``+``,\n   ``abs()`` and ``~``).\n\nobject.__complex__(self)\nobject.__int__(self)\nobject.__long__(self)\nobject.__float__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the built-in functions ``complex()``,\n   ``int()``, ``long()``, and ``float()``.  Should return a value of\n   the appropriate type.\n\nobject.__oct__(self)\nobject.__hex__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the built-in functions ``oct()`` and ``hex()``.\n   Should return a string value.\n\nobject.__index__(self)\n\n   Called to implement ``operator.index()``.  Also called whenever\n   Python needs an integer object (such as in slicing).  Must return\n   an integer (int or long).\n\n   New in version 2.5.\n\nobject.__coerce__(self, other)\n\n   Called to implement "mixed-mode" numeric arithmetic.  Should either\n   return a 2-tuple containing *self* and *other* converted to a\n   common numeric type, or ``None`` if conversion is impossible.  When\n   the common type would be the type of ``other``, it is sufficient to\n   return ``None``, since the interpreter will also ask the other\n   object to attempt a coercion (but sometimes, if the implementation\n   of the other type cannot be changed, it is useful to do the\n   conversion to the other type here).  A return value of\n   ``NotImplemented`` is equivalent to returning ``None``.\n\n\nCoercion rules\n==============\n\nThis section used to document the rules for coercion.  As the language\nhas evolved, the coercion rules have become hard to document\nprecisely; documenting what one version of one particular\nimplementation does is undesirable.  Instead, here are some informal\nguidelines regarding coercion.  In Python 3.0, coercion will not be\nsupported.\n\n* If the left operand of a % operator is a string or Unicode object,\n  no coercion takes place and the string formatting operation is\n  invoked instead.\n\n* It is no longer recommended to define a coercion operation. Mixed-\n  mode operations on types that don\'t define coercion pass the\n  original arguments to the operation.\n\n* New-style classes (those derived from ``object``) never invoke the\n  ``__coerce__()`` method in response to a binary operator; the only\n  time ``__coerce__()`` is invoked is when the built-in function\n  ``coerce()`` is called.\n\n* For most intents and purposes, an operator that returns\n  ``NotImplemented`` is treated the same as one that is not\n  implemented at all.\n\n* Below, ``__op__()`` and ``__rop__()`` are used to signify the\n  generic method names corresponding to an operator; ``__iop__()`` is\n  used for the corresponding in-place operator.  For example, for the\n  operator \'``+``\', ``__add__()`` and ``__radd__()`` are used for the\n  left and right variant of the binary operator, and ``__iadd__()``\n  for the in-place variant.\n\n* For objects *x* and *y*, first ``x.__op__(y)`` is tried.  If this is\n  not implemented or returns ``NotImplemented``, ``y.__rop__(x)`` is\n  tried.  If this is also not implemented or returns\n  ``NotImplemented``, a ``TypeError`` exception is raised.  But see\n  the following exception:\n\n* Exception to the previous item: if the left operand is an instance\n  of a built-in type or a new-style class, and the right operand is an\n  instance of a proper subclass of that type or class and overrides\n  the base\'s ``__rop__()`` method, the right operand\'s ``__rop__()``\n  method is tried *before* the left operand\'s ``__op__()`` method.\n\n  This is done so that a subclass can completely override binary\n  operators. Otherwise, the left operand\'s ``__op__()`` method would\n  always accept the right operand: when an instance of a given class\n  is expected, an instance of a subclass of that class is always\n  acceptable.\n\n* When either operand type defines a coercion, this coercion is called\n  before that type\'s ``__op__()`` or ``__rop__()`` method is called,\n  but no sooner.  If the coercion returns an object of a different\n  type for the operand whose coercion is invoked, part of the process\n  is redone using the new object.\n\n* When an in-place operator (like \'``+=``\') is used, if the left\n  operand implements ``__iop__()``, it is invoked without any\n  coercion.  When the operation falls back to ``__op__()`` and/or\n  ``__rop__()``, the normal coercion rules apply.\n\n* In ``x + y``, if *x* is a sequence that implements sequence\n  concatenation, sequence concatenation is invoked.\n\n* In ``x * y``, if one operator is a sequence that implements sequence\n  repetition, and the other is an integer (``int`` or ``long``),\n  sequence repetition is invoked.\n\n* Rich comparisons (implemented by methods ``__eq__()`` and so on)\n  never use coercion.  Three-way comparison (implemented by\n  ``__cmp__()``) does use coercion under the same conditions as other\n  binary operations use it.\n\n* In the current implementation, the built-in numeric types ``int``,\n  ``long``, ``float``, and ``complex`` do not use coercion. All these\n  types implement a ``__coerce__()`` method, for use by the built-in\n  ``coerce()`` function.\n\n  Changed in version 2.7.\n\n\nWith Statement Context Managers\n===============================\n\nNew in version 2.5.\n\nA *context manager* is an object that defines the runtime context to\nbe established when executing a ``with`` statement. The context\nmanager handles the entry into, and the exit from, the desired runtime\ncontext for the execution of the block of code.  Context managers are\nnormally invoked using the ``with`` statement (described in section\n*The with statement*), but can also be used by directly invoking their\nmethods.\n\nTypical uses of context managers include saving and restoring various\nkinds of global state, locking and unlocking resources, closing opened\nfiles, etc.\n\nFor more information on context managers, see *Context Manager Types*.\n\nobject.__enter__(self)\n\n   Enter the runtime context related to this object. The ``with``\n   statement will bind this method\'s return value to the target(s)\n   specified in the ``as`` clause of the statement, if any.\n\nobject.__exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback)\n\n   Exit the runtime context related to this object. The parameters\n   describe the exception that caused the context to be exited. If the\n   context was exited without an exception, all three arguments will\n   be ``None``.\n\n   If an exception is supplied, and the method wishes to suppress the\n   exception (i.e., prevent it from being propagated), it should\n   return a true value. Otherwise, the exception will be processed\n   normally upon exit from this method.\n\n   Note that ``__exit__()`` methods should not reraise the passed-in\n   exception; this is the caller\'s responsibility.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n\n\nSpecial method lookup for old-style classes\n===========================================\n\nFor old-style classes, special methods are always looked up in exactly\nthe same way as any other method or attribute. This is the case\nregardless of whether the method is being looked up explicitly as in\n``x.__getitem__(i)`` or implicitly as in ``x[i]``.\n\nThis behaviour means that special methods may exhibit different\nbehaviour for different instances of a single old-style class if the\nappropriate special attributes are set differently:\n\n   >>> class C:\n   ...     pass\n   ...\n   >>> c1 = C()\n   >>> c2 = C()\n   >>> c1.__len__ = lambda: 5\n   >>> c2.__len__ = lambda: 9\n   >>> len(c1)\n   5\n   >>> len(c2)\n   9\n\n\nSpecial method lookup for new-style classes\n===========================================\n\nFor new-style classes, implicit invocations of special methods are\nonly guaranteed to work correctly if defined on an object\'s type, not\nin the object\'s instance dictionary.  That behaviour is the reason why\nthe following code raises an exception (unlike the equivalent example\nwith old-style classes):\n\n   >>> class C(object):\n   ...     pass\n   ...\n   >>> c = C()\n   >>> c.__len__ = lambda: 5\n   >>> len(c)\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>\n   TypeError: object of type \'C\' has no len()\n\nThe rationale behind this behaviour lies with a number of special\nmethods such as ``__hash__()`` and ``__repr__()`` that are implemented\nby all objects, including type objects. If the implicit lookup of\nthese methods used the conventional lookup process, they would fail\nwhen invoked on the type object itself:\n\n   >>> 1 .__hash__() == hash(1)\n   True\n   >>> int.__hash__() == hash(int)\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>\n   TypeError: descriptor \'__hash__\' of \'int\' object needs an argument\n\nIncorrectly attempting to invoke an unbound method of a class in this\nway is sometimes referred to as \'metaclass confusion\', and is avoided\nby bypassing the instance when looking up special methods:\n\n   >>> type(1).__hash__(1) == hash(1)\n   True\n   >>> type(int).__hash__(int) == hash(int)\n   True\n\nIn addition to bypassing any instance attributes in the interest of\ncorrectness, implicit special method lookup generally also bypasses\nthe ``__getattribute__()`` method even of the object\'s metaclass:\n\n   >>> class Meta(type):\n   ...    def __getattribute__(*args):\n   ...       print "Metaclass getattribute invoked"\n   ...       return type.__getattribute__(*args)\n   ...\n   >>> class C(object):\n   ...     __metaclass__ = Meta\n   ...     def __len__(self):\n   ...         return 10\n   ...     def __getattribute__(*args):\n   ...         print "Class getattribute invoked"\n   ...         return object.__getattribute__(*args)\n   ...\n   >>> c = C()\n   >>> c.__len__()                 # Explicit lookup via instance\n   Class getattribute invoked\n   10\n   >>> type(c).__len__(c)          # Explicit lookup via type\n   Metaclass getattribute invoked\n   10\n   >>> len(c)                      # Implicit lookup\n   10\n\nBypassing the ``__getattribute__()`` machinery in this fashion\nprovides significant scope for speed optimisations within the\ninterpreter, at the cost of some flexibility in the handling of\nspecial methods (the special method *must* be set on the class object\nitself in order to be consistently invoked by the interpreter).\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] It *is* possible in some cases to change an object\'s type, under\n    certain controlled conditions. It generally isn\'t a good idea\n    though, since it can lead to some very strange behaviour if it is\n    handled incorrectly.\n\n[2] For operands of the same type, it is assumed that if the non-\n    reflected method (such as ``__add__()``) fails the operation is\n    not supported, which is why the reflected method is not called.\n',
+ 'specialnames': u'\nSpecial method names\n********************\n\nA class can implement certain operations that are invoked by special\nsyntax (such as arithmetic operations or subscripting and slicing) by\ndefining methods with special names. This is Python\'s approach to\n*operator overloading*, allowing classes to define their own behavior\nwith respect to language operators.  For instance, if a class defines\na method named ``__getitem__()``, and ``x`` is an instance of this\nclass, then ``x[i]`` is roughly equivalent to ``x.__getitem__(i)`` for\nold-style classes and ``type(x).__getitem__(x, i)`` for new-style\nclasses.  Except where mentioned, attempts to execute an operation\nraise an exception when no appropriate method is defined (typically\n``AttributeError`` or ``TypeError``).\n\nWhen implementing a class that emulates any built-in type, it is\nimportant that the emulation only be implemented to the degree that it\nmakes sense for the object being modelled.  For example, some\nsequences may work well with retrieval of individual elements, but\nextracting a slice may not make sense.  (One example of this is the\n``NodeList`` interface in the W3C\'s Document Object Model.)\n\n\nBasic customization\n===================\n\nobject.__new__(cls[, ...])\n\n   Called to create a new instance of class *cls*.  ``__new__()`` is a\n   static method (special-cased so you need not declare it as such)\n   that takes the class of which an instance was requested as its\n   first argument.  The remaining arguments are those passed to the\n   object constructor expression (the call to the class).  The return\n   value of ``__new__()`` should be the new object instance (usually\n   an instance of *cls*).\n\n   Typical implementations create a new instance of the class by\n   invoking the superclass\'s ``__new__()`` method using\n   ``super(currentclass, cls).__new__(cls[, ...])`` with appropriate\n   arguments and then modifying the newly-created instance as\n   necessary before returning it.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` returns an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will be invoked like\n   ``__init__(self[, ...])``, where *self* is the new instance and the\n   remaining arguments are the same as were passed to ``__new__()``.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` does not return an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will not be invoked.\n\n   ``__new__()`` is intended mainly to allow subclasses of immutable\n   types (like int, str, or tuple) to customize instance creation.  It\n   is also commonly overridden in custom metaclasses in order to\n   customize class creation.\n\nobject.__init__(self[, ...])\n\n   Called when the instance is created.  The arguments are those\n   passed to the class constructor expression.  If a base class has an\n   ``__init__()`` method, the derived class\'s ``__init__()`` method,\n   if any, must explicitly call it to ensure proper initialization of\n   the base class part of the instance; for example:\n   ``BaseClass.__init__(self, [args...])``.  As a special constraint\n   on constructors, no value may be returned; doing so will cause a\n   ``TypeError`` to be raised at runtime.\n\nobject.__del__(self)\n\n   Called when the instance is about to be destroyed.  This is also\n   called a destructor.  If a base class has a ``__del__()`` method,\n   the derived class\'s ``__del__()`` method, if any, must explicitly\n   call it to ensure proper deletion of the base class part of the\n   instance.  Note that it is possible (though not recommended!) for\n   the ``__del__()`` method to postpone destruction of the instance by\n   creating a new reference to it.  It may then be called at a later\n   time when this new reference is deleted.  It is not guaranteed that\n   ``__del__()`` methods are called for objects that still exist when\n   the interpreter exits.\n\n   Note: ``del x`` doesn\'t directly call ``x.__del__()`` --- the former\n     decrements the reference count for ``x`` by one, and the latter\n     is only called when ``x``\'s reference count reaches zero.  Some\n     common situations that may prevent the reference count of an\n     object from going to zero include: circular references between\n     objects (e.g., a doubly-linked list or a tree data structure with\n     parent and child pointers); a reference to the object on the\n     stack frame of a function that caught an exception (the traceback\n     stored in ``sys.exc_traceback`` keeps the stack frame alive); or\n     a reference to the object on the stack frame that raised an\n     unhandled exception in interactive mode (the traceback stored in\n     ``sys.last_traceback`` keeps the stack frame alive).  The first\n     situation can only be remedied by explicitly breaking the cycles;\n     the latter two situations can be resolved by storing ``None`` in\n     ``sys.exc_traceback`` or ``sys.last_traceback``.  Circular\n     references which are garbage are detected when the option cycle\n     detector is enabled (it\'s on by default), but can only be cleaned\n     up if there are no Python-level ``__del__()`` methods involved.\n     Refer to the documentation for the ``gc`` module for more\n     information about how ``__del__()`` methods are handled by the\n     cycle detector, particularly the description of the ``garbage``\n     value.\n\n   Warning: Due to the precarious circumstances under which ``__del__()``\n     methods are invoked, exceptions that occur during their execution\n     are ignored, and a warning is printed to ``sys.stderr`` instead.\n     Also, when ``__del__()`` is invoked in response to a module being\n     deleted (e.g., when execution of the program is done), other\n     globals referenced by the ``__del__()`` method may already have\n     been deleted or in the process of being torn down (e.g. the\n     import machinery shutting down).  For this reason, ``__del__()``\n     methods should do the absolute minimum needed to maintain\n     external invariants.  Starting with version 1.5, Python\n     guarantees that globals whose name begins with a single\n     underscore are deleted from their module before other globals are\n     deleted; if no other references to such globals exist, this may\n     help in assuring that imported modules are still available at the\n     time when the ``__del__()`` method is called.\n\nobject.__repr__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``repr()`` built-in function and by string\n   conversions (reverse quotes) to compute the "official" string\n   representation of an object.  If at all possible, this should look\n   like a valid Python expression that could be used to recreate an\n   object with the same value (given an appropriate environment).  If\n   this is not possible, a string of the form ``<...some useful\n   description...>`` should be returned.  The return value must be a\n   string object. If a class defines ``__repr__()`` but not\n   ``__str__()``, then ``__repr__()`` is also used when an "informal"\n   string representation of instances of that class is required.\n\n   This is typically used for debugging, so it is important that the\n   representation is information-rich and unambiguous.\n\nobject.__str__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``str()`` built-in function and by the ``print``\n   statement to compute the "informal" string representation of an\n   object.  This differs from ``__repr__()`` in that it does not have\n   to be a valid Python expression: a more convenient or concise\n   representation may be used instead. The return value must be a\n   string object.\n\nobject.__lt__(self, other)\nobject.__le__(self, other)\nobject.__eq__(self, other)\nobject.__ne__(self, other)\nobject.__gt__(self, other)\nobject.__ge__(self, other)\n\n   New in version 2.1.\n\n   These are the so-called "rich comparison" methods, and are called\n   for comparison operators in preference to ``__cmp__()`` below. The\n   correspondence between operator symbols and method names is as\n   follows: ``x<y`` calls ``x.__lt__(y)``, ``x<=y`` calls\n   ``x.__le__(y)``, ``x==y`` calls ``x.__eq__(y)``, ``x!=y`` and\n   ``x<>y`` call ``x.__ne__(y)``, ``x>y`` calls ``x.__gt__(y)``, and\n   ``x>=y`` calls ``x.__ge__(y)``.\n\n   A rich comparison method may return the singleton\n   ``NotImplemented`` if it does not implement the operation for a\n   given pair of arguments. By convention, ``False`` and ``True`` are\n   returned for a successful comparison. However, these methods can\n   return any value, so if the comparison operator is used in a\n   Boolean context (e.g., in the condition of an ``if`` statement),\n   Python will call ``bool()`` on the value to determine if the result\n   is true or false.\n\n   There are no implied relationships among the comparison operators.\n   The truth of ``x==y`` does not imply that ``x!=y`` is false.\n   Accordingly, when defining ``__eq__()``, one should also define\n   ``__ne__()`` so that the operators will behave as expected.  See\n   the paragraph on ``__hash__()`` for some important notes on\n   creating *hashable* objects which support custom comparison\n   operations and are usable as dictionary keys.\n\n   There are no swapped-argument versions of these methods (to be used\n   when the left argument does not support the operation but the right\n   argument does); rather, ``__lt__()`` and ``__gt__()`` are each\n   other\'s reflection, ``__le__()`` and ``__ge__()`` are each other\'s\n   reflection, and ``__eq__()`` and ``__ne__()`` are their own\n   reflection.\n\n   Arguments to rich comparison methods are never coerced.\n\n   To automatically generate ordering operations from a single root\n   operation, see ``functools.total_ordering()``.\n\nobject.__cmp__(self, other)\n\n   Called by comparison operations if rich comparison (see above) is\n   not defined.  Should return a negative integer if ``self < other``,\n   zero if ``self == other``, a positive integer if ``self > other``.\n   If no ``__cmp__()``, ``__eq__()`` or ``__ne__()`` operation is\n   defined, class instances are compared by object identity\n   ("address").  See also the description of ``__hash__()`` for some\n   important notes on creating *hashable* objects which support custom\n   comparison operations and are usable as dictionary keys. (Note: the\n   restriction that exceptions are not propagated by ``__cmp__()`` has\n   been removed since Python 1.5.)\n\nobject.__rcmp__(self, other)\n\n   Changed in version 2.1: No longer supported.\n\nobject.__hash__(self)\n\n   Called by built-in function ``hash()`` and for operations on\n   members of hashed collections including ``set``, ``frozenset``, and\n   ``dict``.  ``__hash__()`` should return an integer.  The only\n   required property is that objects which compare equal have the same\n   hash value; it is advised to somehow mix together (e.g. using\n   exclusive or) the hash values for the components of the object that\n   also play a part in comparison of objects.\n\n   If a class does not define a ``__cmp__()`` or ``__eq__()`` method\n   it should not define a ``__hash__()`` operation either; if it\n   defines ``__cmp__()`` or ``__eq__()`` but not ``__hash__()``, its\n   instances will not be usable in hashed collections.  If a class\n   defines mutable objects and implements a ``__cmp__()`` or\n   ``__eq__()`` method, it should not implement ``__hash__()``, since\n   hashable collection implementations require that a object\'s hash\n   value is immutable (if the object\'s hash value changes, it will be\n   in the wrong hash bucket).\n\n   User-defined classes have ``__cmp__()`` and ``__hash__()`` methods\n   by default; with them, all objects compare unequal (except with\n   themselves) and ``x.__hash__()`` returns ``id(x)``.\n\n   Classes which inherit a ``__hash__()`` method from a parent class\n   but change the meaning of ``__cmp__()`` or ``__eq__()`` such that\n   the hash value returned is no longer appropriate (e.g. by switching\n   to a value-based concept of equality instead of the default\n   identity based equality) can explicitly flag themselves as being\n   unhashable by setting ``__hash__ = None`` in the class definition.\n   Doing so means that not only will instances of the class raise an\n   appropriate ``TypeError`` when a program attempts to retrieve their\n   hash value, but they will also be correctly identified as\n   unhashable when checking ``isinstance(obj, collections.Hashable)``\n   (unlike classes which define their own ``__hash__()`` to explicitly\n   raise ``TypeError``).\n\n   Changed in version 2.5: ``__hash__()`` may now also return a long\n   integer object; the 32-bit integer is then derived from the hash of\n   that object.\n\n   Changed in version 2.6: ``__hash__`` may now be set to ``None`` to\n   explicitly flag instances of a class as unhashable.\n\nobject.__nonzero__(self)\n\n   Called to implement truth value testing and the built-in operation\n   ``bool()``; should return ``False`` or ``True``, or their integer\n   equivalents ``0`` or ``1``.  When this method is not defined,\n   ``__len__()`` is called, if it is defined, and the object is\n   considered true if its result is nonzero. If a class defines\n   neither ``__len__()`` nor ``__nonzero__()``, all its instances are\n   considered true.\n\nobject.__unicode__(self)\n\n   Called to implement ``unicode()`` built-in; should return a Unicode\n   object. When this method is not defined, string conversion is\n   attempted, and the result of string conversion is converted to\n   Unicode using the system default encoding.\n\n\nCustomizing attribute access\n============================\n\nThe following methods can be defined to customize the meaning of\nattribute access (use of, assignment to, or deletion of ``x.name``)\nfor class instances.\n\nobject.__getattr__(self, name)\n\n   Called when an attribute lookup has not found the attribute in the\n   usual places (i.e. it is not an instance attribute nor is it found\n   in the class tree for ``self``).  ``name`` is the attribute name.\n   This method should return the (computed) attribute value or raise\n   an ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\n   Note that if the attribute is found through the normal mechanism,\n   ``__getattr__()`` is not called.  (This is an intentional asymmetry\n   between ``__getattr__()`` and ``__setattr__()``.) This is done both\n   for efficiency reasons and because otherwise ``__getattr__()``\n   would have no way to access other attributes of the instance.  Note\n   that at least for instance variables, you can fake total control by\n   not inserting any values in the instance attribute dictionary (but\n   instead inserting them in another object).  See the\n   ``__getattribute__()`` method below for a way to actually get total\n   control in new-style classes.\n\nobject.__setattr__(self, name, value)\n\n   Called when an attribute assignment is attempted.  This is called\n   instead of the normal mechanism (i.e. store the value in the\n   instance dictionary).  *name* is the attribute name, *value* is the\n   value to be assigned to it.\n\n   If ``__setattr__()`` wants to assign to an instance attribute, it\n   should not simply execute ``self.name = value`` --- this would\n   cause a recursive call to itself.  Instead, it should insert the\n   value in the dictionary of instance attributes, e.g.,\n   ``self.__dict__[name] = value``.  For new-style classes, rather\n   than accessing the instance dictionary, it should call the base\n   class method with the same name, for example,\n   ``object.__setattr__(self, name, value)``.\n\nobject.__delattr__(self, name)\n\n   Like ``__setattr__()`` but for attribute deletion instead of\n   assignment.  This should only be implemented if ``del obj.name`` is\n   meaningful for the object.\n\n\nMore attribute access for new-style classes\n-------------------------------------------\n\nThe following methods only apply to new-style classes.\n\nobject.__getattribute__(self, name)\n\n   Called unconditionally to implement attribute accesses for\n   instances of the class. If the class also defines\n   ``__getattr__()``, the latter will not be called unless\n   ``__getattribute__()`` either calls it explicitly or raises an\n   ``AttributeError``. This method should return the (computed)\n   attribute value or raise an ``AttributeError`` exception. In order\n   to avoid infinite recursion in this method, its implementation\n   should always call the base class method with the same name to\n   access any attributes it needs, for example,\n   ``object.__getattribute__(self, name)``.\n\n   Note: This method may still be bypassed when looking up special methods\n     as the result of implicit invocation via language syntax or\n     built-in functions. See *Special method lookup for new-style\n     classes*.\n\n\nImplementing Descriptors\n------------------------\n\nThe following methods only apply when an instance of the class\ncontaining the method (a so-called *descriptor* class) appears in an\n*owner* class (the descriptor must be in either the owner\'s class\ndictionary or in the class dictionary for one of its parents).  In the\nexamples below, "the attribute" refers to the attribute whose name is\nthe key of the property in the owner class\' ``__dict__``.\n\nobject.__get__(self, instance, owner)\n\n   Called to get the attribute of the owner class (class attribute\n   access) or of an instance of that class (instance attribute\n   access). *owner* is always the owner class, while *instance* is the\n   instance that the attribute was accessed through, or ``None`` when\n   the attribute is accessed through the *owner*.  This method should\n   return the (computed) attribute value or raise an\n   ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\nobject.__set__(self, instance, value)\n\n   Called to set the attribute on an instance *instance* of the owner\n   class to a new value, *value*.\n\nobject.__delete__(self, instance)\n\n   Called to delete the attribute on an instance *instance* of the\n   owner class.\n\n\nInvoking Descriptors\n--------------------\n\nIn general, a descriptor is an object attribute with "binding\nbehavior", one whose attribute access has been overridden by methods\nin the descriptor protocol:  ``__get__()``, ``__set__()``, and\n``__delete__()``. If any of those methods are defined for an object,\nit is said to be a descriptor.\n\nThe default behavior for attribute access is to get, set, or delete\nthe attribute from an object\'s dictionary. For instance, ``a.x`` has a\nlookup chain starting with ``a.__dict__[\'x\']``, then\n``type(a).__dict__[\'x\']``, and continuing through the base classes of\n``type(a)`` excluding metaclasses.\n\nHowever, if the looked-up value is an object defining one of the\ndescriptor methods, then Python may override the default behavior and\ninvoke the descriptor method instead.  Where this occurs in the\nprecedence chain depends on which descriptor methods were defined and\nhow they were called.  Note that descriptors are only invoked for new\nstyle objects or classes (ones that subclass ``object()`` or\n``type()``).\n\nThe starting point for descriptor invocation is a binding, ``a.x``.\nHow the arguments are assembled depends on ``a``:\n\nDirect Call\n   The simplest and least common call is when user code directly\n   invokes a descriptor method:    ``x.__get__(a)``.\n\nInstance Binding\n   If binding to a new-style object instance, ``a.x`` is transformed\n   into the call: ``type(a).__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(a, type(a))``.\n\nClass Binding\n   If binding to a new-style class, ``A.x`` is transformed into the\n   call: ``A.__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(None, A)``.\n\nSuper Binding\n   If ``a`` is an instance of ``super``, then the binding ``super(B,\n   obj).m()`` searches ``obj.__class__.__mro__`` for the base class\n   ``A`` immediately preceding ``B`` and then invokes the descriptor\n   with the call: ``A.__dict__[\'m\'].__get__(obj, obj.__class__)``.\n\nFor instance bindings, the precedence of descriptor invocation depends\non the which descriptor methods are defined.  A descriptor can define\nany combination of ``__get__()``, ``__set__()`` and ``__delete__()``.\nIf it does not define ``__get__()``, then accessing the attribute will\nreturn the descriptor object itself unless there is a value in the\nobject\'s instance dictionary.  If the descriptor defines ``__set__()``\nand/or ``__delete__()``, it is a data descriptor; if it defines\nneither, it is a non-data descriptor.  Normally, data descriptors\ndefine both ``__get__()`` and ``__set__()``, while non-data\ndescriptors have just the ``__get__()`` method.  Data descriptors with\n``__set__()`` and ``__get__()`` defined always override a redefinition\nin an instance dictionary.  In contrast, non-data descriptors can be\noverridden by instances.\n\nPython methods (including ``staticmethod()`` and ``classmethod()``)\nare implemented as non-data descriptors.  Accordingly, instances can\nredefine and override methods.  This allows individual instances to\nacquire behaviors that differ from other instances of the same class.\n\nThe ``property()`` function is implemented as a data descriptor.\nAccordingly, instances cannot override the behavior of a property.\n\n\n__slots__\n---------\n\nBy default, instances of both old and new-style classes have a\ndictionary for attribute storage.  This wastes space for objects\nhaving very few instance variables.  The space consumption can become\nacute when creating large numbers of instances.\n\nThe default can be overridden by defining *__slots__* in a new-style\nclass definition.  The *__slots__* declaration takes a sequence of\ninstance variables and reserves just enough space in each instance to\nhold a value for each variable.  Space is saved because *__dict__* is\nnot created for each instance.\n\n__slots__\n\n   This class variable can be assigned a string, iterable, or sequence\n   of strings with variable names used by instances.  If defined in a\n   new-style class, *__slots__* reserves space for the declared\n   variables and prevents the automatic creation of *__dict__* and\n   *__weakref__* for each instance.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\nNotes on using *__slots__*\n\n* When inheriting from a class without *__slots__*, the *__dict__*\n  attribute of that class will always be accessible, so a *__slots__*\n  definition in the subclass is meaningless.\n\n* Without a *__dict__* variable, instances cannot be assigned new\n  variables not listed in the *__slots__* definition.  Attempts to\n  assign to an unlisted variable name raises ``AttributeError``. If\n  dynamic assignment of new variables is desired, then add\n  ``\'__dict__\'`` to the sequence of strings in the *__slots__*\n  declaration.\n\n  Changed in version 2.3: Previously, adding ``\'__dict__\'`` to the\n  *__slots__* declaration would not enable the assignment of new\n  attributes not specifically listed in the sequence of instance\n  variable names.\n\n* Without a *__weakref__* variable for each instance, classes defining\n  *__slots__* do not support weak references to its instances. If weak\n  reference support is needed, then add ``\'__weakref__\'`` to the\n  sequence of strings in the *__slots__* declaration.\n\n  Changed in version 2.3: Previously, adding ``\'__weakref__\'`` to the\n  *__slots__* declaration would not enable support for weak\n  references.\n\n* *__slots__* are implemented at the class level by creating\n  descriptors (*Implementing Descriptors*) for each variable name.  As\n  a result, class attributes cannot be used to set default values for\n  instance variables defined by *__slots__*; otherwise, the class\n  attribute would overwrite the descriptor assignment.\n\n* The action of a *__slots__* declaration is limited to the class\n  where it is defined.  As a result, subclasses will have a *__dict__*\n  unless they also define *__slots__* (which must only contain names\n  of any *additional* slots).\n\n* If a class defines a slot also defined in a base class, the instance\n  variable defined by the base class slot is inaccessible (except by\n  retrieving its descriptor directly from the base class). This\n  renders the meaning of the program undefined.  In the future, a\n  check may be added to prevent this.\n\n* Nonempty *__slots__* does not work for classes derived from\n  "variable-length" built-in types such as ``long``, ``str`` and\n  ``tuple``.\n\n* Any non-string iterable may be assigned to *__slots__*. Mappings may\n  also be used; however, in the future, special meaning may be\n  assigned to the values corresponding to each key.\n\n* *__class__* assignment works only if both classes have the same\n  *__slots__*.\n\n  Changed in version 2.6: Previously, *__class__* assignment raised an\n  error if either new or old class had *__slots__*.\n\n\nCustomizing class creation\n==========================\n\nBy default, new-style classes are constructed using ``type()``. A\nclass definition is read into a separate namespace and the value of\nclass name is bound to the result of ``type(name, bases, dict)``.\n\nWhen the class definition is read, if *__metaclass__* is defined then\nthe callable assigned to it will be called instead of ``type()``. This\nallows classes or functions to be written which monitor or alter the\nclass creation process:\n\n* Modifying the class dictionary prior to the class being created.\n\n* Returning an instance of another class -- essentially performing the\n  role of a factory function.\n\nThese steps will have to be performed in the metaclass\'s ``__new__()``\nmethod -- ``type.__new__()`` can then be called from this method to\ncreate a class with different properties.  This example adds a new\nelement to the class dictionary before creating the class:\n\n   class metacls(type):\n       def __new__(mcs, name, bases, dict):\n           dict[\'foo\'] = \'metacls was here\'\n           return type.__new__(mcs, name, bases, dict)\n\nYou can of course also override other class methods (or add new\nmethods); for example defining a custom ``__call__()`` method in the\nmetaclass allows custom behavior when the class is called, e.g. not\nalways creating a new instance.\n\n__metaclass__\n\n   This variable can be any callable accepting arguments for ``name``,\n   ``bases``, and ``dict``.  Upon class creation, the callable is used\n   instead of the built-in ``type()``.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\nThe appropriate metaclass is determined by the following precedence\nrules:\n\n* If ``dict[\'__metaclass__\']`` exists, it is used.\n\n* Otherwise, if there is at least one base class, its metaclass is\n  used (this looks for a *__class__* attribute first and if not found,\n  uses its type).\n\n* Otherwise, if a global variable named __metaclass__ exists, it is\n  used.\n\n* Otherwise, the old-style, classic metaclass (types.ClassType) is\n  used.\n\nThe potential uses for metaclasses are boundless. Some ideas that have\nbeen explored including logging, interface checking, automatic\ndelegation, automatic property creation, proxies, frameworks, and\nautomatic resource locking/synchronization.\n\n\nCustomizing instance and subclass checks\n========================================\n\nNew in version 2.6.\n\nThe following methods are used to override the default behavior of the\n``isinstance()`` and ``issubclass()`` built-in functions.\n\nIn particular, the metaclass ``abc.ABCMeta`` implements these methods\nin order to allow the addition of Abstract Base Classes (ABCs) as\n"virtual base classes" to any class or type (including built-in\ntypes), including other ABCs.\n\nclass.__instancecheck__(self, instance)\n\n   Return true if *instance* should be considered a (direct or\n   indirect) instance of *class*. If defined, called to implement\n   ``isinstance(instance, class)``.\n\nclass.__subclasscheck__(self, subclass)\n\n   Return true if *subclass* should be considered a (direct or\n   indirect) subclass of *class*.  If defined, called to implement\n   ``issubclass(subclass, class)``.\n\nNote that these methods are looked up on the type (metaclass) of a\nclass.  They cannot be defined as class methods in the actual class.\nThis is consistent with the lookup of special methods that are called\non instances, only in this case the instance is itself a class.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 3119** - Introducing Abstract Base Classes\n      Includes the specification for customizing ``isinstance()`` and\n      ``issubclass()`` behavior through ``__instancecheck__()`` and\n      ``__subclasscheck__()``, with motivation for this functionality\n      in the context of adding Abstract Base Classes (see the ``abc``\n      module) to the language.\n\n\nEmulating callable objects\n==========================\n\nobject.__call__(self[, args...])\n\n   Called when the instance is "called" as a function; if this method\n   is defined, ``x(arg1, arg2, ...)`` is a shorthand for\n   ``x.__call__(arg1, arg2, ...)``.\n\n\nEmulating container types\n=========================\n\nThe following methods can be defined to implement container objects.\nContainers usually are sequences (such as lists or tuples) or mappings\n(like dictionaries), but can represent other containers as well.  The\nfirst set of methods is used either to emulate a sequence or to\nemulate a mapping; the difference is that for a sequence, the\nallowable keys should be the integers *k* for which ``0 <= k < N``\nwhere *N* is the length of the sequence, or slice objects, which\ndefine a range of items. (For backwards compatibility, the method\n``__getslice__()`` (see below) can also be defined to handle simple,\nbut not extended slices.) It is also recommended that mappings provide\nthe methods ``keys()``, ``values()``, ``items()``, ``has_key()``,\n``get()``, ``clear()``, ``setdefault()``, ``iterkeys()``,\n``itervalues()``, ``iteritems()``, ``pop()``, ``popitem()``,\n``copy()``, and ``update()`` behaving similar to those for Python\'s\nstandard dictionary objects.  The ``UserDict`` module provides a\n``DictMixin`` class to help create those methods from a base set of\n``__getitem__()``, ``__setitem__()``, ``__delitem__()``, and\n``keys()``. Mutable sequences should provide methods ``append()``,\n``count()``, ``index()``, ``extend()``, ``insert()``, ``pop()``,\n``remove()``, ``reverse()`` and ``sort()``, like Python standard list\nobjects.  Finally, sequence types should implement addition (meaning\nconcatenation) and multiplication (meaning repetition) by defining the\nmethods ``__add__()``, ``__radd__()``, ``__iadd__()``, ``__mul__()``,\n``__rmul__()`` and ``__imul__()`` described below; they should not\ndefine ``__coerce__()`` or other numerical operators.  It is\nrecommended that both mappings and sequences implement the\n``__contains__()`` method to allow efficient use of the ``in``\noperator; for mappings, ``in`` should be equivalent of ``has_key()``;\nfor sequences, it should search through the values.  It is further\nrecommended that both mappings and sequences implement the\n``__iter__()`` method to allow efficient iteration through the\ncontainer; for mappings, ``__iter__()`` should be the same as\n``iterkeys()``; for sequences, it should iterate through the values.\n\nobject.__len__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the built-in function ``len()``.  Should return\n   the length of the object, an integer ``>=`` 0.  Also, an object\n   that doesn\'t define a ``__nonzero__()`` method and whose\n   ``__len__()`` method returns zero is considered to be false in a\n   Boolean context.\n\nobject.__getitem__(self, key)\n\n   Called to implement evaluation of ``self[key]``. For sequence\n   types, the accepted keys should be integers and slice objects.\n   Note that the special interpretation of negative indexes (if the\n   class wishes to emulate a sequence type) is up to the\n   ``__getitem__()`` method. If *key* is of an inappropriate type,\n   ``TypeError`` may be raised; if of a value outside the set of\n   indexes for the sequence (after any special interpretation of\n   negative values), ``IndexError`` should be raised. For mapping\n   types, if *key* is missing (not in the container), ``KeyError``\n   should be raised.\n\n   Note: ``for`` loops expect that an ``IndexError`` will be raised for\n     illegal indexes to allow proper detection of the end of the\n     sequence.\n\nobject.__setitem__(self, key, value)\n\n   Called to implement assignment to ``self[key]``.  Same note as for\n   ``__getitem__()``.  This should only be implemented for mappings if\n   the objects support changes to the values for keys, or if new keys\n   can be added, or for sequences if elements can be replaced.  The\n   same exceptions should be raised for improper *key* values as for\n   the ``__getitem__()`` method.\n\nobject.__delitem__(self, key)\n\n   Called to implement deletion of ``self[key]``.  Same note as for\n   ``__getitem__()``.  This should only be implemented for mappings if\n   the objects support removal of keys, or for sequences if elements\n   can be removed from the sequence.  The same exceptions should be\n   raised for improper *key* values as for the ``__getitem__()``\n   method.\n\nobject.__iter__(self)\n\n   This method is called when an iterator is required for a container.\n   This method should return a new iterator object that can iterate\n   over all the objects in the container.  For mappings, it should\n   iterate over the keys of the container, and should also be made\n   available as the method ``iterkeys()``.\n\n   Iterator objects also need to implement this method; they are\n   required to return themselves.  For more information on iterator\n   objects, see *Iterator Types*.\n\nobject.__reversed__(self)\n\n   Called (if present) by the ``reversed()`` built-in to implement\n   reverse iteration.  It should return a new iterator object that\n   iterates over all the objects in the container in reverse order.\n\n   If the ``__reversed__()`` method is not provided, the\n   ``reversed()`` built-in will fall back to using the sequence\n   protocol (``__len__()`` and ``__getitem__()``).  Objects that\n   support the sequence protocol should only provide\n   ``__reversed__()`` if they can provide an implementation that is\n   more efficient than the one provided by ``reversed()``.\n\n   New in version 2.6.\n\nThe membership test operators (``in`` and ``not in``) are normally\nimplemented as an iteration through a sequence.  However, container\nobjects can supply the following special method with a more efficient\nimplementation, which also does not require the object be a sequence.\n\nobject.__contains__(self, item)\n\n   Called to implement membership test operators.  Should return true\n   if *item* is in *self*, false otherwise.  For mapping objects, this\n   should consider the keys of the mapping rather than the values or\n   the key-item pairs.\n\n   For objects that don\'t define ``__contains__()``, the membership\n   test first tries iteration via ``__iter__()``, then the old\n   sequence iteration protocol via ``__getitem__()``, see *this\n   section in the language reference*.\n\n\nAdditional methods for emulation of sequence types\n==================================================\n\nThe following optional methods can be defined to further emulate\nsequence objects.  Immutable sequences methods should at most only\ndefine ``__getslice__()``; mutable sequences might define all three\nmethods.\n\nobject.__getslice__(self, i, j)\n\n   Deprecated since version 2.0: Support slice objects as parameters\n   to the ``__getitem__()`` method. (However, built-in types in\n   CPython currently still implement ``__getslice__()``.  Therefore,\n   you have to override it in derived classes when implementing\n   slicing.)\n\n   Called to implement evaluation of ``self[i:j]``. The returned\n   object should be of the same type as *self*.  Note that missing *i*\n   or *j* in the slice expression are replaced by zero or\n   ``sys.maxint``, respectively.  If negative indexes are used in the\n   slice, the length of the sequence is added to that index. If the\n   instance does not implement the ``__len__()`` method, an\n   ``AttributeError`` is raised. No guarantee is made that indexes\n   adjusted this way are not still negative.  Indexes which are\n   greater than the length of the sequence are not modified. If no\n   ``__getslice__()`` is found, a slice object is created instead, and\n   passed to ``__getitem__()`` instead.\n\nobject.__setslice__(self, i, j, sequence)\n\n   Called to implement assignment to ``self[i:j]``. Same notes for *i*\n   and *j* as for ``__getslice__()``.\n\n   This method is deprecated. If no ``__setslice__()`` is found, or\n   for extended slicing of the form ``self[i:j:k]``, a slice object is\n   created, and passed to ``__setitem__()``, instead of\n   ``__setslice__()`` being called.\n\nobject.__delslice__(self, i, j)\n\n   Called to implement deletion of ``self[i:j]``. Same notes for *i*\n   and *j* as for ``__getslice__()``. This method is deprecated. If no\n   ``__delslice__()`` is found, or for extended slicing of the form\n   ``self[i:j:k]``, a slice object is created, and passed to\n   ``__delitem__()``, instead of ``__delslice__()`` being called.\n\nNotice that these methods are only invoked when a single slice with a\nsingle colon is used, and the slice method is available.  For slice\noperations involving extended slice notation, or in absence of the\nslice methods, ``__getitem__()``, ``__setitem__()`` or\n``__delitem__()`` is called with a slice object as argument.\n\nThe following example demonstrate how to make your program or module\ncompatible with earlier versions of Python (assuming that methods\n``__getitem__()``, ``__setitem__()`` and ``__delitem__()`` support\nslice objects as arguments):\n\n   class MyClass:\n       ...\n       def __getitem__(self, index):\n           ...\n       def __setitem__(self, index, value):\n           ...\n       def __delitem__(self, index):\n           ...\n\n       if sys.version_info < (2, 0):\n           # They won\'t be defined if version is at least 2.0 final\n\n           def __getslice__(self, i, j):\n               return self[max(0, i):max(0, j):]\n           def __setslice__(self, i, j, seq):\n               self[max(0, i):max(0, j):] = seq\n           def __delslice__(self, i, j):\n               del self[max(0, i):max(0, j):]\n       ...\n\nNote the calls to ``max()``; these are necessary because of the\nhandling of negative indices before the ``__*slice__()`` methods are\ncalled.  When negative indexes are used, the ``__*item__()`` methods\nreceive them as provided, but the ``__*slice__()`` methods get a\n"cooked" form of the index values.  For each negative index value, the\nlength of the sequence is added to the index before calling the method\n(which may still result in a negative index); this is the customary\nhandling of negative indexes by the built-in sequence types, and the\n``__*item__()`` methods are expected to do this as well.  However,\nsince they should already be doing that, negative indexes cannot be\npassed in; they must be constrained to the bounds of the sequence\nbefore being passed to the ``__*item__()`` methods. Calling ``max(0,\ni)`` conveniently returns the proper value.\n\n\nEmulating numeric types\n=======================\n\nThe following methods can be defined to emulate numeric objects.\nMethods corresponding to operations that are not supported by the\nparticular kind of number implemented (e.g., bitwise operations for\nnon-integral numbers) should be left undefined.\n\nobject.__add__(self, other)\nobject.__sub__(self, other)\nobject.__mul__(self, other)\nobject.__floordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__mod__(self, other)\nobject.__divmod__(self, other)\nobject.__pow__(self, other[, modulo])\nobject.__lshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rshift__(self, other)\nobject.__and__(self, other)\nobject.__xor__(self, other)\nobject.__or__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the binary arithmetic\n   operations (``+``, ``-``, ``*``, ``//``, ``%``, ``divmod()``,\n   ``pow()``, ``**``, ``<<``, ``>>``, ``&``, ``^``, ``|``).  For\n   instance, to evaluate the expression ``x + y``, where *x* is an\n   instance of a class that has an ``__add__()`` method,\n   ``x.__add__(y)`` is called.  The ``__divmod__()`` method should be\n   the equivalent to using ``__floordiv__()`` and ``__mod__()``; it\n   should not be related to ``__truediv__()`` (described below).  Note\n   that ``__pow__()`` should be defined to accept an optional third\n   argument if the ternary version of the built-in ``pow()`` function\n   is to be supported.\n\n   If one of those methods does not support the operation with the\n   supplied arguments, it should return ``NotImplemented``.\n\nobject.__div__(self, other)\nobject.__truediv__(self, other)\n\n   The division operator (``/``) is implemented by these methods.  The\n   ``__truediv__()`` method is used when ``__future__.division`` is in\n   effect, otherwise ``__div__()`` is used.  If only one of these two\n   methods is defined, the object will not support division in the\n   alternate context; ``TypeError`` will be raised instead.\n\nobject.__radd__(self, other)\nobject.__rsub__(self, other)\nobject.__rmul__(self, other)\nobject.__rdiv__(self, other)\nobject.__rtruediv__(self, other)\nobject.__rfloordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__rmod__(self, other)\nobject.__rdivmod__(self, other)\nobject.__rpow__(self, other)\nobject.__rlshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rrshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rand__(self, other)\nobject.__rxor__(self, other)\nobject.__ror__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the binary arithmetic\n   operations (``+``, ``-``, ``*``, ``/``, ``%``, ``divmod()``,\n   ``pow()``, ``**``, ``<<``, ``>>``, ``&``, ``^``, ``|``) with\n   reflected (swapped) operands.  These functions are only called if\n   the left operand does not support the corresponding operation and\n   the operands are of different types. [2] For instance, to evaluate\n   the expression ``x - y``, where *y* is an instance of a class that\n   has an ``__rsub__()`` method, ``y.__rsub__(x)`` is called if\n   ``x.__sub__(y)`` returns *NotImplemented*.\n\n   Note that ternary ``pow()`` will not try calling ``__rpow__()``\n   (the coercion rules would become too complicated).\n\n   Note: If the right operand\'s type is a subclass of the left operand\'s\n     type and that subclass provides the reflected method for the\n     operation, this method will be called before the left operand\'s\n     non-reflected method.  This behavior allows subclasses to\n     override their ancestors\' operations.\n\nobject.__iadd__(self, other)\nobject.__isub__(self, other)\nobject.__imul__(self, other)\nobject.__idiv__(self, other)\nobject.__itruediv__(self, other)\nobject.__ifloordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__imod__(self, other)\nobject.__ipow__(self, other[, modulo])\nobject.__ilshift__(self, other)\nobject.__irshift__(self, other)\nobject.__iand__(self, other)\nobject.__ixor__(self, other)\nobject.__ior__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the augmented arithmetic\n   assignments (``+=``, ``-=``, ``*=``, ``/=``, ``//=``, ``%=``,\n   ``**=``, ``<<=``, ``>>=``, ``&=``, ``^=``, ``|=``).  These methods\n   should attempt to do the operation in-place (modifying *self*) and\n   return the result (which could be, but does not have to be,\n   *self*).  If a specific method is not defined, the augmented\n   assignment falls back to the normal methods.  For instance, to\n   execute the statement ``x += y``, where *x* is an instance of a\n   class that has an ``__iadd__()`` method, ``x.__iadd__(y)`` is\n   called.  If *x* is an instance of a class that does not define a\n   ``__iadd__()`` method, ``x.__add__(y)`` and ``y.__radd__(x)`` are\n   considered, as with the evaluation of ``x + y``.\n\nobject.__neg__(self)\nobject.__pos__(self)\nobject.__abs__(self)\nobject.__invert__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the unary arithmetic operations (``-``, ``+``,\n   ``abs()`` and ``~``).\n\nobject.__complex__(self)\nobject.__int__(self)\nobject.__long__(self)\nobject.__float__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the built-in functions ``complex()``,\n   ``int()``, ``long()``, and ``float()``.  Should return a value of\n   the appropriate type.\n\nobject.__oct__(self)\nobject.__hex__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the built-in functions ``oct()`` and ``hex()``.\n   Should return a string value.\n\nobject.__index__(self)\n\n   Called to implement ``operator.index()``.  Also called whenever\n   Python needs an integer object (such as in slicing).  Must return\n   an integer (int or long).\n\n   New in version 2.5.\n\nobject.__coerce__(self, other)\n\n   Called to implement "mixed-mode" numeric arithmetic.  Should either\n   return a 2-tuple containing *self* and *other* converted to a\n   common numeric type, or ``None`` if conversion is impossible.  When\n   the common type would be the type of ``other``, it is sufficient to\n   return ``None``, since the interpreter will also ask the other\n   object to attempt a coercion (but sometimes, if the implementation\n   of the other type cannot be changed, it is useful to do the\n   conversion to the other type here).  A return value of\n   ``NotImplemented`` is equivalent to returning ``None``.\n\n\nCoercion rules\n==============\n\nThis section used to document the rules for coercion.  As the language\nhas evolved, the coercion rules have become hard to document\nprecisely; documenting what one version of one particular\nimplementation does is undesirable.  Instead, here are some informal\nguidelines regarding coercion.  In Python 3.0, coercion will not be\nsupported.\n\n* If the left operand of a % operator is a string or Unicode object,\n  no coercion takes place and the string formatting operation is\n  invoked instead.\n\n* It is no longer recommended to define a coercion operation. Mixed-\n  mode operations on types that don\'t define coercion pass the\n  original arguments to the operation.\n\n* New-style classes (those derived from ``object``) never invoke the\n  ``__coerce__()`` method in response to a binary operator; the only\n  time ``__coerce__()`` is invoked is when the built-in function\n  ``coerce()`` is called.\n\n* For most intents and purposes, an operator that returns\n  ``NotImplemented`` is treated the same as one that is not\n  implemented at all.\n\n* Below, ``__op__()`` and ``__rop__()`` are used to signify the\n  generic method names corresponding to an operator; ``__iop__()`` is\n  used for the corresponding in-place operator.  For example, for the\n  operator \'``+``\', ``__add__()`` and ``__radd__()`` are used for the\n  left and right variant of the binary operator, and ``__iadd__()``\n  for the in-place variant.\n\n* For objects *x* and *y*, first ``x.__op__(y)`` is tried.  If this is\n  not implemented or returns ``NotImplemented``, ``y.__rop__(x)`` is\n  tried.  If this is also not implemented or returns\n  ``NotImplemented``, a ``TypeError`` exception is raised.  But see\n  the following exception:\n\n* Exception to the previous item: if the left operand is an instance\n  of a built-in type or a new-style class, and the right operand is an\n  instance of a proper subclass of that type or class and overrides\n  the base\'s ``__rop__()`` method, the right operand\'s ``__rop__()``\n  method is tried *before* the left operand\'s ``__op__()`` method.\n\n  This is done so that a subclass can completely override binary\n  operators. Otherwise, the left operand\'s ``__op__()`` method would\n  always accept the right operand: when an instance of a given class\n  is expected, an instance of a subclass of that class is always\n  acceptable.\n\n* When either operand type defines a coercion, this coercion is called\n  before that type\'s ``__op__()`` or ``__rop__()`` method is called,\n  but no sooner.  If the coercion returns an object of a different\n  type for the operand whose coercion is invoked, part of the process\n  is redone using the new object.\n\n* When an in-place operator (like \'``+=``\') is used, if the left\n  operand implements ``__iop__()``, it is invoked without any\n  coercion.  When the operation falls back to ``__op__()`` and/or\n  ``__rop__()``, the normal coercion rules apply.\n\n* In ``x + y``, if *x* is a sequence that implements sequence\n  concatenation, sequence concatenation is invoked.\n\n* In ``x * y``, if one operator is a sequence that implements sequence\n  repetition, and the other is an integer (``int`` or ``long``),\n  sequence repetition is invoked.\n\n* Rich comparisons (implemented by methods ``__eq__()`` and so on)\n  never use coercion.  Three-way comparison (implemented by\n  ``__cmp__()``) does use coercion under the same conditions as other\n  binary operations use it.\n\n* In the current implementation, the built-in numeric types ``int``,\n  ``long``, ``float``, and ``complex`` do not use coercion. All these\n  types implement a ``__coerce__()`` method, for use by the built-in\n  ``coerce()`` function.\n\n  Changed in version 2.7.\n\n\nWith Statement Context Managers\n===============================\n\nNew in version 2.5.\n\nA *context manager* is an object that defines the runtime context to\nbe established when executing a ``with`` statement. The context\nmanager handles the entry into, and the exit from, the desired runtime\ncontext for the execution of the block of code.  Context managers are\nnormally invoked using the ``with`` statement (described in section\n*The with statement*), but can also be used by directly invoking their\nmethods.\n\nTypical uses of context managers include saving and restoring various\nkinds of global state, locking and unlocking resources, closing opened\nfiles, etc.\n\nFor more information on context managers, see *Context Manager Types*.\n\nobject.__enter__(self)\n\n   Enter the runtime context related to this object. The ``with``\n   statement will bind this method\'s return value to the target(s)\n   specified in the ``as`` clause of the statement, if any.\n\nobject.__exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback)\n\n   Exit the runtime context related to this object. The parameters\n   describe the exception that caused the context to be exited. If the\n   context was exited without an exception, all three arguments will\n   be ``None``.\n\n   If an exception is supplied, and the method wishes to suppress the\n   exception (i.e., prevent it from being propagated), it should\n   return a true value. Otherwise, the exception will be processed\n   normally upon exit from this method.\n\n   Note that ``__exit__()`` methods should not reraise the passed-in\n   exception; this is the caller\'s responsibility.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n\n\nSpecial method lookup for old-style classes\n===========================================\n\nFor old-style classes, special methods are always looked up in exactly\nthe same way as any other method or attribute. This is the case\nregardless of whether the method is being looked up explicitly as in\n``x.__getitem__(i)`` or implicitly as in ``x[i]``.\n\nThis behaviour means that special methods may exhibit different\nbehaviour for different instances of a single old-style class if the\nappropriate special attributes are set differently:\n\n   >>> class C:\n   ...     pass\n   ...\n   >>> c1 = C()\n   >>> c2 = C()\n   >>> c1.__len__ = lambda: 5\n   >>> c2.__len__ = lambda: 9\n   >>> len(c1)\n   5\n   >>> len(c2)\n   9\n\n\nSpecial method lookup for new-style classes\n===========================================\n\nFor new-style classes, implicit invocations of special methods are\nonly guaranteed to work correctly if defined on an object\'s type, not\nin the object\'s instance dictionary.  That behaviour is the reason why\nthe following code raises an exception (unlike the equivalent example\nwith old-style classes):\n\n   >>> class C(object):\n   ...     pass\n   ...\n   >>> c = C()\n   >>> c.__len__ = lambda: 5\n   >>> len(c)\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>\n   TypeError: object of type \'C\' has no len()\n\nThe rationale behind this behaviour lies with a number of special\nmethods such as ``__hash__()`` and ``__repr__()`` that are implemented\nby all objects, including type objects. If the implicit lookup of\nthese methods used the conventional lookup process, they would fail\nwhen invoked on the type object itself:\n\n   >>> 1 .__hash__() == hash(1)\n   True\n   >>> int.__hash__() == hash(int)\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>\n   TypeError: descriptor \'__hash__\' of \'int\' object needs an argument\n\nIncorrectly attempting to invoke an unbound method of a class in this\nway is sometimes referred to as \'metaclass confusion\', and is avoided\nby bypassing the instance when looking up special methods:\n\n   >>> type(1).__hash__(1) == hash(1)\n   True\n   >>> type(int).__hash__(int) == hash(int)\n   True\n\nIn addition to bypassing any instance attributes in the interest of\ncorrectness, implicit special method lookup generally also bypasses\nthe ``__getattribute__()`` method even of the object\'s metaclass:\n\n   >>> class Meta(type):\n   ...    def __getattribute__(*args):\n   ...       print "Metaclass getattribute invoked"\n   ...       return type.__getattribute__(*args)\n   ...\n   >>> class C(object):\n   ...     __metaclass__ = Meta\n   ...     def __len__(self):\n   ...         return 10\n   ...     def __getattribute__(*args):\n   ...         print "Class getattribute invoked"\n   ...         return object.__getattribute__(*args)\n   ...\n   >>> c = C()\n   >>> c.__len__()                 # Explicit lookup via instance\n   Class getattribute invoked\n   10\n   >>> type(c).__len__(c)          # Explicit lookup via type\n   Metaclass getattribute invoked\n   10\n   >>> len(c)                      # Implicit lookup\n   10\n\nBypassing the ``__getattribute__()`` machinery in this fashion\nprovides significant scope for speed optimisations within the\ninterpreter, at the cost of some flexibility in the handling of\nspecial methods (the special method *must* be set on the class object\nitself in order to be consistently invoked by the interpreter).\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] It *is* possible in some cases to change an object\'s type, under\n    certain controlled conditions. It generally isn\'t a good idea\n    though, since it can lead to some very strange behaviour if it is\n    handled incorrectly.\n\n[2] For operands of the same type, it is assumed that if the non-\n    reflected method (such as ``__add__()``) fails the operation is\n    not supported, which is why the reflected method is not called.\n',
  'string-conversions': u'\nString conversions\n******************\n\nA string conversion is an expression list enclosed in reverse (a.k.a.\nbackward) quotes:\n\n   string_conversion ::= "\'" expression_list "\'"\n\nA string conversion evaluates the contained expression list and\nconverts the resulting object into a string according to rules\nspecific to its type.\n\nIf the object is a string, a number, ``None``, or a tuple, list or\ndictionary containing only objects whose type is one of these, the\nresulting string is a valid Python expression which can be passed to\nthe built-in function ``eval()`` to yield an expression with the same\nvalue (or an approximation, if floating point numbers are involved).\n\n(In particular, converting a string adds quotes around it and converts\n"funny" characters to escape sequences that are safe to print.)\n\nRecursive objects (for example, lists or dictionaries that contain a\nreference to themselves, directly or indirectly) use ``...`` to\nindicate a recursive reference, and the result cannot be passed to\n``eval()`` to get an equal value (``SyntaxError`` will be raised\ninstead).\n\nThe built-in function ``repr()`` performs exactly the same conversion\nin its argument as enclosing it in parentheses and reverse quotes\ndoes.  The built-in function ``str()`` performs a similar but more\nuser-friendly conversion.\n',
- 'string-methods': u'\nString Methods\n**************\n\nBelow are listed the string methods which both 8-bit strings and\nUnicode objects support.\n\nIn addition, Python\'s strings support the sequence type methods\ndescribed in the *Sequence Types --- str, unicode, list, tuple,\nbuffer, xrange* section. To output formatted strings use template\nstrings or the ``%`` operator described in the *String Formatting\nOperations* section. Also, see the ``re`` module for string functions\nbased on regular expressions.\n\nstr.capitalize()\n\n   Return a copy of the string with only its first character\n   capitalized.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.center(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return centered in a string of length *width*. Padding is done\n   using the specified *fillchar* (default is a space).\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.count(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring *sub*\n   in the range [*start*, *end*].  Optional arguments *start* and\n   *end* are interpreted as in slice notation.\n\nstr.decode([encoding[, errors]])\n\n   Decodes the string using the codec registered for *encoding*.\n   *encoding* defaults to the default string encoding.  *errors* may\n   be given to set a different error handling scheme.  The default is\n   ``\'strict\'``, meaning that encoding errors raise ``UnicodeError``.\n   Other possible values are ``\'ignore\'``, ``\'replace\'`` and any other\n   name registered via ``codecs.register_error()``, see section *Codec\n   Base Classes*.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for other error handling schemes\n   added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.7: Support for keyword arguments added.\n\nstr.encode([encoding[, errors]])\n\n   Return an encoded version of the string.  Default encoding is the\n   current default string encoding.  *errors* may be given to set a\n   different error handling scheme.  The default for *errors* is\n   ``\'strict\'``, meaning that encoding errors raise a\n   ``UnicodeError``.  Other possible values are ``\'ignore\'``,\n   ``\'replace\'``, ``\'xmlcharrefreplace\'``, ``\'backslashreplace\'`` and\n   any other name registered via ``codecs.register_error()``, see\n   section *Codec Base Classes*. For a list of possible encodings, see\n   section *Standard Encodings*.\n\n   New in version 2.0.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for ``\'xmlcharrefreplace\'`` and\n   ``\'backslashreplace\'`` and other error handling schemes added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.7: Support for keyword arguments added.\n\nstr.endswith(suffix[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return ``True`` if the string ends with the specified *suffix*,\n   otherwise return ``False``.  *suffix* can also be a tuple of\n   suffixes to look for.  With optional *start*, test beginning at\n   that position.  With optional *end*, stop comparing at that\n   position.\n\n   Changed in version 2.5: Accept tuples as *suffix*.\n\nstr.expandtabs([tabsize])\n\n   Return a copy of the string where all tab characters are replaced\n   by one or more spaces, depending on the current column and the\n   given tab size.  The column number is reset to zero after each\n   newline occurring in the string. If *tabsize* is not given, a tab\n   size of ``8`` characters is assumed.  This doesn\'t understand other\n   non-printing characters or escape sequences.\n\nstr.find(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the lowest index in the string where substring *sub* is\n   found, such that *sub* is contained in the slice ``s[start:end]``.\n   Optional arguments *start* and *end* are interpreted as in slice\n   notation.  Return ``-1`` if *sub* is not found.\n\nstr.format(*args, **kwargs)\n\n   Perform a string formatting operation.  The string on which this\n   method is called can contain literal text or replacement fields\n   delimited by braces ``{}``.  Each replacement field contains either\n   the numeric index of a positional argument, or the name of a\n   keyword argument.  Returns a copy of the string where each\n   replacement field is replaced with the string value of the\n   corresponding argument.\n\n   >>> "The sum of 1 + 2 is {0}".format(1+2)\n   \'The sum of 1 + 2 is 3\'\n\n   See *Format String Syntax* for a description of the various\n   formatting options that can be specified in format strings.\n\n   This method of string formatting is the new standard in Python 3.0,\n   and should be preferred to the ``%`` formatting described in\n   *String Formatting Operations* in new code.\n\n   New in version 2.6.\n\nstr.index(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Like ``find()``, but raise ``ValueError`` when the substring is not\n   found.\n\nstr.isalnum()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are alphanumeric and\n   there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isalpha()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are alphabetic and\n   there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isdigit()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are digits and there is\n   at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.islower()\n\n   Return true if all cased characters in the string are lowercase and\n   there is at least one cased character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isspace()\n\n   Return true if there are only whitespace characters in the string\n   and there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.istitle()\n\n   Return true if the string is a titlecased string and there is at\n   least one character, for example uppercase characters may only\n   follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones.\n   Return false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isupper()\n\n   Return true if all cased characters in the string are uppercase and\n   there is at least one cased character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.join(iterable)\n\n   Return a string which is the concatenation of the strings in the\n   *iterable* *iterable*.  The separator between elements is the\n   string providing this method.\n\nstr.ljust(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return the string left justified in a string of length *width*.\n   Padding is done using the specified *fillchar* (default is a\n   space).  The original string is returned if *width* is less than\n   ``len(s)``.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.lower()\n\n   Return a copy of the string converted to lowercase.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.lstrip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with leading characters removed.  The\n   *chars* argument is a string specifying the set of characters to be\n   removed.  If omitted or ``None``, the *chars* argument defaults to\n   removing whitespace.  The *chars* argument is not a prefix; rather,\n   all combinations of its values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.lstrip()\n   \'spacious   \'\n   >>> \'www.example.com\'.lstrip(\'cmowz.\')\n   \'example.com\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.partition(sep)\n\n   Split the string at the first occurrence of *sep*, and return a\n   3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator\n   itself, and the part after the separator.  If the separator is not\n   found, return a 3-tuple containing the string itself, followed by\n   two empty strings.\n\n   New in version 2.5.\n\nstr.replace(old, new[, count])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with all occurrences of substring *old*\n   replaced by *new*.  If the optional argument *count* is given, only\n   the first *count* occurrences are replaced.\n\nstr.rfind(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the highest index in the string where substring *sub* is\n   found, such that *sub* is contained within ``s[start:end]``.\n   Optional arguments *start* and *end* are interpreted as in slice\n   notation.  Return ``-1`` on failure.\n\nstr.rindex(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Like ``rfind()`` but raises ``ValueError`` when the substring *sub*\n   is not found.\n\nstr.rjust(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return the string right justified in a string of length *width*.\n   Padding is done using the specified *fillchar* (default is a\n   space). The original string is returned if *width* is less than\n   ``len(s)``.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.rpartition(sep)\n\n   Split the string at the last occurrence of *sep*, and return a\n   3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator\n   itself, and the part after the separator.  If the separator is not\n   found, return a 3-tuple containing two empty strings, followed by\n   the string itself.\n\n   New in version 2.5.\n\nstr.rsplit([sep[, maxsplit]])\n\n   Return a list of the words in the string, using *sep* as the\n   delimiter string. If *maxsplit* is given, at most *maxsplit* splits\n   are done, the *rightmost* ones.  If *sep* is not specified or\n   ``None``, any whitespace string is a separator.  Except for\n   splitting from the right, ``rsplit()`` behaves like ``split()``\n   which is described in detail below.\n\n   New in version 2.4.\n\nstr.rstrip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with trailing characters removed.  The\n   *chars* argument is a string specifying the set of characters to be\n   removed.  If omitted or ``None``, the *chars* argument defaults to\n   removing whitespace.  The *chars* argument is not a suffix; rather,\n   all combinations of its values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.rstrip()\n   \'   spacious\'\n   >>> \'mississippi\'.rstrip(\'ipz\')\n   \'mississ\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.split([sep[, maxsplit]])\n\n   Return a list of the words in the string, using *sep* as the\n   delimiter string.  If *maxsplit* is given, at most *maxsplit*\n   splits are done (thus, the list will have at most ``maxsplit+1``\n   elements).  If *maxsplit* is not specified, then there is no limit\n   on the number of splits (all possible splits are made).\n\n   If *sep* is given, consecutive delimiters are not grouped together\n   and are deemed to delimit empty strings (for example,\n   ``\'1,,2\'.split(\',\')`` returns ``[\'1\', \'\', \'2\']``).  The *sep*\n   argument may consist of multiple characters (for example,\n   ``\'1<>2<>3\'.split(\'<>\')`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2\', \'3\']``). Splitting\n   an empty string with a specified separator returns ``[\'\']``.\n\n   If *sep* is not specified or is ``None``, a different splitting\n   algorithm is applied: runs of consecutive whitespace are regarded\n   as a single separator, and the result will contain no empty strings\n   at the start or end if the string has leading or trailing\n   whitespace.  Consequently, splitting an empty string or a string\n   consisting of just whitespace with a ``None`` separator returns\n   ``[]``.\n\n   For example, ``\' 1  2   3  \'.split()`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2\', \'3\']``,\n   and ``\'  1  2   3  \'.split(None, 1)`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2   3  \']``.\n\nstr.splitlines([keepends])\n\n   Return a list of the lines in the string, breaking at line\n   boundaries.  Line breaks are not included in the resulting list\n   unless *keepends* is given and true.\n\nstr.startswith(prefix[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return ``True`` if string starts with the *prefix*, otherwise\n   return ``False``. *prefix* can also be a tuple of prefixes to look\n   for.  With optional *start*, test string beginning at that\n   position.  With optional *end*, stop comparing string at that\n   position.\n\n   Changed in version 2.5: Accept tuples as *prefix*.\n\nstr.strip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with the leading and trailing\n   characters removed. The *chars* argument is a string specifying the\n   set of characters to be removed. If omitted or ``None``, the\n   *chars* argument defaults to removing whitespace. The *chars*\n   argument is not a prefix or suffix; rather, all combinations of its\n   values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.strip()\n   \'spacious\'\n   >>> \'www.example.com\'.strip(\'cmowz.\')\n   \'example\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.swapcase()\n\n   Return a copy of the string with uppercase characters converted to\n   lowercase and vice versa.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.title()\n\n   Return a titlecased version of the string where words start with an\n   uppercase character and the remaining characters are lowercase.\n\n   The algorithm uses a simple language-independent definition of a\n   word as groups of consecutive letters.  The definition works in\n   many contexts but it means that apostrophes in contractions and\n   possessives form word boundaries, which may not be the desired\n   result:\n\n      >>> "they\'re bill\'s friends from the UK".title()\n      "They\'Re Bill\'S Friends From The Uk"\n\n   A workaround for apostrophes can be constructed using regular\n   expressions:\n\n      >>> import re\n      >>> def titlecase(s):\n              return re.sub(r"[A-Za-z]+(\'[A-Za-z]+)?",\n                            lambda mo: mo.group(0)[0].upper() +\n                                       mo.group(0)[1:].lower(),\n                            s)\n\n      >>> titlecase("they\'re bill\'s friends.")\n      "They\'re Bill\'s Friends."\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.translate(table[, deletechars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string where all characters occurring in the\n   optional argument *deletechars* are removed, and the remaining\n   characters have been mapped through the given translation table,\n   which must be a string of length 256.\n\n   You can use the ``maketrans()`` helper function in the ``string``\n   module to create a translation table. For string objects, set the\n   *table* argument to ``None`` for translations that only delete\n   characters:\n\n   >>> \'read this short text\'.translate(None, \'aeiou\')\n   \'rd ths shrt txt\'\n\n   New in version 2.6: Support for a ``None`` *table* argument.\n\n   For Unicode objects, the ``translate()`` method does not accept the\n   optional *deletechars* argument.  Instead, it returns a copy of the\n   *s* where all characters have been mapped through the given\n   translation table which must be a mapping of Unicode ordinals to\n   Unicode ordinals, Unicode strings or ``None``. Unmapped characters\n   are left untouched. Characters mapped to ``None`` are deleted.\n   Note, a more flexible approach is to create a custom character\n   mapping codec using the ``codecs`` module (see ``encodings.cp1251``\n   for an example).\n\nstr.upper()\n\n   Return a copy of the string converted to uppercase.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.zfill(width)\n\n   Return the numeric string left filled with zeros in a string of\n   length *width*.  A sign prefix is handled correctly.  The original\n   string is returned if *width* is less than ``len(s)``.\n\n   New in version 2.2.2.\n\nThe following methods are present only on unicode objects:\n\nunicode.isnumeric()\n\n   Return ``True`` if there are only numeric characters in S,\n   ``False`` otherwise. Numeric characters include digit characters,\n   and all characters that have the Unicode numeric value property,\n   e.g. U+2155, VULGAR FRACTION ONE FIFTH.\n\nunicode.isdecimal()\n\n   Return ``True`` if there are only decimal characters in S,\n   ``False`` otherwise. Decimal characters include digit characters,\n   and all characters that that can be used to form decimal-radix\n   numbers, e.g. U+0660, ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT ZERO.\n',
- 'strings': u'\nString literals\n***************\n\nString literals are described by the following lexical definitions:\n\n   stringliteral   ::= [stringprefix](shortstring | longstring)\n   stringprefix    ::= "r" | "u" | "ur" | "R" | "U" | "UR" | "Ur" | "uR"\n   shortstring     ::= "\'" shortstringitem* "\'" | \'"\' shortstringitem* \'"\'\n   longstring      ::= "\'\'\'" longstringitem* "\'\'\'"\n                  | \'"""\' longstringitem* \'"""\'\n   shortstringitem ::= shortstringchar | escapeseq\n   longstringitem  ::= longstringchar | escapeseq\n   shortstringchar ::= <any source character except "\\" or newline or the quote>\n   longstringchar  ::= <any source character except "\\">\n   escapeseq       ::= "\\" <any ASCII character>\n\nOne syntactic restriction not indicated by these productions is that\nwhitespace is not allowed between the **stringprefix** and the rest of\nthe string literal. The source character set is defined by the\nencoding declaration; it is ASCII if no encoding declaration is given\nin the source file; see section *Encoding declarations*.\n\nIn plain English: String literals can be enclosed in matching single\nquotes (``\'``) or double quotes (``"``).  They can also be enclosed in\nmatching groups of three single or double quotes (these are generally\nreferred to as *triple-quoted strings*).  The backslash (``\\``)\ncharacter is used to escape characters that otherwise have a special\nmeaning, such as newline, backslash itself, or the quote character.\nString literals may optionally be prefixed with a letter ``\'r\'`` or\n``\'R\'``; such strings are called *raw strings* and use different rules\nfor interpreting backslash escape sequences.  A prefix of ``\'u\'`` or\n``\'U\'`` makes the string a Unicode string.  Unicode strings use the\nUnicode character set as defined by the Unicode Consortium and ISO\n10646.  Some additional escape sequences, described below, are\navailable in Unicode strings. The two prefix characters may be\ncombined; in this case, ``\'u\'`` must appear before ``\'r\'``.\n\nIn triple-quoted strings, unescaped newlines and quotes are allowed\n(and are retained), except that three unescaped quotes in a row\nterminate the string.  (A "quote" is the character used to open the\nstring, i.e. either ``\'`` or ``"``.)\n\nUnless an ``\'r\'`` or ``\'R\'`` prefix is present, escape sequences in\nstrings are interpreted according to rules similar to those used by\nStandard C.  The recognized escape sequences are:\n\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| Escape Sequence   | Meaning                           | Notes   |\n+===================+===================================+=========+\n| ``\\newline``      | Ignored                           |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\\\``            | Backslash (``\\``)                 |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\\'``            | Single quote (``\'``)              |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\"``            | Double quote (``"``)              |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\a``            | ASCII Bell (BEL)                  |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\b``            | ASCII Backspace (BS)              |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\f``            | ASCII Formfeed (FF)               |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\n``            | ASCII Linefeed (LF)               |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\N{name}``      | Character named *name* in the     |         |\n|                   | Unicode database (Unicode only)   |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\r``            | ASCII Carriage Return (CR)        |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\t``            | ASCII Horizontal Tab (TAB)        |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\uxxxx``        | Character with 16-bit hex value   | (1)     |\n|                   | *xxxx* (Unicode only)             |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\Uxxxxxxxx``    | Character with 32-bit hex value   | (2)     |\n|                   | *xxxxxxxx* (Unicode only)         |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\v``            | ASCII Vertical Tab (VT)           |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\ooo``          | Character with octal value *ooo*  | (3,5)   |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\xhh``          | Character with hex value *hh*     | (4,5)   |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n\nNotes:\n\n1. Individual code units which form parts of a surrogate pair can be\n   encoded using this escape sequence.\n\n2. Any Unicode character can be encoded this way, but characters\n   outside the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) will be encoded using a\n   surrogate pair if Python is compiled to use 16-bit code units (the\n   default).  Individual code units which form parts of a surrogate\n   pair can be encoded using this escape sequence.\n\n3. As in Standard C, up to three octal digits are accepted.\n\n4. Unlike in Standard C, exactly two hex digits are required.\n\n5. In a string literal, hexadecimal and octal escapes denote the byte\n   with the given value; it is not necessary that the byte encodes a\n   character in the source character set. In a Unicode literal, these\n   escapes denote a Unicode character with the given value.\n\nUnlike Standard C, all unrecognized escape sequences are left in the\nstring unchanged, i.e., *the backslash is left in the string*.  (This\nbehavior is useful when debugging: if an escape sequence is mistyped,\nthe resulting output is more easily recognized as broken.)  It is also\nimportant to note that the escape sequences marked as "(Unicode only)"\nin the table above fall into the category of unrecognized escapes for\nnon-Unicode string literals.\n\nWhen an ``\'r\'`` or ``\'R\'`` prefix is present, a character following a\nbackslash is included in the string without change, and *all\nbackslashes are left in the string*.  For example, the string literal\n``r"\\n"`` consists of two characters: a backslash and a lowercase\n``\'n\'``.  String quotes can be escaped with a backslash, but the\nbackslash remains in the string; for example, ``r"\\""`` is a valid\nstring literal consisting of two characters: a backslash and a double\nquote; ``r"\\"`` is not a valid string literal (even a raw string\ncannot end in an odd number of backslashes).  Specifically, *a raw\nstring cannot end in a single backslash* (since the backslash would\nescape the following quote character).  Note also that a single\nbackslash followed by a newline is interpreted as those two characters\nas part of the string, *not* as a line continuation.\n\nWhen an ``\'r\'`` or ``\'R\'`` prefix is used in conjunction with a\n``\'u\'`` or ``\'U\'`` prefix, then the ``\\uXXXX`` and ``\\UXXXXXXXX``\nescape sequences are processed while  *all other backslashes are left\nin the string*. For example, the string literal ``ur"\\u0062\\n"``\nconsists of three Unicode characters: \'LATIN SMALL LETTER B\', \'REVERSE\nSOLIDUS\', and \'LATIN SMALL LETTER N\'. Backslashes can be escaped with\na preceding backslash; however, both remain in the string.  As a\nresult, ``\\uXXXX`` escape sequences are only recognized when there are\nan odd number of backslashes.\n',
+ 'string-methods': u'\nString Methods\n**************\n\nBelow are listed the string methods which both 8-bit strings and\nUnicode objects support.  Some of them are also available on\n``bytearray`` objects.\n\nIn addition, Python\'s strings support the sequence type methods\ndescribed in the *Sequence Types --- str, unicode, list, tuple,\nbytearray, buffer, xrange* section. To output formatted strings use\ntemplate strings or the ``%`` operator described in the *String\nFormatting Operations* section. Also, see the ``re`` module for string\nfunctions based on regular expressions.\n\nstr.capitalize()\n\n   Return a copy of the string with its first character capitalized\n   and the rest lowercased.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.center(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return centered in a string of length *width*. Padding is done\n   using the specified *fillchar* (default is a space).\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.count(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring *sub*\n   in the range [*start*, *end*].  Optional arguments *start* and\n   *end* are interpreted as in slice notation.\n\nstr.decode([encoding[, errors]])\n\n   Decodes the string using the codec registered for *encoding*.\n   *encoding* defaults to the default string encoding.  *errors* may\n   be given to set a different error handling scheme.  The default is\n   ``\'strict\'``, meaning that encoding errors raise ``UnicodeError``.\n   Other possible values are ``\'ignore\'``, ``\'replace\'`` and any other\n   name registered via ``codecs.register_error()``, see section *Codec\n   Base Classes*.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for other error handling schemes\n   added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.7: Support for keyword arguments added.\n\nstr.encode([encoding[, errors]])\n\n   Return an encoded version of the string.  Default encoding is the\n   current default string encoding.  *errors* may be given to set a\n   different error handling scheme.  The default for *errors* is\n   ``\'strict\'``, meaning that encoding errors raise a\n   ``UnicodeError``.  Other possible values are ``\'ignore\'``,\n   ``\'replace\'``, ``\'xmlcharrefreplace\'``, ``\'backslashreplace\'`` and\n   any other name registered via ``codecs.register_error()``, see\n   section *Codec Base Classes*. For a list of possible encodings, see\n   section *Standard Encodings*.\n\n   New in version 2.0.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for ``\'xmlcharrefreplace\'`` and\n   ``\'backslashreplace\'`` and other error handling schemes added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.7: Support for keyword arguments added.\n\nstr.endswith(suffix[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return ``True`` if the string ends with the specified *suffix*,\n   otherwise return ``False``.  *suffix* can also be a tuple of\n   suffixes to look for.  With optional *start*, test beginning at\n   that position.  With optional *end*, stop comparing at that\n   position.\n\n   Changed in version 2.5: Accept tuples as *suffix*.\n\nstr.expandtabs([tabsize])\n\n   Return a copy of the string where all tab characters are replaced\n   by one or more spaces, depending on the current column and the\n   given tab size.  The column number is reset to zero after each\n   newline occurring in the string. If *tabsize* is not given, a tab\n   size of ``8`` characters is assumed.  This doesn\'t understand other\n   non-printing characters or escape sequences.\n\nstr.find(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the lowest index in the string where substring *sub* is\n   found, such that *sub* is contained in the slice ``s[start:end]``.\n   Optional arguments *start* and *end* are interpreted as in slice\n   notation.  Return ``-1`` if *sub* is not found.\n\n   Note: The ``find()`` method should be used only if you need to know the\n     position of *sub*.  To check if *sub* is a substring or not, use\n     the ``in`` operator:\n\n        >>> \'Py\' in \'Python\'\n        True\n\nstr.format(*args, **kwargs)\n\n   Perform a string formatting operation.  The string on which this\n   method is called can contain literal text or replacement fields\n   delimited by braces ``{}``.  Each replacement field contains either\n   the numeric index of a positional argument, or the name of a\n   keyword argument.  Returns a copy of the string where each\n   replacement field is replaced with the string value of the\n   corresponding argument.\n\n   >>> "The sum of 1 + 2 is {0}".format(1+2)\n   \'The sum of 1 + 2 is 3\'\n\n   See *Format String Syntax* for a description of the various\n   formatting options that can be specified in format strings.\n\n   This method of string formatting is the new standard in Python 3.0,\n   and should be preferred to the ``%`` formatting described in\n   *String Formatting Operations* in new code.\n\n   New in version 2.6.\n\nstr.index(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Like ``find()``, but raise ``ValueError`` when the substring is not\n   found.\n\nstr.isalnum()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are alphanumeric and\n   there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isalpha()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are alphabetic and\n   there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isdigit()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are digits and there is\n   at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.islower()\n\n   Return true if all cased characters in the string are lowercase and\n   there is at least one cased character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isspace()\n\n   Return true if there are only whitespace characters in the string\n   and there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.istitle()\n\n   Return true if the string is a titlecased string and there is at\n   least one character, for example uppercase characters may only\n   follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones.\n   Return false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isupper()\n\n   Return true if all cased characters in the string are uppercase and\n   there is at least one cased character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.join(iterable)\n\n   Return a string which is the concatenation of the strings in the\n   *iterable* *iterable*.  The separator between elements is the\n   string providing this method.\n\nstr.ljust(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return the string left justified in a string of length *width*.\n   Padding is done using the specified *fillchar* (default is a\n   space).  The original string is returned if *width* is less than\n   ``len(s)``.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.lower()\n\n   Return a copy of the string converted to lowercase.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.lstrip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with leading characters removed.  The\n   *chars* argument is a string specifying the set of characters to be\n   removed.  If omitted or ``None``, the *chars* argument defaults to\n   removing whitespace.  The *chars* argument is not a prefix; rather,\n   all combinations of its values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.lstrip()\n   \'spacious   \'\n   >>> \'www.example.com\'.lstrip(\'cmowz.\')\n   \'example.com\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.partition(sep)\n\n   Split the string at the first occurrence of *sep*, and return a\n   3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator\n   itself, and the part after the separator.  If the separator is not\n   found, return a 3-tuple containing the string itself, followed by\n   two empty strings.\n\n   New in version 2.5.\n\nstr.replace(old, new[, count])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with all occurrences of substring *old*\n   replaced by *new*.  If the optional argument *count* is given, only\n   the first *count* occurrences are replaced.\n\nstr.rfind(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the highest index in the string where substring *sub* is\n   found, such that *sub* is contained within ``s[start:end]``.\n   Optional arguments *start* and *end* are interpreted as in slice\n   notation.  Return ``-1`` on failure.\n\nstr.rindex(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Like ``rfind()`` but raises ``ValueError`` when the substring *sub*\n   is not found.\n\nstr.rjust(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return the string right justified in a string of length *width*.\n   Padding is done using the specified *fillchar* (default is a\n   space). The original string is returned if *width* is less than\n   ``len(s)``.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.rpartition(sep)\n\n   Split the string at the last occurrence of *sep*, and return a\n   3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator\n   itself, and the part after the separator.  If the separator is not\n   found, return a 3-tuple containing two empty strings, followed by\n   the string itself.\n\n   New in version 2.5.\n\nstr.rsplit([sep[, maxsplit]])\n\n   Return a list of the words in the string, using *sep* as the\n   delimiter string. If *maxsplit* is given, at most *maxsplit* splits\n   are done, the *rightmost* ones.  If *sep* is not specified or\n   ``None``, any whitespace string is a separator.  Except for\n   splitting from the right, ``rsplit()`` behaves like ``split()``\n   which is described in detail below.\n\n   New in version 2.4.\n\nstr.rstrip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with trailing characters removed.  The\n   *chars* argument is a string specifying the set of characters to be\n   removed.  If omitted or ``None``, the *chars* argument defaults to\n   removing whitespace.  The *chars* argument is not a suffix; rather,\n   all combinations of its values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.rstrip()\n   \'   spacious\'\n   >>> \'mississippi\'.rstrip(\'ipz\')\n   \'mississ\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.split([sep[, maxsplit]])\n\n   Return a list of the words in the string, using *sep* as the\n   delimiter string.  If *maxsplit* is given, at most *maxsplit*\n   splits are done (thus, the list will have at most ``maxsplit+1``\n   elements).  If *maxsplit* is not specified, then there is no limit\n   on the number of splits (all possible splits are made).\n\n   If *sep* is given, consecutive delimiters are not grouped together\n   and are deemed to delimit empty strings (for example,\n   ``\'1,,2\'.split(\',\')`` returns ``[\'1\', \'\', \'2\']``).  The *sep*\n   argument may consist of multiple characters (for example,\n   ``\'1<>2<>3\'.split(\'<>\')`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2\', \'3\']``). Splitting\n   an empty string with a specified separator returns ``[\'\']``.\n\n   If *sep* is not specified or is ``None``, a different splitting\n   algorithm is applied: runs of consecutive whitespace are regarded\n   as a single separator, and the result will contain no empty strings\n   at the start or end if the string has leading or trailing\n   whitespace.  Consequently, splitting an empty string or a string\n   consisting of just whitespace with a ``None`` separator returns\n   ``[]``.\n\n   For example, ``\' 1  2   3  \'.split()`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2\', \'3\']``,\n   and ``\'  1  2   3  \'.split(None, 1)`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2   3  \']``.\n\nstr.splitlines([keepends])\n\n   Return a list of the lines in the string, breaking at line\n   boundaries.  Line breaks are not included in the resulting list\n   unless *keepends* is given and true.\n\nstr.startswith(prefix[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return ``True`` if string starts with the *prefix*, otherwise\n   return ``False``. *prefix* can also be a tuple of prefixes to look\n   for.  With optional *start*, test string beginning at that\n   position.  With optional *end*, stop comparing string at that\n   position.\n\n   Changed in version 2.5: Accept tuples as *prefix*.\n\nstr.strip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with the leading and trailing\n   characters removed. The *chars* argument is a string specifying the\n   set of characters to be removed. If omitted or ``None``, the\n   *chars* argument defaults to removing whitespace. The *chars*\n   argument is not a prefix or suffix; rather, all combinations of its\n   values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.strip()\n   \'spacious\'\n   >>> \'www.example.com\'.strip(\'cmowz.\')\n   \'example\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.swapcase()\n\n   Return a copy of the string with uppercase characters converted to\n   lowercase and vice versa.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.title()\n\n   Return a titlecased version of the string where words start with an\n   uppercase character and the remaining characters are lowercase.\n\n   The algorithm uses a simple language-independent definition of a\n   word as groups of consecutive letters.  The definition works in\n   many contexts but it means that apostrophes in contractions and\n   possessives form word boundaries, which may not be the desired\n   result:\n\n      >>> "they\'re bill\'s friends from the UK".title()\n      "They\'Re Bill\'S Friends From The Uk"\n\n   A workaround for apostrophes can be constructed using regular\n   expressions:\n\n      >>> import re\n      >>> def titlecase(s):\n              return re.sub(r"[A-Za-z]+(\'[A-Za-z]+)?",\n                            lambda mo: mo.group(0)[0].upper() +\n                                       mo.group(0)[1:].lower(),\n                            s)\n\n      >>> titlecase("they\'re bill\'s friends.")\n      "They\'re Bill\'s Friends."\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.translate(table[, deletechars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string where all characters occurring in the\n   optional argument *deletechars* are removed, and the remaining\n   characters have been mapped through the given translation table,\n   which must be a string of length 256.\n\n   You can use the ``maketrans()`` helper function in the ``string``\n   module to create a translation table. For string objects, set the\n   *table* argument to ``None`` for translations that only delete\n   characters:\n\n   >>> \'read this short text\'.translate(None, \'aeiou\')\n   \'rd ths shrt txt\'\n\n   New in version 2.6: Support for a ``None`` *table* argument.\n\n   For Unicode objects, the ``translate()`` method does not accept the\n   optional *deletechars* argument.  Instead, it returns a copy of the\n   *s* where all characters have been mapped through the given\n   translation table which must be a mapping of Unicode ordinals to\n   Unicode ordinals, Unicode strings or ``None``. Unmapped characters\n   are left untouched. Characters mapped to ``None`` are deleted.\n   Note, a more flexible approach is to create a custom character\n   mapping codec using the ``codecs`` module (see ``encodings.cp1251``\n   for an example).\n\nstr.upper()\n\n   Return a copy of the string converted to uppercase.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.zfill(width)\n\n   Return the numeric string left filled with zeros in a string of\n   length *width*.  A sign prefix is handled correctly.  The original\n   string is returned if *width* is less than ``len(s)``.\n\n   New in version 2.2.2.\n\nThe following methods are present only on unicode objects:\n\nunicode.isnumeric()\n\n   Return ``True`` if there are only numeric characters in S,\n   ``False`` otherwise. Numeric characters include digit characters,\n   and all characters that have the Unicode numeric value property,\n   e.g. U+2155, VULGAR FRACTION ONE FIFTH.\n\nunicode.isdecimal()\n\n   Return ``True`` if there are only decimal characters in S,\n   ``False`` otherwise. Decimal characters include digit characters,\n   and all characters that that can be used to form decimal-radix\n   numbers, e.g. U+0660, ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT ZERO.\n',
+ 'strings': u'\nString literals\n***************\n\nString literals are described by the following lexical definitions:\n\n   stringliteral   ::= [stringprefix](shortstring | longstring)\n   stringprefix    ::= "r" | "u" | "ur" | "R" | "U" | "UR" | "Ur" | "uR"\n                    | "b" | "B" | "br" | "Br" | "bR" | "BR"\n   shortstring     ::= "\'" shortstringitem* "\'" | \'"\' shortstringitem* \'"\'\n   longstring      ::= "\'\'\'" longstringitem* "\'\'\'"\n                  | \'"""\' longstringitem* \'"""\'\n   shortstringitem ::= shortstringchar | escapeseq\n   longstringitem  ::= longstringchar | escapeseq\n   shortstringchar ::= <any source character except "\\" or newline or the quote>\n   longstringchar  ::= <any source character except "\\">\n   escapeseq       ::= "\\" <any ASCII character>\n\nOne syntactic restriction not indicated by these productions is that\nwhitespace is not allowed between the **stringprefix** and the rest of\nthe string literal. The source character set is defined by the\nencoding declaration; it is ASCII if no encoding declaration is given\nin the source file; see section *Encoding declarations*.\n\nIn plain English: String literals can be enclosed in matching single\nquotes (``\'``) or double quotes (``"``).  They can also be enclosed in\nmatching groups of three single or double quotes (these are generally\nreferred to as *triple-quoted strings*).  The backslash (``\\``)\ncharacter is used to escape characters that otherwise have a special\nmeaning, such as newline, backslash itself, or the quote character.\nString literals may optionally be prefixed with a letter ``\'r\'`` or\n``\'R\'``; such strings are called *raw strings* and use different rules\nfor interpreting backslash escape sequences.  A prefix of ``\'u\'`` or\n``\'U\'`` makes the string a Unicode string.  Unicode strings use the\nUnicode character set as defined by the Unicode Consortium and ISO\n10646.  Some additional escape sequences, described below, are\navailable in Unicode strings. A prefix of ``\'b\'`` or ``\'B\'`` is\nignored in Python 2; it indicates that the literal should become a\nbytes literal in Python 3 (e.g. when code is automatically converted\nwith 2to3).  A ``\'u\'`` or ``\'b\'`` prefix may be followed by an ``\'r\'``\nprefix.\n\nIn triple-quoted strings, unescaped newlines and quotes are allowed\n(and are retained), except that three unescaped quotes in a row\nterminate the string.  (A "quote" is the character used to open the\nstring, i.e. either ``\'`` or ``"``.)\n\nUnless an ``\'r\'`` or ``\'R\'`` prefix is present, escape sequences in\nstrings are interpreted according to rules similar to those used by\nStandard C.  The recognized escape sequences are:\n\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| Escape Sequence   | Meaning                           | Notes   |\n+===================+===================================+=========+\n| ``\\newline``      | Ignored                           |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\\\``            | Backslash (``\\``)                 |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\\'``            | Single quote (``\'``)              |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\"``            | Double quote (``"``)              |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\a``            | ASCII Bell (BEL)                  |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\b``            | ASCII Backspace (BS)              |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\f``            | ASCII Formfeed (FF)               |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\n``            | ASCII Linefeed (LF)               |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\N{name}``      | Character named *name* in the     |         |\n|                   | Unicode database (Unicode only)   |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\r``            | ASCII Carriage Return (CR)        |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\t``            | ASCII Horizontal Tab (TAB)        |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\uxxxx``        | Character with 16-bit hex value   | (1)     |\n|                   | *xxxx* (Unicode only)             |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\Uxxxxxxxx``    | Character with 32-bit hex value   | (2)     |\n|                   | *xxxxxxxx* (Unicode only)         |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\v``            | ASCII Vertical Tab (VT)           |         |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\ooo``          | Character with octal value *ooo*  | (3,5)   |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\\xhh``          | Character with hex value *hh*     | (4,5)   |\n+-------------------+-----------------------------------+---------+\n\nNotes:\n\n1. Individual code units which form parts of a surrogate pair can be\n   encoded using this escape sequence.\n\n2. Any Unicode character can be encoded this way, but characters\n   outside the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) will be encoded using a\n   surrogate pair if Python is compiled to use 16-bit code units (the\n   default).  Individual code units which form parts of a surrogate\n   pair can be encoded using this escape sequence.\n\n3. As in Standard C, up to three octal digits are accepted.\n\n4. Unlike in Standard C, exactly two hex digits are required.\n\n5. In a string literal, hexadecimal and octal escapes denote the byte\n   with the given value; it is not necessary that the byte encodes a\n   character in the source character set. In a Unicode literal, these\n   escapes denote a Unicode character with the given value.\n\nUnlike Standard C, all unrecognized escape sequences are left in the\nstring unchanged, i.e., *the backslash is left in the string*.  (This\nbehavior is useful when debugging: if an escape sequence is mistyped,\nthe resulting output is more easily recognized as broken.)  It is also\nimportant to note that the escape sequences marked as "(Unicode only)"\nin the table above fall into the category of unrecognized escapes for\nnon-Unicode string literals.\n\nWhen an ``\'r\'`` or ``\'R\'`` prefix is present, a character following a\nbackslash is included in the string without change, and *all\nbackslashes are left in the string*.  For example, the string literal\n``r"\\n"`` consists of two characters: a backslash and a lowercase\n``\'n\'``.  String quotes can be escaped with a backslash, but the\nbackslash remains in the string; for example, ``r"\\""`` is a valid\nstring literal consisting of two characters: a backslash and a double\nquote; ``r"\\"`` is not a valid string literal (even a raw string\ncannot end in an odd number of backslashes).  Specifically, *a raw\nstring cannot end in a single backslash* (since the backslash would\nescape the following quote character).  Note also that a single\nbackslash followed by a newline is interpreted as those two characters\nas part of the string, *not* as a line continuation.\n\nWhen an ``\'r\'`` or ``\'R\'`` prefix is used in conjunction with a\n``\'u\'`` or ``\'U\'`` prefix, then the ``\\uXXXX`` and ``\\UXXXXXXXX``\nescape sequences are processed while  *all other backslashes are left\nin the string*. For example, the string literal ``ur"\\u0062\\n"``\nconsists of three Unicode characters: \'LATIN SMALL LETTER B\', \'REVERSE\nSOLIDUS\', and \'LATIN SMALL LETTER N\'. Backslashes can be escaped with\na preceding backslash; however, both remain in the string.  As a\nresult, ``\\uXXXX`` escape sequences are only recognized when there are\nan odd number of backslashes.\n',
  'subscriptions': u'\nSubscriptions\n*************\n\nA subscription selects an item of a sequence (string, tuple or list)\nor mapping (dictionary) object:\n\n   subscription ::= primary "[" expression_list "]"\n\nThe primary must evaluate to an object of a sequence or mapping type.\n\nIf the primary is a mapping, the expression list must evaluate to an\nobject whose value is one of the keys of the mapping, and the\nsubscription selects the value in the mapping that corresponds to that\nkey.  (The expression list is a tuple except if it has exactly one\nitem.)\n\nIf the primary is a sequence, the expression (list) must evaluate to a\nplain integer.  If this value is negative, the length of the sequence\nis added to it (so that, e.g., ``x[-1]`` selects the last item of\n``x``.)  The resulting value must be a nonnegative integer less than\nthe number of items in the sequence, and the subscription selects the\nitem whose index is that value (counting from zero).\n\nA string\'s items are characters.  A character is not a separate data\ntype but a string of exactly one character.\n',
  'truth': u"\nTruth Value Testing\n*******************\n\nAny object can be tested for truth value, for use in an ``if`` or\n``while`` condition or as operand of the Boolean operations below. The\nfollowing values are considered false:\n\n* ``None``\n\n* ``False``\n\n* zero of any numeric type, for example, ``0``, ``0L``, ``0.0``,\n  ``0j``.\n\n* any empty sequence, for example, ``''``, ``()``, ``[]``.\n\n* any empty mapping, for example, ``{}``.\n\n* instances of user-defined classes, if the class defines a\n  ``__nonzero__()`` or ``__len__()`` method, when that method returns\n  the integer zero or ``bool`` value ``False``. [1]\n\nAll other values are considered true --- so objects of many types are\nalways true.\n\nOperations and built-in functions that have a Boolean result always\nreturn ``0`` or ``False`` for false and ``1`` or ``True`` for true,\nunless otherwise stated. (Important exception: the Boolean operations\n``or`` and ``and`` always return one of their operands.)\n",
  'try': u'\nThe ``try`` statement\n*********************\n\nThe ``try`` statement specifies exception handlers and/or cleanup code\nfor a group of statements:\n\n   try_stmt  ::= try1_stmt | try2_stmt\n   try1_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 ("except" [expression [("as" | ",") target]] ":" suite)+\n                 ["else" ":" suite]\n                 ["finally" ":" suite]\n   try2_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 "finally" ":" suite\n\nChanged in version 2.5: In previous versions of Python,\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` did not work. ``try``...``except``\nhad to be nested in ``try``...``finally``.\n\nThe ``except`` clause(s) specify one or more exception handlers. When\nno exception occurs in the ``try`` clause, no exception handler is\nexecuted. When an exception occurs in the ``try`` suite, a search for\nan exception handler is started.  This search inspects the except\nclauses in turn until one is found that matches the exception.  An\nexpression-less except clause, if present, must be last; it matches\nany exception.  For an except clause with an expression, that\nexpression is evaluated, and the clause matches the exception if the\nresulting object is "compatible" with the exception.  An object is\ncompatible with an exception if it is the class or a base class of the\nexception object, a tuple containing an item compatible with the\nexception, or, in the (deprecated) case of string exceptions, is the\nraised string itself (note that the object identities must match, i.e.\nit must be the same string object, not just a string with the same\nvalue).\n\nIf no except clause matches the exception, the search for an exception\nhandler continues in the surrounding code and on the invocation stack.\n[1]\n\nIf the evaluation of an expression in the header of an except clause\nraises an exception, the original search for a handler is canceled and\na search starts for the new exception in the surrounding code and on\nthe call stack (it is treated as if the entire ``try`` statement\nraised the exception).\n\nWhen a matching except clause is found, the exception is assigned to\nthe target specified in that except clause, if present, and the except\nclause\'s suite is executed.  All except clauses must have an\nexecutable block.  When the end of this block is reached, execution\ncontinues normally after the entire try statement.  (This means that\nif two nested handlers exist for the same exception, and the exception\noccurs in the try clause of the inner handler, the outer handler will\nnot handle the exception.)\n\nBefore an except clause\'s suite is executed, details about the\nexception are assigned to three variables in the ``sys`` module:\n``sys.exc_type`` receives the object identifying the exception;\n``sys.exc_value`` receives the exception\'s parameter;\n``sys.exc_traceback`` receives a traceback object (see section *The\nstandard type hierarchy*) identifying the point in the program where\nthe exception occurred. These details are also available through the\n``sys.exc_info()`` function, which returns a tuple ``(exc_type,\nexc_value, exc_traceback)``.  Use of the corresponding variables is\ndeprecated in favor of this function, since their use is unsafe in a\nthreaded program.  As of Python 1.5, the variables are restored to\ntheir previous values (before the call) when returning from a function\nthat handled an exception.\n\nThe optional ``else`` clause is executed if and when control flows off\nthe end of the ``try`` clause. [2] Exceptions in the ``else`` clause\nare not handled by the preceding ``except`` clauses.\n\nIf ``finally`` is present, it specifies a \'cleanup\' handler.  The\n``try`` clause is executed, including any ``except`` and ``else``\nclauses.  If an exception occurs in any of the clauses and is not\nhandled, the exception is temporarily saved. The ``finally`` clause is\nexecuted.  If there is a saved exception, it is re-raised at the end\nof the ``finally`` clause. If the ``finally`` clause raises another\nexception or executes a ``return`` or ``break`` statement, the saved\nexception is lost.  The exception information is not available to the\nprogram during execution of the ``finally`` clause.\n\nWhen a ``return``, ``break`` or ``continue`` statement is executed in\nthe ``try`` suite of a ``try``...``finally`` statement, the\n``finally`` clause is also executed \'on the way out.\' A ``continue``\nstatement is illegal in the ``finally`` clause. (The reason is a\nproblem with the current implementation --- this restriction may be\nlifted in the future).\n\nAdditional information on exceptions can be found in section\n*Exceptions*, and information on using the ``raise`` statement to\ngenerate exceptions may be found in section *The raise statement*.\n',
- 'types': u'\nThe standard type hierarchy\n***************************\n\nBelow is a list of the types that are built into Python.  Extension\nmodules (written in C, Java, or other languages, depending on the\nimplementation) can define additional types.  Future versions of\nPython may add types to the type hierarchy (e.g., rational numbers,\nefficiently stored arrays of integers, etc.).\n\nSome of the type descriptions below contain a paragraph listing\n\'special attributes.\'  These are attributes that provide access to the\nimplementation and are not intended for general use.  Their definition\nmay change in the future.\n\nNone\n   This type has a single value.  There is a single object with this\n   value. This object is accessed through the built-in name ``None``.\n   It is used to signify the absence of a value in many situations,\n   e.g., it is returned from functions that don\'t explicitly return\n   anything. Its truth value is false.\n\nNotImplemented\n   This type has a single value.  There is a single object with this\n   value. This object is accessed through the built-in name\n   ``NotImplemented``. Numeric methods and rich comparison methods may\n   return this value if they do not implement the operation for the\n   operands provided.  (The interpreter will then try the reflected\n   operation, or some other fallback, depending on the operator.)  Its\n   truth value is true.\n\nEllipsis\n   This type has a single value.  There is a single object with this\n   value. This object is accessed through the built-in name\n   ``Ellipsis``. It is used to indicate the presence of the ``...``\n   syntax in a slice.  Its truth value is true.\n\n``numbers.Number``\n   These are created by numeric literals and returned as results by\n   arithmetic operators and arithmetic built-in functions.  Numeric\n   objects are immutable; once created their value never changes.\n   Python numbers are of course strongly related to mathematical\n   numbers, but subject to the limitations of numerical representation\n   in computers.\n\n   Python distinguishes between integers, floating point numbers, and\n   complex numbers:\n\n   ``numbers.Integral``\n      These represent elements from the mathematical set of integers\n      (positive and negative).\n\n      There are three types of integers:\n\n      Plain integers\n         These represent numbers in the range -2147483648 through\n         2147483647. (The range may be larger on machines with a\n         larger natural word size, but not smaller.)  When the result\n         of an operation would fall outside this range, the result is\n         normally returned as a long integer (in some cases, the\n         exception ``OverflowError`` is raised instead).  For the\n         purpose of shift and mask operations, integers are assumed to\n         have a binary, 2\'s complement notation using 32 or more bits,\n         and hiding no bits from the user (i.e., all 4294967296\n         different bit patterns correspond to different values).\n\n      Long integers\n         These represent numbers in an unlimited range, subject to\n         available (virtual) memory only.  For the purpose of shift\n         and mask operations, a binary representation is assumed, and\n         negative numbers are represented in a variant of 2\'s\n         complement which gives the illusion of an infinite string of\n         sign bits extending to the left.\n\n      Booleans\n         These represent the truth values False and True.  The two\n         objects representing the values False and True are the only\n         Boolean objects. The Boolean type is a subtype of plain\n         integers, and Boolean values behave like the values 0 and 1,\n         respectively, in almost all contexts, the exception being\n         that when converted to a string, the strings ``"False"`` or\n         ``"True"`` are returned, respectively.\n\n      The rules for integer representation are intended to give the\n      most meaningful interpretation of shift and mask operations\n      involving negative integers and the least surprises when\n      switching between the plain and long integer domains.  Any\n      operation, if it yields a result in the plain integer domain,\n      will yield the same result in the long integer domain or when\n      using mixed operands.  The switch between domains is transparent\n      to the programmer.\n\n   ``numbers.Real`` (``float``)\n      These represent machine-level double precision floating point\n      numbers. You are at the mercy of the underlying machine\n      architecture (and C or Java implementation) for the accepted\n      range and handling of overflow. Python does not support single-\n      precision floating point numbers; the savings in processor and\n      memory usage that are usually the reason for using these is\n      dwarfed by the overhead of using objects in Python, so there is\n      no reason to complicate the language with two kinds of floating\n      point numbers.\n\n   ``numbers.Complex``\n      These represent complex numbers as a pair of machine-level\n      double precision floating point numbers.  The same caveats apply\n      as for floating point numbers. The real and imaginary parts of a\n      complex number ``z`` can be retrieved through the read-only\n      attributes ``z.real`` and ``z.imag``.\n\nSequences\n   These represent finite ordered sets indexed by non-negative\n   numbers. The built-in function ``len()`` returns the number of\n   items of a sequence. When the length of a sequence is *n*, the\n   index set contains the numbers 0, 1, ..., *n*-1.  Item *i* of\n   sequence *a* is selected by ``a[i]``.\n\n   Sequences also support slicing: ``a[i:j]`` selects all items with\n   index *k* such that *i* ``<=`` *k* ``<`` *j*.  When used as an\n   expression, a slice is a sequence of the same type.  This implies\n   that the index set is renumbered so that it starts at 0.\n\n   Some sequences also support "extended slicing" with a third "step"\n   parameter: ``a[i:j:k]`` selects all items of *a* with index *x*\n   where ``x = i + n*k``, *n* ``>=`` ``0`` and *i* ``<=`` *x* ``<``\n   *j*.\n\n   Sequences are distinguished according to their mutability:\n\n   Immutable sequences\n      An object of an immutable sequence type cannot change once it is\n      created.  (If the object contains references to other objects,\n      these other objects may be mutable and may be changed; however,\n      the collection of objects directly referenced by an immutable\n      object cannot change.)\n\n      The following types are immutable sequences:\n\n      Strings\n         The items of a string are characters.  There is no separate\n         character type; a character is represented by a string of one\n         item. Characters represent (at least) 8-bit bytes.  The\n         built-in functions ``chr()`` and ``ord()`` convert between\n         characters and nonnegative integers representing the byte\n         values.  Bytes with the values 0-127 usually represent the\n         corresponding ASCII values, but the interpretation of values\n         is up to the program.  The string data type is also used to\n         represent arrays of bytes, e.g., to hold data read from a\n         file.\n\n         (On systems whose native character set is not ASCII, strings\n         may use EBCDIC in their internal representation, provided the\n         functions ``chr()`` and ``ord()`` implement a mapping between\n         ASCII and EBCDIC, and string comparison preserves the ASCII\n         order. Or perhaps someone can propose a better rule?)\n\n      Unicode\n         The items of a Unicode object are Unicode code units.  A\n         Unicode code unit is represented by a Unicode object of one\n         item and can hold either a 16-bit or 32-bit value\n         representing a Unicode ordinal (the maximum value for the\n         ordinal is given in ``sys.maxunicode``, and depends on how\n         Python is configured at compile time).  Surrogate pairs may\n         be present in the Unicode object, and will be reported as two\n         separate items.  The built-in functions ``unichr()`` and\n         ``ord()`` convert between code units and nonnegative integers\n         representing the Unicode ordinals as defined in the Unicode\n         Standard 3.0. Conversion from and to other encodings are\n         possible through the Unicode method ``encode()`` and the\n         built-in function ``unicode()``.\n\n      Tuples\n         The items of a tuple are arbitrary Python objects. Tuples of\n         two or more items are formed by comma-separated lists of\n         expressions.  A tuple of one item (a \'singleton\') can be\n         formed by affixing a comma to an expression (an expression by\n         itself does not create a tuple, since parentheses must be\n         usable for grouping of expressions).  An empty tuple can be\n         formed by an empty pair of parentheses.\n\n   Mutable sequences\n      Mutable sequences can be changed after they are created.  The\n      subscription and slicing notations can be used as the target of\n      assignment and ``del`` (delete) statements.\n\n      There are currently two intrinsic mutable sequence types:\n\n      Lists\n         The items of a list are arbitrary Python objects.  Lists are\n         formed by placing a comma-separated list of expressions in\n         square brackets. (Note that there are no special cases needed\n         to form lists of length 0 or 1.)\n\n      Byte Arrays\n         A bytearray object is a mutable array. They are created by\n         the built-in ``bytearray()`` constructor.  Aside from being\n         mutable (and hence unhashable), byte arrays otherwise provide\n         the same interface and functionality as immutable bytes\n         objects.\n\n      The extension module ``array`` provides an additional example of\n      a mutable sequence type.\n\nSet types\n   These represent unordered, finite sets of unique, immutable\n   objects. As such, they cannot be indexed by any subscript. However,\n   they can be iterated over, and the built-in function ``len()``\n   returns the number of items in a set. Common uses for sets are fast\n   membership testing, removing duplicates from a sequence, and\n   computing mathematical operations such as intersection, union,\n   difference, and symmetric difference.\n\n   For set elements, the same immutability rules apply as for\n   dictionary keys. Note that numeric types obey the normal rules for\n   numeric comparison: if two numbers compare equal (e.g., ``1`` and\n   ``1.0``), only one of them can be contained in a set.\n\n   There are currently two intrinsic set types:\n\n   Sets\n      These represent a mutable set. They are created by the built-in\n      ``set()`` constructor and can be modified afterwards by several\n      methods, such as ``add()``.\n\n   Frozen sets\n      These represent an immutable set.  They are created by the\n      built-in ``frozenset()`` constructor.  As a frozenset is\n      immutable and *hashable*, it can be used again as an element of\n      another set, or as a dictionary key.\n\nMappings\n   These represent finite sets of objects indexed by arbitrary index\n   sets. The subscript notation ``a[k]`` selects the item indexed by\n   ``k`` from the mapping ``a``; this can be used in expressions and\n   as the target of assignments or ``del`` statements. The built-in\n   function ``len()`` returns the number of items in a mapping.\n\n   There is currently a single intrinsic mapping type:\n\n   Dictionaries\n      These represent finite sets of objects indexed by nearly\n      arbitrary values.  The only types of values not acceptable as\n      keys are values containing lists or dictionaries or other\n      mutable types that are compared by value rather than by object\n      identity, the reason being that the efficient implementation of\n      dictionaries requires a key\'s hash value to remain constant.\n      Numeric types used for keys obey the normal rules for numeric\n      comparison: if two numbers compare equal (e.g., ``1`` and\n      ``1.0``) then they can be used interchangeably to index the same\n      dictionary entry.\n\n      Dictionaries are mutable; they can be created by the ``{...}``\n      notation (see section *Dictionary displays*).\n\n      The extension modules ``dbm``, ``gdbm``, and ``bsddb`` provide\n      additional examples of mapping types.\n\nCallable types\n   These are the types to which the function call operation (see\n   section *Calls*) can be applied:\n\n   User-defined functions\n      A user-defined function object is created by a function\n      definition (see section *Function definitions*).  It should be\n      called with an argument list containing the same number of items\n      as the function\'s formal parameter list.\n\n      Special attributes:\n\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | Attribute               | Meaning                         |             |\n      +=========================+=================================+=============+\n      | ``func_doc``            | The function\'s documentation    | Writable    |\n      |                         | string, or ``None`` if          |             |\n      |                         | unavailable                     |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``__doc__``             | Another way of spelling         | Writable    |\n      |                         | ``func_doc``                    |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_name``           | The function\'s name             | Writable    |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``__name__``            | Another way of spelling         | Writable    |\n      |                         | ``func_name``                   |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``__module__``          | The name of the module the      | Writable    |\n      |                         | function was defined in, or     |             |\n      |                         | ``None`` if unavailable.        |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_defaults``       | A tuple containing default      | Writable    |\n      |                         | argument values for those       |             |\n      |                         | arguments that have defaults,   |             |\n      |                         | or ``None`` if no arguments     |             |\n      |                         | have a default value            |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_code``           | The code object representing    | Writable    |\n      |                         | the compiled function body.     |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_globals``        | A reference to the dictionary   | Read-only   |\n      |                         | that holds the function\'s       |             |\n      |                         | global variables --- the global |             |\n      |                         | namespace of the module in      |             |\n      |                         | which the function was defined. |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_dict``           | The namespace supporting        | Writable    |\n      |                         | arbitrary function attributes.  |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_closure``        | ``None`` or a tuple of cells    | Read-only   |\n      |                         | that contain bindings for the   |             |\n      |                         | function\'s free variables.      |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n\n      Most of the attributes labelled "Writable" check the type of the\n      assigned value.\n\n      Changed in version 2.4: ``func_name`` is now writable.\n\n      Function objects also support getting and setting arbitrary\n      attributes, which can be used, for example, to attach metadata\n      to functions.  Regular attribute dot-notation is used to get and\n      set such attributes. *Note that the current implementation only\n      supports function attributes on user-defined functions. Function\n      attributes on built-in functions may be supported in the\n      future.*\n\n      Additional information about a function\'s definition can be\n      retrieved from its code object; see the description of internal\n      types below.\n\n   User-defined methods\n      A user-defined method object combines a class, a class instance\n      (or ``None``) and any callable object (normally a user-defined\n      function).\n\n      Special read-only attributes: ``im_self`` is the class instance\n      object, ``im_func`` is the function object; ``im_class`` is the\n      class of ``im_self`` for bound methods or the class that asked\n      for the method for unbound methods; ``__doc__`` is the method\'s\n      documentation (same as ``im_func.__doc__``); ``__name__`` is the\n      method name (same as ``im_func.__name__``); ``__module__`` is\n      the name of the module the method was defined in, or ``None`` if\n      unavailable.\n\n      Changed in version 2.2: ``im_self`` used to refer to the class\n      that defined the method.\n\n      Changed in version 2.6: For 3.0 forward-compatibility,\n      ``im_func`` is also available as ``__func__``, and ``im_self``\n      as ``__self__``.\n\n      Methods also support accessing (but not setting) the arbitrary\n      function attributes on the underlying function object.\n\n      User-defined method objects may be created when getting an\n      attribute of a class (perhaps via an instance of that class), if\n      that attribute is a user-defined function object, an unbound\n      user-defined method object, or a class method object. When the\n      attribute is a user-defined method object, a new method object\n      is only created if the class from which it is being retrieved is\n      the same as, or a derived class of, the class stored in the\n      original method object; otherwise, the original method object is\n      used as it is.\n\n      When a user-defined method object is created by retrieving a\n      user-defined function object from a class, its ``im_self``\n      attribute is ``None`` and the method object is said to be\n      unbound. When one is created by retrieving a user-defined\n      function object from a class via one of its instances, its\n      ``im_self`` attribute is the instance, and the method object is\n      said to be bound. In either case, the new method\'s ``im_class``\n      attribute is the class from which the retrieval takes place, and\n      its ``im_func`` attribute is the original function object.\n\n      When a user-defined method object is created by retrieving\n      another method object from a class or instance, the behaviour is\n      the same as for a function object, except that the ``im_func``\n      attribute of the new instance is not the original method object\n      but its ``im_func`` attribute.\n\n      When a user-defined method object is created by retrieving a\n      class method object from a class or instance, its ``im_self``\n      attribute is the class itself (the same as the ``im_class``\n      attribute), and its ``im_func`` attribute is the function object\n      underlying the class method.\n\n      When an unbound user-defined method object is called, the\n      underlying function (``im_func``) is called, with the\n      restriction that the first argument must be an instance of the\n      proper class (``im_class``) or of a derived class thereof.\n\n      When a bound user-defined method object is called, the\n      underlying function (``im_func``) is called, inserting the class\n      instance (``im_self``) in front of the argument list.  For\n      instance, when ``C`` is a class which contains a definition for\n      a function ``f()``, and ``x`` is an instance of ``C``, calling\n      ``x.f(1)`` is equivalent to calling ``C.f(x, 1)``.\n\n      When a user-defined method object is derived from a class method\n      object, the "class instance" stored in ``im_self`` will actually\n      be the class itself, so that calling either ``x.f(1)`` or\n      ``C.f(1)`` is equivalent to calling ``f(C,1)`` where ``f`` is\n      the underlying function.\n\n      Note that the transformation from function object to (unbound or\n      bound) method object happens each time the attribute is\n      retrieved from the class or instance. In some cases, a fruitful\n      optimization is to assign the attribute to a local variable and\n      call that local variable. Also notice that this transformation\n      only happens for user-defined functions; other callable objects\n      (and all non-callable objects) are retrieved without\n      transformation.  It is also important to note that user-defined\n      functions which are attributes of a class instance are not\n      converted to bound methods; this *only* happens when the\n      function is an attribute of the class.\n\n   Generator functions\n      A function or method which uses the ``yield`` statement (see\n      section *The yield statement*) is called a *generator function*.\n      Such a function, when called, always returns an iterator object\n      which can be used to execute the body of the function:  calling\n      the iterator\'s ``next()`` method will cause the function to\n      execute until it provides a value using the ``yield`` statement.\n      When the function executes a ``return`` statement or falls off\n      the end, a ``StopIteration`` exception is raised and the\n      iterator will have reached the end of the set of values to be\n      returned.\n\n   Built-in functions\n      A built-in function object is a wrapper around a C function.\n      Examples of built-in functions are ``len()`` and ``math.sin()``\n      (``math`` is a standard built-in module). The number and type of\n      the arguments are determined by the C function. Special read-\n      only attributes: ``__doc__`` is the function\'s documentation\n      string, or ``None`` if unavailable; ``__name__`` is the\n      function\'s name; ``__self__`` is set to ``None`` (but see the\n      next item); ``__module__`` is the name of the module the\n      function was defined in or ``None`` if unavailable.\n\n   Built-in methods\n      This is really a different disguise of a built-in function, this\n      time containing an object passed to the C function as an\n      implicit extra argument.  An example of a built-in method is\n      ``alist.append()``, assuming *alist* is a list object. In this\n      case, the special read-only attribute ``__self__`` is set to the\n      object denoted by *list*.\n\n   Class Types\n      Class types, or "new-style classes," are callable.  These\n      objects normally act as factories for new instances of\n      themselves, but variations are possible for class types that\n      override ``__new__()``.  The arguments of the call are passed to\n      ``__new__()`` and, in the typical case, to ``__init__()`` to\n      initialize the new instance.\n\n   Classic Classes\n      Class objects are described below.  When a class object is\n      called, a new class instance (also described below) is created\n      and returned.  This implies a call to the class\'s ``__init__()``\n      method if it has one.  Any arguments are passed on to the\n      ``__init__()`` method.  If there is no ``__init__()`` method,\n      the class must be called without arguments.\n\n   Class instances\n      Class instances are described below.  Class instances are\n      callable only when the class has a ``__call__()`` method;\n      ``x(arguments)`` is a shorthand for ``x.__call__(arguments)``.\n\nModules\n   Modules are imported by the ``import`` statement (see section *The\n   import statement*). A module object has a namespace implemented by\n   a dictionary object (this is the dictionary referenced by the\n   func_globals attribute of functions defined in the module).\n   Attribute references are translated to lookups in this dictionary,\n   e.g., ``m.x`` is equivalent to ``m.__dict__["x"]``. A module object\n   does not contain the code object used to initialize the module\n   (since it isn\'t needed once the initialization is done).\n\n   Attribute assignment updates the module\'s namespace dictionary,\n   e.g., ``m.x = 1`` is equivalent to ``m.__dict__["x"] = 1``.\n\n   Special read-only attribute: ``__dict__`` is the module\'s namespace\n   as a dictionary object.\n\n   Predefined (writable) attributes: ``__name__`` is the module\'s\n   name; ``__doc__`` is the module\'s documentation string, or ``None``\n   if unavailable; ``__file__`` is the pathname of the file from which\n   the module was loaded, if it was loaded from a file. The\n   ``__file__`` attribute is not present for C modules that are\n   statically linked into the interpreter; for extension modules\n   loaded dynamically from a shared library, it is the pathname of the\n   shared library file.\n\nClasses\n   Both class types (new-style classes) and class objects (old-\n   style/classic classes) are typically created by class definitions\n   (see section *Class definitions*).  A class has a namespace\n   implemented by a dictionary object. Class attribute references are\n   translated to lookups in this dictionary, e.g., ``C.x`` is\n   translated to ``C.__dict__["x"]`` (although for new-style classes\n   in particular there are a number of hooks which allow for other\n   means of locating attributes). When the attribute name is not found\n   there, the attribute search continues in the base classes.  For\n   old-style classes, the search is depth-first, left-to-right in the\n   order of occurrence in the base class list. New-style classes use\n   the more complex C3 method resolution order which behaves correctly\n   even in the presence of \'diamond\' inheritance structures where\n   there are multiple inheritance paths leading back to a common\n   ancestor. Additional details on the C3 MRO used by new-style\n   classes can be found in the documentation accompanying the 2.3\n   release at http://www.python.org/download/releases/2.3/mro/.\n\n   When a class attribute reference (for class ``C``, say) would yield\n   a user-defined function object or an unbound user-defined method\n   object whose associated class is either ``C`` or one of its base\n   classes, it is transformed into an unbound user-defined method\n   object whose ``im_class`` attribute is ``C``. When it would yield a\n   class method object, it is transformed into a bound user-defined\n   method object whose ``im_class`` and ``im_self`` attributes are\n   both ``C``.  When it would yield a static method object, it is\n   transformed into the object wrapped by the static method object.\n   See section *Implementing Descriptors* for another way in which\n   attributes retrieved from a class may differ from those actually\n   contained in its ``__dict__`` (note that only new-style classes\n   support descriptors).\n\n   Class attribute assignments update the class\'s dictionary, never\n   the dictionary of a base class.\n\n   A class object can be called (see above) to yield a class instance\n   (see below).\n\n   Special attributes: ``__name__`` is the class name; ``__module__``\n   is the module name in which the class was defined; ``__dict__`` is\n   the dictionary containing the class\'s namespace; ``__bases__`` is a\n   tuple (possibly empty or a singleton) containing the base classes,\n   in the order of their occurrence in the base class list;\n   ``__doc__`` is the class\'s documentation string, or None if\n   undefined.\n\nClass instances\n   A class instance is created by calling a class object (see above).\n   A class instance has a namespace implemented as a dictionary which\n   is the first place in which attribute references are searched.\n   When an attribute is not found there, and the instance\'s class has\n   an attribute by that name, the search continues with the class\n   attributes.  If a class attribute is found that is a user-defined\n   function object or an unbound user-defined method object whose\n   associated class is the class (call it ``C``) of the instance for\n   which the attribute reference was initiated or one of its bases, it\n   is transformed into a bound user-defined method object whose\n   ``im_class`` attribute is ``C`` and whose ``im_self`` attribute is\n   the instance. Static method and class method objects are also\n   transformed, as if they had been retrieved from class ``C``; see\n   above under "Classes". See section *Implementing Descriptors* for\n   another way in which attributes of a class retrieved via its\n   instances may differ from the objects actually stored in the\n   class\'s ``__dict__``. If no class attribute is found, and the\n   object\'s class has a ``__getattr__()`` method, that is called to\n   satisfy the lookup.\n\n   Attribute assignments and deletions update the instance\'s\n   dictionary, never a class\'s dictionary.  If the class has a\n   ``__setattr__()`` or ``__delattr__()`` method, this is called\n   instead of updating the instance dictionary directly.\n\n   Class instances can pretend to be numbers, sequences, or mappings\n   if they have methods with certain special names.  See section\n   *Special method names*.\n\n   Special attributes: ``__dict__`` is the attribute dictionary;\n   ``__class__`` is the instance\'s class.\n\nFiles\n   A file object represents an open file.  File objects are created by\n   the ``open()`` built-in function, and also by ``os.popen()``,\n   ``os.fdopen()``, and the ``makefile()`` method of socket objects\n   (and perhaps by other functions or methods provided by extension\n   modules).  The objects ``sys.stdin``, ``sys.stdout`` and\n   ``sys.stderr`` are initialized to file objects corresponding to the\n   interpreter\'s standard input, output and error streams.  See *File\n   Objects* for complete documentation of file objects.\n\nInternal types\n   A few types used internally by the interpreter are exposed to the\n   user. Their definitions may change with future versions of the\n   interpreter, but they are mentioned here for completeness.\n\n   Code objects\n      Code objects represent *byte-compiled* executable Python code,\n      or *bytecode*. The difference between a code object and a\n      function object is that the function object contains an explicit\n      reference to the function\'s globals (the module in which it was\n      defined), while a code object contains no context; also the\n      default argument values are stored in the function object, not\n      in the code object (because they represent values calculated at\n      run-time).  Unlike function objects, code objects are immutable\n      and contain no references (directly or indirectly) to mutable\n      objects.\n\n      Special read-only attributes: ``co_name`` gives the function\n      name; ``co_argcount`` is the number of positional arguments\n      (including arguments with default values); ``co_nlocals`` is the\n      number of local variables used by the function (including\n      arguments); ``co_varnames`` is a tuple containing the names of\n      the local variables (starting with the argument names);\n      ``co_cellvars`` is a tuple containing the names of local\n      variables that are referenced by nested functions;\n      ``co_freevars`` is a tuple containing the names of free\n      variables; ``co_code`` is a string representing the sequence of\n      bytecode instructions; ``co_consts`` is a tuple containing the\n      literals used by the bytecode; ``co_names`` is a tuple\n      containing the names used by the bytecode; ``co_filename`` is\n      the filename from which the code was compiled;\n      ``co_firstlineno`` is the first line number of the function;\n      ``co_lnotab`` is a string encoding the mapping from bytecode\n      offsets to line numbers (for details see the source code of the\n      interpreter); ``co_stacksize`` is the required stack size\n      (including local variables); ``co_flags`` is an integer encoding\n      a number of flags for the interpreter.\n\n      The following flag bits are defined for ``co_flags``: bit\n      ``0x04`` is set if the function uses the ``*arguments`` syntax\n      to accept an arbitrary number of positional arguments; bit\n      ``0x08`` is set if the function uses the ``**keywords`` syntax\n      to accept arbitrary keyword arguments; bit ``0x20`` is set if\n      the function is a generator.\n\n      Future feature declarations (``from __future__ import\n      division``) also use bits in ``co_flags`` to indicate whether a\n      code object was compiled with a particular feature enabled: bit\n      ``0x2000`` is set if the function was compiled with future\n      division enabled; bits ``0x10`` and ``0x1000`` were used in\n      earlier versions of Python.\n\n      Other bits in ``co_flags`` are reserved for internal use.\n\n      If a code object represents a function, the first item in\n      ``co_consts`` is the documentation string of the function, or\n      ``None`` if undefined.\n\n   Frame objects\n      Frame objects represent execution frames.  They may occur in\n      traceback objects (see below).\n\n      Special read-only attributes: ``f_back`` is to the previous\n      stack frame (towards the caller), or ``None`` if this is the\n      bottom stack frame; ``f_code`` is the code object being executed\n      in this frame; ``f_locals`` is the dictionary used to look up\n      local variables; ``f_globals`` is used for global variables;\n      ``f_builtins`` is used for built-in (intrinsic) names;\n      ``f_restricted`` is a flag indicating whether the function is\n      executing in restricted execution mode; ``f_lasti`` gives the\n      precise instruction (this is an index into the bytecode string\n      of the code object).\n\n      Special writable attributes: ``f_trace``, if not ``None``, is a\n      function called at the start of each source code line (this is\n      used by the debugger); ``f_exc_type``, ``f_exc_value``,\n      ``f_exc_traceback`` represent the last exception raised in the\n      parent frame provided another exception was ever raised in the\n      current frame (in all other cases they are None); ``f_lineno``\n      is the current line number of the frame --- writing to this from\n      within a trace function jumps to the given line (only for the\n      bottom-most frame).  A debugger can implement a Jump command\n      (aka Set Next Statement) by writing to f_lineno.\n\n   Traceback objects\n      Traceback objects represent a stack trace of an exception.  A\n      traceback object is created when an exception occurs.  When the\n      search for an exception handler unwinds the execution stack, at\n      each unwound level a traceback object is inserted in front of\n      the current traceback.  When an exception handler is entered,\n      the stack trace is made available to the program. (See section\n      *The try statement*.) It is accessible as ``sys.exc_traceback``,\n      and also as the third item of the tuple returned by\n      ``sys.exc_info()``.  The latter is the preferred interface,\n      since it works correctly when the program is using multiple\n      threads. When the program contains no suitable handler, the\n      stack trace is written (nicely formatted) to the standard error\n      stream; if the interpreter is interactive, it is also made\n      available to the user as ``sys.last_traceback``.\n\n      Special read-only attributes: ``tb_next`` is the next level in\n      the stack trace (towards the frame where the exception\n      occurred), or ``None`` if there is no next level; ``tb_frame``\n      points to the execution frame of the current level;\n      ``tb_lineno`` gives the line number where the exception\n      occurred; ``tb_lasti`` indicates the precise instruction.  The\n      line number and last instruction in the traceback may differ\n      from the line number of its frame object if the exception\n      occurred in a ``try`` statement with no matching except clause\n      or with a finally clause.\n\n   Slice objects\n      Slice objects are used to represent slices when *extended slice\n      syntax* is used. This is a slice using two colons, or multiple\n      slices or ellipses separated by commas, e.g., ``a[i:j:step]``,\n      ``a[i:j, k:l]``, or ``a[..., i:j]``.  They are also created by\n      the built-in ``slice()`` function.\n\n      Special read-only attributes: ``start`` is the lower bound;\n      ``stop`` is the upper bound; ``step`` is the step value; each is\n      ``None`` if omitted. These attributes can have any type.\n\n      Slice objects support one method:\n\n      slice.indices(self, length)\n\n         This method takes a single integer argument *length* and\n         computes information about the extended slice that the slice\n         object would describe if applied to a sequence of *length*\n         items.  It returns a tuple of three integers; respectively\n         these are the *start* and *stop* indices and the *step* or\n         stride length of the slice. Missing or out-of-bounds indices\n         are handled in a manner consistent with regular slices.\n\n         New in version 2.3.\n\n   Static method objects\n      Static method objects provide a way of defeating the\n      transformation of function objects to method objects described\n      above. A static method object is a wrapper around any other\n      object, usually a user-defined method object. When a static\n      method object is retrieved from a class or a class instance, the\n      object actually returned is the wrapped object, which is not\n      subject to any further transformation. Static method objects are\n      not themselves callable, although the objects they wrap usually\n      are. Static method objects are created by the built-in\n      ``staticmethod()`` constructor.\n\n   Class method objects\n      A class method object, like a static method object, is a wrapper\n      around another object that alters the way in which that object\n      is retrieved from classes and class instances. The behaviour of\n      class method objects upon such retrieval is described above,\n      under "User-defined methods". Class method objects are created\n      by the built-in ``classmethod()`` constructor.\n',
+ 'types': u'\nThe standard type hierarchy\n***************************\n\nBelow is a list of the types that are built into Python.  Extension\nmodules (written in C, Java, or other languages, depending on the\nimplementation) can define additional types.  Future versions of\nPython may add types to the type hierarchy (e.g., rational numbers,\nefficiently stored arrays of integers, etc.).\n\nSome of the type descriptions below contain a paragraph listing\n\'special attributes.\'  These are attributes that provide access to the\nimplementation and are not intended for general use.  Their definition\nmay change in the future.\n\nNone\n   This type has a single value.  There is a single object with this\n   value. This object is accessed through the built-in name ``None``.\n   It is used to signify the absence of a value in many situations,\n   e.g., it is returned from functions that don\'t explicitly return\n   anything. Its truth value is false.\n\nNotImplemented\n   This type has a single value.  There is a single object with this\n   value. This object is accessed through the built-in name\n   ``NotImplemented``. Numeric methods and rich comparison methods may\n   return this value if they do not implement the operation for the\n   operands provided.  (The interpreter will then try the reflected\n   operation, or some other fallback, depending on the operator.)  Its\n   truth value is true.\n\nEllipsis\n   This type has a single value.  There is a single object with this\n   value. This object is accessed through the built-in name\n   ``Ellipsis``. It is used to indicate the presence of the ``...``\n   syntax in a slice.  Its truth value is true.\n\n``numbers.Number``\n   These are created by numeric literals and returned as results by\n   arithmetic operators and arithmetic built-in functions.  Numeric\n   objects are immutable; once created their value never changes.\n   Python numbers are of course strongly related to mathematical\n   numbers, but subject to the limitations of numerical representation\n   in computers.\n\n   Python distinguishes between integers, floating point numbers, and\n   complex numbers:\n\n   ``numbers.Integral``\n      These represent elements from the mathematical set of integers\n      (positive and negative).\n\n      There are three types of integers:\n\n      Plain integers\n         These represent numbers in the range -2147483648 through\n         2147483647. (The range may be larger on machines with a\n         larger natural word size, but not smaller.)  When the result\n         of an operation would fall outside this range, the result is\n         normally returned as a long integer (in some cases, the\n         exception ``OverflowError`` is raised instead).  For the\n         purpose of shift and mask operations, integers are assumed to\n         have a binary, 2\'s complement notation using 32 or more bits,\n         and hiding no bits from the user (i.e., all 4294967296\n         different bit patterns correspond to different values).\n\n      Long integers\n         These represent numbers in an unlimited range, subject to\n         available (virtual) memory only.  For the purpose of shift\n         and mask operations, a binary representation is assumed, and\n         negative numbers are represented in a variant of 2\'s\n         complement which gives the illusion of an infinite string of\n         sign bits extending to the left.\n\n      Booleans\n         These represent the truth values False and True.  The two\n         objects representing the values False and True are the only\n         Boolean objects. The Boolean type is a subtype of plain\n         integers, and Boolean values behave like the values 0 and 1,\n         respectively, in almost all contexts, the exception being\n         that when converted to a string, the strings ``"False"`` or\n         ``"True"`` are returned, respectively.\n\n      The rules for integer representation are intended to give the\n      most meaningful interpretation of shift and mask operations\n      involving negative integers and the least surprises when\n      switching between the plain and long integer domains.  Any\n      operation, if it yields a result in the plain integer domain,\n      will yield the same result in the long integer domain or when\n      using mixed operands.  The switch between domains is transparent\n      to the programmer.\n\n   ``numbers.Real`` (``float``)\n      These represent machine-level double precision floating point\n      numbers. You are at the mercy of the underlying machine\n      architecture (and C or Java implementation) for the accepted\n      range and handling of overflow. Python does not support single-\n      precision floating point numbers; the savings in processor and\n      memory usage that are usually the reason for using these is\n      dwarfed by the overhead of using objects in Python, so there is\n      no reason to complicate the language with two kinds of floating\n      point numbers.\n\n   ``numbers.Complex``\n      These represent complex numbers as a pair of machine-level\n      double precision floating point numbers.  The same caveats apply\n      as for floating point numbers. The real and imaginary parts of a\n      complex number ``z`` can be retrieved through the read-only\n      attributes ``z.real`` and ``z.imag``.\n\nSequences\n   These represent finite ordered sets indexed by non-negative\n   numbers. The built-in function ``len()`` returns the number of\n   items of a sequence. When the length of a sequence is *n*, the\n   index set contains the numbers 0, 1, ..., *n*-1.  Item *i* of\n   sequence *a* is selected by ``a[i]``.\n\n   Sequences also support slicing: ``a[i:j]`` selects all items with\n   index *k* such that *i* ``<=`` *k* ``<`` *j*.  When used as an\n   expression, a slice is a sequence of the same type.  This implies\n   that the index set is renumbered so that it starts at 0.\n\n   Some sequences also support "extended slicing" with a third "step"\n   parameter: ``a[i:j:k]`` selects all items of *a* with index *x*\n   where ``x = i + n*k``, *n* ``>=`` ``0`` and *i* ``<=`` *x* ``<``\n   *j*.\n\n   Sequences are distinguished according to their mutability:\n\n   Immutable sequences\n      An object of an immutable sequence type cannot change once it is\n      created.  (If the object contains references to other objects,\n      these other objects may be mutable and may be changed; however,\n      the collection of objects directly referenced by an immutable\n      object cannot change.)\n\n      The following types are immutable sequences:\n\n      Strings\n         The items of a string are characters.  There is no separate\n         character type; a character is represented by a string of one\n         item. Characters represent (at least) 8-bit bytes.  The\n         built-in functions ``chr()`` and ``ord()`` convert between\n         characters and nonnegative integers representing the byte\n         values.  Bytes with the values 0-127 usually represent the\n         corresponding ASCII values, but the interpretation of values\n         is up to the program.  The string data type is also used to\n         represent arrays of bytes, e.g., to hold data read from a\n         file.\n\n         (On systems whose native character set is not ASCII, strings\n         may use EBCDIC in their internal representation, provided the\n         functions ``chr()`` and ``ord()`` implement a mapping between\n         ASCII and EBCDIC, and string comparison preserves the ASCII\n         order. Or perhaps someone can propose a better rule?)\n\n      Unicode\n         The items of a Unicode object are Unicode code units.  A\n         Unicode code unit is represented by a Unicode object of one\n         item and can hold either a 16-bit or 32-bit value\n         representing a Unicode ordinal (the maximum value for the\n         ordinal is given in ``sys.maxunicode``, and depends on how\n         Python is configured at compile time).  Surrogate pairs may\n         be present in the Unicode object, and will be reported as two\n         separate items.  The built-in functions ``unichr()`` and\n         ``ord()`` convert between code units and nonnegative integers\n         representing the Unicode ordinals as defined in the Unicode\n         Standard 3.0. Conversion from and to other encodings are\n         possible through the Unicode method ``encode()`` and the\n         built-in function ``unicode()``.\n\n      Tuples\n         The items of a tuple are arbitrary Python objects. Tuples of\n         two or more items are formed by comma-separated lists of\n         expressions.  A tuple of one item (a \'singleton\') can be\n         formed by affixing a comma to an expression (an expression by\n         itself does not create a tuple, since parentheses must be\n         usable for grouping of expressions).  An empty tuple can be\n         formed by an empty pair of parentheses.\n\n   Mutable sequences\n      Mutable sequences can be changed after they are created.  The\n      subscription and slicing notations can be used as the target of\n      assignment and ``del`` (delete) statements.\n\n      There are currently two intrinsic mutable sequence types:\n\n      Lists\n         The items of a list are arbitrary Python objects.  Lists are\n         formed by placing a comma-separated list of expressions in\n         square brackets. (Note that there are no special cases needed\n         to form lists of length 0 or 1.)\n\n      Byte Arrays\n         A bytearray object is a mutable array. They are created by\n         the built-in ``bytearray()`` constructor.  Aside from being\n         mutable (and hence unhashable), byte arrays otherwise provide\n         the same interface and functionality as immutable bytes\n         objects.\n\n      The extension module ``array`` provides an additional example of\n      a mutable sequence type.\n\nSet types\n   These represent unordered, finite sets of unique, immutable\n   objects. As such, they cannot be indexed by any subscript. However,\n   they can be iterated over, and the built-in function ``len()``\n   returns the number of items in a set. Common uses for sets are fast\n   membership testing, removing duplicates from a sequence, and\n   computing mathematical operations such as intersection, union,\n   difference, and symmetric difference.\n\n   For set elements, the same immutability rules apply as for\n   dictionary keys. Note that numeric types obey the normal rules for\n   numeric comparison: if two numbers compare equal (e.g., ``1`` and\n   ``1.0``), only one of them can be contained in a set.\n\n   There are currently two intrinsic set types:\n\n   Sets\n      These represent a mutable set. They are created by the built-in\n      ``set()`` constructor and can be modified afterwards by several\n      methods, such as ``add()``.\n\n   Frozen sets\n      These represent an immutable set.  They are created by the\n      built-in ``frozenset()`` constructor.  As a frozenset is\n      immutable and *hashable*, it can be used again as an element of\n      another set, or as a dictionary key.\n\nMappings\n   These represent finite sets of objects indexed by arbitrary index\n   sets. The subscript notation ``a[k]`` selects the item indexed by\n   ``k`` from the mapping ``a``; this can be used in expressions and\n   as the target of assignments or ``del`` statements. The built-in\n   function ``len()`` returns the number of items in a mapping.\n\n   There is currently a single intrinsic mapping type:\n\n   Dictionaries\n      These represent finite sets of objects indexed by nearly\n      arbitrary values.  The only types of values not acceptable as\n      keys are values containing lists or dictionaries or other\n      mutable types that are compared by value rather than by object\n      identity, the reason being that the efficient implementation of\n      dictionaries requires a key\'s hash value to remain constant.\n      Numeric types used for keys obey the normal rules for numeric\n      comparison: if two numbers compare equal (e.g., ``1`` and\n      ``1.0``) then they can be used interchangeably to index the same\n      dictionary entry.\n\n      Dictionaries are mutable; they can be created by the ``{...}``\n      notation (see section *Dictionary displays*).\n\n      The extension modules ``dbm``, ``gdbm``, and ``bsddb`` provide\n      additional examples of mapping types.\n\nCallable types\n   These are the types to which the function call operation (see\n   section *Calls*) can be applied:\n\n   User-defined functions\n      A user-defined function object is created by a function\n      definition (see section *Function definitions*).  It should be\n      called with an argument list containing the same number of items\n      as the function\'s formal parameter list.\n\n      Special attributes:\n\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | Attribute               | Meaning                         |             |\n      +=========================+=================================+=============+\n      | ``func_doc``            | The function\'s documentation    | Writable    |\n      |                         | string, or ``None`` if          |             |\n      |                         | unavailable                     |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``__doc__``             | Another way of spelling         | Writable    |\n      |                         | ``func_doc``                    |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_name``           | The function\'s name             | Writable    |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``__name__``            | Another way of spelling         | Writable    |\n      |                         | ``func_name``                   |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``__module__``          | The name of the module the      | Writable    |\n      |                         | function was defined in, or     |             |\n      |                         | ``None`` if unavailable.        |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_defaults``       | A tuple containing default      | Writable    |\n      |                         | argument values for those       |             |\n      |                         | arguments that have defaults,   |             |\n      |                         | or ``None`` if no arguments     |             |\n      |                         | have a default value            |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_code``           | The code object representing    | Writable    |\n      |                         | the compiled function body.     |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_globals``        | A reference to the dictionary   | Read-only   |\n      |                         | that holds the function\'s       |             |\n      |                         | global variables --- the global |             |\n      |                         | namespace of the module in      |             |\n      |                         | which the function was defined. |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_dict``           | The namespace supporting        | Writable    |\n      |                         | arbitrary function attributes.  |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n      | ``func_closure``        | ``None`` or a tuple of cells    | Read-only   |\n      |                         | that contain bindings for the   |             |\n      |                         | function\'s free variables.      |             |\n      +-------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+\n\n      Most of the attributes labelled "Writable" check the type of the\n      assigned value.\n\n      Changed in version 2.4: ``func_name`` is now writable.\n\n      Function objects also support getting and setting arbitrary\n      attributes, which can be used, for example, to attach metadata\n      to functions.  Regular attribute dot-notation is used to get and\n      set such attributes. *Note that the current implementation only\n      supports function attributes on user-defined functions. Function\n      attributes on built-in functions may be supported in the\n      future.*\n\n      Additional information about a function\'s definition can be\n      retrieved from its code object; see the description of internal\n      types below.\n\n   User-defined methods\n      A user-defined method object combines a class, a class instance\n      (or ``None``) and any callable object (normally a user-defined\n      function).\n\n      Special read-only attributes: ``im_self`` is the class instance\n      object, ``im_func`` is the function object; ``im_class`` is the\n      class of ``im_self`` for bound methods or the class that asked\n      for the method for unbound methods; ``__doc__`` is the method\'s\n      documentation (same as ``im_func.__doc__``); ``__name__`` is the\n      method name (same as ``im_func.__name__``); ``__module__`` is\n      the name of the module the method was defined in, or ``None`` if\n      unavailable.\n\n      Changed in version 2.2: ``im_self`` used to refer to the class\n      that defined the method.\n\n      Changed in version 2.6: For 3.0 forward-compatibility,\n      ``im_func`` is also available as ``__func__``, and ``im_self``\n      as ``__self__``.\n\n      Methods also support accessing (but not setting) the arbitrary\n      function attributes on the underlying function object.\n\n      User-defined method objects may be created when getting an\n      attribute of a class (perhaps via an instance of that class), if\n      that attribute is a user-defined function object, an unbound\n      user-defined method object, or a class method object. When the\n      attribute is a user-defined method object, a new method object\n      is only created if the class from which it is being retrieved is\n      the same as, or a derived class of, the class stored in the\n      original method object; otherwise, the original method object is\n      used as it is.\n\n      When a user-defined method object is created by retrieving a\n      user-defined function object from a class, its ``im_self``\n      attribute is ``None`` and the method object is said to be\n      unbound. When one is created by retrieving a user-defined\n      function object from a class via one of its instances, its\n      ``im_self`` attribute is the instance, and the method object is\n      said to be bound. In either case, the new method\'s ``im_class``\n      attribute is the class from which the retrieval takes place, and\n      its ``im_func`` attribute is the original function object.\n\n      When a user-defined method object is created by retrieving\n      another method object from a class or instance, the behaviour is\n      the same as for a function object, except that the ``im_func``\n      attribute of the new instance is not the original method object\n      but its ``im_func`` attribute.\n\n      When a user-defined method object is created by retrieving a\n      class method object from a class or instance, its ``im_self``\n      attribute is the class itself (the same as the ``im_class``\n      attribute), and its ``im_func`` attribute is the function object\n      underlying the class method.\n\n      When an unbound user-defined method object is called, the\n      underlying function (``im_func``) is called, with the\n      restriction that the first argument must be an instance of the\n      proper class (``im_class``) or of a derived class thereof.\n\n      When a bound user-defined method object is called, the\n      underlying function (``im_func``) is called, inserting the class\n      instance (``im_self``) in front of the argument list.  For\n      instance, when ``C`` is a class which contains a definition for\n      a function ``f()``, and ``x`` is an instance of ``C``, calling\n      ``x.f(1)`` is equivalent to calling ``C.f(x, 1)``.\n\n      When a user-defined method object is derived from a class method\n      object, the "class instance" stored in ``im_self`` will actually\n      be the class itself, so that calling either ``x.f(1)`` or\n      ``C.f(1)`` is equivalent to calling ``f(C,1)`` where ``f`` is\n      the underlying function.\n\n      Note that the transformation from function object to (unbound or\n      bound) method object happens each time the attribute is\n      retrieved from the class or instance. In some cases, a fruitful\n      optimization is to assign the attribute to a local variable and\n      call that local variable. Also notice that this transformation\n      only happens for user-defined functions; other callable objects\n      (and all non-callable objects) are retrieved without\n      transformation.  It is also important to note that user-defined\n      functions which are attributes of a class instance are not\n      converted to bound methods; this *only* happens when the\n      function is an attribute of the class.\n\n   Generator functions\n      A function or method which uses the ``yield`` statement (see\n      section *The yield statement*) is called a *generator function*.\n      Such a function, when called, always returns an iterator object\n      which can be used to execute the body of the function:  calling\n      the iterator\'s ``next()`` method will cause the function to\n      execute until it provides a value using the ``yield`` statement.\n      When the function executes a ``return`` statement or falls off\n      the end, a ``StopIteration`` exception is raised and the\n      iterator will have reached the end of the set of values to be\n      returned.\n\n   Built-in functions\n      A built-in function object is a wrapper around a C function.\n      Examples of built-in functions are ``len()`` and ``math.sin()``\n      (``math`` is a standard built-in module). The number and type of\n      the arguments are determined by the C function. Special read-\n      only attributes: ``__doc__`` is the function\'s documentation\n      string, or ``None`` if unavailable; ``__name__`` is the\n      function\'s name; ``__self__`` is set to ``None`` (but see the\n      next item); ``__module__`` is the name of the module the\n      function was defined in or ``None`` if unavailable.\n\n   Built-in methods\n      This is really a different disguise of a built-in function, this\n      time containing an object passed to the C function as an\n      implicit extra argument.  An example of a built-in method is\n      ``alist.append()``, assuming *alist* is a list object. In this\n      case, the special read-only attribute ``__self__`` is set to the\n      object denoted by *alist*.\n\n   Class Types\n      Class types, or "new-style classes," are callable.  These\n      objects normally act as factories for new instances of\n      themselves, but variations are possible for class types that\n      override ``__new__()``.  The arguments of the call are passed to\n      ``__new__()`` and, in the typical case, to ``__init__()`` to\n      initialize the new instance.\n\n   Classic Classes\n      Class objects are described below.  When a class object is\n      called, a new class instance (also described below) is created\n      and returned.  This implies a call to the class\'s ``__init__()``\n      method if it has one.  Any arguments are passed on to the\n      ``__init__()`` method.  If there is no ``__init__()`` method,\n      the class must be called without arguments.\n\n   Class instances\n      Class instances are described below.  Class instances are\n      callable only when the class has a ``__call__()`` method;\n      ``x(arguments)`` is a shorthand for ``x.__call__(arguments)``.\n\nModules\n   Modules are imported by the ``import`` statement (see section *The\n   import statement*). A module object has a namespace implemented by\n   a dictionary object (this is the dictionary referenced by the\n   func_globals attribute of functions defined in the module).\n   Attribute references are translated to lookups in this dictionary,\n   e.g., ``m.x`` is equivalent to ``m.__dict__["x"]``. A module object\n   does not contain the code object used to initialize the module\n   (since it isn\'t needed once the initialization is done).\n\n   Attribute assignment updates the module\'s namespace dictionary,\n   e.g., ``m.x = 1`` is equivalent to ``m.__dict__["x"] = 1``.\n\n   Special read-only attribute: ``__dict__`` is the module\'s namespace\n   as a dictionary object.\n\n   **CPython implementation detail:** Because of the way CPython\n   clears module dictionaries, the module dictionary will be cleared\n   when the module falls out of scope even if the dictionary still has\n   live references.  To avoid this, copy the dictionary or keep the\n   module around while using its dictionary directly.\n\n   Predefined (writable) attributes: ``__name__`` is the module\'s\n   name; ``__doc__`` is the module\'s documentation string, or ``None``\n   if unavailable; ``__file__`` is the pathname of the file from which\n   the module was loaded, if it was loaded from a file. The\n   ``__file__`` attribute is not present for C modules that are\n   statically linked into the interpreter; for extension modules\n   loaded dynamically from a shared library, it is the pathname of the\n   shared library file.\n\nClasses\n   Both class types (new-style classes) and class objects (old-\n   style/classic classes) are typically created by class definitions\n   (see section *Class definitions*).  A class has a namespace\n   implemented by a dictionary object. Class attribute references are\n   translated to lookups in this dictionary, e.g., ``C.x`` is\n   translated to ``C.__dict__["x"]`` (although for new-style classes\n   in particular there are a number of hooks which allow for other\n   means of locating attributes). When the attribute name is not found\n   there, the attribute search continues in the base classes.  For\n   old-style classes, the search is depth-first, left-to-right in the\n   order of occurrence in the base class list. New-style classes use\n   the more complex C3 method resolution order which behaves correctly\n   even in the presence of \'diamond\' inheritance structures where\n   there are multiple inheritance paths leading back to a common\n   ancestor. Additional details on the C3 MRO used by new-style\n   classes can be found in the documentation accompanying the 2.3\n   release at http://www.python.org/download/releases/2.3/mro/.\n\n   When a class attribute reference (for class ``C``, say) would yield\n   a user-defined function object or an unbound user-defined method\n   object whose associated class is either ``C`` or one of its base\n   classes, it is transformed into an unbound user-defined method\n   object whose ``im_class`` attribute is ``C``. When it would yield a\n   class method object, it is transformed into a bound user-defined\n   method object whose ``im_class`` and ``im_self`` attributes are\n   both ``C``.  When it would yield a static method object, it is\n   transformed into the object wrapped by the static method object.\n   See section *Implementing Descriptors* for another way in which\n   attributes retrieved from a class may differ from those actually\n   contained in its ``__dict__`` (note that only new-style classes\n   support descriptors).\n\n   Class attribute assignments update the class\'s dictionary, never\n   the dictionary of a base class.\n\n   A class object can be called (see above) to yield a class instance\n   (see below).\n\n   Special attributes: ``__name__`` is the class name; ``__module__``\n   is the module name in which the class was defined; ``__dict__`` is\n   the dictionary containing the class\'s namespace; ``__bases__`` is a\n   tuple (possibly empty or a singleton) containing the base classes,\n   in the order of their occurrence in the base class list;\n   ``__doc__`` is the class\'s documentation string, or None if\n   undefined.\n\nClass instances\n   A class instance is created by calling a class object (see above).\n   A class instance has a namespace implemented as a dictionary which\n   is the first place in which attribute references are searched.\n   When an attribute is not found there, and the instance\'s class has\n   an attribute by that name, the search continues with the class\n   attributes.  If a class attribute is found that is a user-defined\n   function object or an unbound user-defined method object whose\n   associated class is the class (call it ``C``) of the instance for\n   which the attribute reference was initiated or one of its bases, it\n   is transformed into a bound user-defined method object whose\n   ``im_class`` attribute is ``C`` and whose ``im_self`` attribute is\n   the instance. Static method and class method objects are also\n   transformed, as if they had been retrieved from class ``C``; see\n   above under "Classes". See section *Implementing Descriptors* for\n   another way in which attributes of a class retrieved via its\n   instances may differ from the objects actually stored in the\n   class\'s ``__dict__``. If no class attribute is found, and the\n   object\'s class has a ``__getattr__()`` method, that is called to\n   satisfy the lookup.\n\n   Attribute assignments and deletions update the instance\'s\n   dictionary, never a class\'s dictionary.  If the class has a\n   ``__setattr__()`` or ``__delattr__()`` method, this is called\n   instead of updating the instance dictionary directly.\n\n   Class instances can pretend to be numbers, sequences, or mappings\n   if they have methods with certain special names.  See section\n   *Special method names*.\n\n   Special attributes: ``__dict__`` is the attribute dictionary;\n   ``__class__`` is the instance\'s class.\n\nFiles\n   A file object represents an open file.  File objects are created by\n   the ``open()`` built-in function, and also by ``os.popen()``,\n   ``os.fdopen()``, and the ``makefile()`` method of socket objects\n   (and perhaps by other functions or methods provided by extension\n   modules).  The objects ``sys.stdin``, ``sys.stdout`` and\n   ``sys.stderr`` are initialized to file objects corresponding to the\n   interpreter\'s standard input, output and error streams.  See *File\n   Objects* for complete documentation of file objects.\n\nInternal types\n   A few types used internally by the interpreter are exposed to the\n   user. Their definitions may change with future versions of the\n   interpreter, but they are mentioned here for completeness.\n\n   Code objects\n      Code objects represent *byte-compiled* executable Python code,\n      or *bytecode*. The difference between a code object and a\n      function object is that the function object contains an explicit\n      reference to the function\'s globals (the module in which it was\n      defined), while a code object contains no context; also the\n      default argument values are stored in the function object, not\n      in the code object (because they represent values calculated at\n      run-time).  Unlike function objects, code objects are immutable\n      and contain no references (directly or indirectly) to mutable\n      objects.\n\n      Special read-only attributes: ``co_name`` gives the function\n      name; ``co_argcount`` is the number of positional arguments\n      (including arguments with default values); ``co_nlocals`` is the\n      number of local variables used by the function (including\n      arguments); ``co_varnames`` is a tuple containing the names of\n      the local variables (starting with the argument names);\n      ``co_cellvars`` is a tuple containing the names of local\n      variables that are referenced by nested functions;\n      ``co_freevars`` is a tuple containing the names of free\n      variables; ``co_code`` is a string representing the sequence of\n      bytecode instructions; ``co_consts`` is a tuple containing the\n      literals used by the bytecode; ``co_names`` is a tuple\n      containing the names used by the bytecode; ``co_filename`` is\n      the filename from which the code was compiled;\n      ``co_firstlineno`` is the first line number of the function;\n      ``co_lnotab`` is a string encoding the mapping from bytecode\n      offsets to line numbers (for details see the source code of the\n      interpreter); ``co_stacksize`` is the required stack size\n      (including local variables); ``co_flags`` is an integer encoding\n      a number of flags for the interpreter.\n\n      The following flag bits are defined for ``co_flags``: bit\n      ``0x04`` is set if the function uses the ``*arguments`` syntax\n      to accept an arbitrary number of positional arguments; bit\n      ``0x08`` is set if the function uses the ``**keywords`` syntax\n      to accept arbitrary keyword arguments; bit ``0x20`` is set if\n      the function is a generator.\n\n      Future feature declarations (``from __future__ import\n      division``) also use bits in ``co_flags`` to indicate whether a\n      code object was compiled with a particular feature enabled: bit\n      ``0x2000`` is set if the function was compiled with future\n      division enabled; bits ``0x10`` and ``0x1000`` were used in\n      earlier versions of Python.\n\n      Other bits in ``co_flags`` are reserved for internal use.\n\n      If a code object represents a function, the first item in\n      ``co_consts`` is the documentation string of the function, or\n      ``None`` if undefined.\n\n   Frame objects\n      Frame objects represent execution frames.  They may occur in\n      traceback objects (see below).\n\n      Special read-only attributes: ``f_back`` is to the previous\n      stack frame (towards the caller), or ``None`` if this is the\n      bottom stack frame; ``f_code`` is the code object being executed\n      in this frame; ``f_locals`` is the dictionary used to look up\n      local variables; ``f_globals`` is used for global variables;\n      ``f_builtins`` is used for built-in (intrinsic) names;\n      ``f_restricted`` is a flag indicating whether the function is\n      executing in restricted execution mode; ``f_lasti`` gives the\n      precise instruction (this is an index into the bytecode string\n      of the code object).\n\n      Special writable attributes: ``f_trace``, if not ``None``, is a\n      function called at the start of each source code line (this is\n      used by the debugger); ``f_exc_type``, ``f_exc_value``,\n      ``f_exc_traceback`` represent the last exception raised in the\n      parent frame provided another exception was ever raised in the\n      current frame (in all other cases they are None); ``f_lineno``\n      is the current line number of the frame --- writing to this from\n      within a trace function jumps to the given line (only for the\n      bottom-most frame).  A debugger can implement a Jump command\n      (aka Set Next Statement) by writing to f_lineno.\n\n   Traceback objects\n      Traceback objects represent a stack trace of an exception.  A\n      traceback object is created when an exception occurs.  When the\n      search for an exception handler unwinds the execution stack, at\n      each unwound level a traceback object is inserted in front of\n      the current traceback.  When an exception handler is entered,\n      the stack trace is made available to the program. (See section\n      *The try statement*.) It is accessible as ``sys.exc_traceback``,\n      and also as the third item of the tuple returned by\n      ``sys.exc_info()``.  The latter is the preferred interface,\n      since it works correctly when the program is using multiple\n      threads. When the program contains no suitable handler, the\n      stack trace is written (nicely formatted) to the standard error\n      stream; if the interpreter is interactive, it is also made\n      available to the user as ``sys.last_traceback``.\n\n      Special read-only attributes: ``tb_next`` is the next level in\n      the stack trace (towards the frame where the exception\n      occurred), or ``None`` if there is no next level; ``tb_frame``\n      points to the execution frame of the current level;\n      ``tb_lineno`` gives the line number where the exception\n      occurred; ``tb_lasti`` indicates the precise instruction.  The\n      line number and last instruction in the traceback may differ\n      from the line number of its frame object if the exception\n      occurred in a ``try`` statement with no matching except clause\n      or with a finally clause.\n\n   Slice objects\n      Slice objects are used to represent slices when *extended slice\n      syntax* is used. This is a slice using two colons, or multiple\n      slices or ellipses separated by commas, e.g., ``a[i:j:step]``,\n      ``a[i:j, k:l]``, or ``a[..., i:j]``.  They are also created by\n      the built-in ``slice()`` function.\n\n      Special read-only attributes: ``start`` is the lower bound;\n      ``stop`` is the upper bound; ``step`` is the step value; each is\n      ``None`` if omitted. These attributes can have any type.\n\n      Slice objects support one method:\n\n      slice.indices(self, length)\n\n         This method takes a single integer argument *length* and\n         computes information about the extended slice that the slice\n         object would describe if applied to a sequence of *length*\n         items.  It returns a tuple of three integers; respectively\n         these are the *start* and *stop* indices and the *step* or\n         stride length of the slice. Missing or out-of-bounds indices\n         are handled in a manner consistent with regular slices.\n\n         New in version 2.3.\n\n   Static method objects\n      Static method objects provide a way of defeating the\n      transformation of function objects to method objects described\n      above. A static method object is a wrapper around any other\n      object, usually a user-defined method object. When a static\n      method object is retrieved from a class or a class instance, the\n      object actually returned is the wrapped object, which is not\n      subject to any further transformation. Static method objects are\n      not themselves callable, although the objects they wrap usually\n      are. Static method objects are created by the built-in\n      ``staticmethod()`` constructor.\n\n   Class method objects\n      A class method object, like a static method object, is a wrapper\n      around another object that alters the way in which that object\n      is retrieved from classes and class instances. The behaviour of\n      class method objects upon such retrieval is described above,\n      under "User-defined methods". Class method objects are created\n      by the built-in ``classmethod()`` constructor.\n',
  'typesfunctions': u'\nFunctions\n*********\n\nFunction objects are created by function definitions.  The only\noperation on a function object is to call it: ``func(argument-list)``.\n\nThere are really two flavors of function objects: built-in functions\nand user-defined functions.  Both support the same operation (to call\nthe function), but the implementation is different, hence the\ndifferent object types.\n\nSee *Function definitions* for more information.\n',
- 'typesmapping': u'\nMapping Types --- ``dict``\n**************************\n\nA *mapping* object maps *hashable* values to arbitrary objects.\nMappings are mutable objects.  There is currently only one standard\nmapping type, the *dictionary*.  (For other containers see the built\nin ``list``, ``set``, and ``tuple`` classes, and the ``collections``\nmodule.)\n\nA dictionary\'s keys are *almost* arbitrary values.  Values that are\nnot *hashable*, that is, values containing lists, dictionaries or\nother mutable types (that are compared by value rather than by object\nidentity) may not be used as keys.  Numeric types used for keys obey\nthe normal rules for numeric comparison: if two numbers compare equal\n(such as ``1`` and ``1.0``) then they can be used interchangeably to\nindex the same dictionary entry.  (Note however, that since computers\nstore floating-point numbers as approximations it is usually unwise to\nuse them as dictionary keys.)\n\nDictionaries can be created by placing a comma-separated list of\n``key: value`` pairs within braces, for example: ``{\'jack\': 4098,\n\'sjoerd\': 4127}`` or ``{4098: \'jack\', 4127: \'sjoerd\'}``, or by the\n``dict`` constructor.\n\nclass class dict([arg])\n\n   Return a new dictionary initialized from an optional positional\n   argument or from a set of keyword arguments. If no arguments are\n   given, return a new empty dictionary. If the positional argument\n   *arg* is a mapping object, return a dictionary mapping the same\n   keys to the same values as does the mapping object. Otherwise the\n   positional argument must be a sequence, a container that supports\n   iteration, or an iterator object.  The elements of the argument\n   must each also be of one of those kinds, and each must in turn\n   contain exactly two objects. The first is used as a key in the new\n   dictionary, and the second as the key\'s value.  If a given key is\n   seen more than once, the last value associated with it is retained\n   in the new dictionary.\n\n   If keyword arguments are given, the keywords themselves with their\n   associated values are added as items to the dictionary. If a key is\n   specified both in the positional argument and as a keyword\n   argument, the value associated with the keyword is retained in the\n   dictionary. For example, these all return a dictionary equal to\n   ``{"one": 2, "two": 3}``:\n\n   * ``dict(one=2, two=3)``\n\n   * ``dict({\'one\': 2, \'two\': 3})``\n\n   * ``dict(zip((\'one\', \'two\'), (2, 3)))``\n\n   * ``dict([[\'two\', 3], [\'one\', 2]])``\n\n   The first example only works for keys that are valid Python\n   identifiers; the others work with any valid keys.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for building a dictionary from\n   keyword arguments added.\n\n   These are the operations that dictionaries support (and therefore,\n   custom mapping types should support too):\n\n   len(d)\n\n      Return the number of items in the dictionary *d*.\n\n   d[key]\n\n      Return the item of *d* with key *key*.  Raises a ``KeyError`` if\n      *key* is not in the map.\n\n      New in version 2.5: If a subclass of dict defines a method\n      ``__missing__()``, if the key *key* is not present, the\n      ``d[key]`` operation calls that method with the key *key* as\n      argument.  The ``d[key]`` operation then returns or raises\n      whatever is returned or raised by the ``__missing__(key)`` call\n      if the key is not present. No other operations or methods invoke\n      ``__missing__()``. If ``__missing__()`` is not defined,\n      ``KeyError`` is raised.  ``__missing__()`` must be a method; it\n      cannot be an instance variable. For an example, see\n      ``collections.defaultdict``.\n\n   d[key] = value\n\n      Set ``d[key]`` to *value*.\n\n   del d[key]\n\n      Remove ``d[key]`` from *d*.  Raises a ``KeyError`` if *key* is\n      not in the map.\n\n   key in d\n\n      Return ``True`` if *d* has a key *key*, else ``False``.\n\n      New in version 2.2.\n\n   key not in d\n\n      Equivalent to ``not key in d``.\n\n      New in version 2.2.\n\n   iter(d)\n\n      Return an iterator over the keys of the dictionary.  This is a\n      shortcut for ``iterkeys()``.\n\n   clear()\n\n      Remove all items from the dictionary.\n\n   copy()\n\n      Return a shallow copy of the dictionary.\n\n   fromkeys(seq[, value])\n\n      Create a new dictionary with keys from *seq* and values set to\n      *value*.\n\n      ``fromkeys()`` is a class method that returns a new dictionary.\n      *value* defaults to ``None``.\n\n      New in version 2.3.\n\n   get(key[, default])\n\n      Return the value for *key* if *key* is in the dictionary, else\n      *default*. If *default* is not given, it defaults to ``None``,\n      so that this method never raises a ``KeyError``.\n\n   has_key(key)\n\n      Test for the presence of *key* in the dictionary.  ``has_key()``\n      is deprecated in favor of ``key in d``.\n\n   items()\n\n      Return a copy of the dictionary\'s list of ``(key, value)``\n      pairs.\n\n      **CPython implementation detail:** Keys and values are listed in\n      an arbitrary order which is non-random, varies across Python\n      implementations, and depends on the dictionary\'s history of\n      insertions and deletions.\n\n      If ``items()``, ``keys()``, ``values()``, ``iteritems()``,\n      ``iterkeys()``, and ``itervalues()`` are called with no\n      intervening modifications to the dictionary, the lists will\n      directly correspond.  This allows the creation of ``(value,\n      key)`` pairs using ``zip()``: ``pairs = zip(d.values(),\n      d.keys())``.  The same relationship holds for the ``iterkeys()``\n      and ``itervalues()`` methods: ``pairs = zip(d.itervalues(),\n      d.iterkeys())`` provides the same value for ``pairs``. Another\n      way to create the same list is ``pairs = [(v, k) for (k, v) in\n      d.iteritems()]``.\n\n   iteritems()\n\n      Return an iterator over the dictionary\'s ``(key, value)`` pairs.\n      See the note for ``dict.items()``.\n\n      Using ``iteritems()`` while adding or deleting entries in the\n      dictionary may raise a ``RuntimeError`` or fail to iterate over\n      all entries.\n\n      New in version 2.2.\n\n   iterkeys()\n\n      Return an iterator over the dictionary\'s keys.  See the note for\n      ``dict.items()``.\n\n      Using ``iterkeys()`` while adding or deleting entries in the\n      dictionary may raise a ``RuntimeError`` or fail to iterate over\n      all entries.\n\n      New in version 2.2.\n\n   itervalues()\n\n      Return an iterator over the dictionary\'s values.  See the note\n      for ``dict.items()``.\n\n      Using ``itervalues()`` while adding or deleting entries in the\n      dictionary may raise a ``RuntimeError`` or fail to iterate over\n      all entries.\n\n      New in version 2.2.\n\n   keys()\n\n      Return a copy of the dictionary\'s list of keys.  See the note\n      for ``dict.items()``.\n\n   pop(key[, default])\n\n      If *key* is in the dictionary, remove it and return its value,\n      else return *default*.  If *default* is not given and *key* is\n      not in the dictionary, a ``KeyError`` is raised.\n\n      New in version 2.3.\n\n   popitem()\n\n      Remove and return an arbitrary ``(key, value)`` pair from the\n      dictionary.\n\n      ``popitem()`` is useful to destructively iterate over a\n      dictionary, as often used in set algorithms.  If the dictionary\n      is empty, calling ``popitem()`` raises a ``KeyError``.\n\n   setdefault(key[, default])\n\n      If *key* is in the dictionary, return its value.  If not, insert\n      *key* with a value of *default* and return *default*.  *default*\n      defaults to ``None``.\n\n   update([other])\n\n      Update the dictionary with the key/value pairs from *other*,\n      overwriting existing keys.  Return ``None``.\n\n      ``update()`` accepts either another dictionary object or an\n      iterable of key/value pairs (as a tuple or other iterable of\n      length two).  If keyword arguments are specified, the dictionary\n      is then updated with those key/value pairs: ``d.update(red=1,\n      blue=2)``.\n\n      Changed in version 2.4: Allowed the argument to be an iterable\n      of key/value pairs and allowed keyword arguments.\n\n   values()\n\n      Return a copy of the dictionary\'s list of values.  See the note\n      for ``dict.items()``.\n\n   viewitems()\n\n      Return a new view of the dictionary\'s items (``(key, value)``\n      pairs).  See below for documentation of view objects.\n\n      New in version 2.7.\n\n   viewkeys()\n\n      Return a new view of the dictionary\'s keys.  See below for\n      documentation of view objects.\n\n      New in version 2.7.\n\n   viewvalues()\n\n      Return a new view of the dictionary\'s values.  See below for\n      documentation of view objects.\n\n      New in version 2.7.\n\n\nDictionary view objects\n=======================\n\nThe objects returned by ``dict.viewkeys()``, ``dict.viewvalues()`` and\n``dict.viewitems()`` are *view objects*.  They provide a dynamic view\non the dictionary\'s entries, which means that when the dictionary\nchanges, the view reflects these changes.\n\nDictionary views can be iterated over to yield their respective data,\nand support membership tests:\n\nlen(dictview)\n\n   Return the number of entries in the dictionary.\n\niter(dictview)\n\n   Return an iterator over the keys, values or items (represented as\n   tuples of ``(key, value)``) in the dictionary.\n\n   Keys and values are iterated over in an arbitrary order which is\n   non-random, varies across Python implementations, and depends on\n   the dictionary\'s history of insertions and deletions. If keys,\n   values and items views are iterated over with no intervening\n   modifications to the dictionary, the order of items will directly\n   correspond.  This allows the creation of ``(value, key)`` pairs\n   using ``zip()``: ``pairs = zip(d.values(), d.keys())``.  Another\n   way to create the same list is ``pairs = [(v, k) for (k, v) in\n   d.items()]``.\n\n   Iterating views while adding or deleting entries in the dictionary\n   may raise a ``RuntimeError`` or fail to iterate over all entries.\n\nx in dictview\n\n   Return ``True`` if *x* is in the underlying dictionary\'s keys,\n   values or items (in the latter case, *x* should be a ``(key,\n   value)`` tuple).\n\nKeys views are set-like since their entries are unique and hashable.\nIf all values are hashable, so that (key, value) pairs are unique and\nhashable, then the items view is also set-like.  (Values views are not\ntreated as set-like since the entries are generally not unique.)  Then\nthese set operations are available ("other" refers either to another\nview or a set):\n\ndictview & other\n\n   Return the intersection of the dictview and the other object as a\n   new set.\n\ndictview | other\n\n   Return the union of the dictview and the other object as a new set.\n\ndictview - other\n\n   Return the difference between the dictview and the other object\n   (all elements in *dictview* that aren\'t in *other*) as a new set.\n\ndictview ^ other\n\n   Return the symmetric difference (all elements either in *dictview*\n   or *other*, but not in both) of the dictview and the other object\n   as a new set.\n\nAn example of dictionary view usage:\n\n   >>> dishes = {\'eggs\': 2, \'sausage\': 1, \'bacon\': 1, \'spam\': 500}\n   >>> keys = dishes.viewkeys()\n   >>> values = dishes.viewvalues()\n\n   >>> # iteration\n   >>> n = 0\n   >>> for val in values:\n   ...     n += val\n   >>> print(n)\n   504\n\n   >>> # keys and values are iterated over in the same order\n   >>> list(keys)\n   [\'eggs\', \'bacon\', \'sausage\', \'spam\']\n   >>> list(values)\n   [2, 1, 1, 500]\n\n   >>> # view objects are dynamic and reflect dict changes\n   >>> del dishes[\'eggs\']\n   >>> del dishes[\'sausage\']\n   >>> list(keys)\n   [\'spam\', \'bacon\']\n\n   >>> # set operations\n   >>> keys & {\'eggs\', \'bacon\', \'salad\'}\n   {\'bacon\'}\n',
+ 'typesmapping': u'\nMapping Types --- ``dict``\n**************************\n\nA *mapping* object maps *hashable* values to arbitrary objects.\nMappings are mutable objects.  There is currently only one standard\nmapping type, the *dictionary*.  (For other containers see the built\nin ``list``, ``set``, and ``tuple`` classes, and the ``collections``\nmodule.)\n\nA dictionary\'s keys are *almost* arbitrary values.  Values that are\nnot *hashable*, that is, values containing lists, dictionaries or\nother mutable types (that are compared by value rather than by object\nidentity) may not be used as keys.  Numeric types used for keys obey\nthe normal rules for numeric comparison: if two numbers compare equal\n(such as ``1`` and ``1.0``) then they can be used interchangeably to\nindex the same dictionary entry.  (Note however, that since computers\nstore floating-point numbers as approximations it is usually unwise to\nuse them as dictionary keys.)\n\nDictionaries can be created by placing a comma-separated list of\n``key: value`` pairs within braces, for example: ``{\'jack\': 4098,\n\'sjoerd\': 4127}`` or ``{4098: \'jack\', 4127: \'sjoerd\'}``, or by the\n``dict`` constructor.\n\nclass class dict([arg])\n\n   Return a new dictionary initialized from an optional positional\n   argument or from a set of keyword arguments. If no arguments are\n   given, return a new empty dictionary. If the positional argument\n   *arg* is a mapping object, return a dictionary mapping the same\n   keys to the same values as does the mapping object. Otherwise the\n   positional argument must be a sequence, a container that supports\n   iteration, or an iterator object.  The elements of the argument\n   must each also be of one of those kinds, and each must in turn\n   contain exactly two objects. The first is used as a key in the new\n   dictionary, and the second as the key\'s value.  If a given key is\n   seen more than once, the last value associated with it is retained\n   in the new dictionary.\n\n   If keyword arguments are given, the keywords themselves with their\n   associated values are added as items to the dictionary. If a key is\n   specified both in the positional argument and as a keyword\n   argument, the value associated with the keyword is retained in the\n   dictionary. For example, these all return a dictionary equal to\n   ``{"one": 1, "two": 2}``:\n\n   * ``dict(one=1, two=2)``\n\n   * ``dict({\'one\': 1, \'two\': 2})``\n\n   * ``dict(zip((\'one\', \'two\'), (1, 2)))``\n\n   * ``dict([[\'two\', 2], [\'one\', 1]])``\n\n   The first example only works for keys that are valid Python\n   identifiers; the others work with any valid keys.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for building a dictionary from\n   keyword arguments added.\n\n   These are the operations that dictionaries support (and therefore,\n   custom mapping types should support too):\n\n   len(d)\n\n      Return the number of items in the dictionary *d*.\n\n   d[key]\n\n      Return the item of *d* with key *key*.  Raises a ``KeyError`` if\n      *key* is not in the map.\n\n      New in version 2.5: If a subclass of dict defines a method\n      ``__missing__()``, if the key *key* is not present, the\n      ``d[key]`` operation calls that method with the key *key* as\n      argument.  The ``d[key]`` operation then returns or raises\n      whatever is returned or raised by the ``__missing__(key)`` call\n      if the key is not present. No other operations or methods invoke\n      ``__missing__()``. If ``__missing__()`` is not defined,\n      ``KeyError`` is raised.  ``__missing__()`` must be a method; it\n      cannot be an instance variable. For an example, see\n      ``collections.defaultdict``.\n\n   d[key] = value\n\n      Set ``d[key]`` to *value*.\n\n   del d[key]\n\n      Remove ``d[key]`` from *d*.  Raises a ``KeyError`` if *key* is\n      not in the map.\n\n   key in d\n\n      Return ``True`` if *d* has a key *key*, else ``False``.\n\n      New in version 2.2.\n\n   key not in d\n\n      Equivalent to ``not key in d``.\n\n      New in version 2.2.\n\n   iter(d)\n\n      Return an iterator over the keys of the dictionary.  This is a\n      shortcut for ``iterkeys()``.\n\n   clear()\n\n      Remove all items from the dictionary.\n\n   copy()\n\n      Return a shallow copy of the dictionary.\n\n   fromkeys(seq[, value])\n\n      Create a new dictionary with keys from *seq* and values set to\n      *value*.\n\n      ``fromkeys()`` is a class method that returns a new dictionary.\n      *value* defaults to ``None``.\n\n      New in version 2.3.\n\n   get(key[, default])\n\n      Return the value for *key* if *key* is in the dictionary, else\n      *default*. If *default* is not given, it defaults to ``None``,\n      so that this method never raises a ``KeyError``.\n\n   has_key(key)\n\n      Test for the presence of *key* in the dictionary.  ``has_key()``\n      is deprecated in favor of ``key in d``.\n\n   items()\n\n      Return a copy of the dictionary\'s list of ``(key, value)``\n      pairs.\n\n      **CPython implementation detail:** Keys and values are listed in\n      an arbitrary order which is non-random, varies across Python\n      implementations, and depends on the dictionary\'s history of\n      insertions and deletions.\n\n      If ``items()``, ``keys()``, ``values()``, ``iteritems()``,\n      ``iterkeys()``, and ``itervalues()`` are called with no\n      intervening modifications to the dictionary, the lists will\n      directly correspond.  This allows the creation of ``(value,\n      key)`` pairs using ``zip()``: ``pairs = zip(d.values(),\n      d.keys())``.  The same relationship holds for the ``iterkeys()``\n      and ``itervalues()`` methods: ``pairs = zip(d.itervalues(),\n      d.iterkeys())`` provides the same value for ``pairs``. Another\n      way to create the same list is ``pairs = [(v, k) for (k, v) in\n      d.iteritems()]``.\n\n   iteritems()\n\n      Return an iterator over the dictionary\'s ``(key, value)`` pairs.\n      See the note for ``dict.items()``.\n\n      Using ``iteritems()`` while adding or deleting entries in the\n      dictionary may raise a ``RuntimeError`` or fail to iterate over\n      all entries.\n\n      New in version 2.2.\n\n   iterkeys()\n\n      Return an iterator over the dictionary\'s keys.  See the note for\n      ``dict.items()``.\n\n      Using ``iterkeys()`` while adding or deleting entries in the\n      dictionary may raise a ``RuntimeError`` or fail to iterate over\n      all entries.\n\n      New in version 2.2.\n\n   itervalues()\n\n      Return an iterator over the dictionary\'s values.  See the note\n      for ``dict.items()``.\n\n      Using ``itervalues()`` while adding or deleting entries in the\n      dictionary may raise a ``RuntimeError`` or fail to iterate over\n      all entries.\n\n      New in version 2.2.\n\n   keys()\n\n      Return a copy of the dictionary\'s list of keys.  See the note\n      for ``dict.items()``.\n\n   pop(key[, default])\n\n      If *key* is in the dictionary, remove it and return its value,\n      else return *default*.  If *default* is not given and *key* is\n      not in the dictionary, a ``KeyError`` is raised.\n\n      New in version 2.3.\n\n   popitem()\n\n      Remove and return an arbitrary ``(key, value)`` pair from the\n      dictionary.\n\n      ``popitem()`` is useful to destructively iterate over a\n      dictionary, as often used in set algorithms.  If the dictionary\n      is empty, calling ``popitem()`` raises a ``KeyError``.\n\n   setdefault(key[, default])\n\n      If *key* is in the dictionary, return its value.  If not, insert\n      *key* with a value of *default* and return *default*.  *default*\n      defaults to ``None``.\n\n   update([other])\n\n      Update the dictionary with the key/value pairs from *other*,\n      overwriting existing keys.  Return ``None``.\n\n      ``update()`` accepts either another dictionary object or an\n      iterable of key/value pairs (as tuples or other iterables of\n      length two).  If keyword arguments are specified, the dictionary\n      is then updated with those key/value pairs: ``d.update(red=1,\n      blue=2)``.\n\n      Changed in version 2.4: Allowed the argument to be an iterable\n      of key/value pairs and allowed keyword arguments.\n\n   values()\n\n      Return a copy of the dictionary\'s list of values.  See the note\n      for ``dict.items()``.\n\n   viewitems()\n\n      Return a new view of the dictionary\'s items (``(key, value)``\n      pairs).  See below for documentation of view objects.\n\n      New in version 2.7.\n\n   viewkeys()\n\n      Return a new view of the dictionary\'s keys.  See below for\n      documentation of view objects.\n\n      New in version 2.7.\n\n   viewvalues()\n\n      Return a new view of the dictionary\'s values.  See below for\n      documentation of view objects.\n\n      New in version 2.7.\n\n\nDictionary view objects\n=======================\n\nThe objects returned by ``dict.viewkeys()``, ``dict.viewvalues()`` and\n``dict.viewitems()`` are *view objects*.  They provide a dynamic view\non the dictionary\'s entries, which means that when the dictionary\nchanges, the view reflects these changes.\n\nDictionary views can be iterated over to yield their respective data,\nand support membership tests:\n\nlen(dictview)\n\n   Return the number of entries in the dictionary.\n\niter(dictview)\n\n   Return an iterator over the keys, values or items (represented as\n   tuples of ``(key, value)``) in the dictionary.\n\n   Keys and values are iterated over in an arbitrary order which is\n   non-random, varies across Python implementations, and depends on\n   the dictionary\'s history of insertions and deletions. If keys,\n   values and items views are iterated over with no intervening\n   modifications to the dictionary, the order of items will directly\n   correspond.  This allows the creation of ``(value, key)`` pairs\n   using ``zip()``: ``pairs = zip(d.values(), d.keys())``.  Another\n   way to create the same list is ``pairs = [(v, k) for (k, v) in\n   d.items()]``.\n\n   Iterating views while adding or deleting entries in the dictionary\n   may raise a ``RuntimeError`` or fail to iterate over all entries.\n\nx in dictview\n\n   Return ``True`` if *x* is in the underlying dictionary\'s keys,\n   values or items (in the latter case, *x* should be a ``(key,\n   value)`` tuple).\n\nKeys views are set-like since their entries are unique and hashable.\nIf all values are hashable, so that (key, value) pairs are unique and\nhashable, then the items view is also set-like.  (Values views are not\ntreated as set-like since the entries are generally not unique.)  Then\nthese set operations are available ("other" refers either to another\nview or a set):\n\ndictview & other\n\n   Return the intersection of the dictview and the other object as a\n   new set.\n\ndictview | other\n\n   Return the union of the dictview and the other object as a new set.\n\ndictview - other\n\n   Return the difference between the dictview and the other object\n   (all elements in *dictview* that aren\'t in *other*) as a new set.\n\ndictview ^ other\n\n   Return the symmetric difference (all elements either in *dictview*\n   or *other*, but not in both) of the dictview and the other object\n   as a new set.\n\nAn example of dictionary view usage:\n\n   >>> dishes = {\'eggs\': 2, \'sausage\': 1, \'bacon\': 1, \'spam\': 500}\n   >>> keys = dishes.viewkeys()\n   >>> values = dishes.viewvalues()\n\n   >>> # iteration\n   >>> n = 0\n   >>> for val in values:\n   ...     n += val\n   >>> print(n)\n   504\n\n   >>> # keys and values are iterated over in the same order\n   >>> list(keys)\n   [\'eggs\', \'bacon\', \'sausage\', \'spam\']\n   >>> list(values)\n   [2, 1, 1, 500]\n\n   >>> # view objects are dynamic and reflect dict changes\n   >>> del dishes[\'eggs\']\n   >>> del dishes[\'sausage\']\n   >>> list(keys)\n   [\'spam\', \'bacon\']\n\n   >>> # set operations\n   >>> keys & {\'eggs\', \'bacon\', \'salad\'}\n   {\'bacon\'}\n',
  'typesmethods': u"\nMethods\n*******\n\nMethods are functions that are called using the attribute notation.\nThere are two flavors: built-in methods (such as ``append()`` on\nlists) and class instance methods.  Built-in methods are described\nwith the types that support them.\n\nThe implementation adds two special read-only attributes to class\ninstance methods: ``m.im_self`` is the object on which the method\noperates, and ``m.im_func`` is the function implementing the method.\nCalling ``m(arg-1, arg-2, ..., arg-n)`` is completely equivalent to\ncalling ``m.im_func(m.im_self, arg-1, arg-2, ..., arg-n)``.\n\nClass instance methods are either *bound* or *unbound*, referring to\nwhether the method was accessed through an instance or a class,\nrespectively.  When a method is unbound, its ``im_self`` attribute\nwill be ``None`` and if called, an explicit ``self`` object must be\npassed as the first argument.  In this case, ``self`` must be an\ninstance of the unbound method's class (or a subclass of that class),\notherwise a ``TypeError`` is raised.\n\nLike function objects, methods objects support getting arbitrary\nattributes. However, since method attributes are actually stored on\nthe underlying function object (``meth.im_func``), setting method\nattributes on either bound or unbound methods is disallowed.\nAttempting to set a method attribute results in a ``TypeError`` being\nraised.  In order to set a method attribute, you need to explicitly\nset it on the underlying function object:\n\n   class C:\n       def method(self):\n           pass\n\n   c = C()\n   c.method.im_func.whoami = 'my name is c'\n\nSee *The standard type hierarchy* for more information.\n",
  'typesmodules': u"\nModules\n*******\n\nThe only special operation on a module is attribute access:\n``m.name``, where *m* is a module and *name* accesses a name defined\nin *m*'s symbol table. Module attributes can be assigned to.  (Note\nthat the ``import`` statement is not, strictly speaking, an operation\non a module object; ``import foo`` does not require a module object\nnamed *foo* to exist, rather it requires an (external) *definition*\nfor a module named *foo* somewhere.)\n\nA special member of every module is ``__dict__``. This is the\ndictionary containing the module's symbol table. Modifying this\ndictionary will actually change the module's symbol table, but direct\nassignment to the ``__dict__`` attribute is not possible (you can\nwrite ``m.__dict__['a'] = 1``, which defines ``m.a`` to be ``1``, but\nyou can't write ``m.__dict__ = {}``).  Modifying ``__dict__`` directly\nis not recommended.\n\nModules built into the interpreter are written like this: ``<module\n'sys' (built-in)>``.  If loaded from a file, they are written as\n``<module 'os' from '/usr/local/lib/pythonX.Y/os.pyc'>``.\n",
- 'typesseq': u'\nSequence Types --- ``str``, ``unicode``, ``list``, ``tuple``, ``buffer``, ``xrange``\n************************************************************************************\n\nThere are six sequence types: strings, Unicode strings, lists, tuples,\nbuffers, and xrange objects.\n\nFor other containers see the built in ``dict`` and ``set`` classes,\nand the ``collections`` module.\n\nString literals are written in single or double quotes: ``\'xyzzy\'``,\n``"frobozz"``.  See *String literals* for more about string literals.\nUnicode strings are much like strings, but are specified in the syntax\nusing a preceding ``\'u\'`` character: ``u\'abc\'``, ``u"def"``. In\naddition to the functionality described here, there are also string-\nspecific methods described in the *String Methods* section. Lists are\nconstructed with square brackets, separating items with commas: ``[a,\nb, c]``. Tuples are constructed by the comma operator (not within\nsquare brackets), with or without enclosing parentheses, but an empty\ntuple must have the enclosing parentheses, such as ``a, b, c`` or\n``()``.  A single item tuple must have a trailing comma, such as\n``(d,)``.\n\nBuffer objects are not directly supported by Python syntax, but can be\ncreated by calling the built-in function ``buffer()``.  They don\'t\nsupport concatenation or repetition.\n\nObjects of type xrange are similar to buffers in that there is no\nspecific syntax to create them, but they are created using the\n``xrange()`` function.  They don\'t support slicing, concatenation or\nrepetition, and using ``in``, ``not in``, ``min()`` or ``max()`` on\nthem is inefficient.\n\nMost sequence types support the following operations.  The ``in`` and\n``not in`` operations have the same priorities as the comparison\noperations.  The ``+`` and ``*`` operations have the same priority as\nthe corresponding numeric operations. [3] Additional methods are\nprovided for *Mutable Sequence Types*.\n\nThis table lists the sequence operations sorted in ascending priority\n(operations in the same box have the same priority).  In the table,\n*s* and *t* are sequences of the same type; *n*, *i* and *j* are\nintegers:\n\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| Operation          | Result                           | Notes      |\n+====================+==================================+============+\n| ``x in s``         | ``True`` if an item of *s* is    | (1)        |\n|                    | equal to *x*, else ``False``     |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``x not in s``     | ``False`` if an item of *s* is   | (1)        |\n|                    | equal to *x*, else ``True``      |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s + t``          | the concatenation of *s* and *t* | (6)        |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s * n, n * s``   | *n* shallow copies of *s*        | (2)        |\n|                    | concatenated                     |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s[i]``           | *i*\'th item of *s*, origin 0     | (3)        |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s[i:j]``         | slice of *s* from *i* to *j*     | (3)(4)     |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s[i:j:k]``       | slice of *s* from *i* to *j*     | (3)(5)     |\n|                    | with step *k*                    |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``len(s)``         | length of *s*                    |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``min(s)``         | smallest item of *s*             |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``max(s)``         | largest item of *s*              |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n\nSequence types also support comparisons. In particular, tuples and\nlists are compared lexicographically by comparing corresponding\nelements. This means that to compare equal, every element must compare\nequal and the two sequences must be of the same type and have the same\nlength. (For full details see *Comparisons* in the language\nreference.)\n\nNotes:\n\n1. When *s* is a string or Unicode string object the ``in`` and ``not\n   in`` operations act like a substring test.  In Python versions\n   before 2.3, *x* had to be a string of length 1. In Python 2.3 and\n   beyond, *x* may be a string of any length.\n\n2. Values of *n* less than ``0`` are treated as ``0`` (which yields an\n   empty sequence of the same type as *s*).  Note also that the copies\n   are shallow; nested structures are not copied.  This often haunts\n   new Python programmers; consider:\n\n   >>> lists = [[]] * 3\n   >>> lists\n   [[], [], []]\n   >>> lists[0].append(3)\n   >>> lists\n   [[3], [3], [3]]\n\n   What has happened is that ``[[]]`` is a one-element list containing\n   an empty list, so all three elements of ``[[]] * 3`` are (pointers\n   to) this single empty list.  Modifying any of the elements of\n   ``lists`` modifies this single list. You can create a list of\n   different lists this way:\n\n   >>> lists = [[] for i in range(3)]\n   >>> lists[0].append(3)\n   >>> lists[1].append(5)\n   >>> lists[2].append(7)\n   >>> lists\n   [[3], [5], [7]]\n\n3. If *i* or *j* is negative, the index is relative to the end of the\n   string: ``len(s) + i`` or ``len(s) + j`` is substituted.  But note\n   that ``-0`` is still ``0``.\n\n4. The slice of *s* from *i* to *j* is defined as the sequence of\n   items with index *k* such that ``i <= k < j``.  If *i* or *j* is\n   greater than ``len(s)``, use ``len(s)``.  If *i* is omitted or\n   ``None``, use ``0``.  If *j* is omitted or ``None``, use\n   ``len(s)``.  If *i* is greater than or equal to *j*, the slice is\n   empty.\n\n5. The slice of *s* from *i* to *j* with step *k* is defined as the\n   sequence of items with index  ``x = i + n*k`` such that ``0 <= n <\n   (j-i)/k``.  In other words, the indices are ``i``, ``i+k``,\n   ``i+2*k``, ``i+3*k`` and so on, stopping when *j* is reached (but\n   never including *j*).  If *i* or *j* is greater than ``len(s)``,\n   use ``len(s)``.  If *i* or *j* are omitted or ``None``, they become\n   "end" values (which end depends on the sign of *k*).  Note, *k*\n   cannot be zero. If *k* is ``None``, it is treated like ``1``.\n\n6. **CPython implementation detail:** If *s* and *t* are both strings,\n   some Python implementations such as CPython can usually perform an\n   in-place optimization for assignments of the form ``s = s + t`` or\n   ``s += t``.  When applicable, this optimization makes quadratic\n   run-time much less likely.  This optimization is both version and\n   implementation dependent.  For performance sensitive code, it is\n   preferable to use the ``str.join()`` method which assures\n   consistent linear concatenation performance across versions and\n   implementations.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Formerly, string concatenation never\n   occurred in-place.\n\n\nString Methods\n==============\n\nBelow are listed the string methods which both 8-bit strings and\nUnicode objects support.\n\nIn addition, Python\'s strings support the sequence type methods\ndescribed in the *Sequence Types --- str, unicode, list, tuple,\nbuffer, xrange* section. To output formatted strings use template\nstrings or the ``%`` operator described in the *String Formatting\nOperations* section. Also, see the ``re`` module for string functions\nbased on regular expressions.\n\nstr.capitalize()\n\n   Return a copy of the string with only its first character\n   capitalized.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.center(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return centered in a string of length *width*. Padding is done\n   using the specified *fillchar* (default is a space).\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.count(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring *sub*\n   in the range [*start*, *end*].  Optional arguments *start* and\n   *end* are interpreted as in slice notation.\n\nstr.decode([encoding[, errors]])\n\n   Decodes the string using the codec registered for *encoding*.\n   *encoding* defaults to the default string encoding.  *errors* may\n   be given to set a different error handling scheme.  The default is\n   ``\'strict\'``, meaning that encoding errors raise ``UnicodeError``.\n   Other possible values are ``\'ignore\'``, ``\'replace\'`` and any other\n   name registered via ``codecs.register_error()``, see section *Codec\n   Base Classes*.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for other error handling schemes\n   added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.7: Support for keyword arguments added.\n\nstr.encode([encoding[, errors]])\n\n   Return an encoded version of the string.  Default encoding is the\n   current default string encoding.  *errors* may be given to set a\n   different error handling scheme.  The default for *errors* is\n   ``\'strict\'``, meaning that encoding errors raise a\n   ``UnicodeError``.  Other possible values are ``\'ignore\'``,\n   ``\'replace\'``, ``\'xmlcharrefreplace\'``, ``\'backslashreplace\'`` and\n   any other name registered via ``codecs.register_error()``, see\n   section *Codec Base Classes*. For a list of possible encodings, see\n   section *Standard Encodings*.\n\n   New in version 2.0.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for ``\'xmlcharrefreplace\'`` and\n   ``\'backslashreplace\'`` and other error handling schemes added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.7: Support for keyword arguments added.\n\nstr.endswith(suffix[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return ``True`` if the string ends with the specified *suffix*,\n   otherwise return ``False``.  *suffix* can also be a tuple of\n   suffixes to look for.  With optional *start*, test beginning at\n   that position.  With optional *end*, stop comparing at that\n   position.\n\n   Changed in version 2.5: Accept tuples as *suffix*.\n\nstr.expandtabs([tabsize])\n\n   Return a copy of the string where all tab characters are replaced\n   by one or more spaces, depending on the current column and the\n   given tab size.  The column number is reset to zero after each\n   newline occurring in the string. If *tabsize* is not given, a tab\n   size of ``8`` characters is assumed.  This doesn\'t understand other\n   non-printing characters or escape sequences.\n\nstr.find(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the lowest index in the string where substring *sub* is\n   found, such that *sub* is contained in the slice ``s[start:end]``.\n   Optional arguments *start* and *end* are interpreted as in slice\n   notation.  Return ``-1`` if *sub* is not found.\n\nstr.format(*args, **kwargs)\n\n   Perform a string formatting operation.  The string on which this\n   method is called can contain literal text or replacement fields\n   delimited by braces ``{}``.  Each replacement field contains either\n   the numeric index of a positional argument, or the name of a\n   keyword argument.  Returns a copy of the string where each\n   replacement field is replaced with the string value of the\n   corresponding argument.\n\n   >>> "The sum of 1 + 2 is {0}".format(1+2)\n   \'The sum of 1 + 2 is 3\'\n\n   See *Format String Syntax* for a description of the various\n   formatting options that can be specified in format strings.\n\n   This method of string formatting is the new standard in Python 3.0,\n   and should be preferred to the ``%`` formatting described in\n   *String Formatting Operations* in new code.\n\n   New in version 2.6.\n\nstr.index(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Like ``find()``, but raise ``ValueError`` when the substring is not\n   found.\n\nstr.isalnum()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are alphanumeric and\n   there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isalpha()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are alphabetic and\n   there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isdigit()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are digits and there is\n   at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.islower()\n\n   Return true if all cased characters in the string are lowercase and\n   there is at least one cased character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isspace()\n\n   Return true if there are only whitespace characters in the string\n   and there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.istitle()\n\n   Return true if the string is a titlecased string and there is at\n   least one character, for example uppercase characters may only\n   follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones.\n   Return false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isupper()\n\n   Return true if all cased characters in the string are uppercase and\n   there is at least one cased character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.join(iterable)\n\n   Return a string which is the concatenation of the strings in the\n   *iterable* *iterable*.  The separator between elements is the\n   string providing this method.\n\nstr.ljust(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return the string left justified in a string of length *width*.\n   Padding is done using the specified *fillchar* (default is a\n   space).  The original string is returned if *width* is less than\n   ``len(s)``.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.lower()\n\n   Return a copy of the string converted to lowercase.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.lstrip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with leading characters removed.  The\n   *chars* argument is a string specifying the set of characters to be\n   removed.  If omitted or ``None``, the *chars* argument defaults to\n   removing whitespace.  The *chars* argument is not a prefix; rather,\n   all combinations of its values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.lstrip()\n   \'spacious   \'\n   >>> \'www.example.com\'.lstrip(\'cmowz.\')\n   \'example.com\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.partition(sep)\n\n   Split the string at the first occurrence of *sep*, and return a\n   3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator\n   itself, and the part after the separator.  If the separator is not\n   found, return a 3-tuple containing the string itself, followed by\n   two empty strings.\n\n   New in version 2.5.\n\nstr.replace(old, new[, count])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with all occurrences of substring *old*\n   replaced by *new*.  If the optional argument *count* is given, only\n   the first *count* occurrences are replaced.\n\nstr.rfind(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the highest index in the string where substring *sub* is\n   found, such that *sub* is contained within ``s[start:end]``.\n   Optional arguments *start* and *end* are interpreted as in slice\n   notation.  Return ``-1`` on failure.\n\nstr.rindex(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Like ``rfind()`` but raises ``ValueError`` when the substring *sub*\n   is not found.\n\nstr.rjust(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return the string right justified in a string of length *width*.\n   Padding is done using the specified *fillchar* (default is a\n   space). The original string is returned if *width* is less than\n   ``len(s)``.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.rpartition(sep)\n\n   Split the string at the last occurrence of *sep*, and return a\n   3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator\n   itself, and the part after the separator.  If the separator is not\n   found, return a 3-tuple containing two empty strings, followed by\n   the string itself.\n\n   New in version 2.5.\n\nstr.rsplit([sep[, maxsplit]])\n\n   Return a list of the words in the string, using *sep* as the\n   delimiter string. If *maxsplit* is given, at most *maxsplit* splits\n   are done, the *rightmost* ones.  If *sep* is not specified or\n   ``None``, any whitespace string is a separator.  Except for\n   splitting from the right, ``rsplit()`` behaves like ``split()``\n   which is described in detail below.\n\n   New in version 2.4.\n\nstr.rstrip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with trailing characters removed.  The\n   *chars* argument is a string specifying the set of characters to be\n   removed.  If omitted or ``None``, the *chars* argument defaults to\n   removing whitespace.  The *chars* argument is not a suffix; rather,\n   all combinations of its values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.rstrip()\n   \'   spacious\'\n   >>> \'mississippi\'.rstrip(\'ipz\')\n   \'mississ\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.split([sep[, maxsplit]])\n\n   Return a list of the words in the string, using *sep* as the\n   delimiter string.  If *maxsplit* is given, at most *maxsplit*\n   splits are done (thus, the list will have at most ``maxsplit+1``\n   elements).  If *maxsplit* is not specified, then there is no limit\n   on the number of splits (all possible splits are made).\n\n   If *sep* is given, consecutive delimiters are not grouped together\n   and are deemed to delimit empty strings (for example,\n   ``\'1,,2\'.split(\',\')`` returns ``[\'1\', \'\', \'2\']``).  The *sep*\n   argument may consist of multiple characters (for example,\n   ``\'1<>2<>3\'.split(\'<>\')`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2\', \'3\']``). Splitting\n   an empty string with a specified separator returns ``[\'\']``.\n\n   If *sep* is not specified or is ``None``, a different splitting\n   algorithm is applied: runs of consecutive whitespace are regarded\n   as a single separator, and the result will contain no empty strings\n   at the start or end if the string has leading or trailing\n   whitespace.  Consequently, splitting an empty string or a string\n   consisting of just whitespace with a ``None`` separator returns\n   ``[]``.\n\n   For example, ``\' 1  2   3  \'.split()`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2\', \'3\']``,\n   and ``\'  1  2   3  \'.split(None, 1)`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2   3  \']``.\n\nstr.splitlines([keepends])\n\n   Return a list of the lines in the string, breaking at line\n   boundaries.  Line breaks are not included in the resulting list\n   unless *keepends* is given and true.\n\nstr.startswith(prefix[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return ``True`` if string starts with the *prefix*, otherwise\n   return ``False``. *prefix* can also be a tuple of prefixes to look\n   for.  With optional *start*, test string beginning at that\n   position.  With optional *end*, stop comparing string at that\n   position.\n\n   Changed in version 2.5: Accept tuples as *prefix*.\n\nstr.strip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with the leading and trailing\n   characters removed. The *chars* argument is a string specifying the\n   set of characters to be removed. If omitted or ``None``, the\n   *chars* argument defaults to removing whitespace. The *chars*\n   argument is not a prefix or suffix; rather, all combinations of its\n   values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.strip()\n   \'spacious\'\n   >>> \'www.example.com\'.strip(\'cmowz.\')\n   \'example\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.swapcase()\n\n   Return a copy of the string with uppercase characters converted to\n   lowercase and vice versa.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.title()\n\n   Return a titlecased version of the string where words start with an\n   uppercase character and the remaining characters are lowercase.\n\n   The algorithm uses a simple language-independent definition of a\n   word as groups of consecutive letters.  The definition works in\n   many contexts but it means that apostrophes in contractions and\n   possessives form word boundaries, which may not be the desired\n   result:\n\n      >>> "they\'re bill\'s friends from the UK".title()\n      "They\'Re Bill\'S Friends From The Uk"\n\n   A workaround for apostrophes can be constructed using regular\n   expressions:\n\n      >>> import re\n      >>> def titlecase(s):\n              return re.sub(r"[A-Za-z]+(\'[A-Za-z]+)?",\n                            lambda mo: mo.group(0)[0].upper() +\n                                       mo.group(0)[1:].lower(),\n                            s)\n\n      >>> titlecase("they\'re bill\'s friends.")\n      "They\'re Bill\'s Friends."\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.translate(table[, deletechars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string where all characters occurring in the\n   optional argument *deletechars* are removed, and the remaining\n   characters have been mapped through the given translation table,\n   which must be a string of length 256.\n\n   You can use the ``maketrans()`` helper function in the ``string``\n   module to create a translation table. For string objects, set the\n   *table* argument to ``None`` for translations that only delete\n   characters:\n\n   >>> \'read this short text\'.translate(None, \'aeiou\')\n   \'rd ths shrt txt\'\n\n   New in version 2.6: Support for a ``None`` *table* argument.\n\n   For Unicode objects, the ``translate()`` method does not accept the\n   optional *deletechars* argument.  Instead, it returns a copy of the\n   *s* where all characters have been mapped through the given\n   translation table which must be a mapping of Unicode ordinals to\n   Unicode ordinals, Unicode strings or ``None``. Unmapped characters\n   are left untouched. Characters mapped to ``None`` are deleted.\n   Note, a more flexible approach is to create a custom character\n   mapping codec using the ``codecs`` module (see ``encodings.cp1251``\n   for an example).\n\nstr.upper()\n\n   Return a copy of the string converted to uppercase.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.zfill(width)\n\n   Return the numeric string left filled with zeros in a string of\n   length *width*.  A sign prefix is handled correctly.  The original\n   string is returned if *width* is less than ``len(s)``.\n\n   New in version 2.2.2.\n\nThe following methods are present only on unicode objects:\n\nunicode.isnumeric()\n\n   Return ``True`` if there are only numeric characters in S,\n   ``False`` otherwise. Numeric characters include digit characters,\n   and all characters that have the Unicode numeric value property,\n   e.g. U+2155, VULGAR FRACTION ONE FIFTH.\n\nunicode.isdecimal()\n\n   Return ``True`` if there are only decimal characters in S,\n   ``False`` otherwise. Decimal characters include digit characters,\n   and all characters that that can be used to form decimal-radix\n   numbers, e.g. U+0660, ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT ZERO.\n\n\nString Formatting Operations\n============================\n\nString and Unicode objects have one unique built-in operation: the\n``%`` operator (modulo).  This is also known as the string\n*formatting* or *interpolation* operator.  Given ``format % values``\n(where *format* is a string or Unicode object), ``%`` conversion\nspecifications in *format* are replaced with zero or more elements of\n*values*.  The effect is similar to the using ``sprintf()`` in the C\nlanguage.  If *format* is a Unicode object, or if any of the objects\nbeing converted using the ``%s`` conversion are Unicode objects, the\nresult will also be a Unicode object.\n\nIf *format* requires a single argument, *values* may be a single non-\ntuple object. [4]  Otherwise, *values* must be a tuple with exactly\nthe number of items specified by the format string, or a single\nmapping object (for example, a dictionary).\n\nA conversion specifier contains two or more characters and has the\nfollowing components, which must occur in this order:\n\n1. The ``\'%\'`` character, which marks the start of the specifier.\n\n2. Mapping key (optional), consisting of a parenthesised sequence of\n   characters (for example, ``(somename)``).\n\n3. Conversion flags (optional), which affect the result of some\n   conversion types.\n\n4. Minimum field width (optional).  If specified as an ``\'*\'``\n   (asterisk), the actual width is read from the next element of the\n   tuple in *values*, and the object to convert comes after the\n   minimum field width and optional precision.\n\n5. Precision (optional), given as a ``\'.\'`` (dot) followed by the\n   precision.  If specified as ``\'*\'`` (an asterisk), the actual width\n   is read from the next element of the tuple in *values*, and the\n   value to convert comes after the precision.\n\n6. Length modifier (optional).\n\n7. Conversion type.\n\nWhen the right argument is a dictionary (or other mapping type), then\nthe formats in the string *must* include a parenthesised mapping key\ninto that dictionary inserted immediately after the ``\'%\'`` character.\nThe mapping key selects the value to be formatted from the mapping.\nFor example:\n\n>>> print \'%(language)s has %(#)03d quote types.\' % \\\n...       {\'language\': "Python", "#": 2}\nPython has 002 quote types.\n\nIn this case no ``*`` specifiers may occur in a format (since they\nrequire a sequential parameter list).\n\nThe conversion flag characters are:\n\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n| Flag      | Meaning                                                               |\n+===========+=======================================================================+\n| ``\'#\'``   | The value conversion will use the "alternate form" (where defined     |\n|           | below).                                                               |\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n| ``\'0\'``   | The conversion will be zero padded for numeric values.                |\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n| ``\'-\'``   | The converted value is left adjusted (overrides the ``\'0\'``           |\n|           | conversion if both are given).                                        |\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n| ``\' \'``   | (a space) A blank should be left before a positive number (or empty   |\n|           | string) produced by a signed conversion.                              |\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n| ``\'+\'``   | A sign character (``\'+\'`` or ``\'-\'``) will precede the conversion     |\n|           | (overrides a "space" flag).                                           |\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nA length modifier (``h``, ``l``, or ``L``) may be present, but is\nignored as it is not necessary for Python -- so e.g. ``%ld`` is\nidentical to ``%d``.\n\nThe conversion types are:\n\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| Conversion   | Meaning                                               | Notes   |\n+==============+=======================================================+=========+\n| ``\'d\'``      | Signed integer decimal.                               |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'i\'``      | Signed integer decimal.                               |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'o\'``      | Signed octal value.                                   | (1)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'u\'``      | Obsolete type -- it is identical to ``\'d\'``.          | (7)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'x\'``      | Signed hexadecimal (lowercase).                       | (2)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'X\'``      | Signed hexadecimal (uppercase).                       | (2)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'e\'``      | Floating point exponential format (lowercase).        | (3)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'E\'``      | Floating point exponential format (uppercase).        | (3)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'f\'``      | Floating point decimal format.                        | (3)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'F\'``      | Floating point decimal format.                        | (3)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'g\'``      | Floating point format. Uses lowercase exponential     | (4)     |\n|              | format if exponent is less than -4 or not less than   |         |\n|              | precision, decimal format otherwise.                  |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'G\'``      | Floating point format. Uses uppercase exponential     | (4)     |\n|              | format if exponent is less than -4 or not less than   |         |\n|              | precision, decimal format otherwise.                  |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'c\'``      | Single character (accepts integer or single character |         |\n|              | string).                                              |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'r\'``      | String (converts any Python object using ``repr()``). | (5)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'s\'``      | String (converts any Python object using ``str()``).  | (6)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'%\'``      | No argument is converted, results in a ``\'%\'``        |         |\n|              | character in the result.                              |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n\nNotes:\n\n1. The alternate form causes a leading zero (``\'0\'``) to be inserted\n   between left-hand padding and the formatting of the number if the\n   leading character of the result is not already a zero.\n\n2. The alternate form causes a leading ``\'0x\'`` or ``\'0X\'`` (depending\n   on whether the ``\'x\'`` or ``\'X\'`` format was used) to be inserted\n   between left-hand padding and the formatting of the number if the\n   leading character of the result is not already a zero.\n\n3. The alternate form causes the result to always contain a decimal\n   point, even if no digits follow it.\n\n   The precision determines the number of digits after the decimal\n   point and defaults to 6.\n\n4. The alternate form causes the result to always contain a decimal\n   point, and trailing zeroes are not removed as they would otherwise\n   be.\n\n   The precision determines the number of significant digits before\n   and after the decimal point and defaults to 6.\n\n5. The ``%r`` conversion was added in Python 2.0.\n\n   The precision determines the maximal number of characters used.\n\n6. If the object or format provided is a ``unicode`` string, the\n   resulting string will also be ``unicode``.\n\n   The precision determines the maximal number of characters used.\n\n7. See **PEP 237**.\n\nSince Python strings have an explicit length, ``%s`` conversions do\nnot assume that ``\'\\0\'`` is the end of the string.\n\nChanged in version 2.7: ``%f`` conversions for numbers whose absolute\nvalue is over 1e50 are no longer replaced by ``%g`` conversions.\n\nAdditional string operations are defined in standard modules\n``string`` and ``re``.\n\n\nXRange Type\n===========\n\nThe ``xrange`` type is an immutable sequence which is commonly used\nfor looping.  The advantage of the ``xrange`` type is that an\n``xrange`` object will always take the same amount of memory, no\nmatter the size of the range it represents.  There are no consistent\nperformance advantages.\n\nXRange objects have very little behavior: they only support indexing,\niteration, and the ``len()`` function.\n\n\nMutable Sequence Types\n======================\n\nList objects support additional operations that allow in-place\nmodification of the object. Other mutable sequence types (when added\nto the language) should also support these operations. Strings and\ntuples are immutable sequence types: such objects cannot be modified\nonce created. The following operations are defined on mutable sequence\ntypes (where *x* is an arbitrary object):\n\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| Operation                      | Result                           | Notes                 |\n+================================+==================================+=======================+\n| ``s[i] = x``                   | item *i* of *s* is replaced by   |                       |\n|                                | *x*                              |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s[i:j] = t``                 | slice of *s* from *i* to *j* is  |                       |\n|                                | replaced by the contents of the  |                       |\n|                                | iterable *t*                     |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``del s[i:j]``                 | same as ``s[i:j] = []``          |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s[i:j:k] = t``               | the elements of ``s[i:j:k]`` are | (1)                   |\n|                                | replaced by those of *t*         |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``del s[i:j:k]``               | removes the elements of          |                       |\n|                                | ``s[i:j:k]`` from the list       |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.append(x)``                | same as ``s[len(s):len(s)] =     | (2)                   |\n|                                | [x]``                            |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.extend(x)``                | same as ``s[len(s):len(s)] = x`` | (3)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.count(x)``                 | return number of *i*\'s for which |                       |\n|                                | ``s[i] == x``                    |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.index(x[, i[, j]])``       | return smallest *k* such that    | (4)                   |\n|                                | ``s[k] == x`` and ``i <= k < j`` |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.insert(i, x)``             | same as ``s[i:i] = [x]``         | (5)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.pop([i])``                 | same as ``x = s[i]; del s[i];    | (6)                   |\n|                                | return x``                       |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.remove(x)``                | same as ``del s[s.index(x)]``    | (4)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.reverse()``                | reverses the items of *s* in     | (7)                   |\n|                                | place                            |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.sort([cmp[, key[,          | sort the items of *s* in place   | (7)(8)(9)(10)         |\n| reverse]]])``                  |                                  |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n\nNotes:\n\n1. *t* must have the same length as the slice it is  replacing.\n\n2. The C implementation of Python has historically accepted multiple\n   parameters and implicitly joined them into a tuple; this no longer\n   works in Python 2.0.  Use of this misfeature has been deprecated\n   since Python 1.4.\n\n3. *x* can be any iterable object.\n\n4. Raises ``ValueError`` when *x* is not found in *s*. When a negative\n   index is passed as the second or third parameter to the ``index()``\n   method, the list length is added, as for slice indices.  If it is\n   still negative, it is truncated to zero, as for slice indices.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Previously, ``index()`` didn\'t have\n   arguments for specifying start and stop positions.\n\n5. When a negative index is passed as the first parameter to the\n   ``insert()`` method, the list length is added, as for slice\n   indices.  If it is still negative, it is truncated to zero, as for\n   slice indices.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Previously, all negative indices were\n   truncated to zero.\n\n6. The ``pop()`` method is only supported by the list and array types.\n   The optional argument *i* defaults to ``-1``, so that by default\n   the last item is removed and returned.\n\n7. The ``sort()`` and ``reverse()`` methods modify the list in place\n   for economy of space when sorting or reversing a large list.  To\n   remind you that they operate by side effect, they don\'t return the\n   sorted or reversed list.\n\n8. The ``sort()`` method takes optional arguments for controlling the\n   comparisons.\n\n   *cmp* specifies a custom comparison function of two arguments (list\n   items) which should return a negative, zero or positive number\n   depending on whether the first argument is considered smaller than,\n   equal to, or larger than the second argument: ``cmp=lambda x,y:\n   cmp(x.lower(), y.lower())``.  The default value is ``None``.\n\n   *key* specifies a function of one argument that is used to extract\n   a comparison key from each list element: ``key=str.lower``.  The\n   default value is ``None``.\n\n   *reverse* is a boolean value.  If set to ``True``, then the list\n   elements are sorted as if each comparison were reversed.\n\n   In general, the *key* and *reverse* conversion processes are much\n   faster than specifying an equivalent *cmp* function.  This is\n   because *cmp* is called multiple times for each list element while\n   *key* and *reverse* touch each element only once.  Use\n   ``functools.cmp_to_key()`` to convert an old-style *cmp* function\n   to a *key* function.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for ``None`` as an equivalent to\n   omitting *cmp* was added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for *key* and *reverse* was added.\n\n9. Starting with Python 2.3, the ``sort()`` method is guaranteed to be\n   stable.  A sort is stable if it guarantees not to change the\n   relative order of elements that compare equal --- this is helpful\n   for sorting in multiple passes (for example, sort by department,\n   then by salary grade).\n\n10. **CPython implementation detail:** While a list is being sorted,\n    the effect of attempting to mutate, or even inspect, the list is\n    undefined.  The C implementation of Python 2.3 and newer makes the\n    list appear empty for the duration, and raises ``ValueError`` if\n    it can detect that the list has been mutated during a sort.\n',
- 'typesseq-mutable': u"\nMutable Sequence Types\n**********************\n\nList objects support additional operations that allow in-place\nmodification of the object. Other mutable sequence types (when added\nto the language) should also support these operations. Strings and\ntuples are immutable sequence types: such objects cannot be modified\nonce created. The following operations are defined on mutable sequence\ntypes (where *x* is an arbitrary object):\n\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| Operation                      | Result                           | Notes                 |\n+================================+==================================+=======================+\n| ``s[i] = x``                   | item *i* of *s* is replaced by   |                       |\n|                                | *x*                              |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s[i:j] = t``                 | slice of *s* from *i* to *j* is  |                       |\n|                                | replaced by the contents of the  |                       |\n|                                | iterable *t*                     |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``del s[i:j]``                 | same as ``s[i:j] = []``          |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s[i:j:k] = t``               | the elements of ``s[i:j:k]`` are | (1)                   |\n|                                | replaced by those of *t*         |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``del s[i:j:k]``               | removes the elements of          |                       |\n|                                | ``s[i:j:k]`` from the list       |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.append(x)``                | same as ``s[len(s):len(s)] =     | (2)                   |\n|                                | [x]``                            |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.extend(x)``                | same as ``s[len(s):len(s)] = x`` | (3)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.count(x)``                 | return number of *i*'s for which |                       |\n|                                | ``s[i] == x``                    |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.index(x[, i[, j]])``       | return smallest *k* such that    | (4)                   |\n|                                | ``s[k] == x`` and ``i <= k < j`` |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.insert(i, x)``             | same as ``s[i:i] = [x]``         | (5)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.pop([i])``                 | same as ``x = s[i]; del s[i];    | (6)                   |\n|                                | return x``                       |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.remove(x)``                | same as ``del s[s.index(x)]``    | (4)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.reverse()``                | reverses the items of *s* in     | (7)                   |\n|                                | place                            |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.sort([cmp[, key[,          | sort the items of *s* in place   | (7)(8)(9)(10)         |\n| reverse]]])``                  |                                  |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n\nNotes:\n\n1. *t* must have the same length as the slice it is  replacing.\n\n2. The C implementation of Python has historically accepted multiple\n   parameters and implicitly joined them into a tuple; this no longer\n   works in Python 2.0.  Use of this misfeature has been deprecated\n   since Python 1.4.\n\n3. *x* can be any iterable object.\n\n4. Raises ``ValueError`` when *x* is not found in *s*. When a negative\n   index is passed as the second or third parameter to the ``index()``\n   method, the list length is added, as for slice indices.  If it is\n   still negative, it is truncated to zero, as for slice indices.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Previously, ``index()`` didn't have\n   arguments for specifying start and stop positions.\n\n5. When a negative index is passed as the first parameter to the\n   ``insert()`` method, the list length is added, as for slice\n   indices.  If it is still negative, it is truncated to zero, as for\n   slice indices.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Previously, all negative indices were\n   truncated to zero.\n\n6. The ``pop()`` method is only supported by the list and array types.\n   The optional argument *i* defaults to ``-1``, so that by default\n   the last item is removed and returned.\n\n7. The ``sort()`` and ``reverse()`` methods modify the list in place\n   for economy of space when sorting or reversing a large list.  To\n   remind you that they operate by side effect, they don't return the\n   sorted or reversed list.\n\n8. The ``sort()`` method takes optional arguments for controlling the\n   comparisons.\n\n   *cmp* specifies a custom comparison function of two arguments (list\n   items) which should return a negative, zero or positive number\n   depending on whether the first argument is considered smaller than,\n   equal to, or larger than the second argument: ``cmp=lambda x,y:\n   cmp(x.lower(), y.lower())``.  The default value is ``None``.\n\n   *key* specifies a function of one argument that is used to extract\n   a comparison key from each list element: ``key=str.lower``.  The\n   default value is ``None``.\n\n   *reverse* is a boolean value.  If set to ``True``, then the list\n   elements are sorted as if each comparison were reversed.\n\n   In general, the *key* and *reverse* conversion processes are much\n   faster than specifying an equivalent *cmp* function.  This is\n   because *cmp* is called multiple times for each list element while\n   *key* and *reverse* touch each element only once.  Use\n   ``functools.cmp_to_key()`` to convert an old-style *cmp* function\n   to a *key* function.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for ``None`` as an equivalent to\n   omitting *cmp* was added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for *key* and *reverse* was added.\n\n9. Starting with Python 2.3, the ``sort()`` method is guaranteed to be\n   stable.  A sort is stable if it guarantees not to change the\n   relative order of elements that compare equal --- this is helpful\n   for sorting in multiple passes (for example, sort by department,\n   then by salary grade).\n\n10. **CPython implementation detail:** While a list is being sorted,\n    the effect of attempting to mutate, or even inspect, the list is\n    undefined.  The C implementation of Python 2.3 and newer makes the\n    list appear empty for the duration, and raises ``ValueError`` if\n    it can detect that the list has been mutated during a sort.\n",
+ 'typesseq': u'\nSequence Types --- ``str``, ``unicode``, ``list``, ``tuple``, ``bytearray``, ``buffer``, ``xrange``\n***************************************************************************************************\n\nThere are seven sequence types: strings, Unicode strings, lists,\ntuples, bytearrays, buffers, and xrange objects.\n\nFor other containers see the built in ``dict`` and ``set`` classes,\nand the ``collections`` module.\n\nString literals are written in single or double quotes: ``\'xyzzy\'``,\n``"frobozz"``.  See *String literals* for more about string literals.\nUnicode strings are much like strings, but are specified in the syntax\nusing a preceding ``\'u\'`` character: ``u\'abc\'``, ``u"def"``. In\naddition to the functionality described here, there are also string-\nspecific methods described in the *String Methods* section. Lists are\nconstructed with square brackets, separating items with commas: ``[a,\nb, c]``. Tuples are constructed by the comma operator (not within\nsquare brackets), with or without enclosing parentheses, but an empty\ntuple must have the enclosing parentheses, such as ``a, b, c`` or\n``()``.  A single item tuple must have a trailing comma, such as\n``(d,)``.\n\nBytearray objects are created with the built-in function\n``bytearray()``.\n\nBuffer objects are not directly supported by Python syntax, but can be\ncreated by calling the built-in function ``buffer()``.  They don\'t\nsupport concatenation or repetition.\n\nObjects of type xrange are similar to buffers in that there is no\nspecific syntax to create them, but they are created using the\n``xrange()`` function.  They don\'t support slicing, concatenation or\nrepetition, and using ``in``, ``not in``, ``min()`` or ``max()`` on\nthem is inefficient.\n\nMost sequence types support the following operations.  The ``in`` and\n``not in`` operations have the same priorities as the comparison\noperations.  The ``+`` and ``*`` operations have the same priority as\nthe corresponding numeric operations. [3] Additional methods are\nprovided for *Mutable Sequence Types*.\n\nThis table lists the sequence operations sorted in ascending priority\n(operations in the same box have the same priority).  In the table,\n*s* and *t* are sequences of the same type; *n*, *i* and *j* are\nintegers:\n\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| Operation          | Result                           | Notes      |\n+====================+==================================+============+\n| ``x in s``         | ``True`` if an item of *s* is    | (1)        |\n|                    | equal to *x*, else ``False``     |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``x not in s``     | ``False`` if an item of *s* is   | (1)        |\n|                    | equal to *x*, else ``True``      |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s + t``          | the concatenation of *s* and *t* | (6)        |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s * n, n * s``   | *n* shallow copies of *s*        | (2)        |\n|                    | concatenated                     |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s[i]``           | *i*\'th item of *s*, origin 0     | (3)        |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s[i:j]``         | slice of *s* from *i* to *j*     | (3)(4)     |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s[i:j:k]``       | slice of *s* from *i* to *j*     | (3)(5)     |\n|                    | with step *k*                    |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``len(s)``         | length of *s*                    |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``min(s)``         | smallest item of *s*             |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``max(s)``         | largest item of *s*              |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s.index(i)``     | index of the first occurence of  |            |\n|                    | *i* in *s*                       |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n| ``s.count(i)``     | total number of occurences of    |            |\n|                    | *i* in *s*                       |            |\n+--------------------+----------------------------------+------------+\n\nSequence types also support comparisons. In particular, tuples and\nlists are compared lexicographically by comparing corresponding\nelements. This means that to compare equal, every element must compare\nequal and the two sequences must be of the same type and have the same\nlength. (For full details see *Comparisons* in the language\nreference.)\n\nNotes:\n\n1. When *s* is a string or Unicode string object the ``in`` and ``not\n   in`` operations act like a substring test.  In Python versions\n   before 2.3, *x* had to be a string of length 1. In Python 2.3 and\n   beyond, *x* may be a string of any length.\n\n2. Values of *n* less than ``0`` are treated as ``0`` (which yields an\n   empty sequence of the same type as *s*).  Note also that the copies\n   are shallow; nested structures are not copied.  This often haunts\n   new Python programmers; consider:\n\n   >>> lists = [[]] * 3\n   >>> lists\n   [[], [], []]\n   >>> lists[0].append(3)\n   >>> lists\n   [[3], [3], [3]]\n\n   What has happened is that ``[[]]`` is a one-element list containing\n   an empty list, so all three elements of ``[[]] * 3`` are (pointers\n   to) this single empty list.  Modifying any of the elements of\n   ``lists`` modifies this single list. You can create a list of\n   different lists this way:\n\n   >>> lists = [[] for i in range(3)]\n   >>> lists[0].append(3)\n   >>> lists[1].append(5)\n   >>> lists[2].append(7)\n   >>> lists\n   [[3], [5], [7]]\n\n3. If *i* or *j* is negative, the index is relative to the end of the\n   string: ``len(s) + i`` or ``len(s) + j`` is substituted.  But note\n   that ``-0`` is still ``0``.\n\n4. The slice of *s* from *i* to *j* is defined as the sequence of\n   items with index *k* such that ``i <= k < j``.  If *i* or *j* is\n   greater than ``len(s)``, use ``len(s)``.  If *i* is omitted or\n   ``None``, use ``0``.  If *j* is omitted or ``None``, use\n   ``len(s)``.  If *i* is greater than or equal to *j*, the slice is\n   empty.\n\n5. The slice of *s* from *i* to *j* with step *k* is defined as the\n   sequence of items with index  ``x = i + n*k`` such that ``0 <= n <\n   (j-i)/k``.  In other words, the indices are ``i``, ``i+k``,\n   ``i+2*k``, ``i+3*k`` and so on, stopping when *j* is reached (but\n   never including *j*).  If *i* or *j* is greater than ``len(s)``,\n   use ``len(s)``.  If *i* or *j* are omitted or ``None``, they become\n   "end" values (which end depends on the sign of *k*).  Note, *k*\n   cannot be zero. If *k* is ``None``, it is treated like ``1``.\n\n6. **CPython implementation detail:** If *s* and *t* are both strings,\n   some Python implementations such as CPython can usually perform an\n   in-place optimization for assignments of the form ``s = s + t`` or\n   ``s += t``.  When applicable, this optimization makes quadratic\n   run-time much less likely.  This optimization is both version and\n   implementation dependent.  For performance sensitive code, it is\n   preferable to use the ``str.join()`` method which assures\n   consistent linear concatenation performance across versions and\n   implementations.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Formerly, string concatenation never\n   occurred in-place.\n\n\nString Methods\n==============\n\nBelow are listed the string methods which both 8-bit strings and\nUnicode objects support.  Some of them are also available on\n``bytearray`` objects.\n\nIn addition, Python\'s strings support the sequence type methods\ndescribed in the *Sequence Types --- str, unicode, list, tuple,\nbytearray, buffer, xrange* section. To output formatted strings use\ntemplate strings or the ``%`` operator described in the *String\nFormatting Operations* section. Also, see the ``re`` module for string\nfunctions based on regular expressions.\n\nstr.capitalize()\n\n   Return a copy of the string with its first character capitalized\n   and the rest lowercased.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.center(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return centered in a string of length *width*. Padding is done\n   using the specified *fillchar* (default is a space).\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.count(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring *sub*\n   in the range [*start*, *end*].  Optional arguments *start* and\n   *end* are interpreted as in slice notation.\n\nstr.decode([encoding[, errors]])\n\n   Decodes the string using the codec registered for *encoding*.\n   *encoding* defaults to the default string encoding.  *errors* may\n   be given to set a different error handling scheme.  The default is\n   ``\'strict\'``, meaning that encoding errors raise ``UnicodeError``.\n   Other possible values are ``\'ignore\'``, ``\'replace\'`` and any other\n   name registered via ``codecs.register_error()``, see section *Codec\n   Base Classes*.\n\n   New in version 2.2.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for other error handling schemes\n   added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.7: Support for keyword arguments added.\n\nstr.encode([encoding[, errors]])\n\n   Return an encoded version of the string.  Default encoding is the\n   current default string encoding.  *errors* may be given to set a\n   different error handling scheme.  The default for *errors* is\n   ``\'strict\'``, meaning that encoding errors raise a\n   ``UnicodeError``.  Other possible values are ``\'ignore\'``,\n   ``\'replace\'``, ``\'xmlcharrefreplace\'``, ``\'backslashreplace\'`` and\n   any other name registered via ``codecs.register_error()``, see\n   section *Codec Base Classes*. For a list of possible encodings, see\n   section *Standard Encodings*.\n\n   New in version 2.0.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for ``\'xmlcharrefreplace\'`` and\n   ``\'backslashreplace\'`` and other error handling schemes added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.7: Support for keyword arguments added.\n\nstr.endswith(suffix[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return ``True`` if the string ends with the specified *suffix*,\n   otherwise return ``False``.  *suffix* can also be a tuple of\n   suffixes to look for.  With optional *start*, test beginning at\n   that position.  With optional *end*, stop comparing at that\n   position.\n\n   Changed in version 2.5: Accept tuples as *suffix*.\n\nstr.expandtabs([tabsize])\n\n   Return a copy of the string where all tab characters are replaced\n   by one or more spaces, depending on the current column and the\n   given tab size.  The column number is reset to zero after each\n   newline occurring in the string. If *tabsize* is not given, a tab\n   size of ``8`` characters is assumed.  This doesn\'t understand other\n   non-printing characters or escape sequences.\n\nstr.find(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the lowest index in the string where substring *sub* is\n   found, such that *sub* is contained in the slice ``s[start:end]``.\n   Optional arguments *start* and *end* are interpreted as in slice\n   notation.  Return ``-1`` if *sub* is not found.\n\n   Note: The ``find()`` method should be used only if you need to know the\n     position of *sub*.  To check if *sub* is a substring or not, use\n     the ``in`` operator:\n\n        >>> \'Py\' in \'Python\'\n        True\n\nstr.format(*args, **kwargs)\n\n   Perform a string formatting operation.  The string on which this\n   method is called can contain literal text or replacement fields\n   delimited by braces ``{}``.  Each replacement field contains either\n   the numeric index of a positional argument, or the name of a\n   keyword argument.  Returns a copy of the string where each\n   replacement field is replaced with the string value of the\n   corresponding argument.\n\n   >>> "The sum of 1 + 2 is {0}".format(1+2)\n   \'The sum of 1 + 2 is 3\'\n\n   See *Format String Syntax* for a description of the various\n   formatting options that can be specified in format strings.\n\n   This method of string formatting is the new standard in Python 3.0,\n   and should be preferred to the ``%`` formatting described in\n   *String Formatting Operations* in new code.\n\n   New in version 2.6.\n\nstr.index(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Like ``find()``, but raise ``ValueError`` when the substring is not\n   found.\n\nstr.isalnum()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are alphanumeric and\n   there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isalpha()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are alphabetic and\n   there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isdigit()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are digits and there is\n   at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.islower()\n\n   Return true if all cased characters in the string are lowercase and\n   there is at least one cased character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isspace()\n\n   Return true if there are only whitespace characters in the string\n   and there is at least one character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.istitle()\n\n   Return true if the string is a titlecased string and there is at\n   least one character, for example uppercase characters may only\n   follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones.\n   Return false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.isupper()\n\n   Return true if all cased characters in the string are uppercase and\n   there is at least one cased character, false otherwise.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.join(iterable)\n\n   Return a string which is the concatenation of the strings in the\n   *iterable* *iterable*.  The separator between elements is the\n   string providing this method.\n\nstr.ljust(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return the string left justified in a string of length *width*.\n   Padding is done using the specified *fillchar* (default is a\n   space).  The original string is returned if *width* is less than\n   ``len(s)``.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.lower()\n\n   Return a copy of the string converted to lowercase.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.lstrip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with leading characters removed.  The\n   *chars* argument is a string specifying the set of characters to be\n   removed.  If omitted or ``None``, the *chars* argument defaults to\n   removing whitespace.  The *chars* argument is not a prefix; rather,\n   all combinations of its values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.lstrip()\n   \'spacious   \'\n   >>> \'www.example.com\'.lstrip(\'cmowz.\')\n   \'example.com\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.partition(sep)\n\n   Split the string at the first occurrence of *sep*, and return a\n   3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator\n   itself, and the part after the separator.  If the separator is not\n   found, return a 3-tuple containing the string itself, followed by\n   two empty strings.\n\n   New in version 2.5.\n\nstr.replace(old, new[, count])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with all occurrences of substring *old*\n   replaced by *new*.  If the optional argument *count* is given, only\n   the first *count* occurrences are replaced.\n\nstr.rfind(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the highest index in the string where substring *sub* is\n   found, such that *sub* is contained within ``s[start:end]``.\n   Optional arguments *start* and *end* are interpreted as in slice\n   notation.  Return ``-1`` on failure.\n\nstr.rindex(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Like ``rfind()`` but raises ``ValueError`` when the substring *sub*\n   is not found.\n\nstr.rjust(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return the string right justified in a string of length *width*.\n   Padding is done using the specified *fillchar* (default is a\n   space). The original string is returned if *width* is less than\n   ``len(s)``.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for the *fillchar* argument.\n\nstr.rpartition(sep)\n\n   Split the string at the last occurrence of *sep*, and return a\n   3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator\n   itself, and the part after the separator.  If the separator is not\n   found, return a 3-tuple containing two empty strings, followed by\n   the string itself.\n\n   New in version 2.5.\n\nstr.rsplit([sep[, maxsplit]])\n\n   Return a list of the words in the string, using *sep* as the\n   delimiter string. If *maxsplit* is given, at most *maxsplit* splits\n   are done, the *rightmost* ones.  If *sep* is not specified or\n   ``None``, any whitespace string is a separator.  Except for\n   splitting from the right, ``rsplit()`` behaves like ``split()``\n   which is described in detail below.\n\n   New in version 2.4.\n\nstr.rstrip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with trailing characters removed.  The\n   *chars* argument is a string specifying the set of characters to be\n   removed.  If omitted or ``None``, the *chars* argument defaults to\n   removing whitespace.  The *chars* argument is not a suffix; rather,\n   all combinations of its values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.rstrip()\n   \'   spacious\'\n   >>> \'mississippi\'.rstrip(\'ipz\')\n   \'mississ\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.split([sep[, maxsplit]])\n\n   Return a list of the words in the string, using *sep* as the\n   delimiter string.  If *maxsplit* is given, at most *maxsplit*\n   splits are done (thus, the list will have at most ``maxsplit+1``\n   elements).  If *maxsplit* is not specified, then there is no limit\n   on the number of splits (all possible splits are made).\n\n   If *sep* is given, consecutive delimiters are not grouped together\n   and are deemed to delimit empty strings (for example,\n   ``\'1,,2\'.split(\',\')`` returns ``[\'1\', \'\', \'2\']``).  The *sep*\n   argument may consist of multiple characters (for example,\n   ``\'1<>2<>3\'.split(\'<>\')`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2\', \'3\']``). Splitting\n   an empty string with a specified separator returns ``[\'\']``.\n\n   If *sep* is not specified or is ``None``, a different splitting\n   algorithm is applied: runs of consecutive whitespace are regarded\n   as a single separator, and the result will contain no empty strings\n   at the start or end if the string has leading or trailing\n   whitespace.  Consequently, splitting an empty string or a string\n   consisting of just whitespace with a ``None`` separator returns\n   ``[]``.\n\n   For example, ``\' 1  2   3  \'.split()`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2\', \'3\']``,\n   and ``\'  1  2   3  \'.split(None, 1)`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2   3  \']``.\n\nstr.splitlines([keepends])\n\n   Return a list of the lines in the string, breaking at line\n   boundaries.  Line breaks are not included in the resulting list\n   unless *keepends* is given and true.\n\nstr.startswith(prefix[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return ``True`` if string starts with the *prefix*, otherwise\n   return ``False``. *prefix* can also be a tuple of prefixes to look\n   for.  With optional *start*, test string beginning at that\n   position.  With optional *end*, stop comparing string at that\n   position.\n\n   Changed in version 2.5: Accept tuples as *prefix*.\n\nstr.strip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with the leading and trailing\n   characters removed. The *chars* argument is a string specifying the\n   set of characters to be removed. If omitted or ``None``, the\n   *chars* argument defaults to removing whitespace. The *chars*\n   argument is not a prefix or suffix; rather, all combinations of its\n   values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.strip()\n   \'spacious\'\n   >>> \'www.example.com\'.strip(\'cmowz.\')\n   \'example\'\n\n   Changed in version 2.2.2: Support for the *chars* argument.\n\nstr.swapcase()\n\n   Return a copy of the string with uppercase characters converted to\n   lowercase and vice versa.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.title()\n\n   Return a titlecased version of the string where words start with an\n   uppercase character and the remaining characters are lowercase.\n\n   The algorithm uses a simple language-independent definition of a\n   word as groups of consecutive letters.  The definition works in\n   many contexts but it means that apostrophes in contractions and\n   possessives form word boundaries, which may not be the desired\n   result:\n\n      >>> "they\'re bill\'s friends from the UK".title()\n      "They\'Re Bill\'S Friends From The Uk"\n\n   A workaround for apostrophes can be constructed using regular\n   expressions:\n\n      >>> import re\n      >>> def titlecase(s):\n              return re.sub(r"[A-Za-z]+(\'[A-Za-z]+)?",\n                            lambda mo: mo.group(0)[0].upper() +\n                                       mo.group(0)[1:].lower(),\n                            s)\n\n      >>> titlecase("they\'re bill\'s friends.")\n      "They\'re Bill\'s Friends."\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.translate(table[, deletechars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string where all characters occurring in the\n   optional argument *deletechars* are removed, and the remaining\n   characters have been mapped through the given translation table,\n   which must be a string of length 256.\n\n   You can use the ``maketrans()`` helper function in the ``string``\n   module to create a translation table. For string objects, set the\n   *table* argument to ``None`` for translations that only delete\n   characters:\n\n   >>> \'read this short text\'.translate(None, \'aeiou\')\n   \'rd ths shrt txt\'\n\n   New in version 2.6: Support for a ``None`` *table* argument.\n\n   For Unicode objects, the ``translate()`` method does not accept the\n   optional *deletechars* argument.  Instead, it returns a copy of the\n   *s* where all characters have been mapped through the given\n   translation table which must be a mapping of Unicode ordinals to\n   Unicode ordinals, Unicode strings or ``None``. Unmapped characters\n   are left untouched. Characters mapped to ``None`` are deleted.\n   Note, a more flexible approach is to create a custom character\n   mapping codec using the ``codecs`` module (see ``encodings.cp1251``\n   for an example).\n\nstr.upper()\n\n   Return a copy of the string converted to uppercase.\n\n   For 8-bit strings, this method is locale-dependent.\n\nstr.zfill(width)\n\n   Return the numeric string left filled with zeros in a string of\n   length *width*.  A sign prefix is handled correctly.  The original\n   string is returned if *width* is less than ``len(s)``.\n\n   New in version 2.2.2.\n\nThe following methods are present only on unicode objects:\n\nunicode.isnumeric()\n\n   Return ``True`` if there are only numeric characters in S,\n   ``False`` otherwise. Numeric characters include digit characters,\n   and all characters that have the Unicode numeric value property,\n   e.g. U+2155, VULGAR FRACTION ONE FIFTH.\n\nunicode.isdecimal()\n\n   Return ``True`` if there are only decimal characters in S,\n   ``False`` otherwise. Decimal characters include digit characters,\n   and all characters that that can be used to form decimal-radix\n   numbers, e.g. U+0660, ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT ZERO.\n\n\nString Formatting Operations\n============================\n\nString and Unicode objects have one unique built-in operation: the\n``%`` operator (modulo).  This is also known as the string\n*formatting* or *interpolation* operator.  Given ``format % values``\n(where *format* is a string or Unicode object), ``%`` conversion\nspecifications in *format* are replaced with zero or more elements of\n*values*.  The effect is similar to the using ``sprintf()`` in the C\nlanguage.  If *format* is a Unicode object, or if any of the objects\nbeing converted using the ``%s`` conversion are Unicode objects, the\nresult will also be a Unicode object.\n\nIf *format* requires a single argument, *values* may be a single non-\ntuple object. [4]  Otherwise, *values* must be a tuple with exactly\nthe number of items specified by the format string, or a single\nmapping object (for example, a dictionary).\n\nA conversion specifier contains two or more characters and has the\nfollowing components, which must occur in this order:\n\n1. The ``\'%\'`` character, which marks the start of the specifier.\n\n2. Mapping key (optional), consisting of a parenthesised sequence of\n   characters (for example, ``(somename)``).\n\n3. Conversion flags (optional), which affect the result of some\n   conversion types.\n\n4. Minimum field width (optional).  If specified as an ``\'*\'``\n   (asterisk), the actual width is read from the next element of the\n   tuple in *values*, and the object to convert comes after the\n   minimum field width and optional precision.\n\n5. Precision (optional), given as a ``\'.\'`` (dot) followed by the\n   precision.  If specified as ``\'*\'`` (an asterisk), the actual width\n   is read from the next element of the tuple in *values*, and the\n   value to convert comes after the precision.\n\n6. Length modifier (optional).\n\n7. Conversion type.\n\nWhen the right argument is a dictionary (or other mapping type), then\nthe formats in the string *must* include a parenthesised mapping key\ninto that dictionary inserted immediately after the ``\'%\'`` character.\nThe mapping key selects the value to be formatted from the mapping.\nFor example:\n\n>>> print \'%(language)s has %(number)03d quote types.\' % \\\n...       {"language": "Python", "number": 2}\nPython has 002 quote types.\n\nIn this case no ``*`` specifiers may occur in a format (since they\nrequire a sequential parameter list).\n\nThe conversion flag characters are:\n\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n| Flag      | Meaning                                                               |\n+===========+=======================================================================+\n| ``\'#\'``   | The value conversion will use the "alternate form" (where defined     |\n|           | below).                                                               |\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n| ``\'0\'``   | The conversion will be zero padded for numeric values.                |\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n| ``\'-\'``   | The converted value is left adjusted (overrides the ``\'0\'``           |\n|           | conversion if both are given).                                        |\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n| ``\' \'``   | (a space) A blank should be left before a positive number (or empty   |\n|           | string) produced by a signed conversion.                              |\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n| ``\'+\'``   | A sign character (``\'+\'`` or ``\'-\'``) will precede the conversion     |\n|           | (overrides a "space" flag).                                           |\n+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nA length modifier (``h``, ``l``, or ``L``) may be present, but is\nignored as it is not necessary for Python -- so e.g. ``%ld`` is\nidentical to ``%d``.\n\nThe conversion types are:\n\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| Conversion   | Meaning                                               | Notes   |\n+==============+=======================================================+=========+\n| ``\'d\'``      | Signed integer decimal.                               |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'i\'``      | Signed integer decimal.                               |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'o\'``      | Signed octal value.                                   | (1)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'u\'``      | Obsolete type -- it is identical to ``\'d\'``.          | (7)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'x\'``      | Signed hexadecimal (lowercase).                       | (2)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'X\'``      | Signed hexadecimal (uppercase).                       | (2)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'e\'``      | Floating point exponential format (lowercase).        | (3)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'E\'``      | Floating point exponential format (uppercase).        | (3)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'f\'``      | Floating point decimal format.                        | (3)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'F\'``      | Floating point decimal format.                        | (3)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'g\'``      | Floating point format. Uses lowercase exponential     | (4)     |\n|              | format if exponent is less than -4 or not less than   |         |\n|              | precision, decimal format otherwise.                  |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'G\'``      | Floating point format. Uses uppercase exponential     | (4)     |\n|              | format if exponent is less than -4 or not less than   |         |\n|              | precision, decimal format otherwise.                  |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'c\'``      | Single character (accepts integer or single character |         |\n|              | string).                                              |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'r\'``      | String (converts any Python object using ``repr()``). | (5)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'s\'``      | String (converts any Python object using ``str()``).  | (6)     |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n| ``\'%\'``      | No argument is converted, results in a ``\'%\'``        |         |\n|              | character in the result.                              |         |\n+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------+---------+\n\nNotes:\n\n1. The alternate form causes a leading zero (``\'0\'``) to be inserted\n   between left-hand padding and the formatting of the number if the\n   leading character of the result is not already a zero.\n\n2. The alternate form causes a leading ``\'0x\'`` or ``\'0X\'`` (depending\n   on whether the ``\'x\'`` or ``\'X\'`` format was used) to be inserted\n   between left-hand padding and the formatting of the number if the\n   leading character of the result is not already a zero.\n\n3. The alternate form causes the result to always contain a decimal\n   point, even if no digits follow it.\n\n   The precision determines the number of digits after the decimal\n   point and defaults to 6.\n\n4. The alternate form causes the result to always contain a decimal\n   point, and trailing zeroes are not removed as they would otherwise\n   be.\n\n   The precision determines the number of significant digits before\n   and after the decimal point and defaults to 6.\n\n5. The ``%r`` conversion was added in Python 2.0.\n\n   The precision determines the maximal number of characters used.\n\n6. If the object or format provided is a ``unicode`` string, the\n   resulting string will also be ``unicode``.\n\n   The precision determines the maximal number of characters used.\n\n7. See **PEP 237**.\n\nSince Python strings have an explicit length, ``%s`` conversions do\nnot assume that ``\'\\0\'`` is the end of the string.\n\nChanged in version 2.7: ``%f`` conversions for numbers whose absolute\nvalue is over 1e50 are no longer replaced by ``%g`` conversions.\n\nAdditional string operations are defined in standard modules\n``string`` and ``re``.\n\n\nXRange Type\n===========\n\nThe ``xrange`` type is an immutable sequence which is commonly used\nfor looping.  The advantage of the ``xrange`` type is that an\n``xrange`` object will always take the same amount of memory, no\nmatter the size of the range it represents.  There are no consistent\nperformance advantages.\n\nXRange objects have very little behavior: they only support indexing,\niteration, and the ``len()`` function.\n\n\nMutable Sequence Types\n======================\n\nList and ``bytearray`` objects support additional operations that\nallow in-place modification of the object. Other mutable sequence\ntypes (when added to the language) should also support these\noperations. Strings and tuples are immutable sequence types: such\nobjects cannot be modified once created. The following operations are\ndefined on mutable sequence types (where *x* is an arbitrary object):\n\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| Operation                      | Result                           | Notes                 |\n+================================+==================================+=======================+\n| ``s[i] = x``                   | item *i* of *s* is replaced by   |                       |\n|                                | *x*                              |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s[i:j] = t``                 | slice of *s* from *i* to *j* is  |                       |\n|                                | replaced by the contents of the  |                       |\n|                                | iterable *t*                     |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``del s[i:j]``                 | same as ``s[i:j] = []``          |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s[i:j:k] = t``               | the elements of ``s[i:j:k]`` are | (1)                   |\n|                                | replaced by those of *t*         |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``del s[i:j:k]``               | removes the elements of          |                       |\n|                                | ``s[i:j:k]`` from the list       |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.append(x)``                | same as ``s[len(s):len(s)] =     | (2)                   |\n|                                | [x]``                            |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.extend(x)``                | same as ``s[len(s):len(s)] = x`` | (3)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.count(x)``                 | return number of *i*\'s for which |                       |\n|                                | ``s[i] == x``                    |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.index(x[, i[, j]])``       | return smallest *k* such that    | (4)                   |\n|                                | ``s[k] == x`` and ``i <= k < j`` |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.insert(i, x)``             | same as ``s[i:i] = [x]``         | (5)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.pop([i])``                 | same as ``x = s[i]; del s[i];    | (6)                   |\n|                                | return x``                       |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.remove(x)``                | same as ``del s[s.index(x)]``    | (4)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.reverse()``                | reverses the items of *s* in     | (7)                   |\n|                                | place                            |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.sort([cmp[, key[,          | sort the items of *s* in place   | (7)(8)(9)(10)         |\n| reverse]]])``                  |                                  |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n\nNotes:\n\n1. *t* must have the same length as the slice it is  replacing.\n\n2. The C implementation of Python has historically accepted multiple\n   parameters and implicitly joined them into a tuple; this no longer\n   works in Python 2.0.  Use of this misfeature has been deprecated\n   since Python 1.4.\n\n3. *x* can be any iterable object.\n\n4. Raises ``ValueError`` when *x* is not found in *s*. When a negative\n   index is passed as the second or third parameter to the ``index()``\n   method, the list length is added, as for slice indices.  If it is\n   still negative, it is truncated to zero, as for slice indices.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Previously, ``index()`` didn\'t have\n   arguments for specifying start and stop positions.\n\n5. When a negative index is passed as the first parameter to the\n   ``insert()`` method, the list length is added, as for slice\n   indices.  If it is still negative, it is truncated to zero, as for\n   slice indices.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Previously, all negative indices were\n   truncated to zero.\n\n6. The ``pop()`` method is only supported by the list and array types.\n   The optional argument *i* defaults to ``-1``, so that by default\n   the last item is removed and returned.\n\n7. The ``sort()`` and ``reverse()`` methods modify the list in place\n   for economy of space when sorting or reversing a large list.  To\n   remind you that they operate by side effect, they don\'t return the\n   sorted or reversed list.\n\n8. The ``sort()`` method takes optional arguments for controlling the\n   comparisons.\n\n   *cmp* specifies a custom comparison function of two arguments (list\n   items) which should return a negative, zero or positive number\n   depending on whether the first argument is considered smaller than,\n   equal to, or larger than the second argument: ``cmp=lambda x,y:\n   cmp(x.lower(), y.lower())``.  The default value is ``None``.\n\n   *key* specifies a function of one argument that is used to extract\n   a comparison key from each list element: ``key=str.lower``.  The\n   default value is ``None``.\n\n   *reverse* is a boolean value.  If set to ``True``, then the list\n   elements are sorted as if each comparison were reversed.\n\n   In general, the *key* and *reverse* conversion processes are much\n   faster than specifying an equivalent *cmp* function.  This is\n   because *cmp* is called multiple times for each list element while\n   *key* and *reverse* touch each element only once.  Use\n   ``functools.cmp_to_key()`` to convert an old-style *cmp* function\n   to a *key* function.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for ``None`` as an equivalent to\n   omitting *cmp* was added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for *key* and *reverse* was added.\n\n9. Starting with Python 2.3, the ``sort()`` method is guaranteed to be\n   stable.  A sort is stable if it guarantees not to change the\n   relative order of elements that compare equal --- this is helpful\n   for sorting in multiple passes (for example, sort by department,\n   then by salary grade).\n\n10. **CPython implementation detail:** While a list is being sorted,\n    the effect of attempting to mutate, or even inspect, the list is\n    undefined.  The C implementation of Python 2.3 and newer makes the\n    list appear empty for the duration, and raises ``ValueError`` if\n    it can detect that the list has been mutated during a sort.\n',
+ 'typesseq-mutable': u"\nMutable Sequence Types\n**********************\n\nList and ``bytearray`` objects support additional operations that\nallow in-place modification of the object. Other mutable sequence\ntypes (when added to the language) should also support these\noperations. Strings and tuples are immutable sequence types: such\nobjects cannot be modified once created. The following operations are\ndefined on mutable sequence types (where *x* is an arbitrary object):\n\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| Operation                      | Result                           | Notes                 |\n+================================+==================================+=======================+\n| ``s[i] = x``                   | item *i* of *s* is replaced by   |                       |\n|                                | *x*                              |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s[i:j] = t``                 | slice of *s* from *i* to *j* is  |                       |\n|                                | replaced by the contents of the  |                       |\n|                                | iterable *t*                     |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``del s[i:j]``                 | same as ``s[i:j] = []``          |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s[i:j:k] = t``               | the elements of ``s[i:j:k]`` are | (1)                   |\n|                                | replaced by those of *t*         |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``del s[i:j:k]``               | removes the elements of          |                       |\n|                                | ``s[i:j:k]`` from the list       |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.append(x)``                | same as ``s[len(s):len(s)] =     | (2)                   |\n|                                | [x]``                            |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.extend(x)``                | same as ``s[len(s):len(s)] = x`` | (3)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.count(x)``                 | return number of *i*'s for which |                       |\n|                                | ``s[i] == x``                    |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.index(x[, i[, j]])``       | return smallest *k* such that    | (4)                   |\n|                                | ``s[k] == x`` and ``i <= k < j`` |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.insert(i, x)``             | same as ``s[i:i] = [x]``         | (5)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.pop([i])``                 | same as ``x = s[i]; del s[i];    | (6)                   |\n|                                | return x``                       |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.remove(x)``                | same as ``del s[s.index(x)]``    | (4)                   |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.reverse()``                | reverses the items of *s* in     | (7)                   |\n|                                | place                            |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n| ``s.sort([cmp[, key[,          | sort the items of *s* in place   | (7)(8)(9)(10)         |\n| reverse]]])``                  |                                  |                       |\n+--------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------+\n\nNotes:\n\n1. *t* must have the same length as the slice it is  replacing.\n\n2. The C implementation of Python has historically accepted multiple\n   parameters and implicitly joined them into a tuple; this no longer\n   works in Python 2.0.  Use of this misfeature has been deprecated\n   since Python 1.4.\n\n3. *x* can be any iterable object.\n\n4. Raises ``ValueError`` when *x* is not found in *s*. When a negative\n   index is passed as the second or third parameter to the ``index()``\n   method, the list length is added, as for slice indices.  If it is\n   still negative, it is truncated to zero, as for slice indices.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Previously, ``index()`` didn't have\n   arguments for specifying start and stop positions.\n\n5. When a negative index is passed as the first parameter to the\n   ``insert()`` method, the list length is added, as for slice\n   indices.  If it is still negative, it is truncated to zero, as for\n   slice indices.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Previously, all negative indices were\n   truncated to zero.\n\n6. The ``pop()`` method is only supported by the list and array types.\n   The optional argument *i* defaults to ``-1``, so that by default\n   the last item is removed and returned.\n\n7. The ``sort()`` and ``reverse()`` methods modify the list in place\n   for economy of space when sorting or reversing a large list.  To\n   remind you that they operate by side effect, they don't return the\n   sorted or reversed list.\n\n8. The ``sort()`` method takes optional arguments for controlling the\n   comparisons.\n\n   *cmp* specifies a custom comparison function of two arguments (list\n   items) which should return a negative, zero or positive number\n   depending on whether the first argument is considered smaller than,\n   equal to, or larger than the second argument: ``cmp=lambda x,y:\n   cmp(x.lower(), y.lower())``.  The default value is ``None``.\n\n   *key* specifies a function of one argument that is used to extract\n   a comparison key from each list element: ``key=str.lower``.  The\n   default value is ``None``.\n\n   *reverse* is a boolean value.  If set to ``True``, then the list\n   elements are sorted as if each comparison were reversed.\n\n   In general, the *key* and *reverse* conversion processes are much\n   faster than specifying an equivalent *cmp* function.  This is\n   because *cmp* is called multiple times for each list element while\n   *key* and *reverse* touch each element only once.  Use\n   ``functools.cmp_to_key()`` to convert an old-style *cmp* function\n   to a *key* function.\n\n   Changed in version 2.3: Support for ``None`` as an equivalent to\n   omitting *cmp* was added.\n\n   Changed in version 2.4: Support for *key* and *reverse* was added.\n\n9. Starting with Python 2.3, the ``sort()`` method is guaranteed to be\n   stable.  A sort is stable if it guarantees not to change the\n   relative order of elements that compare equal --- this is helpful\n   for sorting in multiple passes (for example, sort by department,\n   then by salary grade).\n\n10. **CPython implementation detail:** While a list is being sorted,\n    the effect of attempting to mutate, or even inspect, the list is\n    undefined.  The C implementation of Python 2.3 and newer makes the\n    list appear empty for the duration, and raises ``ValueError`` if\n    it can detect that the list has been mutated during a sort.\n",
  'unary': u'\nUnary arithmetic and bitwise operations\n***************************************\n\nAll unary arithmetic and bitwise operations have the same priority:\n\n   u_expr ::= power | "-" u_expr | "+" u_expr | "~" u_expr\n\nThe unary ``-`` (minus) operator yields the negation of its numeric\nargument.\n\nThe unary ``+`` (plus) operator yields its numeric argument unchanged.\n\nThe unary ``~`` (invert) operator yields the bitwise inversion of its\nplain or long integer argument.  The bitwise inversion of ``x`` is\ndefined as ``-(x+1)``.  It only applies to integral numbers.\n\nIn all three cases, if the argument does not have the proper type, a\n``TypeError`` exception is raised.\n',
  'while': u'\nThe ``while`` statement\n***********************\n\nThe ``while`` statement is used for repeated execution as long as an\nexpression is true:\n\n   while_stmt ::= "while" expression ":" suite\n                  ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThis repeatedly tests the expression and, if it is true, executes the\nfirst suite; if the expression is false (which may be the first time\nit is tested) the suite of the ``else`` clause, if present, is\nexecuted and the loop terminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ngoes back to testing the expression.\n',
- 'with': u'\nThe ``with`` statement\n**********************\n\nNew in version 2.5.\n\nThe ``with`` statement is used to wrap the execution of a block with\nmethods defined by a context manager (see section *With Statement\nContext Managers*). This allows common\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` usage patterns to be encapsulated\nfor convenient reuse.\n\n   with_stmt ::= "with" with_item ("," with_item)* ":" suite\n   with_item ::= expression ["as" target]\n\nThe execution of the ``with`` statement with one "item" proceeds as\nfollows:\n\n1. The context expression is evaluated to obtain a context manager.\n\n2. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` is loaded for later use.\n\n3. The context manager\'s ``__enter__()`` method is invoked.\n\n4. If a target was included in the ``with`` statement, the return\n   value from ``__enter__()`` is assigned to it.\n\n   Note: The ``with`` statement guarantees that if the ``__enter__()``\n     method returns without an error, then ``__exit__()`` will always\n     be called. Thus, if an error occurs during the assignment to the\n     target list, it will be treated the same as an error occurring\n     within the suite would be. See step 6 below.\n\n5. The suite is executed.\n\n6. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` method is invoked. If an\n   exception caused the suite to be exited, its type, value, and\n   traceback are passed as arguments to ``__exit__()``. Otherwise,\n   three ``None`` arguments are supplied.\n\n   If the suite was exited due to an exception, and the return value\n   from the ``__exit__()`` method was false, the exception is\n   reraised. If the return value was true, the exception is\n   suppressed, and execution continues with the statement following\n   the ``with`` statement.\n\n   If the suite was exited for any reason other than an exception, the\n   return value from ``__exit__()`` is ignored, and execution proceeds\n   at the normal location for the kind of exit that was taken.\n\nWith more than one item, the context managers are processed as if\nmultiple ``with`` statements were nested:\n\n   with A() as a, B() as b:\n       suite\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   with A() as a:\n       with B() as b:\n           suite\n\nNote: In Python 2.5, the ``with`` statement is only allowed when the\n  ``with_statement`` feature has been enabled.  It is always enabled\n  in Python 2.6.\n\nChanged in version 2.7: Support for multiple context expressions.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n',
+ 'with': u'\nThe ``with`` statement\n**********************\n\nNew in version 2.5.\n\nThe ``with`` statement is used to wrap the execution of a block with\nmethods defined by a context manager (see section *With Statement\nContext Managers*). This allows common\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` usage patterns to be encapsulated\nfor convenient reuse.\n\n   with_stmt ::= "with" with_item ("," with_item)* ":" suite\n   with_item ::= expression ["as" target]\n\nThe execution of the ``with`` statement with one "item" proceeds as\nfollows:\n\n1. The context expression (the expression given in the **with_item**)\n   is evaluated to obtain a context manager.\n\n2. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` is loaded for later use.\n\n3. The context manager\'s ``__enter__()`` method is invoked.\n\n4. If a target was included in the ``with`` statement, the return\n   value from ``__enter__()`` is assigned to it.\n\n   Note: The ``with`` statement guarantees that if the ``__enter__()``\n     method returns without an error, then ``__exit__()`` will always\n     be called. Thus, if an error occurs during the assignment to the\n     target list, it will be treated the same as an error occurring\n     within the suite would be. See step 6 below.\n\n5. The suite is executed.\n\n6. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` method is invoked. If an\n   exception caused the suite to be exited, its type, value, and\n   traceback are passed as arguments to ``__exit__()``. Otherwise,\n   three ``None`` arguments are supplied.\n\n   If the suite was exited due to an exception, and the return value\n   from the ``__exit__()`` method was false, the exception is\n   reraised. If the return value was true, the exception is\n   suppressed, and execution continues with the statement following\n   the ``with`` statement.\n\n   If the suite was exited for any reason other than an exception, the\n   return value from ``__exit__()`` is ignored, and execution proceeds\n   at the normal location for the kind of exit that was taken.\n\nWith more than one item, the context managers are processed as if\nmultiple ``with`` statements were nested:\n\n   with A() as a, B() as b:\n       suite\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   with A() as a:\n       with B() as b:\n           suite\n\nNote: In Python 2.5, the ``with`` statement is only allowed when the\n  ``with_statement`` feature has been enabled.  It is always enabled\n  in Python 2.6.\n\nChanged in version 2.7: Support for multiple context expressions.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n',
  'yield': u'\nThe ``yield`` statement\n***********************\n\n   yield_stmt ::= yield_expression\n\nThe ``yield`` statement is only used when defining a generator\nfunction, and is only used in the body of the generator function.\nUsing a ``yield`` statement in a function definition is sufficient to\ncause that definition to create a generator function instead of a\nnormal function.\n\nWhen a generator function is called, it returns an iterator known as a\ngenerator iterator, or more commonly, a generator.  The body of the\ngenerator function is executed by calling the generator\'s ``next()``\nmethod repeatedly until it raises an exception.\n\nWhen a ``yield`` statement is executed, the state of the generator is\nfrozen and the value of **expression_list** is returned to\n``next()``\'s caller.  By "frozen" we mean that all local state is\nretained, including the current bindings of local variables, the\ninstruction pointer, and the internal evaluation stack: enough\ninformation is saved so that the next time ``next()`` is invoked, the\nfunction can proceed exactly as if the ``yield`` statement were just\nanother external call.\n\nAs of Python version 2.5, the ``yield`` statement is now allowed in\nthe ``try`` clause of a ``try`` ...  ``finally`` construct.  If the\ngenerator is not resumed before it is finalized (by reaching a zero\nreference count or by being garbage collected), the generator-\niterator\'s ``close()`` method will be called, allowing any pending\n``finally`` clauses to execute.\n\nNote: In Python 2.2, the ``yield`` statement was only allowed when the\n  ``generators`` feature has been enabled.  This ``__future__`` import\n  statement was used to enable the feature:\n\n     from __future__ import generators\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0255** - Simple Generators\n      The proposal for adding generators and the ``yield`` statement\n      to Python.\n\n   **PEP 0342** - Coroutines via Enhanced Generators\n      The proposal that, among other generator enhancements, proposed\n      allowing ``yield`` to appear inside a ``try`` ... ``finally``\n      block.\n'}
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/random.py b/lib-python/2.7/random.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/random.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/random.py
@@ -317,7 +317,7 @@
 
         n = len(population)
         if not 0 <= k <= n:
-            raise ValueError, "sample larger than population"
+            raise ValueError("sample larger than population")
         random = self.random
         _int = int
         result = [None] * k
@@ -490,6 +490,12 @@
 
         Conditions on the parameters are alpha > 0 and beta > 0.
 
+        The probability distribution function is:
+
+                    x ** (alpha - 1) * math.exp(-x / beta)
+          pdf(x) =  --------------------------------------
+                      math.gamma(alpha) * beta ** alpha
+
         """
 
         # alpha > 0, beta > 0, mean is alpha*beta, variance is alpha*beta**2
@@ -592,7 +598,7 @@
 
 ## -------------------- beta --------------------
 ## See
-## http://sourceforge.net/bugs/?func=detailbug&bug_id=130030&group_id=5470
+## http://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-bugs-list/2001-January/003752.html
 ## for Ivan Frohne's insightful analysis of why the original implementation:
 ##
 ##    def betavariate(self, alpha, beta):
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/re.py b/lib-python/2.7/re.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/re.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/re.py
@@ -207,8 +207,7 @@
     "Escape all non-alphanumeric characters in pattern."
     s = list(pattern)
     alphanum = _alphanum
-    for i in range(len(pattern)):
-        c = pattern[i]
+    for i, c in enumerate(pattern):
         if c not in alphanum:
             if c == "\000":
                 s[i] = "\\000"
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/shutil.py b/lib-python/2.7/shutil.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/shutil.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/shutil.py
@@ -277,6 +277,12 @@
     """
     real_dst = dst
     if os.path.isdir(dst):
+        if _samefile(src, dst):
+            # We might be on a case insensitive filesystem,
+            # perform the rename anyway.
+            os.rename(src, dst)
+            return
+
         real_dst = os.path.join(dst, _basename(src))
         if os.path.exists(real_dst):
             raise Error, "Destination path '%s' already exists" % real_dst
@@ -336,7 +342,7 @@
     archive that is being built. If not provided, the current owner and group
     will be used.
 
-    The output tar file will be named 'base_dir' +  ".tar", possibly plus
+    The output tar file will be named 'base_name' +  ".tar", possibly plus
     the appropriate compression extension (".gz", or ".bz2").
 
     Returns the output filename.
@@ -406,7 +412,7 @@
 def _make_zipfile(base_name, base_dir, verbose=0, dry_run=0, logger=None):
     """Create a zip file from all the files under 'base_dir'.
 
-    The output zip file will be named 'base_dir' + ".zip".  Uses either the
+    The output zip file will be named 'base_name' + ".zip".  Uses either the
     "zipfile" Python module (if available) or the InfoZIP "zip" utility
     (if installed and found on the default search path).  If neither tool is
     available, raises ExecError.  Returns the name of the output zip
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/site.py b/lib-python/2.7/site.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/site.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/site.py
@@ -61,6 +61,7 @@
 import sys
 import os
 import __builtin__
+import traceback
 
 # Prefixes for site-packages; add additional prefixes like /usr/local here
 PREFIXES = [sys.prefix, sys.exec_prefix]
@@ -155,17 +156,26 @@
     except IOError:
         return
     with f:
-        for line in f:
+        for n, line in enumerate(f):
             if line.startswith("#"):
                 continue
-            if line.startswith(("import ", "import\t")):
-                exec line
-                continue
-            line = line.rstrip()
-            dir, dircase = makepath(sitedir, line)
-            if not dircase in known_paths and os.path.exists(dir):
-                sys.path.append(dir)
-                known_paths.add(dircase)
+            try:
+                if line.startswith(("import ", "import\t")):
+                    exec line
+                    continue
+                line = line.rstrip()
+                dir, dircase = makepath(sitedir, line)
+                if not dircase in known_paths and os.path.exists(dir):
+                    sys.path.append(dir)
+                    known_paths.add(dircase)
+            except Exception as err:
+                print >>sys.stderr, "Error processing line {:d} of {}:\n".format(
+                    n+1, fullname)
+                for record in traceback.format_exception(*sys.exc_info()):
+                    for line in record.splitlines():
+                        print >>sys.stderr, '  '+line
+                print >>sys.stderr, "\nRemainder of file ignored"
+                break
     if reset:
         known_paths = None
     return known_paths
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/smtplib.py b/lib-python/2.7/smtplib.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/smtplib.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/smtplib.py
@@ -49,17 +49,18 @@
 from email.base64mime import encode as encode_base64
 from sys import stderr
 
-__all__ = ["SMTPException","SMTPServerDisconnected","SMTPResponseException",
-           "SMTPSenderRefused","SMTPRecipientsRefused","SMTPDataError",
-           "SMTPConnectError","SMTPHeloError","SMTPAuthenticationError",
-           "quoteaddr","quotedata","SMTP"]
+__all__ = ["SMTPException", "SMTPServerDisconnected", "SMTPResponseException",
+           "SMTPSenderRefused", "SMTPRecipientsRefused", "SMTPDataError",
+           "SMTPConnectError", "SMTPHeloError", "SMTPAuthenticationError",
+           "quoteaddr", "quotedata", "SMTP"]
 
 SMTP_PORT = 25
 SMTP_SSL_PORT = 465
-CRLF="\r\n"
+CRLF = "\r\n"
 
 OLDSTYLE_AUTH = re.compile(r"auth=(.*)", re.I)
 
+
 # Exception classes used by this module.
 class SMTPException(Exception):
     """Base class for all exceptions raised by this module."""
@@ -109,7 +110,7 @@
 
     def __init__(self, recipients):
         self.recipients = recipients
-        self.args = ( recipients,)
+        self.args = (recipients,)
 
 
 class SMTPDataError(SMTPResponseException):
@@ -128,6 +129,7 @@
     combination provided.
     """
 
+
 def quoteaddr(addr):
     """Quote a subset of the email addresses defined by RFC 821.
 
@@ -138,7 +140,7 @@
         m = email.utils.parseaddr(addr)[1]
     except AttributeError:
         pass
-    if m == (None, None): # Indicates parse failure or AttributeError
+    if m == (None, None):  # Indicates parse failure or AttributeError
         # something weird here.. punt -ddm
         return "<%s>" % addr
     elif m is None:
@@ -175,7 +177,8 @@
             chr = None
             while chr != "\n":
                 chr = self.sslobj.read(1)
-                if not chr: break
+                if not chr:
+                    break
                 str += chr
             return str
 
@@ -219,6 +222,7 @@
     ehlo_msg = "ehlo"
     ehlo_resp = None
     does_esmtp = 0
+    default_port = SMTP_PORT
 
     def __init__(self, host='', port=0, local_hostname=None,
                  timeout=socket._GLOBAL_DEFAULT_TIMEOUT):
@@ -234,7 +238,6 @@
         """
         self.timeout = timeout
         self.esmtp_features = {}
-        self.default_port = SMTP_PORT
         if host:
             (code, msg) = self.connect(host, port)
             if code != 220:
@@ -269,10 +272,11 @@
     def _get_socket(self, port, host, timeout):
         # This makes it simpler for SMTP_SSL to use the SMTP connect code
         # and just alter the socket connection bit.
-        if self.debuglevel > 0: print>>stderr, 'connect:', (host, port)
+        if self.debuglevel > 0:
+            print>>stderr, 'connect:', (host, port)
         return socket.create_connection((port, host), timeout)
 
-    def connect(self, host='localhost', port = 0):
+    def connect(self, host='localhost', port=0):
         """Connect to a host on a given port.
 
         If the hostname ends with a colon (`:') followed by a number, and
@@ -286,20 +290,25 @@
         if not port and (host.find(':') == host.rfind(':')):
             i = host.rfind(':')
             if i >= 0:
-                host, port = host[:i], host[i+1:]
-                try: port = int(port)
+                host, port = host[:i], host[i + 1:]
+                try:
+                    port = int(port)
                 except ValueError:
                     raise socket.error, "nonnumeric port"
-        if not port: port = self.default_port
-        if self.debuglevel > 0: print>>stderr, 'connect:', (host, port)
+        if not port:
+            port = self.default_port
+        if self.debuglevel > 0:
+            print>>stderr, 'connect:', (host, port)
         self.sock = self._get_socket(host, port, self.timeout)
         (code, msg) = self.getreply()
-        if self.debuglevel > 0: print>>stderr, "connect:", msg
+        if self.debuglevel > 0:
+            print>>stderr, "connect:", msg
         return (code, msg)
 
     def send(self, str):
         """Send `str' to the server."""
-        if self.debuglevel > 0: print>>stderr, 'send:', repr(str)
+        if self.debuglevel > 0:
+            print>>stderr, 'send:', repr(str)
         if hasattr(self, 'sock') and self.sock:
             try:
                 self.sock.sendall(str)
@@ -330,7 +339,7 @@
 
         Raises SMTPServerDisconnected if end-of-file is reached.
         """
-        resp=[]
+        resp = []
         if self.file is None:
             self.file = self.sock.makefile('rb')
         while 1:
@@ -341,9 +350,10 @@
             if line == '':
                 self.close()
                 raise SMTPServerDisconnected("Connection unexpectedly closed")
-            if self.debuglevel > 0: print>>stderr, 'reply:', repr(line)
+            if self.debuglevel > 0:
+                print>>stderr, 'reply:', repr(line)
             resp.append(line[4:].strip())
-            code=line[:3]
+            code = line[:3]
             # Check that the error code is syntactically correct.
             # Don't attempt to read a continuation line if it is broken.
             try:
@@ -352,17 +362,17 @@
                 errcode = -1
                 break
             # Check if multiline response.
-            if line[3:4]!="-":
+            if line[3:4] != "-":
                 break
 
         errmsg = "\n".join(resp)
         if self.debuglevel > 0:
-            print>>stderr, 'reply: retcode (%s); Msg: %s' % (errcode,errmsg)
+            print>>stderr, 'reply: retcode (%s); Msg: %s' % (errcode, errmsg)
         return errcode, errmsg
 
     def docmd(self, cmd, args=""):
         """Send a command, and return its response code."""
-        self.putcmd(cmd,args)
+        self.putcmd(cmd, args)
         return self.getreply()
 
     # std smtp commands
@@ -372,9 +382,9 @@
         host.
         """
         self.putcmd("helo", name or self.local_hostname)
-        (code,msg)=self.getreply()
-        self.helo_resp=msg
-        return (code,msg)
+        (code, msg) = self.getreply()
+        self.helo_resp = msg
+        return (code, msg)
 
     def ehlo(self, name=''):
         """ SMTP 'ehlo' command.
@@ -383,19 +393,19 @@
         """
         self.esmtp_features = {}
         self.putcmd(self.ehlo_msg, name or self.local_hostname)
-        (code,msg)=self.getreply()
+        (code, msg) = self.getreply()
         # According to RFC1869 some (badly written)
         # MTA's will disconnect on an ehlo. Toss an exception if
         # that happens -ddm
         if code == -1 and len(msg) == 0:
             self.close()
             raise SMTPServerDisconnected("Server not connected")
-        self.ehlo_resp=msg
+        self.ehlo_resp = msg
         if code != 250:
-            return (code,msg)
-        self.does_esmtp=1
+            return (code, msg)
+        self.does_esmtp = 1
         #parse the ehlo response -ddm
-        resp=self.ehlo_resp.split('\n')
+        resp = self.ehlo_resp.split('\n')
         del resp[0]
         for each in resp:
             # To be able to communicate with as many SMTP servers as possible,
@@ -415,16 +425,16 @@
             # It's actually stricter, in that only spaces are allowed between
             # parameters, but were not going to check for that here.  Note
             # that the space isn't present if there are no parameters.
-            m=re.match(r'(?P<feature>[A-Za-z0-9][A-Za-z0-9\-]*) ?',each)
+            m = re.match(r'(?P<feature>[A-Za-z0-9][A-Za-z0-9\-]*) ?', each)
             if m:
-                feature=m.group("feature").lower()
-                params=m.string[m.end("feature"):].strip()
+                feature = m.group("feature").lower()
+                params = m.string[m.end("feature"):].strip()
                 if feature == "auth":
                     self.esmtp_features[feature] = self.esmtp_features.get(feature, "") \
                             + " " + params
                 else:
-                    self.esmtp_features[feature]=params
-        return (code,msg)
+                    self.esmtp_features[feature] = params
+        return (code, msg)
 
     def has_extn(self, opt):
         """Does the server support a given SMTP service extension?"""
@@ -444,23 +454,23 @@
         """SMTP 'noop' command -- doesn't do anything :>"""
         return self.docmd("noop")
 
-    def mail(self,sender,options=[]):
+    def mail(self, sender, options=[]):
         """SMTP 'mail' command -- begins mail xfer session."""
         optionlist = ''
         if options and self.does_esmtp:
             optionlist = ' ' + ' '.join(options)
-        self.putcmd("mail", "FROM:%s%s" % (quoteaddr(sender) ,optionlist))
+        self.putcmd("mail", "FROM:%s%s" % (quoteaddr(sender), optionlist))
         return self.getreply()
 
-    def rcpt(self,recip,options=[]):
+    def rcpt(self, recip, options=[]):
         """SMTP 'rcpt' command -- indicates 1 recipient for this mail."""
         optionlist = ''
         if options and self.does_esmtp:
             optionlist = ' ' + ' '.join(options)
-        self.putcmd("rcpt","TO:%s%s" % (quoteaddr(recip),optionlist))
+        self.putcmd("rcpt", "TO:%s%s" % (quoteaddr(recip), optionlist))
         return self.getreply()
 
-    def data(self,msg):
+    def data(self, msg):
         """SMTP 'DATA' command -- sends message data to server.
 
         Automatically quotes lines beginning with a period per rfc821.
@@ -469,26 +479,28 @@
         response code received when the all data is sent.
         """
         self.putcmd("data")
-        (code,repl)=self.getreply()
-        if self.debuglevel >0 : print>>stderr, "data:", (code,repl)
+        (code, repl) = self.getreply()
+        if self.debuglevel > 0:
+            print>>stderr, "data:", (code, repl)
         if code != 354:
-            raise SMTPDataError(code,repl)
+            raise SMTPDataError(code, repl)
         else:
             q = quotedata(msg)
             if q[-2:] != CRLF:
                 q = q + CRLF
             q = q + "." + CRLF
             self.send(q)
-            (code,msg)=self.getreply()
-            if self.debuglevel >0 : print>>stderr, "data:", (code,msg)
-            return (code,msg)
+            (code, msg) = self.getreply()
+            if self.debuglevel > 0:
+                print>>stderr, "data:", (code, msg)
+            return (code, msg)
 
     def verify(self, address):
         """SMTP 'verify' command -- checks for address validity."""
         self.putcmd("vrfy", quoteaddr(address))
         return self.getreply()
     # a.k.a.
-    vrfy=verify
+    vrfy = verify
 
     def expn(self, address):
         """SMTP 'expn' command -- expands a mailing list."""
@@ -592,7 +604,7 @@
             raise SMTPAuthenticationError(code, resp)
         return (code, resp)
 
-    def starttls(self, keyfile = None, certfile = None):
+    def starttls(self, keyfile=None, certfile=None):
         """Puts the connection to the SMTP server into TLS mode.
 
         If there has been no previous EHLO or HELO command this session, this
@@ -695,22 +707,22 @@
             for option in mail_options:
                 esmtp_opts.append(option)
 
-        (code,resp) = self.mail(from_addr, esmtp_opts)
+        (code, resp) = self.mail(from_addr, esmtp_opts)
         if code != 250:
             self.rset()
             raise SMTPSenderRefused(code, resp, from_addr)
-        senderrs={}
+        senderrs = {}
         if isinstance(to_addrs, basestring):
             to_addrs = [to_addrs]
         for each in to_addrs:
-            (code,resp)=self.rcpt(each, rcpt_options)
+            (code, resp) = self.rcpt(each, rcpt_options)
             if (code != 250) and (code != 251):
-                senderrs[each]=(code,resp)
-        if len(senderrs)==len(to_addrs):
+                senderrs[each] = (code, resp)
+        if len(senderrs) == len(to_addrs):
             # the server refused all our recipients
             self.rset()
             raise SMTPRecipientsRefused(senderrs)
-        (code,resp) = self.data(msg)
+        (code, resp) = self.data(msg)
         if code != 250:
             self.rset()
             raise SMTPDataError(code, resp)
@@ -744,16 +756,19 @@
         are also optional - they can contain a PEM formatted private key and
         certificate chain file for the SSL connection.
         """
+
+        default_port = SMTP_SSL_PORT
+
         def __init__(self, host='', port=0, local_hostname=None,
                      keyfile=None, certfile=None,
                      timeout=socket._GLOBAL_DEFAULT_TIMEOUT):
             self.keyfile = keyfile
             self.certfile = certfile
             SMTP.__init__(self, host, port, local_hostname, timeout)
-            self.default_port = SMTP_SSL_PORT
 
         def _get_socket(self, host, port, timeout):
-            if self.debuglevel > 0: print>>stderr, 'connect:', (host, port)
+            if self.debuglevel > 0:
+                print>>stderr, 'connect:', (host, port)
             new_socket = socket.create_connection((host, port), timeout)
             new_socket = ssl.wrap_socket(new_socket, self.keyfile, self.certfile)
             self.file = SSLFakeFile(new_socket)
@@ -781,11 +796,11 @@
 
     ehlo_msg = "lhlo"
 
-    def __init__(self, host = '', port = LMTP_PORT, local_hostname = None):
+    def __init__(self, host='', port=LMTP_PORT, local_hostname=None):
         """Initialize a new instance."""
         SMTP.__init__(self, host, port, local_hostname)
 
-    def connect(self, host = 'localhost', port = 0):
+    def connect(self, host='localhost', port=0):
         """Connect to the LMTP daemon, on either a Unix or a TCP socket."""
         if host[0] != '/':
             return SMTP.connect(self, host, port)
@@ -795,13 +810,15 @@
             self.sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_UNIX, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
             self.sock.connect(host)
         except socket.error, msg:
-            if self.debuglevel > 0: print>>stderr, 'connect fail:', host
+            if self.debuglevel > 0:
+                print>>stderr, 'connect fail:', host
             if self.sock:
                 self.sock.close()
             self.sock = None
             raise socket.error, msg
         (code, msg) = self.getreply()
-        if self.debuglevel > 0: print>>stderr, "connect:", msg
+        if self.debuglevel > 0:
+            print>>stderr, "connect:", msg
         return (code, msg)
 
 
@@ -815,7 +832,7 @@
         return sys.stdin.readline().strip()
 
     fromaddr = prompt("From")
-    toaddrs  = prompt("To").split(',')
+    toaddrs = prompt("To").split(',')
     print "Enter message, end with ^D:"
     msg = ''
     while 1:
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/ssl.py b/lib-python/2.7/ssl.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/ssl.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/ssl.py
@@ -121,9 +121,11 @@
             if e.errno != errno.ENOTCONN:
                 raise
             # no, no connection yet
+            self._connected = False
             self._sslobj = None
         else:
             # yes, create the SSL object
+            self._connected = True
             self._sslobj = _ssl.sslwrap(self._sock, server_side,
                                         keyfile, certfile,
                                         cert_reqs, ssl_version, ca_certs,
@@ -293,21 +295,36 @@
 
         self._sslobj.do_handshake()
 
-    def connect(self, addr):
-
-        """Connects to remote ADDR, and then wraps the connection in
-        an SSL channel."""
-
+    def _real_connect(self, addr, return_errno):
         # Here we assume that the socket is client-side, and not
         # connected at the time of the call.  We connect it, then wrap it.
-        if self._sslobj:
+        if self._connected:
             raise ValueError("attempt to connect already-connected SSLSocket!")
-        socket.connect(self, addr)
         self._sslobj = _ssl.sslwrap(self._sock, False, self.keyfile, self.certfile,
                                     self.cert_reqs, self.ssl_version,
                                     self.ca_certs, self.ciphers)
-        if self.do_handshake_on_connect:
-            self.do_handshake()
+        try:
+            socket.connect(self, addr)
+            if self.do_handshake_on_connect:
+                self.do_handshake()
+        except socket_error as e:
+            if return_errno:
+                return e.errno
+            else:
+                self._sslobj = None
+                raise e
+        self._connected = True
+        return 0
+
+    def connect(self, addr):
+        """Connects to remote ADDR, and then wraps the connection in
+        an SSL channel."""
+        self._real_connect(addr, False)
+
+    def connect_ex(self, addr):
+        """Connects to remote ADDR, and then wraps the connection in
+        an SSL channel."""
+        return self._real_connect(addr, True)
 
     def accept(self):
 
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/subprocess.py b/lib-python/2.7/subprocess.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/subprocess.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/subprocess.py
@@ -396,6 +396,7 @@
 import traceback
 import gc
 import signal
+import errno
 
 # Exception classes used by this module.
 class CalledProcessError(Exception):
@@ -427,7 +428,6 @@
 else:
     import select
     _has_poll = hasattr(select, 'poll')
-    import errno
     import fcntl
     import pickle
 
@@ -441,8 +441,15 @@
            "check_output", "CalledProcessError"]
 
 if mswindows:
-    from _subprocess import CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE, CREATE_NEW_PROCESS_GROUP
-    __all__.extend(["CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE", "CREATE_NEW_PROCESS_GROUP"])
+    from _subprocess import (CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE, CREATE_NEW_PROCESS_GROUP,
+                             STD_INPUT_HANDLE, STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE,
+                             STD_ERROR_HANDLE, SW_HIDE,
+                             STARTF_USESTDHANDLES, STARTF_USESHOWWINDOW)
+
+    __all__.extend(["CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE", "CREATE_NEW_PROCESS_GROUP",
+                    "STD_INPUT_HANDLE", "STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE",
+                    "STD_ERROR_HANDLE", "SW_HIDE",
+                    "STARTF_USESTDHANDLES", "STARTF_USESHOWWINDOW"])
 try:
     MAXFD = os.sysconf("SC_OPEN_MAX")
 except:
@@ -726,7 +733,11 @@
             stderr = None
             if self.stdin:
                 if input:
-                    self.stdin.write(input)
+                    try:
+                        self.stdin.write(input)
+                    except IOError as e:
+                        if e.errno != errno.EPIPE and e.errno != errno.EINVAL:
+                            raise
                 self.stdin.close()
             elif self.stdout:
                 stdout = self.stdout.read()
@@ -883,7 +894,7 @@
             except pywintypes.error, e:
                 # Translate pywintypes.error to WindowsError, which is
                 # a subclass of OSError.  FIXME: We should really
-                # translate errno using _sys_errlist (or simliar), but
+                # translate errno using _sys_errlist (or similar), but
                 # how can this be done from Python?
                 raise WindowsError(*e.args)
             finally:
@@ -956,7 +967,11 @@
 
             if self.stdin:
                 if input is not None:
-                    self.stdin.write(input)
+                    try:
+                        self.stdin.write(input)
+                    except IOError as e:
+                        if e.errno != errno.EPIPE:
+                            raise
                 self.stdin.close()
 
             if self.stdout:
@@ -1051,14 +1066,17 @@
                     errread, errwrite)
 
 
-        def _set_cloexec_flag(self, fd):
+        def _set_cloexec_flag(self, fd, cloexec=True):
             try:
                 cloexec_flag = fcntl.FD_CLOEXEC
             except AttributeError:
                 cloexec_flag = 1
 
             old = fcntl.fcntl(fd, fcntl.F_GETFD)
-            fcntl.fcntl(fd, fcntl.F_SETFD, old | cloexec_flag)
+            if cloexec:
+                fcntl.fcntl(fd, fcntl.F_SETFD, old | cloexec_flag)
+            else:
+                fcntl.fcntl(fd, fcntl.F_SETFD, old & ~cloexec_flag)
 
 
         def _close_fds(self, but):
@@ -1128,21 +1146,25 @@
                             os.close(errpipe_read)
 
                             # Dup fds for child
-                            if p2cread is not None:
-                                os.dup2(p2cread, 0)
-                            if c2pwrite is not None:
-                                os.dup2(c2pwrite, 1)
-                            if errwrite is not None:
-                                os.dup2(errwrite, 2)
+                            def _dup2(a, b):
+                                # dup2() removes the CLOEXEC flag but
+                                # we must do it ourselves if dup2()
+                                # would be a no-op (issue #10806).
+                                if a == b:
+                                    self._set_cloexec_flag(a, False)
+                                elif a is not None:
+                                    os.dup2(a, b)
+                            _dup2(p2cread, 0)
+                            _dup2(c2pwrite, 1)
+                            _dup2(errwrite, 2)
 
-                            # Close pipe fds.  Make sure we don't close the same
-                            # fd more than once, or standard fds.
-                            if p2cread is not None and p2cread not in (0,):
-                                os.close(p2cread)
-                            if c2pwrite is not None and c2pwrite not in (p2cread, 1):
-                                os.close(c2pwrite)
-                            if errwrite is not None and errwrite not in (p2cread, c2pwrite, 2):
-                                os.close(errwrite)
+                            # Close pipe fds.  Make sure we don't close the
+                            # same fd more than once, or standard fds.
+                            closed = { None }
+                            for fd in [p2cread, c2pwrite, errwrite]:
+                                if fd not in closed and fd > 2:
+                                    os.close(fd)
+                                    closed.add(fd)
 
                             # Close all other fds, if asked for
                             if close_fds:
@@ -1194,7 +1216,11 @@
                 os.close(errpipe_read)
 
             if data != "":
-                _eintr_retry_call(os.waitpid, self.pid, 0)
+                try:
+                    _eintr_retry_call(os.waitpid, self.pid, 0)
+                except OSError as e:
+                    if e.errno != errno.ECHILD:
+                        raise
                 child_exception = pickle.loads(data)
                 for fd in (p2cwrite, c2pread, errread):
                     if fd is not None:
@@ -1240,7 +1266,15 @@
             """Wait for child process to terminate.  Returns returncode
             attribute."""
             if self.returncode is None:
-                pid, sts = _eintr_retry_call(os.waitpid, self.pid, 0)
+                try:
+                    pid, sts = _eintr_retry_call(os.waitpid, self.pid, 0)
+                except OSError as e:
+                    if e.errno != errno.ECHILD:
+                        raise
+                    # This happens if SIGCLD is set to be ignored or waiting
+                    # for child processes has otherwise been disabled for our
+                    # process.  This child is dead, we can't get the status.
+                    sts = 0
                 self._handle_exitstatus(sts)
             return self.returncode
 
@@ -1317,9 +1351,16 @@
                 for fd, mode in ready:
                     if mode & select.POLLOUT:
                         chunk = input[input_offset : input_offset + _PIPE_BUF]
-                        input_offset += os.write(fd, chunk)
-                        if input_offset >= len(input):
-                            close_unregister_and_remove(fd)
+                        try:
+                            input_offset += os.write(fd, chunk)
+                        except OSError as e:
+                            if e.errno == errno.EPIPE:
+                                close_unregister_and_remove(fd)
+                            else:
+                                raise
+                        else:
+                            if input_offset >= len(input):
+                                close_unregister_and_remove(fd)
                     elif mode & select_POLLIN_POLLPRI:
                         data = os.read(fd, 4096)
                         if not data:
@@ -1358,11 +1399,19 @@
 
                 if self.stdin in wlist:
                     chunk = input[input_offset : input_offset + _PIPE_BUF]
-                    bytes_written = os.write(self.stdin.fileno(), chunk)
-                    input_offset += bytes_written
-                    if input_offset >= len(input):
-                        self.stdin.close()
-                        write_set.remove(self.stdin)
+                    try:
+                        bytes_written = os.write(self.stdin.fileno(), chunk)
+                    except OSError as e:
+                        if e.errno == errno.EPIPE:
+                            self.stdin.close()
+                            write_set.remove(self.stdin)
+                        else:
+                            raise
+                    else:
+                        input_offset += bytes_written
+                        if input_offset >= len(input):
+                            self.stdin.close()
+                            write_set.remove(self.stdin)
 
                 if self.stdout in rlist:
                     data = os.read(self.stdout.fileno(), 1024)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/symbol.py b/lib-python/2.7/symbol.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/symbol.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/symbol.py
@@ -82,20 +82,19 @@
 sliceop = 325
 exprlist = 326
 testlist = 327
-dictmaker = 328
-dictorsetmaker = 329
-classdef = 330
-arglist = 331
-argument = 332
-list_iter = 333
-list_for = 334
-list_if = 335
-comp_iter = 336
-comp_for = 337
-comp_if = 338
-testlist1 = 339
-encoding_decl = 340
-yield_expr = 341
+dictorsetmaker = 328
+classdef = 329
+arglist = 330
+argument = 331
+list_iter = 332
+list_for = 333
+list_if = 334
+comp_iter = 335
+comp_for = 336
+comp_if = 337
+testlist1 = 338
+encoding_decl = 339
+yield_expr = 340
 #--end constants--
 
 sym_name = {}
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/sysconfig.py b/lib-python/2.7/sysconfig.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/sysconfig.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/sysconfig.py
@@ -271,7 +271,7 @@
 def _get_makefile_filename():
     if _PYTHON_BUILD:
         return os.path.join(_PROJECT_BASE, "Makefile")
-    return os.path.join(get_path('stdlib'), "config", "Makefile")
+    return os.path.join(get_path('platstdlib'), "config", "Makefile")
 
 
 def _init_posix(vars):
@@ -297,21 +297,6 @@
             msg = msg + " (%s)" % e.strerror
         raise IOError(msg)
 
-    # On MacOSX we need to check the setting of the environment variable
-    # MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET: configure bases some choices on it so
-    # it needs to be compatible.
-    # If it isn't set we set it to the configure-time value
-    if sys.platform == 'darwin' and 'MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET' in vars:
-        cfg_target = vars['MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET']
-        cur_target = os.getenv('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET', '')
-        if cur_target == '':
-            cur_target = cfg_target
-            os.putenv('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET', cfg_target)
-        elif map(int, cfg_target.split('.')) > map(int, cur_target.split('.')):
-            msg = ('$MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET mismatch: now "%s" but "%s" '
-                   'during configure' % (cur_target, cfg_target))
-            raise IOError(msg)
-
     # On AIX, there are wrong paths to the linker scripts in the Makefile
     # -- these paths are relative to the Python source, but when installed
     # the scripts are in another directory.
@@ -616,9 +601,7 @@
         # machine is going to compile and link as if it were
         # MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET.
         cfgvars = get_config_vars()
-        macver = os.environ.get('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET')
-        if not macver:
-            macver = cfgvars.get('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET')
+        macver = cfgvars.get('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET')
 
         if 1:
             # Always calculate the release of the running machine,
@@ -639,7 +622,6 @@
                     m = re.search(
                             r'<key>ProductUserVisibleVersion</key>\s*' +
                             r'<string>(.*?)</string>', f.read())
-                    f.close()
                     if m is not None:
                         macrelease = '.'.join(m.group(1).split('.')[:2])
                     # else: fall back to the default behaviour
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/tarfile.py b/lib-python/2.7/tarfile.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/tarfile.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/tarfile.py
@@ -2239,10 +2239,14 @@
         if hasattr(os, "symlink") and hasattr(os, "link"):
             # For systems that support symbolic and hard links.
             if tarinfo.issym():
+                if os.path.lexists(targetpath):
+                    os.unlink(targetpath)
                 os.symlink(tarinfo.linkname, targetpath)
             else:
                 # See extract().
                 if os.path.exists(tarinfo._link_target):
+                    if os.path.lexists(targetpath):
+                        os.unlink(targetpath)
                     os.link(tarinfo._link_target, targetpath)
                 else:
                     self._extract_member(self._find_link_target(tarinfo), targetpath)
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/telnetlib.py b/lib-python/2.7/telnetlib.py
--- a/lib-python/2.7/telnetlib.py
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/telnetlib.py
@@ -236,7 +236,7 @@
 
         """
         if self.debuglevel > 0:
-            print 'Telnet(%s,%d):' % (self.host, self.port),
+            print 'Telnet(%s,%s):' % (self.host, self.port),
             if args:
                 print msg % args
             else:
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5-utf8.txt b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5-utf8.txt
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5-utf8.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+&#22914;&#20309;&#22312; Python &#20013;&#20351;&#29992;&#26082;&#26377;&#30340; C library?
+&#12288;&#22312;&#36039;&#35338;&#31185;&#25216;&#24555;&#36895;&#30332;&#23637;&#30340;&#20170;&#22825;, &#38283;&#30332;&#21450;&#28204;&#35430;&#36575;&#39636;&#30340;&#36895;&#24230;&#26159;&#19981;&#23481;&#24573;&#35222;&#30340;
+&#35506;&#38988;. &#28858;&#21152;&#24555;&#38283;&#30332;&#21450;&#28204;&#35430;&#30340;&#36895;&#24230;, &#25105;&#20497;&#20415;&#24120;&#24076;&#26395;&#33021;&#21033;&#29992;&#19968;&#20123;&#24050;&#38283;&#30332;&#22909;&#30340;
+library, &#20006;&#26377;&#19968;&#20491; fast prototyping &#30340; programming language &#21487;
+&#20379;&#20351;&#29992;. &#30446;&#21069;&#26377;&#35377;&#35377;&#22810;&#22810;&#30340; library &#26159;&#20197; C &#23531;&#25104;, &#32780; Python &#26159;&#19968;&#20491;
+fast prototyping &#30340; programming language. &#25925;&#25105;&#20497;&#24076;&#26395;&#33021;&#23559;&#26082;&#26377;&#30340;
+C library &#25343;&#21040; Python &#30340;&#29872;&#22659;&#20013;&#28204;&#35430;&#21450;&#25972;&#21512;. &#20854;&#20013;&#26368;&#20027;&#35201;&#20063;&#26159;&#25105;&#20497;&#25152;
+&#35201;&#35342;&#35542;&#30340;&#21839;&#38988;&#23601;&#26159;:
+
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5.txt b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5.txt
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+&#65533;p&#65533;&#65533;b Python &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#997;&#940;J&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; C library?
+&#65533;@&#65533;b&#65533;&#65533;T&#65533;&#65533;&#1959;&#1459;t&#65533;o&#65533;i&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;, &#65533;}&#65533;o&#65533;&#948;&#65533;&#65533;&#1395;n&#65533;&#39610;&#65533;t&#65533;&#1516;O&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;e&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;
+&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;D. &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;[&#65533;&#1462;}&#65533;o&#65533;&#948;&#65533;&#65533;&#1386;&#65533;&#65533;t&#65533;&#65533;, &#65533;&#1709;&#811;K&#65533;`&#65533;&#433;&#65533;&#65533;Q&#65533;&#932;@&#65533;&#484;w&#65533;}&#65533;o&#65533;n&#65533;&#65533;
+library, &#65533;&#230;&#65533;&#65533;@&#65533;&#65533; fast prototyping &#65533;&#65533; programming language &#65533;i
+&#65533;&#1128;&#997;&#65533;. &#65533;&#1579;e&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;\&#65533;\&#65533;h&#65533;h&#65533;&#65533; library &#65533;O&#65533;H C &#65533;g&#65533;&#65533;, &#65533;&#65533; Python &#65533;O&#65533;@&#65533;&#65533;
+fast prototyping &#65533;&#65533; programming language. &#65533;G&#65533;&#1709;&#807;&#433;&#65533;&#65533;N&#65533;J&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;
+C library &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; Python &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1188;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1380;&#958;&#65533;X. &#65533;&#18724;&#65533;&#805;D&#65533;n&#65533;]&#65533;O&#65533;&#1709;&#809;&#65533;
+&#65533;n&#65533;Q&#65533;&#1514;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;D&#65533;N&#65533;O:
+
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5hkscs-utf8.txt b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5hkscs-utf8.txt
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5hkscs-utf8.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,2 @@
+&#131340;&#282;&#40302;&#32595;&#27910;
+&#202;&#202;&#772;&#234; &#234;&#234;&#772;
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5hkscs.txt b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5hkscs.txt
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/big5hkscs.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,2 @@
+&#65533;E&#65533;\&#65533;s&#65533;&#1677;&#65533;
+&#65533;f&#65533;b&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/cp949-utf8.txt b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/cp949-utf8.txt
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/cp949-utf8.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+&#46624;&#48169;&#44033;&#54616; &#54194;&#49884;&#53084;&#46972;
+
+&#12911;&#12911;&#45225;!! &#22240;&#20061;&#26376;&#54056;&#48100;&#47508;&#44424; &#9441;&#9430;&#54976;&#191;&#191;&#191; &#44557;&#46233; &#9428;&#45992; &#12911;. .
+&#20126;&#50689;&#9428;&#45733;&#54969; . . . . &#49436;&#50872;&#47364; &#45968;&#54617;&#20057; &#23478;&#54976; ! ! !&#12640;.&#12640;
+&#55120;&#55120;&#55120; &#12593;&#12593;&#12593;&#9734;&#12640;_&#12640; &#50612;&#47528; &#53496;&#53104;&#44560; &#45964;&#51025; &#52817;&#20061;&#46308;&#20057; &#12911;&#46300;&#44560;
+&#49444;&#47500; &#23478;&#54976; . . . . &#44404;&#50528;&#49740; &#9428;&#44424; &#9441;&#47512;&#12913;&#44560; &#22240;&#20161;&#24029;&#63873;&#20013;&#44620;&#51644;
+&#50752;&#50304;&#54976; ! ! &#20126;&#50689;&#9428; &#23478;&#45733;&#44424; &#9734;&#19978;&#44288; &#50630;&#45733;&#44424;&#45733; &#20126;&#45733;&#46216;&#54976; &#44544;&#50528;&#46324;
+&#9441;&#47140;&#46272;&#20061; &#49856;&#54420;&#49716;&#54976; &#50612;&#47528; &#22240;&#20161;&#24029;&#63873;&#20013;&#49857;&#9320;&#46308;&#50524;!! &#12911;&#12911;&#45225;&#9825; &#8978;&#8978;*
+
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/cp949.txt b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/cp949.txt
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/cp949.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+&#65533;c&#65533;&#27682;&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1910;&#65533;
+
+&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;!! &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1042;&#65533;p&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#1960;&#65533;&#65533;R&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#1141;&#65533; &#65533;&#65533;. .
+&#19263;&#65533;&#65533;&#1140;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; . . . . &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; &#683;&#65533;R ! ! !&#65533;&#65533;.&#65533;&#65533;
+&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1636;&#65533;_&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#58378; &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;O &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;h&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;O
+&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;j &#683;&#65533;R . . . . &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1434;f &#65533;&#1137;&#65533; &#65533;&#1936;t&#65533;&#131;O &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#59598;
+&#65533;&#894;&#65533;&#65533;R ! ! &#19263;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; &#683;&#65533;&#625;&#65533; &#65533;&#65533;&#2046;&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#625;&#372;&#65533; &#19252;&#629;&#65533;&#65533;R &#65533;&#1790;&#1418;&#65533;
+&#65533;&#1975;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#65533;&#500;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;R &#65533;&#58378; &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#296;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;!! &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; &#65533;&#1185;&#65533;*
+
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/euc_jisx0213-utf8.txt b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/euc_jisx0213-utf8.txt
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/euc_jisx0213-utf8.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Python &#12398;&#38283;&#30330;&#12399;&#12289;1990 &#24180;&#12372;&#12429;&#12363;&#12425;&#38283;&#22987;&#12373;&#12428;&#12390;&#12356;&#12414;&#12377;&#12290;
+&#38283;&#30330;&#32773;&#12398; Guido van Rossum &#12399;&#25945;&#32946;&#29992;&#12398;&#12503;&#12525;&#12464;&#12521;&#12511;&#12531;&#12464;&#35328;&#35486;&#12300;ABC&#12301;&#12398;&#38283;&#30330;&#12395;&#21442;&#21152;&#12375;&#12390;&#12356;&#12414;&#12375;&#12383;&#12364;&#12289;ABC &#12399;&#23455;&#29992;&#19978;&#12398;&#30446;&#30340;&#12395;&#12399;&#12354;&#12414;&#12426;&#36969;&#12375;&#12390;&#12356;&#12414;&#12379;&#12435;&#12391;&#12375;&#12383;&#12290;
+&#12371;&#12398;&#12383;&#12417;&#12289;Guido &#12399;&#12424;&#12426;&#23455;&#29992;&#30340;&#12394;&#12503;&#12525;&#12464;&#12521;&#12511;&#12531;&#12464;&#35328;&#35486;&#12398;&#38283;&#30330;&#12434;&#38283;&#22987;&#12375;&#12289;&#33521;&#22269; BBS &#25918;&#36865;&#12398;&#12467;&#12513;&#12487;&#12451;&#30058;&#32068;&#12300;&#12514;&#12531;&#12486;&#12451; &#12497;&#12452;&#12477;&#12531;&#12301;&#12398;&#12501;&#12449;&#12531;&#12391;&#12354;&#12427; Guido &#12399;&#12371;&#12398;&#35328;&#35486;&#12434;&#12300;Python&#12301;&#12392;&#21517;&#12389;&#12369;&#12414;&#12375;&#12383;&#12290;
+&#12371;&#12398;&#12424;&#12358;&#12394;&#32972;&#26223;&#12363;&#12425;&#29983;&#12414;&#12428;&#12383; Python &#12398;&#35328;&#35486;&#35373;&#35336;&#12399;&#12289;&#12300;&#12471;&#12531;&#12503;&#12523;&#12301;&#12391;&#12300;&#32722;&#24471;&#12364;&#23481;&#26131;&#12301;&#12392;&#12356;&#12358;&#30446;&#27161;&#12395;&#37325;&#28857;&#12364;&#32622;&#12363;&#12428;&#12390;&#12356;&#12414;&#12377;&#12290;
+&#22810;&#12367;&#12398;&#12473;&#12463;&#12522;&#12503;&#12488;&#31995;&#35328;&#35486;&#12391;&#12399;&#12518;&#12540;&#12470;&#12398;&#30446;&#20808;&#12398;&#21033;&#20415;&#24615;&#12434;&#20778;&#20808;&#12375;&#12390;&#33394;&#12293;&#12394;&#27231;&#33021;&#12434;&#35328;&#35486;&#35201;&#32032;&#12392;&#12375;&#12390;&#21462;&#12426;&#20837;&#12428;&#12427;&#22580;&#21512;&#12364;&#22810;&#12356;&#12398;&#12391;&#12377;&#12364;&#12289;Python &#12391;&#12399;&#12381;&#12358;&#12356;&#12387;&#12383;&#23567;&#32048;&#24037;&#12364;&#36861;&#21152;&#12373;&#12428;&#12427;&#12371;&#12392;&#12399;&#12354;&#12414;&#12426;&#12354;&#12426;&#12414;&#12379;&#12435;&#12290;
+&#35328;&#35486;&#33258;&#20307;&#12398;&#27231;&#33021;&#12399;&#26368;&#23567;&#38480;&#12395;&#25276;&#12373;&#12360;&#12289;&#24517;&#35201;&#12394;&#27231;&#33021;&#12399;&#25313;&#24373;&#12514;&#12472;&#12517;&#12540;&#12523;&#12392;&#12375;&#12390;&#36861;&#21152;&#12377;&#12427;&#12289;&#12392;&#12356;&#12358;&#12398;&#12364; Python &#12398;&#12509;&#12522;&#12471;&#12540;&#12391;&#12377;&#12290;
+
+&#12494;&#12363;&#12442; &#12488;&#12442; &#12488;&#12461;&#64054;&#64057; &#136884;&#172940; &#40576;&#40769;&#169712;
diff --git a/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/euc_jisx0213.txt b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/euc_jisx0213.txt
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib-python/2.7/test/cjkencodings/euc_jisx0213.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Python &#65533;&#947;&#65533;&#559;&#65533;&#993;&#65533;1990 &#495;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#55595;&#65533;&#40171;&#65533;&#996;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#420;&#65533;&#65533;&#1956;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;
+&#65533;&#65533;&#559;&#65533;&#1316;&#65533; Guido van Rossum &#65533;&#1014;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1124;&#933;&#1509;&#55664;&#65533;&#65533;&#2021;&#941112;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;ABC&#65533;&#1508;&#947;&#65533;&#559;&#65533;&#763;&#65533;&#65533;&#228;&#65533;&#65533;&#420;&#65533;&#65533;&#1956;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;ABC &#65533;&#1020;&#65533;&#65533;&#1150;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#362;&#65533;&#740;&#996;&#65533;&#65533;&#1956;&#65533;&#364;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#420;&#65533;&#65533;&#1956;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#484;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;
+&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#932;&#65533;&#65533;&#6242;Guido &#65533;&#996;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#362;&#65533;&#677;&#1509;&#55664;&#65533;&#65533;&#2021;&#941112;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#947;&#65533;&#559;&#65533;&#735995;&#996;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1145;&#65533; BBS &#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#933;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#485;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#545;&#1445;&#65533;&#65533;&#421;&#65533; &#65533;&#1125;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1508;&#933;&#1381;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#484;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533; Guido &#65533;&#996;&#65533;&#65533;&#952;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;Python&#65533;&#1508;&#65533;&#830;&#65533;&#356;&#65533;&#65533;&#1956;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;
+&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#932;&#35110;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1591;&#676;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1956;&#51519; Python &#65533;&#952;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#2039;&#1508;&#993;&#65533;&#65533;&#1445;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1509;&#65533;&#1508;&#481;&#1469;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#432;&#1505;&#1508;&#548;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#632;&#65533;&#765;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1444;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#420;&#65533;&#65533;&#1956;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;
+&#191;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#933;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#1509;&#567;&#1016;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#484;&#997;&#26748;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#869;&#65533;&#35127;&#65533;&#447;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#693;&#65533;&#509;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#65533;&#