infos from the berlin-sprint (was Re: [pypy-dev] Sprint results?)

holger krekel hpk at
Sun Oct 5 18:36:32 CEST 2003

Hi Florian,

[Florian Schulze Sat, Oct 04, 2003 at 10:34:25PM +0200]
> Hi!
> How well did the sprint work out?
> I have seen that there is some pyrex code generation now and there are 
> tests, but what where the results in this area during the sprint?
> Just a very short mail with some information would be grately appreciated.

Here is my take. Other mileages may vary so excuse me if i miss anything.

On Monday morning we made a few design decision which led to the 
implementation of the following abstractions in the next two days:

- a new FlowObjSpace which does abstract interpretation 
  plus some very nice tricks (which we came up with during a 
  long-winded discussion in a restaurant :-) to construct
  a FunctionGraph.  This functiongraph (fully) represents the abstract 
  or symbolic execution of a function.   e.g. for this function:

  def while_func(i):
      total = 0
      while i > 0:
          total = total + i
          i = i - 1
      return total

  the following graph is generated (shown here in an slightly 
  optimized version):

- '' takes this flowmodel and generates a
  nice graphical graph from it (see above urls)

- the pyrex-translator also takes this objectmodel (in and
  generates Pyrex-Code from it.  The generated code looks pretty low-level
  but this is expected as we eventually want to generate C or assembly
  directly.  For the above function the following pyrex-source code is 
  generated (again with some easy optimizations applied):

    def while_func(object v413):
      v419, v420 = v413, 0
      cinline "Label1:"
      v422 = v419 > 0
      if v422:
        v424 = v420 + v419
        v425 = v419 - 1
        v419, v420 = v425, v424
        cinline "goto Label1;"
        return v420

  btw, the 'cinline' statement is a hack to pyrex and allows to insert
  arbitrary C-code. An objectspace cannot really identify loops 
  and so we need "goto". We consider goto to be useful unless you have
  to type and understand them manually :-) 

- translator/ also takes the flowmodel and applies a
  new technique for type inference: it uses space-operations to
  note 'assertions' about variables and relaxes those assertions
  during analysis of the flowgraph.  IOW we didn't come up with
  yet another type-system (which is the classical approach) but
  reuse the notion of "space-operations" which we had from the beginning
  of the project. Btw, Armin thinks that this type-inference algorithm 
  is worth a scientific paper but more about this either later and/or
  from him. 

- we adapted Jonathan David Riehl's Python-Parser (written completly
  in python using its own "rex"-approach) and adapted it so that
  it will be a drop-in replacement for CPython's current parser 
  (living the boring life of a C-extension). Actually Jonathan's
  larger 'basil' project is now in the codespeak-repository and
  we can easily link it into PyPy or branch off it if neccessary. 

So alltogether the Flowgraph/Functiongraph/flowmodel (there is no
completly fixed terminology yet) is the central point for several 
independent algorithms that - if combined - eventually produce typed C-code. 

To sum it up there are the following abstractions:

interpreter     interpreting bytecode, dispatching operations on objects to

objectspace     implementing operations on boxed objects 

stdobjspace     a concrete space implementing python's standard type system

flowobjspace    a conrete space performing abstract/symbolic interpretation and
                producing a (bytecode-indepedent) flowmodel of execution

annotator       analysing the flowmodel to infer types. 

genpyrex        taking the (annotated) flowmodel to generate pyrex-code

pyrex           translating into an C-extension

As a consequence the former Ann(otation)Space has been ripped apart
(partly into flowobjspace) and is gone now. Long live the flowspace. 

A really nice property of the above abstractions is that they allow
development and testing *independently* from one another which was 
of invaluable help. Thanks here go to Greg Ewing for Pyrex and sorry 
for the evil cinline-hack :-)

Anybody interested in helping with the next steps might look into 
the TODO file in the pypy-root directory.  We also have discussed
yesterday evening a refactored flowmodel which we want to employ

Big thanks go to Tomek Meka and Christian Tismer for organizing the
sprint and Stephan Diehl and Dinu Gherman for their help in various
organizational areas. And especially to Jonathan David Riehl who
made it from Chicago. We hope he can stay with us more often. And
here is a (hopefully complete) list of people who attended and made
all of the above possible:

    Armin Rigo
    Christian Tismer
    Dinu Gherman
    Guenter Jantzen
    Jonathan David Riehl 
    Samuele Pedroni
    Stephan Diehl
    Tomek Meka
    and shame on me if i forgot anyone (i am tired ...)

And of course many many thanks to Laura Creighton (AB Strakt), 
Nicolas Chauvat (Logilab) and Alistair Burt (DFKI) who tried hard to 
work with us on EU-funding-issues.  Actually we came up with a nice technical 
2-year plan but a lot of business issues still need to be resolved 
and fixed. Let's hope that the EU-funding effort is as successful as 
our coding sprints this year has been.  Ah yes, the next sprint we hope 
to do mid-december probably in Amsterdam.  If all goes well (some more 
people helping between the sprints that is :-) we might even do a first 
public release with PyPy prototypically running as a C-extension to CPython. 

That's it for now from me.  (sprinters: Please correct/fix any issues i



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