[Python-3000-checkins] r66978 - python/branches/py3k/Doc/reference/datamodel.rst
python-3000-checkins at python.org
Sun Oct 19 23:29:05 CEST 2008
Date: Sun Oct 19 23:29:05 2008
New Revision: 66978
document changes to metaclasses
--- python/branches/py3k/Doc/reference/datamodel.rst (original)
+++ python/branches/py3k/Doc/reference/datamodel.rst Sun Oct 19 23:29:05 2008
@@ -1484,10 +1484,11 @@
read into a separate namespace and the value of class name is bound to the
result of ``type(name, bases, dict)``.
-When the class definition is read, if *__metaclass__* is defined then the
-callable assigned to it will be called instead of :func:`type`. This allows
-classes or functions to be written which monitor or alter the class creation
+When the class definition is read, if a callable ``metaclass`` keyword argument
+is passed after the bases in the class definition, the callable given will be
+called instead of :func:`type`. If other keyword arguments are passed, they
+will also be passed to the metaclass. This allows classes or functions to be
+written which monitor or alter the class creation process:
* Modifying the class dictionary prior to the class being created.
@@ -1508,21 +1509,19 @@
example defining a custom :meth:`__call__` method in the metaclass allows custom
behavior when the class is called, e.g. not always creating a new instance.
-.. data:: __metaclass__
- This variable can be any callable accepting arguments for ``name``, ``bases``,
- and ``dict``. Upon class creation, the callable is used instead of the built-in
+If the metaclass has a :meth:`__prepare__` attribute (usually implemented as a
+class or static method), it is called before the class body is evaluated with
+the name of the class and a tuple of its bases for arguments. It should return
+an object that supports the mapping interface that will be used to store the
+namespace of the class. The default is a plain dictionary. This could be used,
+for example, to keep track of the order that class attributes are declared in by
+returning an ordered dictionary.
The appropriate metaclass is determined by the following precedence rules:
-* If ``dict['__metaclass__']`` exists, it is used.
+* If the ``metaclass`` keyword argument is based with the bases, it is used.
-* Otherwise, if there is at least one base class, its metaclass is used (this
- looks for a *__class__* attribute first and if not found, uses its type).
-* Otherwise, if a global variable named __metaclass__ exists, it is used.
+* Otherwise, if there is at least one base class, its metaclass is used.
* Otherwise, the default metaclass (:class:`type`) is used.
@@ -1922,8 +1921,7 @@
... print "Metaclass getattribute invoked"
... return type.__getattribute__(*args)
- >>> class C(object):
- ... __metaclass__ = Meta
+ >>> class C(object, metaclass=Meta):
... def __len__(self):
... return 10
... def __getattribute__(*args):
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