ANN: Amara XML Toolkit 0.9.2

Uche Ogbuji uche.ogbuji at
Thu Jan 13 01:35:28 CET 2005

Changes in this release:

* Use local names rather than QNames for default bindings
* Add attribute support to XPath
* Add amara.binderytools.preserve_attribute_details rule
* Reorg and fix demos and tests
* Add Flextyper DTLL implementation
* Add parsing functions binderytools.bind_string,
* Add binderytools.pushbind.  This one deserves some elaboration.

The following is complete code for iterating through address labels in
XML document, while never loading more memory than needed to hold one

from amara import binderytools
for subtree in binderytools.pushbind('/labels/label',
    print, 'of',

Amara XML Toolkit is a collection of Python tools for XML processing--
not just tools that happen to be written in Python, but tools built from
the ground up to use Python idioms and take advantage of the many
advantages of Python.

Amara builds on 4Suite [], but whereas 4Suite focuses
more on literal implementation of XML standards in Python, Amara
focuses on Pythonic idiom.  It provides tools you can trust to conform
with XML standards without losing the familiar Python feel.

The components of Amara are:

* Bindery: data binding tool (fancy way of saying: a very Pythonic XML
* Scimitar: implementation of the ISO Schematron schema language for
            converts Schematron files to Python scripts
* domtools: set of tools to augment Python DOMs
* saxtools: set of tools to make SAX easier to use in Python
* Flextyper: user-defined datatypes in Python for XML processing

There's a lot in Amara, but here are highlights:

Amara Bindery: XML as easy as py

Based on the retired project Anobind, but updated to use SAX rather than
to create bindings.  Bindery reads an XML document and returns a data
structure of Python objects corresponding to the vocabulary used in the
XML document, for maximum clarity.

Bindery turns the document

  <python spam="eggs">What do you mean "bleh"</python>
  <python ministry="abuse">But I was looking for argument</python>

Into a set of objects such that you can write


In order to get the value "eggs" or


In order to get the value "But I was looking for argument".

There are other such tools for Python, and what makes Anobind unique is
that it's driven by a very declarative rules-based system for binding
XML to the Python data.  You can register rules that are triggered by
XPattern expressions specialized binding behavior.  It includes XPath
support and supports mutation.  Bindery is very efficient, using SAX
to generate bindings.

Scimitar: exceptional schema language for an exceptional programming

Merged in from a separate project, Scimitar is an implementation of ISO
Schematron that compiles a Schematron schema into a Python validator

You typically use scimitar in two phases.  Say you have a schematron
schema schema1.stron and you want to validate multiple XML files
against it, instance1.xml, instance2.xml, instance3.xml.

First you run schema1.stron through the scimitar compiler script, schema1.stron

A file, is generated and can be used to validate XML

python instance1.xml

Which emits a validation report.

Amara DOM Tools: giving DOM a more Pythonic face

DOM came from the Java world, hardly the most Pythonic API possible.
Some DOM-like implementations such as 4Suite's Domlettes mix in some
Pythonic idiom. Amara DOM Tools goes even further.

Amara DOM Tools feature pushdom, similar to xml.dom.pulldom, but
easier to use.  It also includes Python generator-based tools for
DOM processing, and a function to return an XPath location for
any DOM node.

Amara SAX Tools: SAX without the brain explosion

Tenorsax (amara.saxtools.tenorsax) is a framework for "linerarizing" SAX
so that it flows more naturally, and needs a lot less state machine


Amara is open source, provided under the 4Suite variant of the Apache
license.  See the file COPYING for details.


Amara requires Python 2.3 or more recent and 4Suite 1.0a3 or more
recent.  Make sure these are installed, unpack Amara to a convenient
location and run

python install

Uche Ogbuji                                    Fourthought, Inc.
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