[Python-checkins] r72077 - python/branches/release26-maint/Lib/pydoc_topics.py

georg.brandl python-checkins at python.org
Tue Apr 28 20:53:14 CEST 2009


Author: georg.brandl
Date: Tue Apr 28 20:53:13 2009
New Revision: 72077

Log:
Update pydoc topics.

Modified:
   python/branches/release26-maint/Lib/pydoc_topics.py

Modified: python/branches/release26-maint/Lib/pydoc_topics.py
==============================================================================
--- python/branches/release26-maint/Lib/pydoc_topics.py	(original)
+++ python/branches/release26-maint/Lib/pydoc_topics.py	Tue Apr 28 20:53:13 2009
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# Autogenerated by Sphinx on Tue Apr 14 09:12:28 2009
+# Autogenerated by Sphinx on Tue Apr 28 20:27:10 2009
 topics = {'assert': u'\nThe ``assert`` statement\n************************\n\nAssert statements are a convenient way to insert debugging assertions\ninto a program:\n\n   assert_stmt ::= "assert" expression ["," expression]\n\nThe simple form, ``assert expression``, is equivalent to\n\n   if __debug__:\n      if not expression: raise AssertionError\n\nThe extended form, ``assert expression1, expression2``, is equivalent\nto\n\n   if __debug__:\n      if not expression1: raise AssertionError, expression2\n\nThese equivalences assume that ``__debug__`` and ``AssertionError``\nrefer to the built-in variables with those names.  In the current\nimplementation, the built-in variable ``__debug__`` is ``True`` under\nnormal circumstances, ``False`` when optimization is requested\n(command line option -O).  The current code generator emits no code\nfor an assert statement when optimization is requested at compile\ntime.  Note that it is unnecessary to include the source code for the\nexpression that failed in the error message; it will be displayed as\npart of the stack trace.\n\nAssignments to ``__debug__`` are illegal.  The value for the built-in\nvariable is determined when the interpreter starts.\n',
  'assignment': u'\nAssignment statements\n*********************\n\nAssignment statements are used to (re)bind names to values and to\nmodify attributes or items of mutable objects:\n\n   assignment_stmt ::= (target_list "=")+ (expression_list | yield_expression)\n   target_list     ::= target ("," target)* [","]\n   target          ::= identifier\n              | "(" target_list ")"\n              | "[" target_list "]"\n              | attributeref\n              | subscription\n              | slicing\n\n(See section *Primaries* for the syntax definitions for the last three\nsymbols.)\n\nAn assignment statement evaluates the expression list (remember that\nthis can be a single expression or a comma-separated list, the latter\nyielding a tuple) and assigns the single resulting object to each of\nthe target lists, from left to right.\n\nAssignment is defined recursively depending on the form of the target\n(list). When a target is part of a mutable object (an attribute\nreference, subscription or slicing), the mutable object must\nultimately perform the assignment and decide about its validity, and\nmay raise an exception if the assignment is unacceptable.  The rules\nobserved by various types and the exceptions raised are given with the\ndefinition of the object types (see section *The standard type\nhierarchy*).\n\nAssignment of an object to a target list is recursively defined as\nfollows.\n\n* If the target list is a single target: The object is assigned to\n  that target.\n\n* If the target list is a comma-separated list of targets: The object\n  must be an iterable with the same number of items as there are\n  targets in the target list, and the items are assigned, from left to\n  right, to the corresponding targets. (This rule is relaxed as of\n  Python 1.5; in earlier versions, the object had to be a tuple.\n  Since strings are sequences, an assignment like ``a, b = "xy"`` is\n  now legal as long as the string has the right length.)\n\nAssignment of an object to a single target is recursively defined as\nfollows.\n\n* If the target is an identifier (name):\n\n  * If the name does not occur in a ``global`` statement in the\n    current code block: the name is bound to the object in the current\n    local namespace.\n\n  * Otherwise: the name is bound to the object in the current global\n    namespace.\n\n  The name is rebound if it was already bound.  This may cause the\n  reference count for the object previously bound to the name to reach\n  zero, causing the object to be deallocated and its destructor (if it\n  has one) to be called.\n\n* If the target is a target list enclosed in parentheses or in square\n  brackets: The object must be an iterable with the same number of\n  items as there are targets in the target list, and its items are\n  assigned, from left to right, to the corresponding targets.\n\n* If the target is an attribute reference: The primary expression in\n  the reference is evaluated.  It should yield an object with\n  assignable attributes; if this is not the case, ``TypeError`` is\n  raised.  That object is then asked to assign the assigned object to\n  the given attribute; if it cannot perform the assignment, it raises\n  an exception (usually but not necessarily ``AttributeError``).\n\n* If the target is a subscription: The primary expression in the\n  reference is evaluated.  It should yield either a mutable sequence\n  object (such as a list) or a mapping object (such as a dictionary).\n  Next, the subscript expression is evaluated.\n\n  If the primary is a mutable sequence object (such as a list), the\n  subscript must yield a plain integer.  If it is negative, the\n  sequence\'s length is added to it. The resulting value must be a\n  nonnegative integer less than the sequence\'s length, and the\n  sequence is asked to assign the assigned object to its item with\n  that index.  If the index is out of range, ``IndexError`` is raised\n  (assignment to a subscripted sequence cannot add new items to a\n  list).\n\n  If the primary is a mapping object (such as a dictionary), the\n  subscript must have a type compatible with the mapping\'s key type,\n  and the mapping is then asked to create a key/datum pair which maps\n  the subscript to the assigned object.  This can either replace an\n  existing key/value pair with the same key value, or insert a new\n  key/value pair (if no key with the same value existed).\n\n* If the target is a slicing: The primary expression in the reference\n  is evaluated.  It should yield a mutable sequence object (such as a\n  list).  The assigned object should be a sequence object of the same\n  type.  Next, the lower and upper bound expressions are evaluated,\n  insofar they are present; defaults are zero and the sequence\'s\n  length.  The bounds should evaluate to (small) integers.  If either\n  bound is negative, the sequence\'s length is added to it. The\n  resulting bounds are clipped to lie between zero and the sequence\'s\n  length, inclusive.  Finally, the sequence object is asked to replace\n  the slice with the items of the assigned sequence.  The length of\n  the slice may be different from the length of the assigned sequence,\n  thus changing the length of the target sequence, if the object\n  allows it.\n\n(In the current implementation, the syntax for targets is taken to be\nthe same as for expressions, and invalid syntax is rejected during the\ncode generation phase, causing less detailed error messages.)\n\nWARNING: Although the definition of assignment implies that overlaps\nbetween the left-hand side and the right-hand side are \'safe\' (for\nexample ``a, b = b, a`` swaps two variables), overlaps *within* the\ncollection of assigned-to variables are not safe!  For instance, the\nfollowing program prints ``[0, 2]``:\n\n   x = [0, 1]\n   i = 0\n   i, x[i] = 1, 2\n   print x\n\n\nAugmented assignment statements\n===============================\n\nAugmented assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a\nbinary operation and an assignment statement:\n\n   augmented_assignment_stmt ::= augtarget augop (expression_list | yield_expression)\n   augtarget                 ::= identifier | attributeref | subscription | slicing\n   augop                     ::= "+=" | "-=" | "*=" | "/=" | "//=" | "%=" | "**="\n             | ">>=" | "<<=" | "&=" | "^=" | "|="\n\n(See section *Primaries* for the syntax definitions for the last three\nsymbols.)\n\nAn augmented assignment evaluates the target (which, unlike normal\nassignment statements, cannot be an unpacking) and the expression\nlist, performs the binary operation specific to the type of assignment\non the two operands, and assigns the result to the original target.\nThe target is only evaluated once.\n\nAn augmented assignment expression like ``x += 1`` can be rewritten as\n``x = x + 1`` to achieve a similar, but not exactly equal effect. In\nthe augmented version, ``x`` is only evaluated once. Also, when\npossible, the actual operation is performed *in-place*, meaning that\nrather than creating a new object and assigning that to the target,\nthe old object is modified instead.\n\nWith the exception of assigning to tuples and multiple targets in a\nsingle statement, the assignment done by augmented assignment\nstatements is handled the same way as normal assignments. Similarly,\nwith the exception of the possible *in-place* behavior, the binary\noperation performed by augmented assignment is the same as the normal\nbinary operations.\n\nFor targets which are attribute references, the initial value is\nretrieved with a ``getattr()`` and the result is assigned with a\n``setattr()``.  Notice that the two methods do not necessarily refer\nto the same variable.  When ``getattr()`` refers to a class variable,\n``setattr()`` still writes to an instance variable. For example:\n\n   class A:\n       x = 3    # class variable\n   a = A()\n   a.x += 1     # writes a.x as 4 leaving A.x as 3\n',
  'atom-identifiers': u'\nIdentifiers (Names)\n*******************\n\nAn identifier occurring as an atom is a name.  See section\n*Identifiers and keywords* for lexical definition and section *Naming\nand binding* for documentation of naming and binding.\n\nWhen the name is bound to an object, evaluation of the atom yields\nthat object. When a name is not bound, an attempt to evaluate it\nraises a ``NameError`` exception.\n\n**Private name mangling:** When an identifier that textually occurs in\na class definition begins with two or more underscore characters and\ndoes not end in two or more underscores, it is considered a *private\nname* of that class. Private names are transformed to a longer form\nbefore code is generated for them.  The transformation inserts the\nclass name in front of the name, with leading underscores removed, and\na single underscore inserted in front of the class name.  For example,\nthe identifier ``__spam`` occurring in a class named ``Ham`` will be\ntransformed to ``_Ham__spam``.  This transformation is independent of\nthe syntactical context in which the identifier is used.  If the\ntransformed name is extremely long (longer than 255 characters),\nimplementation defined truncation may happen.  If the class name\nconsists only of underscores, no transformation is done.\n',
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
  'class': u'\nClass definitions\n*****************\n\nA class definition defines a class object (see section *The standard\ntype hierarchy*):\n\n   classdef    ::= "class" classname [inheritance] ":" suite\n   inheritance ::= "(" [expression_list] ")"\n   classname   ::= identifier\n\nA class definition is an executable statement.  It first evaluates the\ninheritance list, if present.  Each item in the inheritance list\nshould evaluate to a class object or class type which allows\nsubclassing.  The class\'s suite is then executed in a new execution\nframe (see section *Naming and binding*), using a newly created local\nnamespace and the original global namespace. (Usually, the suite\ncontains only function definitions.)  When the class\'s suite finishes\nexecution, its execution frame is discarded but its local namespace is\nsaved. [4] A class object is then created using the inheritance list\nfor the base classes and the saved local namespace for the attribute\ndictionary.  The class name is bound to this class object in the\noriginal local namespace.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Variables defined in the class definition are\nclass variables; they are shared by all instances.  To create instance\nvariables, they can be set in a method with ``self.name = value``.\nBoth class and instance variables are accessible through the notation\n"``self.name``", and an instance variable hides a class variable with\nthe same name when accessed in this way. Class variables can be used\nas defaults for instance variables, but using mutable values there can\nlead to unexpected results.  For *new-style class*es, descriptors can\nbe used to create instance variables with different implementation\ndetails.\n\nClass definitions, like function definitions, may be wrapped by one or\nmore *decorator* expressions.  The evaluation rules for the decorator\nexpressions are the same as for functions.  The result must be a class\nobject, which is then bound to the class name.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] The exception is propagated to the invocation stack only if there\n    is no ``finally`` clause that negates the exception.\n\n[2] Currently, control "flows off the end" except in the case of an\n    exception or the execution of a ``return``, ``continue``, or\n    ``break`` statement.\n\n[3] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the function\n    body is transformed into the function\'s ``__doc__`` attribute and\n    therefore the function\'s *docstring*.\n\n[4] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the class\n    body is transformed into the namespace\'s ``__doc__`` item and\n    therefore the class\'s *docstring*.\n',
  'coercion-rules': u"\nCoercion rules\n**************\n\nThis section used to document the rules for coercion.  As the language\nhas evolved, the coercion rules have become hard to document\nprecisely; documenting what one version of one particular\nimplementation does is undesirable.  Instead, here are some informal\nguidelines regarding coercion.  In Python 3.0, coercion will not be\nsupported.\n\n* If the left operand of a % operator is a string or Unicode object,\n  no coercion takes place and the string formatting operation is\n  invoked instead.\n\n* It is no longer recommended to define a coercion operation. Mixed-\n  mode operations on types that don't define coercion pass the\n  original arguments to the operation.\n\n* New-style classes (those derived from ``object``) never invoke the\n  ``__coerce__()`` method in response to a binary operator; the only\n  time ``__coerce__()`` is invoked is when the built-in function\n  ``coerce()`` is called.\n\n* For most intents and purposes, an operator that returns\n  ``NotImplemented`` is treated the same as one that is not\n  implemented at all.\n\n* Below, ``__op__()`` and ``__rop__()`` are used to signify the\n  generic method names corresponding to an operator; ``__iop__()`` is\n  used for the corresponding in-place operator.  For example, for the\n  operator '``+``', ``__add__()`` and ``__radd__()`` are used for the\n  left and right variant of the binary operator, and ``__iadd__()``\n  for the in-place variant.\n\n* For objects *x* and *y*, first ``x.__op__(y)`` is tried.  If this is\n  not implemented or returns ``NotImplemented``, ``y.__rop__(x)`` is\n  tried.  If this is also not implemented or returns\n  ``NotImplemented``, a ``TypeError`` exception is raised.  But see\n  the following exception:\n\n* Exception to the previous item: if the left operand is an instance\n  of a built-in type or a new-style class, and the right operand is an\n  instance of a proper subclass of that type or class and overrides\n  the base's ``__rop__()`` method, the right operand's ``__rop__()``\n  method is tried *before* the left operand's ``__op__()`` method.\n\n  This is done so that a subclass can completely override binary\n  operators. Otherwise, the left operand's ``__op__()`` method would\n  always accept the right operand: when an instance of a given class\n  is expected, an instance of a subclass of that class is always\n  acceptable.\n\n* When either operand type defines a coercion, this coercion is called\n  before that type's ``__op__()`` or ``__rop__()`` method is called,\n  but no sooner.  If the coercion returns an object of a different\n  type for the operand whose coercion is invoked, part of the process\n  is redone using the new object.\n\n* When an in-place operator (like '``+=``') is used, if the left\n  operand implements ``__iop__()``, it is invoked without any\n  coercion.  When the operation falls back to ``__op__()`` and/or\n  ``__rop__()``, the normal coercion rules apply.\n\n* In ``x + y``, if *x* is a sequence that implements sequence\n  concatenation, sequence concatenation is invoked.\n\n* In ``x * y``, if one operator is a sequence that implements sequence\n  repetition, and the other is an integer (``int`` or ``long``),\n  sequence repetition is invoked.\n\n* Rich comparisons (implemented by methods ``__eq__()`` and so on)\n  never use coercion.  Three-way comparison (implemented by\n  ``__cmp__()``) does use coercion under the same conditions as other\n  binary operations use it.\n\n* In the current implementation, the built-in numeric types ``int``,\n  ``long`` and ``float`` do not use coercion; the type ``complex``\n  however does use coercion for binary operators and rich comparisons,\n  despite the above rules.  The difference can become apparent when\n  subclassing these types.  Over time, the type ``complex`` may be\n  fixed to avoid coercion. All these types implement a\n  ``__coerce__()`` method, for use by the built-in ``coerce()``\n  function.\n",
  'comparisons': u'\nComparisons\n***********\n\nUnlike C, all comparison operations in Python have the same priority,\nwhich is lower than that of any arithmetic, shifting or bitwise\noperation.  Also unlike C, expressions like ``a < b < c`` have the\ninterpretation that is conventional in mathematics:\n\n   comparison    ::= or_expr ( comp_operator or_expr )*\n   comp_operator ::= "<" | ">" | "==" | ">=" | "<=" | "<>" | "!="\n                     | "is" ["not"] | ["not"] "in"\n\nComparisons yield boolean values: ``True`` or ``False``.\n\nComparisons can be chained arbitrarily, e.g., ``x < y <= z`` is\nequivalent to ``x < y and y <= z``, except that ``y`` is evaluated\nonly once (but in both cases ``z`` is not evaluated at all when ``x <\ny`` is found to be false).\n\nFormally, if *a*, *b*, *c*, ..., *y*, *z* are expressions and *op1*,\n*op2*, ..., *opN* are comparison operators, then ``a op1 b op2 c ... y\nopN z`` is equivalent to ``a op1 b and b op2 c and ... y opN z``,\nexcept that each expression is evaluated at most once.\n\nNote that ``a op1 b op2 c`` doesn\'t imply any kind of comparison\nbetween *a* and *c*, so that, e.g., ``x < y > z`` is perfectly legal\n(though perhaps not pretty).\n\nThe forms ``<>`` and ``!=`` are equivalent; for consistency with C,\n``!=`` is preferred; where ``!=`` is mentioned below ``<>`` is also\naccepted.  The ``<>`` spelling is considered obsolescent.\n\nThe operators ``<``, ``>``, ``==``, ``>=``, ``<=``, and ``!=`` compare\nthe values of two objects.  The objects need not have the same type.\nIf both are numbers, they are converted to a common type.  Otherwise,\nobjects of different types *always* compare unequal, and are ordered\nconsistently but arbitrarily. You can control comparison behavior of\nobjects of non-builtin types by defining a ``__cmp__`` method or rich\ncomparison methods like ``__gt__``, described in section *Special\nmethod names*.\n\n(This unusual definition of comparison was used to simplify the\ndefinition of operations like sorting and the ``in`` and ``not in``\noperators. In the future, the comparison rules for objects of\ndifferent types are likely to change.)\n\nComparison of objects of the same type depends on the type:\n\n* Numbers are compared arithmetically.\n\n* Strings are compared lexicographically using the numeric equivalents\n  (the result of the built-in function ``ord()``) of their characters.\n  Unicode and 8-bit strings are fully interoperable in this behavior.\n  [4]\n\n* Tuples and lists are compared lexicographically using comparison of\n  corresponding elements.  This means that to compare equal, each\n  element must compare equal and the two sequences must be of the same\n  type and have the same length.\n\n  If not equal, the sequences are ordered the same as their first\n  differing elements.  For example, ``cmp([1,2,x], [1,2,y])`` returns\n  the same as ``cmp(x,y)``.  If the corresponding element does not\n  exist, the shorter sequence is ordered first (for example, ``[1,2] <\n  [1,2,3]``).\n\n* Mappings (dictionaries) compare equal if and only if their sorted\n  (key, value) lists compare equal. [5] Outcomes other than equality\n  are resolved consistently, but are not otherwise defined. [6]\n\n* Most other objects of builtin types compare unequal unless they are\n  the same object; the choice whether one object is considered smaller\n  or larger than another one is made arbitrarily but consistently\n  within one execution of a program.\n\nThe operators ``in`` and ``not in`` test for collection membership.\n``x in s`` evaluates to true if *x* is a member of the collection *s*,\nand false otherwise.  ``x not in s`` returns the negation of ``x in\ns``. The collection membership test has traditionally been bound to\nsequences; an object is a member of a collection if the collection is\na sequence and contains an element equal to that object.  However, it\nmake sense for many other object types to support membership tests\nwithout being a sequence.  In particular, dictionaries (for keys) and\nsets support membership testing.\n\nFor the list and tuple types, ``x in y`` is true if and only if there\nexists an index *i* such that ``x == y[i]`` is true.\n\nFor the Unicode and string types, ``x in y`` is true if and only if\n*x* is a substring of *y*.  An equivalent test is ``y.find(x) != -1``.\nNote, *x* and *y* need not be the same type; consequently, ``u\'ab\' in\n\'abc\'`` will return ``True``. Empty strings are always considered to\nbe a substring of any other string, so ``"" in "abc"`` will return\n``True``.\n\nChanged in version 2.3: Previously, *x* was required to be a string of\nlength ``1``.\n\nFor user-defined classes which define the ``__contains__()`` method,\n``x in y`` is true if and only if ``y.__contains__(x)`` is true.\n\nFor user-defined classes which do not define ``__contains__()`` and do\ndefine ``__getitem__()``, ``x in y`` is true if and only if there is a\nnon-negative integer index *i* such that ``x == y[i]``, and all lower\ninteger indices do not raise ``IndexError`` exception. (If any other\nexception is raised, it is as if ``in`` raised that exception).\n\nThe operator ``not in`` is defined to have the inverse true value of\n``in``.\n\nThe operators ``is`` and ``is not`` test for object identity: ``x is\ny`` is true if and only if *x* and *y* are the same object.  ``x is\nnot y`` yields the inverse truth value. [7]\n',
- 'compound': u'\nCompound statements\n*******************\n\nCompound statements contain (groups of) other statements; they affect\nor control the execution of those other statements in some way.  In\ngeneral, compound statements span multiple lines, although in simple\nincarnations a whole compound statement may be contained in one line.\n\nThe ``if``, ``while`` and ``for`` statements implement traditional\ncontrol flow constructs.  ``try`` specifies exception handlers and/or\ncleanup code for a group of statements.  Function and class\ndefinitions are also syntactically compound statements.\n\nCompound statements consist of one or more \'clauses.\'  A clause\nconsists of a header and a \'suite.\'  The clause headers of a\nparticular compound statement are all at the same indentation level.\nEach clause header begins with a uniquely identifying keyword and ends\nwith a colon.  A suite is a group of statements controlled by a\nclause.  A suite can be one or more semicolon-separated simple\nstatements on the same line as the header, following the header\'s\ncolon, or it can be one or more indented statements on subsequent\nlines.  Only the latter form of suite can contain nested compound\nstatements; the following is illegal, mostly because it wouldn\'t be\nclear to which ``if`` clause a following ``else`` clause would belong:\n\n   if test1: if test2: print x\n\nAlso note that the semicolon binds tighter than the colon in this\ncontext, so that in the following example, either all or none of the\n``print`` statements are executed:\n\n   if x < y < z: print x; print y; print z\n\nSummarizing:\n\n   compound_stmt ::= if_stmt\n                     | while_stmt\n                     | for_stmt\n                     | try_stmt\n                     | with_stmt\n                     | funcdef\n                     | classdef\n                     | decorated\n   suite         ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | NEWLINE INDENT statement+ DEDENT\n   statement     ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | compound_stmt\n   stmt_list     ::= simple_stmt (";" simple_stmt)* [";"]\n\nNote that statements always end in a ``NEWLINE`` possibly followed by\na ``DEDENT``. Also note that optional continuation clauses always\nbegin with a keyword that cannot start a statement, thus there are no\nambiguities (the \'dangling ``else``\' problem is solved in Python by\nrequiring nested ``if`` statements to be indented).\n\nThe formatting of the grammar rules in the following sections places\neach clause on a separate line for clarity.\n\n\nThe ``if`` statement\n====================\n\nThe ``if`` statement is used for conditional execution:\n\n   if_stmt ::= "if" expression ":" suite\n               ( "elif" expression ":" suite )*\n               ["else" ":" suite]\n\nIt selects exactly one of the suites by evaluating the expressions one\nby one until one is found to be true (see section *Boolean operations*\nfor the definition of true and false); then that suite is executed\n(and no other part of the ``if`` statement is executed or evaluated).\nIf all expressions are false, the suite of the ``else`` clause, if\npresent, is executed.\n\n\nThe ``while`` statement\n=======================\n\nThe ``while`` statement is used for repeated execution as long as an\nexpression is true:\n\n   while_stmt ::= "while" expression ":" suite\n                  ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThis repeatedly tests the expression and, if it is true, executes the\nfirst suite; if the expression is false (which may be the first time\nit is tested) the suite of the ``else`` clause, if present, is\nexecuted and the loop terminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ngoes back to testing the expression.\n\n\nThe ``for`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``for`` statement is used to iterate over the elements of a\nsequence (such as a string, tuple or list) or other iterable object:\n\n   for_stmt ::= "for" target_list "in" expression_list ":" suite\n                ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThe expression list is evaluated once; it should yield an iterable\nobject.  An iterator is created for the result of the\n``expression_list``.  The suite is then executed once for each item\nprovided by the iterator, in the order of ascending indices.  Each\nitem in turn is assigned to the target list using the standard rules\nfor assignments, and then the suite is executed.  When the items are\nexhausted (which is immediately when the sequence is empty), the suite\nin the ``else`` clause, if present, is executed, and the loop\nterminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ncontinues with the next item, or with the ``else`` clause if there was\nno next item.\n\nThe suite may assign to the variable(s) in the target list; this does\nnot affect the next item assigned to it.\n\nThe target list is not deleted when the loop is finished, but if the\nsequence is empty, it will not have been assigned to at all by the\nloop.  Hint: the built-in function ``range()`` returns a sequence of\nintegers suitable to emulate the effect of Pascal\'s ``for i := a to b\ndo``; e.g., ``range(3)`` returns the list ``[0, 1, 2]``.\n\nWarning: There is a subtlety when the sequence is being modified by the loop\n  (this can only occur for mutable sequences, i.e. lists). An internal\n  counter is used to keep track of which item is used next, and this\n  is incremented on each iteration.  When this counter has reached the\n  length of the sequence the loop terminates.  This means that if the\n  suite deletes the current (or a previous) item from the sequence,\n  the next item will be skipped (since it gets the index of the\n  current item which has already been treated).  Likewise, if the\n  suite inserts an item in the sequence before the current item, the\n  current item will be treated again the next time through the loop.\n  This can lead to nasty bugs that can be avoided by making a\n  temporary copy using a slice of the whole sequence, e.g.,\n\n   for x in a[:]:\n       if x < 0: a.remove(x)\n\n\nThe ``try`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``try`` statement specifies exception handlers and/or cleanup code\nfor a group of statements:\n\n   try_stmt  ::= try1_stmt | try2_stmt\n   try1_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 ("except" [expression [("as" | ",") target]] ":" suite)+\n                 ["else" ":" suite]\n                 ["finally" ":" suite]\n   try2_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 "finally" ":" suite\n\nChanged in version 2.5: In previous versions of Python,\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` did not work. ``try``...``except``\nhad to be nested in ``try``...``finally``.\n\nThe ``except`` clause(s) specify one or more exception handlers. When\nno exception occurs in the ``try`` clause, no exception handler is\nexecuted. When an exception occurs in the ``try`` suite, a search for\nan exception handler is started.  This search inspects the except\nclauses in turn until one is found that matches the exception.  An\nexpression-less except clause, if present, must be last; it matches\nany exception.  For an except clause with an expression, that\nexpression is evaluated, and the clause matches the exception if the\nresulting object is "compatible" with the exception.  An object is\ncompatible with an exception if it is the class or a base class of the\nexception object, a tuple containing an item compatible with the\nexception, or, in the (deprecated) case of string exceptions, is the\nraised string itself (note that the object identities must match, i.e.\nit must be the same string object, not just a string with the same\nvalue).\n\nIf no except clause matches the exception, the search for an exception\nhandler continues in the surrounding code and on the invocation stack.\n[1]\n\nIf the evaluation of an expression in the header of an except clause\nraises an exception, the original search for a handler is canceled and\na search starts for the new exception in the surrounding code and on\nthe call stack (it is treated as if the entire ``try`` statement\nraised the exception).\n\nWhen a matching except clause is found, the exception is assigned to\nthe target specified in that except clause, if present, and the except\nclause\'s suite is executed.  All except clauses must have an\nexecutable block.  When the end of this block is reached, execution\ncontinues normally after the entire try statement.  (This means that\nif two nested handlers exist for the same exception, and the exception\noccurs in the try clause of the inner handler, the outer handler will\nnot handle the exception.)\n\nBefore an except clause\'s suite is executed, details about the\nexception are assigned to three variables in the ``sys`` module:\n``sys.exc_type`` receives the object identifying the exception;\n``sys.exc_value`` receives the exception\'s parameter;\n``sys.exc_traceback`` receives a traceback object (see section *The\nstandard type hierarchy*) identifying the point in the program where\nthe exception occurred. These details are also available through the\n``sys.exc_info()`` function, which returns a tuple ``(exc_type,\nexc_value, exc_traceback)``.  Use of the corresponding variables is\ndeprecated in favor of this function, since their use is unsafe in a\nthreaded program.  As of Python 1.5, the variables are restored to\ntheir previous values (before the call) when returning from a function\nthat handled an exception.\n\nThe optional ``else`` clause is executed if and when control flows off\nthe end of the ``try`` clause. [2] Exceptions in the ``else`` clause\nare not handled by the preceding ``except`` clauses.\n\nIf ``finally`` is present, it specifies a \'cleanup\' handler.  The\n``try`` clause is executed, including any ``except`` and ``else``\nclauses.  If an exception occurs in any of the clauses and is not\nhandled, the exception is temporarily saved. The ``finally`` clause is\nexecuted.  If there is a saved exception, it is re-raised at the end\nof the ``finally`` clause. If the ``finally`` clause raises another\nexception or executes a ``return`` or ``break`` statement, the saved\nexception is lost.  The exception information is not available to the\nprogram during execution of the ``finally`` clause.\n\nWhen a ``return``, ``break`` or ``continue`` statement is executed in\nthe ``try`` suite of a ``try``...``finally`` statement, the\n``finally`` clause is also executed \'on the way out.\' A ``continue``\nstatement is illegal in the ``finally`` clause. (The reason is a\nproblem with the current implementation --- this restriction may be\nlifted in the future).\n\nAdditional information on exceptions can be found in section\n*Exceptions*, and information on using the ``raise`` statement to\ngenerate exceptions may be found in section *The raise statement*.\n\n\nThe ``with`` statement\n======================\n\nNew in version 2.5.\n\nThe ``with`` statement is used to wrap the execution of a block with\nmethods defined by a context manager (see section *With Statement\nContext Managers*). This allows common\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` usage patterns to be encapsulated\nfor convenient reuse.\n\n   with_stmt ::= "with" expression ["as" target] ":" suite\n\nThe execution of the ``with`` statement proceeds as follows:\n\n1. The context expression is evaluated to obtain a context manager.\n\n2. The context manager\'s ``__enter__()`` method is invoked.\n\n3. If a target was included in the ``with`` statement, the return\n   value from ``__enter__()`` is assigned to it.\n\n   Note: The ``with`` statement guarantees that if the ``__enter__()``\n     method returns without an error, then ``__exit__()`` will always\n     be called. Thus, if an error occurs during the assignment to the\n     target list, it will be treated the same as an error occurring\n     within the suite would be. See step 5 below.\n\n4. The suite is executed.\n\n5. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` method is invoked. If an\n   exception caused the suite to be exited, its type, value, and\n   traceback are passed as arguments to ``__exit__()``. Otherwise,\n   three ``None`` arguments are supplied.\n\n   If the suite was exited due to an exception, and the return value\n   from the ``__exit__()`` method was false, the exception is\n   reraised. If the return value was true, the exception is\n   suppressed, and execution continues with the statement following\n   the ``with`` statement.\n\n   If the suite was exited for any reason other than an exception, the\n   return value from ``__exit__()`` is ignored, and execution proceeds\n   at the normal location for the kind of exit that was taken.\n\nNote: In Python 2.5, the ``with`` statement is only allowed when the\n  ``with_statement`` feature has been enabled.  It is always enabled\n  in Python 2.6.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n\n\nFunction definitions\n====================\n\nA function definition defines a user-defined function object (see\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*):\n\n   decorated      ::= decorators (classdef | funcdef)\n   decorators     ::= decorator+\n   decorator      ::= "@" dotted_name ["(" [argument_list [","]] ")"] NEWLINE\n   funcdef        ::= "def" funcname "(" [parameter_list] ")" ":" suite\n   dotted_name    ::= identifier ("." identifier)*\n   parameter_list ::= (defparameter ",")*\n                      (  "*" identifier [, "**" identifier]\n                      | "**" identifier\n                      | defparameter [","] )\n   defparameter   ::= parameter ["=" expression]\n   sublist        ::= parameter ("," parameter)* [","]\n   parameter      ::= identifier | "(" sublist ")"\n   funcname       ::= identifier\n\nA function definition is an executable statement.  Its execution binds\nthe function name in the current local namespace to a function object\n(a wrapper around the executable code for the function).  This\nfunction object contains a reference to the current global namespace\nas the global namespace to be used when the function is called.\n\nThe function definition does not execute the function body; this gets\nexecuted only when the function is called. [3]\n\nA function definition may be wrapped by one or more *decorator*\nexpressions. Decorator expressions are evaluated when the function is\ndefined, in the scope that contains the function definition.  The\nresult must be a callable, which is invoked with the function object\nas the only argument. The returned value is bound to the function name\ninstead of the function object.  Multiple decorators are applied in\nnested fashion. For example, the following code:\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   def func(): pass\n\nis equivalent to:\n\n   def func(): pass\n   func = f1(arg)(f2(func))\n\nWhen one or more top-level parameters have the form *parameter* ``=``\n*expression*, the function is said to have "default parameter values."\nFor a parameter with a default value, the corresponding argument may\nbe omitted from a call, in which case the parameter\'s default value is\nsubstituted.  If a parameter has a default value, all following\nparameters must also have a default value --- this is a syntactic\nrestriction that is not expressed by the grammar.\n\n**Default parameter values are evaluated when the function definition\nis executed.**  This means that the expression is evaluated once, when\nthe function is defined, and that that same "pre-computed" value is\nused for each call.  This is especially important to understand when a\ndefault parameter is a mutable object, such as a list or a dictionary:\nif the function modifies the object (e.g. by appending an item to a\nlist), the default value is in effect modified. This is generally not\nwhat was intended.  A way around this  is to use ``None`` as the\ndefault, and explicitly test for it in the body of the function, e.g.:\n\n   def whats_on_the_telly(penguin=None):\n       if penguin is None:\n           penguin = []\n       penguin.append("property of the zoo")\n       return penguin\n\nFunction call semantics are described in more detail in section\n*Calls*. A function call always assigns values to all parameters\nmentioned in the parameter list, either from position arguments, from\nkeyword arguments, or from default values.  If the form\n"``*identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a tuple receiving\nany excess positional parameters, defaulting to the empty tuple.  If\nthe form "``**identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a new\ndictionary receiving any excess keyword arguments, defaulting to a new\nempty dictionary.\n\nIt is also possible to create anonymous functions (functions not bound\nto a name), for immediate use in expressions.  This uses lambda forms,\ndescribed in section *Expression lists*.  Note that the lambda form is\nmerely a shorthand for a simplified function definition; a function\ndefined in a "``def``" statement can be passed around or assigned to\nanother name just like a function defined by a lambda form.  The\n"``def``" form is actually more powerful since it allows the execution\nof multiple statements.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Functions are first-class objects.  A "``def``"\nform executed inside a function definition defines a local function\nthat can be returned or passed around.  Free variables used in the\nnested function can access the local variables of the function\ncontaining the def.  See section *Naming and binding* for details.\n\n\nClass definitions\n=================\n\nA class definition defines a class object (see section *The standard\ntype hierarchy*):\n\n   classdef    ::= "class" classname [inheritance] ":" suite\n   inheritance ::= "(" [expression_list] ")"\n   classname   ::= identifier\n\nA class definition is an executable statement.  It first evaluates the\ninheritance list, if present.  Each item in the inheritance list\nshould evaluate to a class object or class type which allows\nsubclassing.  The class\'s suite is then executed in a new execution\nframe (see section *Naming and binding*), using a newly created local\nnamespace and the original global namespace. (Usually, the suite\ncontains only function definitions.)  When the class\'s suite finishes\nexecution, its execution frame is discarded but its local namespace is\nsaved. [4] A class object is then created using the inheritance list\nfor the base classes and the saved local namespace for the attribute\ndictionary.  The class name is bound to this class object in the\noriginal local namespace.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Variables defined in the class definition are\nclass variables; they are shared by all instances.  To create instance\nvariables, they can be set in a method with ``self.name = value``.\nBoth class and instance variables are accessible through the notation\n"``self.name``", and an instance variable hides a class variable with\nthe same name when accessed in this way. Class variables can be used\nas defaults for instance variables, but using mutable values there can\nlead to unexpected results.  For *new-style class*es, descriptors can\nbe used to create instance variables with different implementation\ndetails.\n\nClass definitions, like function definitions, may be wrapped by one or\nmore *decorator* expressions.  The evaluation rules for the decorator\nexpressions are the same as for functions.  The result must be a class\nobject, which is then bound to the class name.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] The exception is propagated to the invocation stack only if there\n    is no ``finally`` clause that negates the exception.\n\n[2] Currently, control "flows off the end" except in the case of an\n    exception or the execution of a ``return``, ``continue``, or\n    ``break`` statement.\n\n[3] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the function\n    body is transformed into the function\'s ``__doc__`` attribute and\n    therefore the function\'s *docstring*.\n\n[4] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the class\n    body is transformed into the namespace\'s ``__doc__`` item and\n    therefore the class\'s *docstring*.\n',
+ 'compound': u'\nCompound statements\n*******************\n\nCompound statements contain (groups of) other statements; they affect\nor control the execution of those other statements in some way.  In\ngeneral, compound statements span multiple lines, although in simple\nincarnations a whole compound statement may be contained in one line.\n\nThe ``if``, ``while`` and ``for`` statements implement traditional\ncontrol flow constructs.  ``try`` specifies exception handlers and/or\ncleanup code for a group of statements.  Function and class\ndefinitions are also syntactically compound statements.\n\nCompound statements consist of one or more \'clauses.\'  A clause\nconsists of a header and a \'suite.\'  The clause headers of a\nparticular compound statement are all at the same indentation level.\nEach clause header begins with a uniquely identifying keyword and ends\nwith a colon.  A suite is a group of statements controlled by a\nclause.  A suite can be one or more semicolon-separated simple\nstatements on the same line as the header, following the header\'s\ncolon, or it can be one or more indented statements on subsequent\nlines.  Only the latter form of suite can contain nested compound\nstatements; the following is illegal, mostly because it wouldn\'t be\nclear to which ``if`` clause a following ``else`` clause would belong:\n\n   if test1: if test2: print x\n\nAlso note that the semicolon binds tighter than the colon in this\ncontext, so that in the following example, either all or none of the\n``print`` statements are executed:\n\n   if x < y < z: print x; print y; print z\n\nSummarizing:\n\n   compound_stmt ::= if_stmt\n                     | while_stmt\n                     | for_stmt\n                     | try_stmt\n                     | with_stmt\n                     | funcdef\n                     | classdef\n                     | decorated\n   suite         ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | NEWLINE INDENT statement+ DEDENT\n   statement     ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | compound_stmt\n   stmt_list     ::= simple_stmt (";" simple_stmt)* [";"]\n\nNote that statements always end in a ``NEWLINE`` possibly followed by\na ``DEDENT``. Also note that optional continuation clauses always\nbegin with a keyword that cannot start a statement, thus there are no\nambiguities (the \'dangling ``else``\' problem is solved in Python by\nrequiring nested ``if`` statements to be indented).\n\nThe formatting of the grammar rules in the following sections places\neach clause on a separate line for clarity.\n\n\nThe ``if`` statement\n====================\n\nThe ``if`` statement is used for conditional execution:\n\n   if_stmt ::= "if" expression ":" suite\n               ( "elif" expression ":" suite )*\n               ["else" ":" suite]\n\nIt selects exactly one of the suites by evaluating the expressions one\nby one until one is found to be true (see section *Boolean operations*\nfor the definition of true and false); then that suite is executed\n(and no other part of the ``if`` statement is executed or evaluated).\nIf all expressions are false, the suite of the ``else`` clause, if\npresent, is executed.\n\n\nThe ``while`` statement\n=======================\n\nThe ``while`` statement is used for repeated execution as long as an\nexpression is true:\n\n   while_stmt ::= "while" expression ":" suite\n                  ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThis repeatedly tests the expression and, if it is true, executes the\nfirst suite; if the expression is false (which may be the first time\nit is tested) the suite of the ``else`` clause, if present, is\nexecuted and the loop terminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ngoes back to testing the expression.\n\n\nThe ``for`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``for`` statement is used to iterate over the elements of a\nsequence (such as a string, tuple or list) or other iterable object:\n\n   for_stmt ::= "for" target_list "in" expression_list ":" suite\n                ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThe expression list is evaluated once; it should yield an iterable\nobject.  An iterator is created for the result of the\n``expression_list``.  The suite is then executed once for each item\nprovided by the iterator, in the order of ascending indices.  Each\nitem in turn is assigned to the target list using the standard rules\nfor assignments, and then the suite is executed.  When the items are\nexhausted (which is immediately when the sequence is empty), the suite\nin the ``else`` clause, if present, is executed, and the loop\nterminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ncontinues with the next item, or with the ``else`` clause if there was\nno next item.\n\nThe suite may assign to the variable(s) in the target list; this does\nnot affect the next item assigned to it.\n\nThe target list is not deleted when the loop is finished, but if the\nsequence is empty, it will not have been assigned to at all by the\nloop.  Hint: the built-in function ``range()`` returns a sequence of\nintegers suitable to emulate the effect of Pascal\'s ``for i := a to b\ndo``; e.g., ``range(3)`` returns the list ``[0, 1, 2]``.\n\nNote: There is a subtlety when the sequence is being modified by the loop\n  (this can only occur for mutable sequences, i.e. lists). An internal\n  counter is used to keep track of which item is used next, and this\n  is incremented on each iteration.  When this counter has reached the\n  length of the sequence the loop terminates.  This means that if the\n  suite deletes the current (or a previous) item from the sequence,\n  the next item will be skipped (since it gets the index of the\n  current item which has already been treated).  Likewise, if the\n  suite inserts an item in the sequence before the current item, the\n  current item will be treated again the next time through the loop.\n  This can lead to nasty bugs that can be avoided by making a\n  temporary copy using a slice of the whole sequence, e.g.,\n\n     for x in a[:]:\n         if x < 0: a.remove(x)\n\n\nThe ``try`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``try`` statement specifies exception handlers and/or cleanup code\nfor a group of statements:\n\n   try_stmt  ::= try1_stmt | try2_stmt\n   try1_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 ("except" [expression [("as" | ",") target]] ":" suite)+\n                 ["else" ":" suite]\n                 ["finally" ":" suite]\n   try2_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 "finally" ":" suite\n\nChanged in version 2.5: In previous versions of Python,\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` did not work. ``try``...``except``\nhad to be nested in ``try``...``finally``.\n\nThe ``except`` clause(s) specify one or more exception handlers. When\nno exception occurs in the ``try`` clause, no exception handler is\nexecuted. When an exception occurs in the ``try`` suite, a search for\nan exception handler is started.  This search inspects the except\nclauses in turn until one is found that matches the exception.  An\nexpression-less except clause, if present, must be last; it matches\nany exception.  For an except clause with an expression, that\nexpression is evaluated, and the clause matches the exception if the\nresulting object is "compatible" with the exception.  An object is\ncompatible with an exception if it is the class or a base class of the\nexception object, a tuple containing an item compatible with the\nexception, or, in the (deprecated) case of string exceptions, is the\nraised string itself (note that the object identities must match, i.e.\nit must be the same string object, not just a string with the same\nvalue).\n\nIf no except clause matches the exception, the search for an exception\nhandler continues in the surrounding code and on the invocation stack.\n[1]\n\nIf the evaluation of an expression in the header of an except clause\nraises an exception, the original search for a handler is canceled and\na search starts for the new exception in the surrounding code and on\nthe call stack (it is treated as if the entire ``try`` statement\nraised the exception).\n\nWhen a matching except clause is found, the exception is assigned to\nthe target specified in that except clause, if present, and the except\nclause\'s suite is executed.  All except clauses must have an\nexecutable block.  When the end of this block is reached, execution\ncontinues normally after the entire try statement.  (This means that\nif two nested handlers exist for the same exception, and the exception\noccurs in the try clause of the inner handler, the outer handler will\nnot handle the exception.)\n\nBefore an except clause\'s suite is executed, details about the\nexception are assigned to three variables in the ``sys`` module:\n``sys.exc_type`` receives the object identifying the exception;\n``sys.exc_value`` receives the exception\'s parameter;\n``sys.exc_traceback`` receives a traceback object (see section *The\nstandard type hierarchy*) identifying the point in the program where\nthe exception occurred. These details are also available through the\n``sys.exc_info()`` function, which returns a tuple ``(exc_type,\nexc_value, exc_traceback)``.  Use of the corresponding variables is\ndeprecated in favor of this function, since their use is unsafe in a\nthreaded program.  As of Python 1.5, the variables are restored to\ntheir previous values (before the call) when returning from a function\nthat handled an exception.\n\nThe optional ``else`` clause is executed if and when control flows off\nthe end of the ``try`` clause. [2] Exceptions in the ``else`` clause\nare not handled by the preceding ``except`` clauses.\n\nIf ``finally`` is present, it specifies a \'cleanup\' handler.  The\n``try`` clause is executed, including any ``except`` and ``else``\nclauses.  If an exception occurs in any of the clauses and is not\nhandled, the exception is temporarily saved. The ``finally`` clause is\nexecuted.  If there is a saved exception, it is re-raised at the end\nof the ``finally`` clause. If the ``finally`` clause raises another\nexception or executes a ``return`` or ``break`` statement, the saved\nexception is lost.  The exception information is not available to the\nprogram during execution of the ``finally`` clause.\n\nWhen a ``return``, ``break`` or ``continue`` statement is executed in\nthe ``try`` suite of a ``try``...``finally`` statement, the\n``finally`` clause is also executed \'on the way out.\' A ``continue``\nstatement is illegal in the ``finally`` clause. (The reason is a\nproblem with the current implementation --- this restriction may be\nlifted in the future).\n\nAdditional information on exceptions can be found in section\n*Exceptions*, and information on using the ``raise`` statement to\ngenerate exceptions may be found in section *The raise statement*.\n\n\nThe ``with`` statement\n======================\n\nNew in version 2.5.\n\nThe ``with`` statement is used to wrap the execution of a block with\nmethods defined by a context manager (see section *With Statement\nContext Managers*). This allows common\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` usage patterns to be encapsulated\nfor convenient reuse.\n\n   with_stmt ::= "with" expression ["as" target] ":" suite\n\nThe execution of the ``with`` statement proceeds as follows:\n\n1. The context expression is evaluated to obtain a context manager.\n\n2. The context manager\'s ``__enter__()`` method is invoked.\n\n3. If a target was included in the ``with`` statement, the return\n   value from ``__enter__()`` is assigned to it.\n\n   Note: The ``with`` statement guarantees that if the ``__enter__()``\n     method returns without an error, then ``__exit__()`` will always\n     be called. Thus, if an error occurs during the assignment to the\n     target list, it will be treated the same as an error occurring\n     within the suite would be. See step 5 below.\n\n4. The suite is executed.\n\n5. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` method is invoked. If an\n   exception caused the suite to be exited, its type, value, and\n   traceback are passed as arguments to ``__exit__()``. Otherwise,\n   three ``None`` arguments are supplied.\n\n   If the suite was exited due to an exception, and the return value\n   from the ``__exit__()`` method was false, the exception is\n   reraised. If the return value was true, the exception is\n   suppressed, and execution continues with the statement following\n   the ``with`` statement.\n\n   If the suite was exited for any reason other than an exception, the\n   return value from ``__exit__()`` is ignored, and execution proceeds\n   at the normal location for the kind of exit that was taken.\n\nNote: In Python 2.5, the ``with`` statement is only allowed when the\n  ``with_statement`` feature has been enabled.  It is always enabled\n  in Python 2.6.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n\n\nFunction definitions\n====================\n\nA function definition defines a user-defined function object (see\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*):\n\n   decorated      ::= decorators (classdef | funcdef)\n   decorators     ::= decorator+\n   decorator      ::= "@" dotted_name ["(" [argument_list [","]] ")"] NEWLINE\n   funcdef        ::= "def" funcname "(" [parameter_list] ")" ":" suite\n   dotted_name    ::= identifier ("." identifier)*\n   parameter_list ::= (defparameter ",")*\n                      (  "*" identifier [, "**" identifier]\n                      | "**" identifier\n                      | defparameter [","] )\n   defparameter   ::= parameter ["=" expression]\n   sublist        ::= parameter ("," parameter)* [","]\n   parameter      ::= identifier | "(" sublist ")"\n   funcname       ::= identifier\n\nA function definition is an executable statement.  Its execution binds\nthe function name in the current local namespace to a function object\n(a wrapper around the executable code for the function).  This\nfunction object contains a reference to the current global namespace\nas the global namespace to be used when the function is called.\n\nThe function definition does not execute the function body; this gets\nexecuted only when the function is called. [3]\n\nA function definition may be wrapped by one or more *decorator*\nexpressions. Decorator expressions are evaluated when the function is\ndefined, in the scope that contains the function definition.  The\nresult must be a callable, which is invoked with the function object\nas the only argument. The returned value is bound to the function name\ninstead of the function object.  Multiple decorators are applied in\nnested fashion. For example, the following code:\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   def func(): pass\n\nis equivalent to:\n\n   def func(): pass\n   func = f1(arg)(f2(func))\n\nWhen one or more top-level parameters have the form *parameter* ``=``\n*expression*, the function is said to have "default parameter values."\nFor a parameter with a default value, the corresponding argument may\nbe omitted from a call, in which case the parameter\'s default value is\nsubstituted.  If a parameter has a default value, all following\nparameters must also have a default value --- this is a syntactic\nrestriction that is not expressed by the grammar.\n\n**Default parameter values are evaluated when the function definition\nis executed.**  This means that the expression is evaluated once, when\nthe function is defined, and that that same "pre-computed" value is\nused for each call.  This is especially important to understand when a\ndefault parameter is a mutable object, such as a list or a dictionary:\nif the function modifies the object (e.g. by appending an item to a\nlist), the default value is in effect modified. This is generally not\nwhat was intended.  A way around this  is to use ``None`` as the\ndefault, and explicitly test for it in the body of the function, e.g.:\n\n   def whats_on_the_telly(penguin=None):\n       if penguin is None:\n           penguin = []\n       penguin.append("property of the zoo")\n       return penguin\n\nFunction call semantics are described in more detail in section\n*Calls*. A function call always assigns values to all parameters\nmentioned in the parameter list, either from position arguments, from\nkeyword arguments, or from default values.  If the form\n"``*identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a tuple receiving\nany excess positional parameters, defaulting to the empty tuple.  If\nthe form "``**identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a new\ndictionary receiving any excess keyword arguments, defaulting to a new\nempty dictionary.\n\nIt is also possible to create anonymous functions (functions not bound\nto a name), for immediate use in expressions.  This uses lambda forms,\ndescribed in section *Lambdas*.  Note that the lambda form is merely a\nshorthand for a simplified function definition; a function defined in\na "``def``" statement can be passed around or assigned to another name\njust like a function defined by a lambda form.  The "``def``" form is\nactually more powerful since it allows the execution of multiple\nstatements.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Functions are first-class objects.  A "``def``"\nform executed inside a function definition defines a local function\nthat can be returned or passed around.  Free variables used in the\nnested function can access the local variables of the function\ncontaining the def.  See section *Naming and binding* for details.\n\n\nClass definitions\n=================\n\nA class definition defines a class object (see section *The standard\ntype hierarchy*):\n\n   classdef    ::= "class" classname [inheritance] ":" suite\n   inheritance ::= "(" [expression_list] ")"\n   classname   ::= identifier\n\nA class definition is an executable statement.  It first evaluates the\ninheritance list, if present.  Each item in the inheritance list\nshould evaluate to a class object or class type which allows\nsubclassing.  The class\'s suite is then executed in a new execution\nframe (see section *Naming and binding*), using a newly created local\nnamespace and the original global namespace. (Usually, the suite\ncontains only function definitions.)  When the class\'s suite finishes\nexecution, its execution frame is discarded but its local namespace is\nsaved. [4] A class object is then created using the inheritance list\nfor the base classes and the saved local namespace for the attribute\ndictionary.  The class name is bound to this class object in the\noriginal local namespace.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Variables defined in the class definition are\nclass variables; they are shared by all instances.  To create instance\nvariables, they can be set in a method with ``self.name = value``.\nBoth class and instance variables are accessible through the notation\n"``self.name``", and an instance variable hides a class variable with\nthe same name when accessed in this way. Class variables can be used\nas defaults for instance variables, but using mutable values there can\nlead to unexpected results.  For *new-style class*es, descriptors can\nbe used to create instance variables with different implementation\ndetails.\n\nClass definitions, like function definitions, may be wrapped by one or\nmore *decorator* expressions.  The evaluation rules for the decorator\nexpressions are the same as for functions.  The result must be a class\nobject, which is then bound to the class name.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] The exception is propagated to the invocation stack only if there\n    is no ``finally`` clause that negates the exception.\n\n[2] Currently, control "flows off the end" except in the case of an\n    exception or the execution of a ``return``, ``continue``, or\n    ``break`` statement.\n\n[3] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the function\n    body is transformed into the function\'s ``__doc__`` attribute and\n    therefore the function\'s *docstring*.\n\n[4] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the class\n    body is transformed into the namespace\'s ``__doc__`` item and\n    therefore the class\'s *docstring*.\n',
  'context-managers': u'\nWith Statement Context Managers\n*******************************\n\nNew in version 2.5.\n\nA *context manager* is an object that defines the runtime context to\nbe established when executing a ``with`` statement. The context\nmanager handles the entry into, and the exit from, the desired runtime\ncontext for the execution of the block of code.  Context managers are\nnormally invoked using the ``with`` statement (described in section\n*The with statement*), but can also be used by directly invoking their\nmethods.\n\nTypical uses of context managers include saving and restoring various\nkinds of global state, locking and unlocking resources, closing opened\nfiles, etc.\n\nFor more information on context managers, see *Context Manager Types*.\n\nobject.__enter__(self)\n\n   Enter the runtime context related to this object. The ``with``\n   statement will bind this method\'s return value to the target(s)\n   specified in the ``as`` clause of the statement, if any.\n\nobject.__exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback)\n\n   Exit the runtime context related to this object. The parameters\n   describe the exception that caused the context to be exited. If the\n   context was exited without an exception, all three arguments will\n   be ``None``.\n\n   If an exception is supplied, and the method wishes to suppress the\n   exception (i.e., prevent it from being propagated), it should\n   return a true value. Otherwise, the exception will be processed\n   normally upon exit from this method.\n\n   Note that ``__exit__()`` methods should not reraise the passed-in\n   exception; this is the caller\'s responsibility.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n',
  'continue': u'\nThe ``continue`` statement\n**************************\n\n   continue_stmt ::= "continue"\n\n``continue`` may only occur syntactically nested in a ``for`` or\n``while`` loop, but not nested in a function or class definition or\n``finally`` clause within that loop.  It continues with the next cycle\nof the nearest enclosing loop.\n\nWhen ``continue`` passes control out of a ``try`` statement with a\n``finally`` clause, that ``finally`` clause is executed before really\nstarting the next loop cycle.\n',
  'conversions': u'\nArithmetic conversions\n**********************\n\nWhen a description of an arithmetic operator below uses the phrase\n"the numeric arguments are converted to a common type," the arguments\nare coerced using the coercion rules listed at  *Coercion rules*.  If\nboth arguments are standard numeric types, the following coercions are\napplied:\n\n* If either argument is a complex number, the other is converted to\n  complex;\n\n* otherwise, if either argument is a floating point number, the other\n  is converted to floating point;\n\n* otherwise, if either argument is a long integer, the other is\n  converted to long integer;\n\n* otherwise, both must be plain integers and no conversion is\n  necessary.\n\nSome additional rules apply for certain operators (e.g., a string left\nargument to the \'%\' operator). Extensions can define their own\ncoercions.\n',
@@ -30,23 +30,23 @@
  'dict': u'\nDictionary displays\n*******************\n\nA dictionary display is a possibly empty series of key/datum pairs\nenclosed in curly braces:\n\n   dict_display   ::= "{" [key_datum_list] "}"\n   key_datum_list ::= key_datum ("," key_datum)* [","]\n   key_datum      ::= expression ":" expression\n\nA dictionary display yields a new dictionary object.\n\nThe key/datum pairs are evaluated from left to right to define the\nentries of the dictionary: each key object is used as a key into the\ndictionary to store the corresponding datum.\n\nRestrictions on the types of the key values are listed earlier in\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*.  (To summarize, the key type\nshould be *hashable*, which excludes all mutable objects.)  Clashes\nbetween duplicate keys are not detected; the last datum (textually\nrightmost in the display) stored for a given key value prevails.\n',
  'dynamic-features': u'\nInteraction with dynamic features\n*********************************\n\nThere are several cases where Python statements are illegal when used\nin conjunction with nested scopes that contain free variables.\n\nIf a variable is referenced in an enclosing scope, it is illegal to\ndelete the name.  An error will be reported at compile time.\n\nIf the wild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a\nfunction and the function contains or is a nested block with free\nvariables, the compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nIf ``exec`` is used in a function and the function contains or is a\nnested block with free variables, the compiler will raise a\n``SyntaxError`` unless the exec explicitly specifies the local\nnamespace for the ``exec``.  (In other words, ``exec obj`` would be\nillegal, but ``exec obj in ns`` would be legal.)\n\nThe ``eval()``, ``execfile()``, and ``input()`` functions and the\n``exec`` statement do not have access to the full environment for\nresolving names.  Names may be resolved in the local and global\nnamespaces of the caller.  Free variables are not resolved in the\nnearest enclosing namespace, but in the global namespace. [1] The\n``exec`` statement and the ``eval()`` and ``execfile()`` functions\nhave optional arguments to override the global and local namespace.\nIf only one namespace is specified, it is used for both.\n',
  'else': u'\nThe ``if`` statement\n********************\n\nThe ``if`` statement is used for conditional execution:\n\n   if_stmt ::= "if" expression ":" suite\n               ( "elif" expression ":" suite )*\n               ["else" ":" suite]\n\nIt selects exactly one of the suites by evaluating the expressions one\nby one until one is found to be true (see section *Boolean operations*\nfor the definition of true and false); then that suite is executed\n(and no other part of the ``if`` statement is executed or evaluated).\nIf all expressions are false, the suite of the ``else`` clause, if\npresent, is executed.\n',
- 'exceptions': u'\nExceptions\n**********\n\nExceptions are a means of breaking out of the normal flow of control\nof a code block in order to handle errors or other exceptional\nconditions.  An exception is *raised* at the point where the error is\ndetected; it may be *handled* by the surrounding code block or by any\ncode block that directly or indirectly invoked the code block where\nthe error occurred.\n\nThe Python interpreter raises an exception when it detects a run-time\nerror (such as division by zero).  A Python program can also\nexplicitly raise an exception with the ``raise`` statement. Exception\nhandlers are specified with the ``try`` ... ``except`` statement.  The\n``finally`` clause of such a statement can be used to specify cleanup\ncode which does not handle the exception, but is executed whether an\nexception occurred or not in the preceding code.\n\nPython uses the "termination" model of error handling: an exception\nhandler can find out what happened and continue execution at an outer\nlevel, but it cannot repair the cause of the error and retry the\nfailing operation (except by re-entering the offending piece of code\nfrom the top).\n\nWhen an exception is not handled at all, the interpreter terminates\nexecution of the program, or returns to its interactive main loop.  In\neither case, it prints a stack backtrace, except when the exception is\n``SystemExit``.\n\nExceptions are identified by class instances.  The ``except`` clause\nis selected depending on the class of the instance: it must reference\nthe class of the instance or a base class thereof.  The instance can\nbe received by the handler and can carry additional information about\nthe exceptional condition.\n\nExceptions can also be identified by strings, in which case the\n``except`` clause is selected by object identity.  An arbitrary value\ncan be raised along with the identifying string which can be passed to\nthe handler.\n\nWarning: Messages to exceptions are not part of the Python API.  Their\n  contents may change from one version of Python to the next without\n  warning and should not be relied on by code which will run under\n  multiple versions of the interpreter.\n\nSee also the description of the ``try`` statement in section *The try\nstatement* and ``raise`` statement in section *The raise statement*.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] This limitation occurs because the code that is executed by these\n    operations is not available at the time the module is compiled.\n',
+ 'exceptions': u'\nExceptions\n**********\n\nExceptions are a means of breaking out of the normal flow of control\nof a code block in order to handle errors or other exceptional\nconditions.  An exception is *raised* at the point where the error is\ndetected; it may be *handled* by the surrounding code block or by any\ncode block that directly or indirectly invoked the code block where\nthe error occurred.\n\nThe Python interpreter raises an exception when it detects a run-time\nerror (such as division by zero).  A Python program can also\nexplicitly raise an exception with the ``raise`` statement. Exception\nhandlers are specified with the ``try`` ... ``except`` statement.  The\n``finally`` clause of such a statement can be used to specify cleanup\ncode which does not handle the exception, but is executed whether an\nexception occurred or not in the preceding code.\n\nPython uses the "termination" model of error handling: an exception\nhandler can find out what happened and continue execution at an outer\nlevel, but it cannot repair the cause of the error and retry the\nfailing operation (except by re-entering the offending piece of code\nfrom the top).\n\nWhen an exception is not handled at all, the interpreter terminates\nexecution of the program, or returns to its interactive main loop.  In\neither case, it prints a stack backtrace, except when the exception is\n``SystemExit``.\n\nExceptions are identified by class instances.  The ``except`` clause\nis selected depending on the class of the instance: it must reference\nthe class of the instance or a base class thereof.  The instance can\nbe received by the handler and can carry additional information about\nthe exceptional condition.\n\nExceptions can also be identified by strings, in which case the\n``except`` clause is selected by object identity.  An arbitrary value\ncan be raised along with the identifying string which can be passed to\nthe handler.\n\nNote: Messages to exceptions are not part of the Python API.  Their\n  contents may change from one version of Python to the next without\n  warning and should not be relied on by code which will run under\n  multiple versions of the interpreter.\n\nSee also the description of the ``try`` statement in section *The try\nstatement* and ``raise`` statement in section *The raise statement*.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] This limitation occurs because the code that is executed by these\n    operations is not available at the time the module is compiled.\n',
  'exec': u'\nThe ``exec`` statement\n**********************\n\n   exec_stmt ::= "exec" or_expr ["in" expression ["," expression]]\n\nThis statement supports dynamic execution of Python code.  The first\nexpression should evaluate to either a string, an open file object, or\na code object.  If it is a string, the string is parsed as a suite of\nPython statements which is then executed (unless a syntax error\noccurs). [1]  If it is an open file, the file is parsed until EOF and\nexecuted.  If it is a code object, it is simply executed.  In all\ncases, the code that\'s executed is expected to be valid as file input\n(see section *File input*).  Be aware that the ``return`` and\n``yield`` statements may not be used outside of function definitions\neven within the context of code passed to the ``exec`` statement.\n\nIn all cases, if the optional parts are omitted, the code is executed\nin the current scope.  If only the first expression after ``in`` is\nspecified, it should be a dictionary, which will be used for both the\nglobal and the local variables.  If two expressions are given, they\nare used for the global and local variables, respectively. If\nprovided, *locals* can be any mapping object.\n\nChanged in version 2.4: Formerly, *locals* was required to be a\ndictionary.\n\nAs a side effect, an implementation may insert additional keys into\nthe dictionaries given besides those corresponding to variable names\nset by the executed code.  For example, the current implementation may\nadd a reference to the dictionary of the built-in module\n``__builtin__`` under the key ``__builtins__`` (!).\n\n**Programmer\'s hints:** dynamic evaluation of expressions is supported\nby the built-in function ``eval()``.  The built-in functions\n``globals()`` and ``locals()`` return the current global and local\ndictionary, respectively, which may be useful to pass around for use\nby ``exec``.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] Note that the parser only accepts the Unix-style end of line\n    convention. If you are reading the code from a file, make sure to\n    use universal newline mode to convert Windows or Mac-style\n    newlines.\n',
- 'execmodel': u'\nExecution model\n***************\n\n\nNaming and binding\n==================\n\n*Names* refer to objects.  Names are introduced by name binding\noperations. Each occurrence of a name in the program text refers to\nthe *binding* of that name established in the innermost function block\ncontaining the use.\n\nA *block* is a piece of Python program text that is executed as a\nunit. The following are blocks: a module, a function body, and a class\ndefinition. Each command typed interactively is a block.  A script\nfile (a file given as standard input to the interpreter or specified\non the interpreter command line the first argument) is a code block.\nA script command (a command specified on the interpreter command line\nwith the \'**-c**\' option) is a code block.  The file read by the\nbuilt-in function ``execfile()`` is a code block.  The string argument\npassed to the built-in function ``eval()`` and to the ``exec``\nstatement is a code block. The expression read and evaluated by the\nbuilt-in function ``input()`` is a code block.\n\nA code block is executed in an *execution frame*.  A frame contains\nsome administrative information (used for debugging) and determines\nwhere and how execution continues after the code block\'s execution has\ncompleted.\n\nA *scope* defines the visibility of a name within a block.  If a local\nvariable is defined in a block, its scope includes that block.  If the\ndefinition occurs in a function block, the scope extends to any blocks\ncontained within the defining one, unless a contained block introduces\na different binding for the name.  The scope of names defined in a\nclass block is limited to the class block; it does not extend to the\ncode blocks of methods -- this includes generator expressions since\nthey are implemented using a function scope.  This means that the\nfollowing will fail:\n\n   class A:\n       a = 42\n       b = list(a + i for i in range(10))\n\nWhen a name is used in a code block, it is resolved using the nearest\nenclosing scope.  The set of all such scopes visible to a code block\nis called the block\'s *environment*.\n\nIf a name is bound in a block, it is a local variable of that block.\nIf a name is bound at the module level, it is a global variable.  (The\nvariables of the module code block are local and global.)  If a\nvariable is used in a code block but not defined there, it is a *free\nvariable*.\n\nWhen a name is not found at all, a ``NameError`` exception is raised.\nIf the name refers to a local variable that has not been bound, a\n``UnboundLocalError`` exception is raised.  ``UnboundLocalError`` is a\nsubclass of ``NameError``.\n\nThe following constructs bind names: formal parameters to functions,\n``import`` statements, class and function definitions (these bind the\nclass or function name in the defining block), and targets that are\nidentifiers if occurring in an assignment, ``for`` loop header, in the\nsecond position of an ``except`` clause header or after ``as`` in a\n``with`` statement.  The ``import`` statement of the form ``from ...\nimport *`` binds all names defined in the imported module, except\nthose beginning with an underscore.  This form may only be used at the\nmodule level.\n\nA target occurring in a ``del`` statement is also considered bound for\nthis purpose (though the actual semantics are to unbind the name).  It\nis illegal to unbind a name that is referenced by an enclosing scope;\nthe compiler will report a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nEach assignment or import statement occurs within a block defined by a\nclass or function definition or at the module level (the top-level\ncode block).\n\nIf a name binding operation occurs anywhere within a code block, all\nuses of the name within the block are treated as references to the\ncurrent block.  This can lead to errors when a name is used within a\nblock before it is bound. This rule is subtle.  Python lacks\ndeclarations and allows name binding operations to occur anywhere\nwithin a code block.  The local variables of a code block can be\ndetermined by scanning the entire text of the block for name binding\noperations.\n\nIf the global statement occurs within a block, all uses of the name\nspecified in the statement refer to the binding of that name in the\ntop-level namespace. Names are resolved in the top-level namespace by\nsearching the global namespace, i.e. the namespace of the module\ncontaining the code block, and the builtin namespace, the namespace of\nthe module ``__builtin__``.  The global namespace is searched first.\nIf the name is not found there, the builtin namespace is searched.\nThe global statement must precede all uses of the name.\n\nThe built-in namespace associated with the execution of a code block\nis actually found by looking up the name ``__builtins__`` in its\nglobal namespace; this should be a dictionary or a module (in the\nlatter case the module\'s dictionary is used).  By default, when in the\n``__main__`` module, ``__builtins__`` is the built-in module\n``__builtin__`` (note: no \'s\'); when in any other module,\n``__builtins__`` is an alias for the dictionary of the ``__builtin__``\nmodule itself.  ``__builtins__`` can be set to a user-created\ndictionary to create a weak form of restricted execution.\n\nNote: Users should not touch ``__builtins__``; it is strictly an\n  implementation detail.  Users wanting to override values in the\n  built-in namespace should ``import`` the ``__builtin__`` (no \'s\')\n  module and modify its attributes appropriately.\n\nThe namespace for a module is automatically created the first time a\nmodule is imported.  The main module for a script is always called\n``__main__``.\n\nThe global statement has the same scope as a name binding operation in\nthe same block.  If the nearest enclosing scope for a free variable\ncontains a global statement, the free variable is treated as a global.\n\nA class definition is an executable statement that may use and define\nnames. These references follow the normal rules for name resolution.\nThe namespace of the class definition becomes the attribute dictionary\nof the class.  Names defined at the class scope are not visible in\nmethods.\n\n\nInteraction with dynamic features\n---------------------------------\n\nThere are several cases where Python statements are illegal when used\nin conjunction with nested scopes that contain free variables.\n\nIf a variable is referenced in an enclosing scope, it is illegal to\ndelete the name.  An error will be reported at compile time.\n\nIf the wild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a\nfunction and the function contains or is a nested block with free\nvariables, the compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nIf ``exec`` is used in a function and the function contains or is a\nnested block with free variables, the compiler will raise a\n``SyntaxError`` unless the exec explicitly specifies the local\nnamespace for the ``exec``.  (In other words, ``exec obj`` would be\nillegal, but ``exec obj in ns`` would be legal.)\n\nThe ``eval()``, ``execfile()``, and ``input()`` functions and the\n``exec`` statement do not have access to the full environment for\nresolving names.  Names may be resolved in the local and global\nnamespaces of the caller.  Free variables are not resolved in the\nnearest enclosing namespace, but in the global namespace. [1] The\n``exec`` statement and the ``eval()`` and ``execfile()`` functions\nhave optional arguments to override the global and local namespace.\nIf only one namespace is specified, it is used for both.\n\n\nExceptions\n==========\n\nExceptions are a means of breaking out of the normal flow of control\nof a code block in order to handle errors or other exceptional\nconditions.  An exception is *raised* at the point where the error is\ndetected; it may be *handled* by the surrounding code block or by any\ncode block that directly or indirectly invoked the code block where\nthe error occurred.\n\nThe Python interpreter raises an exception when it detects a run-time\nerror (such as division by zero).  A Python program can also\nexplicitly raise an exception with the ``raise`` statement. Exception\nhandlers are specified with the ``try`` ... ``except`` statement.  The\n``finally`` clause of such a statement can be used to specify cleanup\ncode which does not handle the exception, but is executed whether an\nexception occurred or not in the preceding code.\n\nPython uses the "termination" model of error handling: an exception\nhandler can find out what happened and continue execution at an outer\nlevel, but it cannot repair the cause of the error and retry the\nfailing operation (except by re-entering the offending piece of code\nfrom the top).\n\nWhen an exception is not handled at all, the interpreter terminates\nexecution of the program, or returns to its interactive main loop.  In\neither case, it prints a stack backtrace, except when the exception is\n``SystemExit``.\n\nExceptions are identified by class instances.  The ``except`` clause\nis selected depending on the class of the instance: it must reference\nthe class of the instance or a base class thereof.  The instance can\nbe received by the handler and can carry additional information about\nthe exceptional condition.\n\nExceptions can also be identified by strings, in which case the\n``except`` clause is selected by object identity.  An arbitrary value\ncan be raised along with the identifying string which can be passed to\nthe handler.\n\nWarning: Messages to exceptions are not part of the Python API.  Their\n  contents may change from one version of Python to the next without\n  warning and should not be relied on by code which will run under\n  multiple versions of the interpreter.\n\nSee also the description of the ``try`` statement in section *The try\nstatement* and ``raise`` statement in section *The raise statement*.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] This limitation occurs because the code that is executed by these\n    operations is not available at the time the module is compiled.\n',
+ 'execmodel': u'\nExecution model\n***************\n\n\nNaming and binding\n==================\n\n*Names* refer to objects.  Names are introduced by name binding\noperations. Each occurrence of a name in the program text refers to\nthe *binding* of that name established in the innermost function block\ncontaining the use.\n\nA *block* is a piece of Python program text that is executed as a\nunit. The following are blocks: a module, a function body, and a class\ndefinition. Each command typed interactively is a block.  A script\nfile (a file given as standard input to the interpreter or specified\non the interpreter command line the first argument) is a code block.\nA script command (a command specified on the interpreter command line\nwith the \'**-c**\' option) is a code block.  The file read by the\nbuilt-in function ``execfile()`` is a code block.  The string argument\npassed to the built-in function ``eval()`` and to the ``exec``\nstatement is a code block. The expression read and evaluated by the\nbuilt-in function ``input()`` is a code block.\n\nA code block is executed in an *execution frame*.  A frame contains\nsome administrative information (used for debugging) and determines\nwhere and how execution continues after the code block\'s execution has\ncompleted.\n\nA *scope* defines the visibility of a name within a block.  If a local\nvariable is defined in a block, its scope includes that block.  If the\ndefinition occurs in a function block, the scope extends to any blocks\ncontained within the defining one, unless a contained block introduces\na different binding for the name.  The scope of names defined in a\nclass block is limited to the class block; it does not extend to the\ncode blocks of methods -- this includes generator expressions since\nthey are implemented using a function scope.  This means that the\nfollowing will fail:\n\n   class A:\n       a = 42\n       b = list(a + i for i in range(10))\n\nWhen a name is used in a code block, it is resolved using the nearest\nenclosing scope.  The set of all such scopes visible to a code block\nis called the block\'s *environment*.\n\nIf a name is bound in a block, it is a local variable of that block.\nIf a name is bound at the module level, it is a global variable.  (The\nvariables of the module code block are local and global.)  If a\nvariable is used in a code block but not defined there, it is a *free\nvariable*.\n\nWhen a name is not found at all, a ``NameError`` exception is raised.\nIf the name refers to a local variable that has not been bound, a\n``UnboundLocalError`` exception is raised.  ``UnboundLocalError`` is a\nsubclass of ``NameError``.\n\nThe following constructs bind names: formal parameters to functions,\n``import`` statements, class and function definitions (these bind the\nclass or function name in the defining block), and targets that are\nidentifiers if occurring in an assignment, ``for`` loop header, in the\nsecond position of an ``except`` clause header or after ``as`` in a\n``with`` statement.  The ``import`` statement of the form ``from ...\nimport *`` binds all names defined in the imported module, except\nthose beginning with an underscore.  This form may only be used at the\nmodule level.\n\nA target occurring in a ``del`` statement is also considered bound for\nthis purpose (though the actual semantics are to unbind the name).  It\nis illegal to unbind a name that is referenced by an enclosing scope;\nthe compiler will report a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nEach assignment or import statement occurs within a block defined by a\nclass or function definition or at the module level (the top-level\ncode block).\n\nIf a name binding operation occurs anywhere within a code block, all\nuses of the name within the block are treated as references to the\ncurrent block.  This can lead to errors when a name is used within a\nblock before it is bound. This rule is subtle.  Python lacks\ndeclarations and allows name binding operations to occur anywhere\nwithin a code block.  The local variables of a code block can be\ndetermined by scanning the entire text of the block for name binding\noperations.\n\nIf the global statement occurs within a block, all uses of the name\nspecified in the statement refer to the binding of that name in the\ntop-level namespace. Names are resolved in the top-level namespace by\nsearching the global namespace, i.e. the namespace of the module\ncontaining the code block, and the builtin namespace, the namespace of\nthe module ``__builtin__``.  The global namespace is searched first.\nIf the name is not found there, the builtin namespace is searched.\nThe global statement must precede all uses of the name.\n\nThe built-in namespace associated with the execution of a code block\nis actually found by looking up the name ``__builtins__`` in its\nglobal namespace; this should be a dictionary or a module (in the\nlatter case the module\'s dictionary is used).  By default, when in the\n``__main__`` module, ``__builtins__`` is the built-in module\n``__builtin__`` (note: no \'s\'); when in any other module,\n``__builtins__`` is an alias for the dictionary of the ``__builtin__``\nmodule itself.  ``__builtins__`` can be set to a user-created\ndictionary to create a weak form of restricted execution.\n\nNote: Users should not touch ``__builtins__``; it is strictly an\n  implementation detail.  Users wanting to override values in the\n  built-in namespace should ``import`` the ``__builtin__`` (no \'s\')\n  module and modify its attributes appropriately.\n\nThe namespace for a module is automatically created the first time a\nmodule is imported.  The main module for a script is always called\n``__main__``.\n\nThe global statement has the same scope as a name binding operation in\nthe same block.  If the nearest enclosing scope for a free variable\ncontains a global statement, the free variable is treated as a global.\n\nA class definition is an executable statement that may use and define\nnames. These references follow the normal rules for name resolution.\nThe namespace of the class definition becomes the attribute dictionary\nof the class.  Names defined at the class scope are not visible in\nmethods.\n\n\nInteraction with dynamic features\n---------------------------------\n\nThere are several cases where Python statements are illegal when used\nin conjunction with nested scopes that contain free variables.\n\nIf a variable is referenced in an enclosing scope, it is illegal to\ndelete the name.  An error will be reported at compile time.\n\nIf the wild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a\nfunction and the function contains or is a nested block with free\nvariables, the compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nIf ``exec`` is used in a function and the function contains or is a\nnested block with free variables, the compiler will raise a\n``SyntaxError`` unless the exec explicitly specifies the local\nnamespace for the ``exec``.  (In other words, ``exec obj`` would be\nillegal, but ``exec obj in ns`` would be legal.)\n\nThe ``eval()``, ``execfile()``, and ``input()`` functions and the\n``exec`` statement do not have access to the full environment for\nresolving names.  Names may be resolved in the local and global\nnamespaces of the caller.  Free variables are not resolved in the\nnearest enclosing namespace, but in the global namespace. [1] The\n``exec`` statement and the ``eval()`` and ``execfile()`` functions\nhave optional arguments to override the global and local namespace.\nIf only one namespace is specified, it is used for both.\n\n\nExceptions\n==========\n\nExceptions are a means of breaking out of the normal flow of control\nof a code block in order to handle errors or other exceptional\nconditions.  An exception is *raised* at the point where the error is\ndetected; it may be *handled* by the surrounding code block or by any\ncode block that directly or indirectly invoked the code block where\nthe error occurred.\n\nThe Python interpreter raises an exception when it detects a run-time\nerror (such as division by zero).  A Python program can also\nexplicitly raise an exception with the ``raise`` statement. Exception\nhandlers are specified with the ``try`` ... ``except`` statement.  The\n``finally`` clause of such a statement can be used to specify cleanup\ncode which does not handle the exception, but is executed whether an\nexception occurred or not in the preceding code.\n\nPython uses the "termination" model of error handling: an exception\nhandler can find out what happened and continue execution at an outer\nlevel, but it cannot repair the cause of the error and retry the\nfailing operation (except by re-entering the offending piece of code\nfrom the top).\n\nWhen an exception is not handled at all, the interpreter terminates\nexecution of the program, or returns to its interactive main loop.  In\neither case, it prints a stack backtrace, except when the exception is\n``SystemExit``.\n\nExceptions are identified by class instances.  The ``except`` clause\nis selected depending on the class of the instance: it must reference\nthe class of the instance or a base class thereof.  The instance can\nbe received by the handler and can carry additional information about\nthe exceptional condition.\n\nExceptions can also be identified by strings, in which case the\n``except`` clause is selected by object identity.  An arbitrary value\ncan be raised along with the identifying string which can be passed to\nthe handler.\n\nNote: Messages to exceptions are not part of the Python API.  Their\n  contents may change from one version of Python to the next without\n  warning and should not be relied on by code which will run under\n  multiple versions of the interpreter.\n\nSee also the description of the ``try`` statement in section *The try\nstatement* and ``raise`` statement in section *The raise statement*.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] This limitation occurs because the code that is executed by these\n    operations is not available at the time the module is compiled.\n',
  'exprlists': u'\nExpression lists\n****************\n\n   expression_list ::= expression ( "," expression )* [","]\n\nAn expression list containing at least one comma yields a tuple.  The\nlength of the tuple is the number of expressions in the list.  The\nexpressions are evaluated from left to right.\n\nThe trailing comma is required only to create a single tuple (a.k.a. a\n*singleton*); it is optional in all other cases.  A single expression\nwithout a trailing comma doesn\'t create a tuple, but rather yields the\nvalue of that expression. (To create an empty tuple, use an empty pair\nof parentheses: ``()``.)\n',
  'floating': u'\nFloating point literals\n***********************\n\nFloating point literals are described by the following lexical\ndefinitions:\n\n   floatnumber   ::= pointfloat | exponentfloat\n   pointfloat    ::= [intpart] fraction | intpart "."\n   exponentfloat ::= (intpart | pointfloat) exponent\n   intpart       ::= digit+\n   fraction      ::= "." digit+\n   exponent      ::= ("e" | "E") ["+" | "-"] digit+\n\nNote that the integer and exponent parts of floating point numbers can\nlook like octal integers, but are interpreted using radix 10.  For\nexample, ``077e010`` is legal, and denotes the same number as\n``77e10``. The allowed range of floating point literals is\nimplementation-dependent. Some examples of floating point literals:\n\n   3.14    10.    .001    1e100    3.14e-10    0e0\n\nNote that numeric literals do not include a sign; a phrase like ``-1``\nis actually an expression composed of the unary operator ``-`` and the\nliteral ``1``.\n',
- 'for': u'\nThe ``for`` statement\n*********************\n\nThe ``for`` statement is used to iterate over the elements of a\nsequence (such as a string, tuple or list) or other iterable object:\n\n   for_stmt ::= "for" target_list "in" expression_list ":" suite\n                ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThe expression list is evaluated once; it should yield an iterable\nobject.  An iterator is created for the result of the\n``expression_list``.  The suite is then executed once for each item\nprovided by the iterator, in the order of ascending indices.  Each\nitem in turn is assigned to the target list using the standard rules\nfor assignments, and then the suite is executed.  When the items are\nexhausted (which is immediately when the sequence is empty), the suite\nin the ``else`` clause, if present, is executed, and the loop\nterminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ncontinues with the next item, or with the ``else`` clause if there was\nno next item.\n\nThe suite may assign to the variable(s) in the target list; this does\nnot affect the next item assigned to it.\n\nThe target list is not deleted when the loop is finished, but if the\nsequence is empty, it will not have been assigned to at all by the\nloop.  Hint: the built-in function ``range()`` returns a sequence of\nintegers suitable to emulate the effect of Pascal\'s ``for i := a to b\ndo``; e.g., ``range(3)`` returns the list ``[0, 1, 2]``.\n\nWarning: There is a subtlety when the sequence is being modified by the loop\n  (this can only occur for mutable sequences, i.e. lists). An internal\n  counter is used to keep track of which item is used next, and this\n  is incremented on each iteration.  When this counter has reached the\n  length of the sequence the loop terminates.  This means that if the\n  suite deletes the current (or a previous) item from the sequence,\n  the next item will be skipped (since it gets the index of the\n  current item which has already been treated).  Likewise, if the\n  suite inserts an item in the sequence before the current item, the\n  current item will be treated again the next time through the loop.\n  This can lead to nasty bugs that can be avoided by making a\n  temporary copy using a slice of the whole sequence, e.g.,\n\n   for x in a[:]:\n       if x < 0: a.remove(x)\n',
+ 'for': u'\nThe ``for`` statement\n*********************\n\nThe ``for`` statement is used to iterate over the elements of a\nsequence (such as a string, tuple or list) or other iterable object:\n\n   for_stmt ::= "for" target_list "in" expression_list ":" suite\n                ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThe expression list is evaluated once; it should yield an iterable\nobject.  An iterator is created for the result of the\n``expression_list``.  The suite is then executed once for each item\nprovided by the iterator, in the order of ascending indices.  Each\nitem in turn is assigned to the target list using the standard rules\nfor assignments, and then the suite is executed.  When the items are\nexhausted (which is immediately when the sequence is empty), the suite\nin the ``else`` clause, if present, is executed, and the loop\nterminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ncontinues with the next item, or with the ``else`` clause if there was\nno next item.\n\nThe suite may assign to the variable(s) in the target list; this does\nnot affect the next item assigned to it.\n\nThe target list is not deleted when the loop is finished, but if the\nsequence is empty, it will not have been assigned to at all by the\nloop.  Hint: the built-in function ``range()`` returns a sequence of\nintegers suitable to emulate the effect of Pascal\'s ``for i := a to b\ndo``; e.g., ``range(3)`` returns the list ``[0, 1, 2]``.\n\nNote: There is a subtlety when the sequence is being modified by the loop\n  (this can only occur for mutable sequences, i.e. lists). An internal\n  counter is used to keep track of which item is used next, and this\n  is incremented on each iteration.  When this counter has reached the\n  length of the sequence the loop terminates.  This means that if the\n  suite deletes the current (or a previous) item from the sequence,\n  the next item will be skipped (since it gets the index of the\n  current item which has already been treated).  Likewise, if the\n  suite inserts an item in the sequence before the current item, the\n  current item will be treated again the next time through the loop.\n  This can lead to nasty bugs that can be avoided by making a\n  temporary copy using a slice of the whole sequence, e.g.,\n\n     for x in a[:]:\n         if x < 0: a.remove(x)\n',
  'formatstrings': u'\nFormat String Syntax\n********************\n\nThe ``str.format()`` method and the ``Formatter`` class share the same\nsyntax for format strings (although in the case of ``Formatter``,\nsubclasses can define their own format string syntax.)\n\nFormat strings contain "replacement fields" surrounded by curly braces\n``{}``. Anything that is not contained in braces is considered literal\ntext, which is copied unchanged to the output.  If you need to include\na brace character in the literal text, it can be escaped by doubling:\n``{{`` and ``}}``.\n\nThe grammar for a replacement field is as follows:\n\n      replacement_field ::= "{" field_name ["!" conversion] [":" format_spec] "}"\n      field_name        ::= (identifier | integer) ("." attribute_name | "[" element_index "]")*\n      attribute_name    ::= identifier\n      element_index     ::= integer\n      conversion        ::= "r" | "s"\n      format_spec       ::= <described in the next section>\n\nIn less formal terms, the replacement field starts with a\n*field_name*, which can either be a number (for a positional\nargument), or an identifier (for keyword arguments).  Following this\nis an optional *conversion* field, which is preceded by an exclamation\npoint ``\'!\'``, and a *format_spec*, which is preceded by a colon\n``\':\'``.\n\nThe *field_name* itself begins with either a number or a keyword.  If\nit\'s a number, it refers to a positional argument, and if it\'s a\nkeyword it refers to a named keyword argument.  This can be followed\nby any number of index or attribute expressions. An expression of the\nform ``\'.name\'`` selects the named attribute using ``getattr()``,\nwhile an expression of the form ``\'[index]\'`` does an index lookup\nusing ``__getitem__()``.\n\nSome simple format string examples:\n\n   "First, thou shalt count to {0}" # References first positional argument\n   "My quest is {name}"             # References keyword argument \'name\'\n   "Weight in tons {0.weight}"      # \'weight\' attribute of first positional arg\n   "Units destroyed: {players[0]}"  # First element of keyword argument \'players\'.\n\nThe *conversion* field causes a type coercion before formatting.\nNormally, the job of formatting a value is done by the\n``__format__()`` method of the value itself.  However, in some cases\nit is desirable to force a type to be formatted as a string,\noverriding its own definition of formatting.  By converting the value\nto a string before calling ``__format__()``, the normal formatting\nlogic is bypassed.\n\nTwo conversion flags are currently supported: ``\'!s\'`` which calls\n``str()`` on the value, and ``\'!r\'`` which calls ``repr()``.\n\nSome examples:\n\n   "Harold\'s a clever {0!s}"        # Calls str() on the argument first\n   "Bring out the holy {name!r}"    # Calls repr() on the argument first\n\nThe *format_spec* field contains a specification of how the value\nshould be presented, including such details as field width, alignment,\npadding, decimal precision and so on.  Each value type can define it\'s\nown "formatting mini-language" or interpretation of the *format_spec*.\n\nMost built-in types support a common formatting mini-language, which\nis described in the next section.\n\nA *format_spec* field can also include nested replacement fields\nwithin it. These nested replacement fields can contain only a field\nname; conversion flags and format specifications are not allowed.  The\nreplacement fields within the format_spec are substituted before the\n*format_spec* string is interpreted. This allows the formatting of a\nvalue to be dynamically specified.\n\nFor example, suppose you wanted to have a replacement field whose\nfield width is determined by another variable:\n\n   "A man with two {0:{1}}".format("noses", 10)\n\nThis would first evaluate the inner replacement field, making the\nformat string effectively:\n\n   "A man with two {0:10}"\n\nThen the outer replacement field would be evaluated, producing:\n\n   "noses     "\n\nWhich is substituted into the string, yielding:\n\n   "A man with two noses     "\n\n(The extra space is because we specified a field width of 10, and\nbecause left alignment is the default for strings.)\n\n\nFormat Specification Mini-Language\n==================================\n\n"Format specifications" are used within replacement fields contained\nwithin a format string to define how individual values are presented\n(see *Format String Syntax*.)  They can also be passed directly to the\nbuiltin ``format()`` function.  Each formattable type may define how\nthe format specification is to be interpreted.\n\nMost built-in types implement the following options for format\nspecifications, although some of the formatting options are only\nsupported by the numeric types.\n\nA general convention is that an empty format string (``""``) produces\nthe same result as if you had called ``str()`` on the value.\n\nThe general form of a *standard format specifier* is:\n\n   format_spec ::= [[fill]align][sign][#][0][width][.precision][type]\n   fill        ::= <a character other than \'}\'>\n   align       ::= "<" | ">" | "=" | "^"\n   sign        ::= "+" | "-" | " "\n   width       ::= integer\n   precision   ::= integer\n   type        ::= "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "E" | "f" | "F" | "g" | "G" | "n" | "o" | "x" | "X" | "%"\n\nThe *fill* character can be any character other than \'}\' (which\nsignifies the end of the field).  The presence of a fill character is\nsignaled by the *next* character, which must be one of the alignment\noptions. If the second character of *format_spec* is not a valid\nalignment option, then it is assumed that both the fill character and\nthe alignment option are absent.\n\nThe meaning of the various alignment options is as follows:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Option    | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'<\'``   | Forces the field to be left-aligned within the available   |\n   |           | space (This is the default.)                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'>\'``   | Forces the field to be right-aligned within the available  |\n   |           | space.                                                     |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'=\'``   | Forces the padding to be placed after the sign (if any)    |\n   |           | but before the digits.  This is used for printing fields   |\n   |           | in the form \'+000000120\'. This alignment option is only    |\n   |           | valid for numeric types.                                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'^\'``   | Forces the field to be centered within the available       |\n   |           | space.                                                     |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nNote that unless a minimum field width is defined, the field width\nwill always be the same size as the data to fill it, so that the\nalignment option has no meaning in this case.\n\nThe *sign* option is only valid for number types, and can be one of\nthe following:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Option    | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'+\'``   | indicates that a sign should be used for both positive as  |\n   |           | well as negative numbers.                                  |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'-\'``   | indicates that a sign should be used only for negative     |\n   |           | numbers (this is the default behavior).                    |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | space     | indicates that a leading space should be used on positive  |\n   |           | numbers, and a minus sign on negative numbers.             |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nThe ``\'#\'`` option is only valid for integers, and only for binary,\noctal, or hexadecimal output.  If present, it specifies that the\noutput will be prefixed by ``\'0b\'``, ``\'0o\'``, or ``\'0x\'``,\nrespectively.\n\n*width* is a decimal integer defining the minimum field width.  If not\nspecified, then the field width will be determined by the content.\n\nIf the *width* field is preceded by a zero (``\'0\'``) character, this\nenables zero-padding.  This is equivalent to an *alignment* type of\n``\'=\'`` and a *fill* character of ``\'0\'``.\n\nThe *precision* is a decimal number indicating how many digits should\nbe displayed after the decimal point for a floating point value\nformatted with ``\'f\'`` and ``\'F\'``, or before and after the decimal\npoint for a floating point value formatted with ``\'g\'`` or ``\'G\'``.\nFor non-number types the field indicates the maximum field size - in\nother words, how many characters will be used from the field content.\nThe *precision* is ignored for integer values.\n\nFinally, the *type* determines how the data should be presented.\n\nThe available integer presentation types are:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'b\'``   | Binary format. Outputs the number in base 2.               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'c\'``   | Character. Converts the integer to the corresponding       |\n   |           | unicode character before printing.                         |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'d\'``   | Decimal Integer. Outputs the number in base 10.            |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'o\'``   | Octal format. Outputs the number in base 8.                |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'x\'``   | Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using lower-    |\n   |           | case letters for the digits above 9.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'X\'``   | Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using upper-    |\n   |           | case letters for the digits above 9.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'n\'``   | Number. This is the same as ``\'d\'``, except that it uses   |\n   |           | the current locale setting to insert the appropriate       |\n   |           | number separator characters.                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'d\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nThe available presentation types for floating point and decimal values\nare:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'e\'``   | Exponent notation. Prints the number in scientific         |\n   |           | notation using the letter \'e\' to indicate the exponent.    |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'E\'``   | Exponent notation. Same as ``\'e\'`` except it uses an upper |\n   |           | case \'E\' as the separator character.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'f\'``   | Fixed point. Displays the number as a fixed-point number.  |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'F\'``   | Fixed point. Same as ``\'f\'``.                              |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'g\'``   | General format. This prints the number as a fixed-point    |\n   |           | number, unless the number is too large, in which case it   |\n   |           | switches to ``\'e\'`` exponent notation. Infinity and NaN    |\n   |           | values are formatted as ``inf``, ``-inf`` and ``nan``,     |\n   |           | respectively.                                              |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'G\'``   | General format. Same as ``\'g\'`` except switches to ``\'E\'`` |\n   |           | if the number gets to large. The representations of        |\n   |           | infinity and NaN are uppercased, too.                      |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'n\'``   | Number. This is the same as ``\'g\'``, except that it uses   |\n   |           | the current locale setting to insert the appropriate       |\n   |           | number separator characters.                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'%\'``   | Percentage. Multiplies the number by 100 and displays in   |\n   |           | fixed (``\'f\'``) format, followed by a percent sign.        |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'g\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n',
- 'function': u'\nFunction definitions\n********************\n\nA function definition defines a user-defined function object (see\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*):\n\n   decorated      ::= decorators (classdef | funcdef)\n   decorators     ::= decorator+\n   decorator      ::= "@" dotted_name ["(" [argument_list [","]] ")"] NEWLINE\n   funcdef        ::= "def" funcname "(" [parameter_list] ")" ":" suite\n   dotted_name    ::= identifier ("." identifier)*\n   parameter_list ::= (defparameter ",")*\n                      (  "*" identifier [, "**" identifier]\n                      | "**" identifier\n                      | defparameter [","] )\n   defparameter   ::= parameter ["=" expression]\n   sublist        ::= parameter ("," parameter)* [","]\n   parameter      ::= identifier | "(" sublist ")"\n   funcname       ::= identifier\n\nA function definition is an executable statement.  Its execution binds\nthe function name in the current local namespace to a function object\n(a wrapper around the executable code for the function).  This\nfunction object contains a reference to the current global namespace\nas the global namespace to be used when the function is called.\n\nThe function definition does not execute the function body; this gets\nexecuted only when the function is called. [3]\n\nA function definition may be wrapped by one or more *decorator*\nexpressions. Decorator expressions are evaluated when the function is\ndefined, in the scope that contains the function definition.  The\nresult must be a callable, which is invoked with the function object\nas the only argument. The returned value is bound to the function name\ninstead of the function object.  Multiple decorators are applied in\nnested fashion. For example, the following code:\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   def func(): pass\n\nis equivalent to:\n\n   def func(): pass\n   func = f1(arg)(f2(func))\n\nWhen one or more top-level parameters have the form *parameter* ``=``\n*expression*, the function is said to have "default parameter values."\nFor a parameter with a default value, the corresponding argument may\nbe omitted from a call, in which case the parameter\'s default value is\nsubstituted.  If a parameter has a default value, all following\nparameters must also have a default value --- this is a syntactic\nrestriction that is not expressed by the grammar.\n\n**Default parameter values are evaluated when the function definition\nis executed.**  This means that the expression is evaluated once, when\nthe function is defined, and that that same "pre-computed" value is\nused for each call.  This is especially important to understand when a\ndefault parameter is a mutable object, such as a list or a dictionary:\nif the function modifies the object (e.g. by appending an item to a\nlist), the default value is in effect modified. This is generally not\nwhat was intended.  A way around this  is to use ``None`` as the\ndefault, and explicitly test for it in the body of the function, e.g.:\n\n   def whats_on_the_telly(penguin=None):\n       if penguin is None:\n           penguin = []\n       penguin.append("property of the zoo")\n       return penguin\n\nFunction call semantics are described in more detail in section\n*Calls*. A function call always assigns values to all parameters\nmentioned in the parameter list, either from position arguments, from\nkeyword arguments, or from default values.  If the form\n"``*identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a tuple receiving\nany excess positional parameters, defaulting to the empty tuple.  If\nthe form "``**identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a new\ndictionary receiving any excess keyword arguments, defaulting to a new\nempty dictionary.\n\nIt is also possible to create anonymous functions (functions not bound\nto a name), for immediate use in expressions.  This uses lambda forms,\ndescribed in section *Expression lists*.  Note that the lambda form is\nmerely a shorthand for a simplified function definition; a function\ndefined in a "``def``" statement can be passed around or assigned to\nanother name just like a function defined by a lambda form.  The\n"``def``" form is actually more powerful since it allows the execution\nof multiple statements.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Functions are first-class objects.  A "``def``"\nform executed inside a function definition defines a local function\nthat can be returned or passed around.  Free variables used in the\nnested function can access the local variables of the function\ncontaining the def.  See section *Naming and binding* for details.\n',
+ 'function': u'\nFunction definitions\n********************\n\nA function definition defines a user-defined function object (see\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*):\n\n   decorated      ::= decorators (classdef | funcdef)\n   decorators     ::= decorator+\n   decorator      ::= "@" dotted_name ["(" [argument_list [","]] ")"] NEWLINE\n   funcdef        ::= "def" funcname "(" [parameter_list] ")" ":" suite\n   dotted_name    ::= identifier ("." identifier)*\n   parameter_list ::= (defparameter ",")*\n                      (  "*" identifier [, "**" identifier]\n                      | "**" identifier\n                      | defparameter [","] )\n   defparameter   ::= parameter ["=" expression]\n   sublist        ::= parameter ("," parameter)* [","]\n   parameter      ::= identifier | "(" sublist ")"\n   funcname       ::= identifier\n\nA function definition is an executable statement.  Its execution binds\nthe function name in the current local namespace to a function object\n(a wrapper around the executable code for the function).  This\nfunction object contains a reference to the current global namespace\nas the global namespace to be used when the function is called.\n\nThe function definition does not execute the function body; this gets\nexecuted only when the function is called. [3]\n\nA function definition may be wrapped by one or more *decorator*\nexpressions. Decorator expressions are evaluated when the function is\ndefined, in the scope that contains the function definition.  The\nresult must be a callable, which is invoked with the function object\nas the only argument. The returned value is bound to the function name\ninstead of the function object.  Multiple decorators are applied in\nnested fashion. For example, the following code:\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   def func(): pass\n\nis equivalent to:\n\n   def func(): pass\n   func = f1(arg)(f2(func))\n\nWhen one or more top-level parameters have the form *parameter* ``=``\n*expression*, the function is said to have "default parameter values."\nFor a parameter with a default value, the corresponding argument may\nbe omitted from a call, in which case the parameter\'s default value is\nsubstituted.  If a parameter has a default value, all following\nparameters must also have a default value --- this is a syntactic\nrestriction that is not expressed by the grammar.\n\n**Default parameter values are evaluated when the function definition\nis executed.**  This means that the expression is evaluated once, when\nthe function is defined, and that that same "pre-computed" value is\nused for each call.  This is especially important to understand when a\ndefault parameter is a mutable object, such as a list or a dictionary:\nif the function modifies the object (e.g. by appending an item to a\nlist), the default value is in effect modified. This is generally not\nwhat was intended.  A way around this  is to use ``None`` as the\ndefault, and explicitly test for it in the body of the function, e.g.:\n\n   def whats_on_the_telly(penguin=None):\n       if penguin is None:\n           penguin = []\n       penguin.append("property of the zoo")\n       return penguin\n\nFunction call semantics are described in more detail in section\n*Calls*. A function call always assigns values to all parameters\nmentioned in the parameter list, either from position arguments, from\nkeyword arguments, or from default values.  If the form\n"``*identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a tuple receiving\nany excess positional parameters, defaulting to the empty tuple.  If\nthe form "``**identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a new\ndictionary receiving any excess keyword arguments, defaulting to a new\nempty dictionary.\n\nIt is also possible to create anonymous functions (functions not bound\nto a name), for immediate use in expressions.  This uses lambda forms,\ndescribed in section *Lambdas*.  Note that the lambda form is merely a\nshorthand for a simplified function definition; a function defined in\na "``def``" statement can be passed around or assigned to another name\njust like a function defined by a lambda form.  The "``def``" form is\nactually more powerful since it allows the execution of multiple\nstatements.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Functions are first-class objects.  A "``def``"\nform executed inside a function definition defines a local function\nthat can be returned or passed around.  Free variables used in the\nnested function can access the local variables of the function\ncontaining the def.  See section *Naming and binding* for details.\n',
  'global': u'\nThe ``global`` statement\n************************\n\n   global_stmt ::= "global" identifier ("," identifier)*\n\nThe ``global`` statement is a declaration which holds for the entire\ncurrent code block.  It means that the listed identifiers are to be\ninterpreted as globals.  It would be impossible to assign to a global\nvariable without ``global``, although free variables may refer to\nglobals without being declared global.\n\nNames listed in a ``global`` statement must not be used in the same\ncode block textually preceding that ``global`` statement.\n\nNames listed in a ``global`` statement must not be defined as formal\nparameters or in a ``for`` loop control target, ``class`` definition,\nfunction definition, or ``import`` statement.\n\n(The current implementation does not enforce the latter two\nrestrictions, but programs should not abuse this freedom, as future\nimplementations may enforce them or silently change the meaning of the\nprogram.)\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** the ``global`` is a directive to the parser.\nIt applies only to code parsed at the same time as the ``global``\nstatement. In particular, a ``global`` statement contained in an\n``exec`` statement does not affect the code block *containing* the\n``exec`` statement, and code contained in an ``exec`` statement is\nunaffected by ``global`` statements in the code containing the\n``exec`` statement.  The same applies to the ``eval()``,\n``execfile()`` and ``compile()`` functions.\n',
  'id-classes': u'\nReserved classes of identifiers\n*******************************\n\nCertain classes of identifiers (besides keywords) have special\nmeanings.  These classes are identified by the patterns of leading and\ntrailing underscore characters:\n\n``_*``\n   Not imported by ``from module import *``.  The special identifier\n   ``_`` is used in the interactive interpreter to store the result of\n   the last evaluation; it is stored in the ``__builtin__`` module.\n   When not in interactive mode, ``_`` has no special meaning and is\n   not defined. See section *The import statement*.\n\n   Note: The name ``_`` is often used in conjunction with\n     internationalization; refer to the documentation for the\n     ``gettext`` module for more information on this convention.\n\n``__*__``\n   System-defined names.  These names are defined by the interpreter\n   and its implementation (including the standard library);\n   applications should not expect to define additional names using\n   this convention.  The set of names of this class defined by Python\n   may be extended in future versions. See section *Special method\n   names*.\n\n``__*``\n   Class-private names.  Names in this category, when used within the\n   context of a class definition, are re-written to use a mangled form\n   to help avoid name clashes between "private" attributes of base and\n   derived classes. See section *Identifiers (Names)*.\n',
  'identifiers': u'\nIdentifiers and keywords\n************************\n\nIdentifiers (also referred to as *names*) are described by the\nfollowing lexical definitions:\n\n   identifier ::= (letter|"_") (letter | digit | "_")*\n   letter     ::= lowercase | uppercase\n   lowercase  ::= "a"..."z"\n   uppercase  ::= "A"..."Z"\n   digit      ::= "0"..."9"\n\nIdentifiers are unlimited in length.  Case is significant.\n\n\nKeywords\n========\n\nThe following identifiers are used as reserved words, or *keywords* of\nthe language, and cannot be used as ordinary identifiers.  They must\nbe spelled exactly as written here:\n\n   and       del       from      not       while\n   as        elif      global    or        with\n   assert    else      if        pass      yield\n   break     except    import    print\n   class     exec      in        raise\n   continue  finally   is        return\n   def       for       lambda    try\n\nChanged in version 2.4: ``None`` became a constant and is now\nrecognized by the compiler as a name for the built-in object ``None``.\nAlthough it is not a keyword, you cannot assign a different object to\nit.\n\nChanged in version 2.5: Both ``as`` and ``with`` are only recognized\nwhen the ``with_statement`` future feature has been enabled. It will\nalways be enabled in Python 2.6.  See section *The with statement* for\ndetails.  Note that using ``as`` and ``with`` as identifiers will\nalways issue a warning, even when the ``with_statement`` future\ndirective is not in effect.\n\n\nReserved classes of identifiers\n===============================\n\nCertain classes of identifiers (besides keywords) have special\nmeanings.  These classes are identified by the patterns of leading and\ntrailing underscore characters:\n\n``_*``\n   Not imported by ``from module import *``.  The special identifier\n   ``_`` is used in the interactive interpreter to store the result of\n   the last evaluation; it is stored in the ``__builtin__`` module.\n   When not in interactive mode, ``_`` has no special meaning and is\n   not defined. See section *The import statement*.\n\n   Note: The name ``_`` is often used in conjunction with\n     internationalization; refer to the documentation for the\n     ``gettext`` module for more information on this convention.\n\n``__*__``\n   System-defined names.  These names are defined by the interpreter\n   and its implementation (including the standard library);\n   applications should not expect to define additional names using\n   this convention.  The set of names of this class defined by Python\n   may be extended in future versions. See section *Special method\n   names*.\n\n``__*``\n   Class-private names.  Names in this category, when used within the\n   context of a class definition, are re-written to use a mangled form\n   to help avoid name clashes between "private" attributes of base and\n   derived classes. See section *Identifiers (Names)*.\n',
  'if': u'\nThe ``if`` statement\n********************\n\nThe ``if`` statement is used for conditional execution:\n\n   if_stmt ::= "if" expression ":" suite\n               ( "elif" expression ":" suite )*\n               ["else" ":" suite]\n\nIt selects exactly one of the suites by evaluating the expressions one\nby one until one is found to be true (see section *Boolean operations*\nfor the definition of true and false); then that suite is executed\n(and no other part of the ``if`` statement is executed or evaluated).\nIf all expressions are false, the suite of the ``else`` clause, if\npresent, is executed.\n',
  'imaginary': u'\nImaginary literals\n******************\n\nImaginary literals are described by the following lexical definitions:\n\n   imagnumber ::= (floatnumber | intpart) ("j" | "J")\n\nAn imaginary literal yields a complex number with a real part of 0.0.\nComplex numbers are represented as a pair of floating point numbers\nand have the same restrictions on their range.  To create a complex\nnumber with a nonzero real part, add a floating point number to it,\ne.g., ``(3+4j)``.  Some examples of imaginary literals:\n\n   3.14j   10.j    10j     .001j   1e100j  3.14e-10j\n',
- 'import': u'\nThe ``import`` statement\n************************\n\n   import_stmt     ::= "import" module ["as" name] ( "," module ["as" name] )*\n                   | "from" relative_module "import" identifier ["as" name]\n                   ( "," identifier ["as" name] )*\n                   | "from" relative_module "import" "(" identifier ["as" name]\n                   ( "," identifier ["as" name] )* [","] ")"\n                   | "from" module "import" "*"\n   module          ::= (identifier ".")* identifier\n   relative_module ::= "."* module | "."+\n   name            ::= identifier\n\nImport statements are executed in two steps: (1) find a module, and\ninitialize it if necessary; (2) define a name or names in the local\nnamespace (of the scope where the ``import`` statement occurs). The\nstatement comes in two forms differing on whether it uses the ``from``\nkeyword. The first form (without ``from``) repeats these steps for\neach identifier in the list. The form with ``from`` performs step (1)\nonce, and then performs step (2) repeatedly.\n\nTo understand how step (1) occurs, one must first understand how\nPython handles hierarchical naming of modules. To help organize\nmodules and provide a hierarchy in naming, Python has a concept of\npackages. A package can contain other packages and modules while\nmodules cannot contain other modules or packages. From a file system\nperspective, packages are directories and modules are files. The\noriginal specification for packages is still available to read,\nalthough minor details have changed since the writing of that\ndocument.\n\nOnce the name of the module is known (unless otherwise specified, the\nterm "module" will refer to both packages and modules), searching for\nthe module or package can begin. The first place checked is\n``sys.modules``, the cache of all modules that have been imported\npreviously. If the module is found there then it is used in step (2)\nof import.\n\nIf the module is not found in the cache, then ``sys.meta_path`` is\nsearched (the specification for ``sys.meta_path`` can be found in\n**PEP 302**). The object is a list of *finder* objects which are\nqueried in order as to whether they know how to load the module by\ncalling their ``find_module()`` method with the name of the module. If\nthe module happens to be contained within a package (as denoted by the\nexistence of a dot in the name), then a second argument to\n``find_module()`` is given as the value of the ``__path__`` attribute\nfrom the parent package (everything up to the last dot in the name of\nthe module being imported). If a finder can find the module it returns\na *loader* (discussed later) or returns ``None``.\n\nIf none of the finders on ``sys.meta_path`` are able to find the\nmodule then some implicitly defined finders are queried.\nImplementations of Python vary in what implicit meta path finders are\ndefined. The one they all do define, though, is one that handles\n``sys.path_hooks``, ``sys.path_importer_cache``, and ``sys.path``.\n\nThe implicit finder searches for the requested module in the "paths"\nspecified in one of two places ("paths" do not have to be file system\npaths). If the module being imported is supposed to be contained\nwithin a package then the second argument passed to ``find_module()``,\n``__path__`` on the parent package, is used as the source of paths. If\nthe module is not contained in a package then ``sys.path`` is used as\nthe source of paths.\n\nOnce the source of paths is chosen it is iterated over to find a\nfinder that can handle that path. The dict at\n``sys.path_importer_cache`` caches finders for paths and is checked\nfor a finder. If the path does not have a finder cached then\n``sys.path_hooks`` is searched by calling each object in the list with\na single argument of the path, returning a finder or raises\n``ImportError``. If a finder is returned then it is cached in\n``sys.path_importer_cache`` and then used for that path entry. If no\nfinder can be found but the path exists then a value of ``None`` is\nstored in ``sys.path_importer_cache`` to signify that an implicit,\nfile-based finder that handles modules stored as individual files\nshould be used for that path. If the path does not exist then a finder\nwhich always returns ``None`` is placed in the cache for the path.\n\nIf no finder can find the module then ``ImportError`` is raised.\nOtherwise some finder returned a loader whose ``load_module()`` method\nis called with the name of the module to load (see **PEP 302** for the\noriginal definition of loaders). A loader has several responsibilities\nto perform on a module it loads. First, if the module already exists\nin ``sys.modules`` (a possibility if the loader is called outside of\nthe import machinery) then it is to use that module for initialization\nand not a new module. But if the module does not exist in\n``sys.modules`` then it is to be added to that dict before\ninitialization begins. If an error occurs during loading of the module\nand it was added to ``sys.modules`` it is to be removed from the dict.\nIf an error occurs but the module was already in ``sys.modules`` it is\nleft in the dict.\n\nThe loader must set several attributes on the module. ``__name__`` is\nto be set to the name of the module. ``__file__`` is to be the "path"\nto the file unless the module is built-in (and thus listed in\n``sys.builtin_module_names``) in which case the attribute is not set.\nIf what is being imported is a package then ``__path__`` is to be set\nto a list of paths to be searched when looking for modules and\npackages contained within the package being imported. ``__package__``\nis optional but should be set to the name of package that contains the\nmodule or package (the empty string is used for module not contained\nin a package). ``__loader__`` is also optional but should be set to\nthe loader object that is loading the module.\n\nIf an error occurs during loading then the loader raises\n``ImportError`` if some other exception is not already being\npropagated. Otherwise the loader returns the module that was loaded\nand initialized.\n\nWhen step (1) finishes without raising an exception, step (2) can\nbegin.\n\nThe first form of ``import`` statement binds the module name in the\nlocal namespace to the module object, and then goes on to import the\nnext identifier, if any.  If the module name is followed by ``as``,\nthe name following ``as`` is used as the local name for the module.\n\nThe ``from`` form does not bind the module name: it goes through the\nlist of identifiers, looks each one of them up in the module found in\nstep (1), and binds the name in the local namespace to the object thus\nfound.  As with the first form of ``import``, an alternate local name\ncan be supplied by specifying "``as`` localname".  If a name is not\nfound, ``ImportError`` is raised.  If the list of identifiers is\nreplaced by a star (``\'*\'``), all public names defined in the module\nare bound in the local namespace of the ``import`` statement..\n\nThe *public names* defined by a module are determined by checking the\nmodule\'s namespace for a variable named ``__all__``; if defined, it\nmust be a sequence of strings which are names defined or imported by\nthat module.  The names given in ``__all__`` are all considered public\nand are required to exist.  If ``__all__`` is not defined, the set of\npublic names includes all names found in the module\'s namespace which\ndo not begin with an underscore character (``\'_\'``). ``__all__``\nshould contain the entire public API. It is intended to avoid\naccidentally exporting items that are not part of the API (such as\nlibrary modules which were imported and used within the module).\n\nThe ``from`` form with ``*`` may only occur in a module scope.  If the\nwild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a function\nand the function contains or is a nested block with free variables,\nthe compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nWhen specifying what module to import you do not have to specify the\nabsolute name of the module. When a module or package is contained\nwithin another package it is possible to make a relative import within\nthe same top package without having to mention the package name. By\nusing leading dots in the specified module or package after ``from``\nyou can specify how high to traverse up the current package hierarchy\nwithout specifying exact names. One leading dot means the current\npackage where the module making the import exists. Two dots means up\none package level. Three dots is up two levels, etc. So if you execute\n``from . import mod`` from a module in the ``pkg`` package then you\nwill end up importing ``pkg.mod``. If you execute ``from ..subpkg2\nimprt mod`` from within ``pkg.subpkg1`` you will import\n``pkg.subpkg2.mod``. The specification for relative imports is\ncontained within **PEP 328**.\n\nThe built-in function ``__import__()`` is provided to support\napplications that determine which modules need to be loaded\ndynamically; refer to *Built-in Functions* for additional information.\n\n\nFuture statements\n=================\n\nA *future statement* is a directive to the compiler that a particular\nmodule should be compiled using syntax or semantics that will be\navailable in a specified future release of Python.  The future\nstatement is intended to ease migration to future versions of Python\nthat introduce incompatible changes to the language.  It allows use of\nthe new features on a per-module basis before the release in which the\nfeature becomes standard.\n\n   future_statement ::= "from" "__future__" "import" feature ["as" name]\n                        ("," feature ["as" name])*\n                        | "from" "__future__" "import" "(" feature ["as" name]\n                        ("," feature ["as" name])* [","] ")"\n   feature          ::= identifier\n   name             ::= identifier\n\nA future statement must appear near the top of the module.  The only\nlines that can appear before a future statement are:\n\n* the module docstring (if any),\n\n* comments,\n\n* blank lines, and\n\n* other future statements.\n\nThe features recognized by Python 2.6 are ``unicode_literals``,\n``print_function``, ``absolute_import``, ``division``, ``generators``,\n``nested_scopes`` and ``with_statement``.  ``generators``,\n``with_statement``, ``nested_scopes`` are redundant in Python version\n2.6 and above because they are always enabled.\n\nA future statement is recognized and treated specially at compile\ntime: Changes to the semantics of core constructs are often\nimplemented by generating different code.  It may even be the case\nthat a new feature introduces new incompatible syntax (such as a new\nreserved word), in which case the compiler may need to parse the\nmodule differently.  Such decisions cannot be pushed off until\nruntime.\n\nFor any given release, the compiler knows which feature names have\nbeen defined, and raises a compile-time error if a future statement\ncontains a feature not known to it.\n\nThe direct runtime semantics are the same as for any import statement:\nthere is a standard module ``__future__``, described later, and it\nwill be imported in the usual way at the time the future statement is\nexecuted.\n\nThe interesting runtime semantics depend on the specific feature\nenabled by the future statement.\n\nNote that there is nothing special about the statement:\n\n   import __future__ [as name]\n\nThat is not a future statement; it\'s an ordinary import statement with\nno special semantics or syntax restrictions.\n\nCode compiled by an ``exec`` statement or calls to the builtin\nfunctions ``compile()`` and ``execfile()`` that occur in a module\n``M`` containing a future statement will, by default, use the new\nsyntax or semantics associated with the future statement.  This can,\nstarting with Python 2.2 be controlled by optional arguments to\n``compile()`` --- see the documentation of that function for details.\n\nA future statement typed at an interactive interpreter prompt will\ntake effect for the rest of the interpreter session.  If an\ninterpreter is started with the *-i* option, is passed a script name\nto execute, and the script includes a future statement, it will be in\neffect in the interactive session started after the script is\nexecuted.\n',
+ 'import': u'\nThe ``import`` statement\n************************\n\n   import_stmt     ::= "import" module ["as" name] ( "," module ["as" name] )*\n                   | "from" relative_module "import" identifier ["as" name]\n                   ( "," identifier ["as" name] )*\n                   | "from" relative_module "import" "(" identifier ["as" name]\n                   ( "," identifier ["as" name] )* [","] ")"\n                   | "from" module "import" "*"\n   module          ::= (identifier ".")* identifier\n   relative_module ::= "."* module | "."+\n   name            ::= identifier\n\nImport statements are executed in two steps: (1) find a module, and\ninitialize it if necessary; (2) define a name or names in the local\nnamespace (of the scope where the ``import`` statement occurs). The\nstatement comes in two forms differing on whether it uses the ``from``\nkeyword. The first form (without ``from``) repeats these steps for\neach identifier in the list. The form with ``from`` performs step (1)\nonce, and then performs step (2) repeatedly.\n\nTo understand how step (1) occurs, one must first understand how\nPython handles hierarchical naming of modules. To help organize\nmodules and provide a hierarchy in naming, Python has a concept of\npackages. A package can contain other packages and modules while\nmodules cannot contain other modules or packages. From a file system\nperspective, packages are directories and modules are files. The\noriginal specification for packages is still available to read,\nalthough minor details have changed since the writing of that\ndocument.\n\nOnce the name of the module is known (unless otherwise specified, the\nterm "module" will refer to both packages and modules), searching for\nthe module or package can begin. The first place checked is\n``sys.modules``, the cache of all modules that have been imported\npreviously. If the module is found there then it is used in step (2)\nof import.\n\nIf the module is not found in the cache, then ``sys.meta_path`` is\nsearched (the specification for ``sys.meta_path`` can be found in\n**PEP 302**). The object is a list of *finder* objects which are\nqueried in order as to whether they know how to load the module by\ncalling their ``find_module()`` method with the name of the module. If\nthe module happens to be contained within a package (as denoted by the\nexistence of a dot in the name), then a second argument to\n``find_module()`` is given as the value of the ``__path__`` attribute\nfrom the parent package (everything up to the last dot in the name of\nthe module being imported). If a finder can find the module it returns\na *loader* (discussed later) or returns ``None``.\n\nIf none of the finders on ``sys.meta_path`` are able to find the\nmodule then some implicitly defined finders are queried.\nImplementations of Python vary in what implicit meta path finders are\ndefined. The one they all do define, though, is one that handles\n``sys.path_hooks``, ``sys.path_importer_cache``, and ``sys.path``.\n\nThe implicit finder searches for the requested module in the "paths"\nspecified in one of two places ("paths" do not have to be file system\npaths). If the module being imported is supposed to be contained\nwithin a package then the second argument passed to ``find_module()``,\n``__path__`` on the parent package, is used as the source of paths. If\nthe module is not contained in a package then ``sys.path`` is used as\nthe source of paths.\n\nOnce the source of paths is chosen it is iterated over to find a\nfinder that can handle that path. The dict at\n``sys.path_importer_cache`` caches finders for paths and is checked\nfor a finder. If the path does not have a finder cached then\n``sys.path_hooks`` is searched by calling each object in the list with\na single argument of the path, returning a finder or raises\n``ImportError``. If a finder is returned then it is cached in\n``sys.path_importer_cache`` and then used for that path entry. If no\nfinder can be found but the path exists then a value of ``None`` is\nstored in ``sys.path_importer_cache`` to signify that an implicit,\nfile-based finder that handles modules stored as individual files\nshould be used for that path. If the path does not exist then a finder\nwhich always returns ``None`` is placed in the cache for the path.\n\nIf no finder can find the module then ``ImportError`` is raised.\nOtherwise some finder returned a loader whose ``load_module()`` method\nis called with the name of the module to load (see **PEP 302** for the\noriginal definition of loaders). A loader has several responsibilities\nto perform on a module it loads. First, if the module already exists\nin ``sys.modules`` (a possibility if the loader is called outside of\nthe import machinery) then it is to use that module for initialization\nand not a new module. But if the module does not exist in\n``sys.modules`` then it is to be added to that dict before\ninitialization begins. If an error occurs during loading of the module\nand it was added to ``sys.modules`` it is to be removed from the dict.\nIf an error occurs but the module was already in ``sys.modules`` it is\nleft in the dict.\n\nThe loader must set several attributes on the module. ``__name__`` is\nto be set to the name of the module. ``__file__`` is to be the "path"\nto the file unless the module is built-in (and thus listed in\n``sys.builtin_module_names``) in which case the attribute is not set.\nIf what is being imported is a package then ``__path__`` is to be set\nto a list of paths to be searched when looking for modules and\npackages contained within the package being imported. ``__package__``\nis optional but should be set to the name of package that contains the\nmodule or package (the empty string is used for module not contained\nin a package). ``__loader__`` is also optional but should be set to\nthe loader object that is loading the module.\n\nIf an error occurs during loading then the loader raises\n``ImportError`` if some other exception is not already being\npropagated. Otherwise the loader returns the module that was loaded\nand initialized.\n\nWhen step (1) finishes without raising an exception, step (2) can\nbegin.\n\nThe first form of ``import`` statement binds the module name in the\nlocal namespace to the module object, and then goes on to import the\nnext identifier, if any.  If the module name is followed by ``as``,\nthe name following ``as`` is used as the local name for the module.\n\nThe ``from`` form does not bind the module name: it goes through the\nlist of identifiers, looks each one of them up in the module found in\nstep (1), and binds the name in the local namespace to the object thus\nfound.  As with the first form of ``import``, an alternate local name\ncan be supplied by specifying "``as`` localname".  If a name is not\nfound, ``ImportError`` is raised.  If the list of identifiers is\nreplaced by a star (``\'*\'``), all public names defined in the module\nare bound in the local namespace of the ``import`` statement..\n\nThe *public names* defined by a module are determined by checking the\nmodule\'s namespace for a variable named ``__all__``; if defined, it\nmust be a sequence of strings which are names defined or imported by\nthat module.  The names given in ``__all__`` are all considered public\nand are required to exist.  If ``__all__`` is not defined, the set of\npublic names includes all names found in the module\'s namespace which\ndo not begin with an underscore character (``\'_\'``). ``__all__``\nshould contain the entire public API. It is intended to avoid\naccidentally exporting items that are not part of the API (such as\nlibrary modules which were imported and used within the module).\n\nThe ``from`` form with ``*`` may only occur in a module scope.  If the\nwild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a function\nand the function contains or is a nested block with free variables,\nthe compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nWhen specifying what module to import you do not have to specify the\nabsolute name of the module. When a module or package is contained\nwithin another package it is possible to make a relative import within\nthe same top package without having to mention the package name. By\nusing leading dots in the specified module or package after ``from``\nyou can specify how high to traverse up the current package hierarchy\nwithout specifying exact names. One leading dot means the current\npackage where the module making the import exists. Two dots means up\none package level. Three dots is up two levels, etc. So if you execute\n``from . import mod`` from a module in the ``pkg`` package then you\nwill end up importing ``pkg.mod``. If you execute ``from ..subpkg2\nimprt mod`` from within ``pkg.subpkg1`` you will import\n``pkg.subpkg2.mod``. The specification for relative imports is\ncontained within **PEP 328**.\n\nThe built-in function ``__import__()`` is provided to support\napplications that determine which modules need to be loaded\ndynamically; refer to *Built-in Functions* for additional information.\n\n\nFuture statements\n=================\n\nA *future statement* is a directive to the compiler that a particular\nmodule should be compiled using syntax or semantics that will be\navailable in a specified future release of Python.  The future\nstatement is intended to ease migration to future versions of Python\nthat introduce incompatible changes to the language.  It allows use of\nthe new features on a per-module basis before the release in which the\nfeature becomes standard.\n\n   future_statement ::= "from" "__future__" "import" feature ["as" name]\n                        ("," feature ["as" name])*\n                        | "from" "__future__" "import" "(" feature ["as" name]\n                        ("," feature ["as" name])* [","] ")"\n   feature          ::= identifier\n   name             ::= identifier\n\nA future statement must appear near the top of the module.  The only\nlines that can appear before a future statement are:\n\n* the module docstring (if any),\n\n* comments,\n\n* blank lines, and\n\n* other future statements.\n\nThe features recognized by Python 2.6 are ``unicode_literals``,\n``print_function``, ``absolute_import``, ``division``, ``generators``,\n``nested_scopes`` and ``with_statement``.  ``generators``,\n``with_statement``, ``nested_scopes`` are redundant in Python version\n2.6 and above because they are always enabled.\n\nA future statement is recognized and treated specially at compile\ntime: Changes to the semantics of core constructs are often\nimplemented by generating different code.  It may even be the case\nthat a new feature introduces new incompatible syntax (such as a new\nreserved word), in which case the compiler may need to parse the\nmodule differently.  Such decisions cannot be pushed off until\nruntime.\n\nFor any given release, the compiler knows which feature names have\nbeen defined, and raises a compile-time error if a future statement\ncontains a feature not known to it.\n\nThe direct runtime semantics are the same as for any import statement:\nthere is a standard module ``__future__``, described later, and it\nwill be imported in the usual way at the time the future statement is\nexecuted.\n\nThe interesting runtime semantics depend on the specific feature\nenabled by the future statement.\n\nNote that there is nothing special about the statement:\n\n   import __future__ [as name]\n\nThat is not a future statement; it\'s an ordinary import statement with\nno special semantics or syntax restrictions.\n\nCode compiled by an ``exec`` statement or calls to the builtin\nfunctions ``compile()`` and ``execfile()`` that occur in a module\n``M`` containing a future statement will, by default, use the new\nsyntax or semantics associated with the future statement.  This can,\nstarting with Python 2.2 be controlled by optional arguments to\n``compile()`` --- see the documentation of that function for details.\n\nA future statement typed at an interactive interpreter prompt will\ntake effect for the rest of the interpreter session.  If an\ninterpreter is started with the *-i* option, is passed a script name\nto execute, and the script includes a future statement, it will be in\neffect in the interactive session started after the script is\nexecuted.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 236** - Back to the __future__\n      The original proposal for the __future__ mechanism.\n',
  'in': u'\nComparisons\n***********\n\nUnlike C, all comparison operations in Python have the same priority,\nwhich is lower than that of any arithmetic, shifting or bitwise\noperation.  Also unlike C, expressions like ``a < b < c`` have the\ninterpretation that is conventional in mathematics:\n\n   comparison    ::= or_expr ( comp_operator or_expr )*\n   comp_operator ::= "<" | ">" | "==" | ">=" | "<=" | "<>" | "!="\n                     | "is" ["not"] | ["not"] "in"\n\nComparisons yield boolean values: ``True`` or ``False``.\n\nComparisons can be chained arbitrarily, e.g., ``x < y <= z`` is\nequivalent to ``x < y and y <= z``, except that ``y`` is evaluated\nonly once (but in both cases ``z`` is not evaluated at all when ``x <\ny`` is found to be false).\n\nFormally, if *a*, *b*, *c*, ..., *y*, *z* are expressions and *op1*,\n*op2*, ..., *opN* are comparison operators, then ``a op1 b op2 c ... y\nopN z`` is equivalent to ``a op1 b and b op2 c and ... y opN z``,\nexcept that each expression is evaluated at most once.\n\nNote that ``a op1 b op2 c`` doesn\'t imply any kind of comparison\nbetween *a* and *c*, so that, e.g., ``x < y > z`` is perfectly legal\n(though perhaps not pretty).\n\nThe forms ``<>`` and ``!=`` are equivalent; for consistency with C,\n``!=`` is preferred; where ``!=`` is mentioned below ``<>`` is also\naccepted.  The ``<>`` spelling is considered obsolescent.\n\nThe operators ``<``, ``>``, ``==``, ``>=``, ``<=``, and ``!=`` compare\nthe values of two objects.  The objects need not have the same type.\nIf both are numbers, they are converted to a common type.  Otherwise,\nobjects of different types *always* compare unequal, and are ordered\nconsistently but arbitrarily. You can control comparison behavior of\nobjects of non-builtin types by defining a ``__cmp__`` method or rich\ncomparison methods like ``__gt__``, described in section *Special\nmethod names*.\n\n(This unusual definition of comparison was used to simplify the\ndefinition of operations like sorting and the ``in`` and ``not in``\noperators. In the future, the comparison rules for objects of\ndifferent types are likely to change.)\n\nComparison of objects of the same type depends on the type:\n\n* Numbers are compared arithmetically.\n\n* Strings are compared lexicographically using the numeric equivalents\n  (the result of the built-in function ``ord()``) of their characters.\n  Unicode and 8-bit strings are fully interoperable in this behavior.\n  [4]\n\n* Tuples and lists are compared lexicographically using comparison of\n  corresponding elements.  This means that to compare equal, each\n  element must compare equal and the two sequences must be of the same\n  type and have the same length.\n\n  If not equal, the sequences are ordered the same as their first\n  differing elements.  For example, ``cmp([1,2,x], [1,2,y])`` returns\n  the same as ``cmp(x,y)``.  If the corresponding element does not\n  exist, the shorter sequence is ordered first (for example, ``[1,2] <\n  [1,2,3]``).\n\n* Mappings (dictionaries) compare equal if and only if their sorted\n  (key, value) lists compare equal. [5] Outcomes other than equality\n  are resolved consistently, but are not otherwise defined. [6]\n\n* Most other objects of builtin types compare unequal unless they are\n  the same object; the choice whether one object is considered smaller\n  or larger than another one is made arbitrarily but consistently\n  within one execution of a program.\n\nThe operators ``in`` and ``not in`` test for collection membership.\n``x in s`` evaluates to true if *x* is a member of the collection *s*,\nand false otherwise.  ``x not in s`` returns the negation of ``x in\ns``. The collection membership test has traditionally been bound to\nsequences; an object is a member of a collection if the collection is\na sequence and contains an element equal to that object.  However, it\nmake sense for many other object types to support membership tests\nwithout being a sequence.  In particular, dictionaries (for keys) and\nsets support membership testing.\n\nFor the list and tuple types, ``x in y`` is true if and only if there\nexists an index *i* such that ``x == y[i]`` is true.\n\nFor the Unicode and string types, ``x in y`` is true if and only if\n*x* is a substring of *y*.  An equivalent test is ``y.find(x) != -1``.\nNote, *x* and *y* need not be the same type; consequently, ``u\'ab\' in\n\'abc\'`` will return ``True``. Empty strings are always considered to\nbe a substring of any other string, so ``"" in "abc"`` will return\n``True``.\n\nChanged in version 2.3: Previously, *x* was required to be a string of\nlength ``1``.\n\nFor user-defined classes which define the ``__contains__()`` method,\n``x in y`` is true if and only if ``y.__contains__(x)`` is true.\n\nFor user-defined classes which do not define ``__contains__()`` and do\ndefine ``__getitem__()``, ``x in y`` is true if and only if there is a\nnon-negative integer index *i* such that ``x == y[i]``, and all lower\ninteger indices do not raise ``IndexError`` exception. (If any other\nexception is raised, it is as if ``in`` raised that exception).\n\nThe operator ``not in`` is defined to have the inverse true value of\n``in``.\n\nThe operators ``is`` and ``is not`` test for object identity: ``x is\ny`` is true if and only if *x* and *y* are the same object.  ``x is\nnot y`` yields the inverse truth value. [7]\n',
  'integers': u'\nInteger and long integer literals\n*********************************\n\nInteger and long integer literals are described by the following\nlexical definitions:\n\n   longinteger    ::= integer ("l" | "L")\n   integer        ::= decimalinteger | octinteger | hexinteger | bininteger\n   decimalinteger ::= nonzerodigit digit* | "0"\n   octinteger     ::= "0" ("o" | "O") octdigit+ | "0" octdigit+\n   hexinteger     ::= "0" ("x" | "X") hexdigit+\n   bininteger     ::= "0" ("b" | "B") bindigit+\n   nonzerodigit   ::= "1"..."9"\n   octdigit       ::= "0"..."7"\n   bindigit       ::= "0" | "1"\n   hexdigit       ::= digit | "a"..."f" | "A"..."F"\n\nAlthough both lower case ``\'l\'`` and upper case ``\'L\'`` are allowed as\nsuffix for long integers, it is strongly recommended to always use\n``\'L\'``, since the letter ``\'l\'`` looks too much like the digit\n``\'1\'``.\n\nPlain integer literals that are above the largest representable plain\ninteger (e.g., 2147483647 when using 32-bit arithmetic) are accepted\nas if they were long integers instead. [1]  There is no limit for long\ninteger literals apart from what can be stored in available memory.\n\nSome examples of plain integer literals (first row) and long integer\nliterals (second and third rows):\n\n   7     2147483647                        0177\n   3L    79228162514264337593543950336L    0377L   0x100000000L\n         79228162514264337593543950336             0xdeadbeef\n',
- 'lambda': u'\nExpression lists\n****************\n\n   expression_list ::= expression ( "," expression )* [","]\n\nAn expression list containing at least one comma yields a tuple.  The\nlength of the tuple is the number of expressions in the list.  The\nexpressions are evaluated from left to right.\n\nThe trailing comma is required only to create a single tuple (a.k.a. a\n*singleton*); it is optional in all other cases.  A single expression\nwithout a trailing comma doesn\'t create a tuple, but rather yields the\nvalue of that expression. (To create an empty tuple, use an empty pair\nof parentheses: ``()``.)\n',
+ 'lambda': u'\nLambdas\n*******\n\n   lambda_form     ::= "lambda" [parameter_list]: expression\n   old_lambda_form ::= "lambda" [parameter_list]: old_expression\n\nLambda forms (lambda expressions) have the same syntactic position as\nexpressions.  They are a shorthand to create anonymous functions; the\nexpression ``lambda arguments: expression`` yields a function object.\nThe unnamed object behaves like a function object defined with\n\n   def name(arguments):\n       return expression\n\nSee section *Function definitions* for the syntax of parameter lists.\nNote that functions created with lambda forms cannot contain\nstatements.\n',
  'lists': u'\nList displays\n*************\n\nA list display is a possibly empty series of expressions enclosed in\nsquare brackets:\n\n   list_display        ::= "[" [expression_list | list_comprehension] "]"\n   list_comprehension  ::= expression list_for\n   list_for            ::= "for" target_list "in" old_expression_list [list_iter]\n   old_expression_list ::= old_expression [("," old_expression)+ [","]]\n   list_iter           ::= list_for | list_if\n   list_if             ::= "if" old_expression [list_iter]\n\nA list display yields a new list object.  Its contents are specified\nby providing either a list of expressions or a list comprehension.\nWhen a comma-separated list of expressions is supplied, its elements\nare evaluated from left to right and placed into the list object in\nthat order.  When a list comprehension is supplied, it consists of a\nsingle expression followed by at least one ``for`` clause and zero or\nmore ``for`` or ``if`` clauses.  In this case, the elements of the new\nlist are those that would be produced by considering each of the\n``for`` or ``if`` clauses a block, nesting from left to right, and\nevaluating the expression to produce a list element each time the\ninnermost block is reached [1].\n',
  'naming': u"\nNaming and binding\n******************\n\n*Names* refer to objects.  Names are introduced by name binding\noperations. Each occurrence of a name in the program text refers to\nthe *binding* of that name established in the innermost function block\ncontaining the use.\n\nA *block* is a piece of Python program text that is executed as a\nunit. The following are blocks: a module, a function body, and a class\ndefinition. Each command typed interactively is a block.  A script\nfile (a file given as standard input to the interpreter or specified\non the interpreter command line the first argument) is a code block.\nA script command (a command specified on the interpreter command line\nwith the '**-c**' option) is a code block.  The file read by the\nbuilt-in function ``execfile()`` is a code block.  The string argument\npassed to the built-in function ``eval()`` and to the ``exec``\nstatement is a code block. The expression read and evaluated by the\nbuilt-in function ``input()`` is a code block.\n\nA code block is executed in an *execution frame*.  A frame contains\nsome administrative information (used for debugging) and determines\nwhere and how execution continues after the code block's execution has\ncompleted.\n\nA *scope* defines the visibility of a name within a block.  If a local\nvariable is defined in a block, its scope includes that block.  If the\ndefinition occurs in a function block, the scope extends to any blocks\ncontained within the defining one, unless a contained block introduces\na different binding for the name.  The scope of names defined in a\nclass block is limited to the class block; it does not extend to the\ncode blocks of methods -- this includes generator expressions since\nthey are implemented using a function scope.  This means that the\nfollowing will fail:\n\n   class A:\n       a = 42\n       b = list(a + i for i in range(10))\n\nWhen a name is used in a code block, it is resolved using the nearest\nenclosing scope.  The set of all such scopes visible to a code block\nis called the block's *environment*.\n\nIf a name is bound in a block, it is a local variable of that block.\nIf a name is bound at the module level, it is a global variable.  (The\nvariables of the module code block are local and global.)  If a\nvariable is used in a code block but not defined there, it is a *free\nvariable*.\n\nWhen a name is not found at all, a ``NameError`` exception is raised.\nIf the name refers to a local variable that has not been bound, a\n``UnboundLocalError`` exception is raised.  ``UnboundLocalError`` is a\nsubclass of ``NameError``.\n\nThe following constructs bind names: formal parameters to functions,\n``import`` statements, class and function definitions (these bind the\nclass or function name in the defining block), and targets that are\nidentifiers if occurring in an assignment, ``for`` loop header, in the\nsecond position of an ``except`` clause header or after ``as`` in a\n``with`` statement.  The ``import`` statement of the form ``from ...\nimport *`` binds all names defined in the imported module, except\nthose beginning with an underscore.  This form may only be used at the\nmodule level.\n\nA target occurring in a ``del`` statement is also considered bound for\nthis purpose (though the actual semantics are to unbind the name).  It\nis illegal to unbind a name that is referenced by an enclosing scope;\nthe compiler will report a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nEach assignment or import statement occurs within a block defined by a\nclass or function definition or at the module level (the top-level\ncode block).\n\nIf a name binding operation occurs anywhere within a code block, all\nuses of the name within the block are treated as references to the\ncurrent block.  This can lead to errors when a name is used within a\nblock before it is bound. This rule is subtle.  Python lacks\ndeclarations and allows name binding operations to occur anywhere\nwithin a code block.  The local variables of a code block can be\ndetermined by scanning the entire text of the block for name binding\noperations.\n\nIf the global statement occurs within a block, all uses of the name\nspecified in the statement refer to the binding of that name in the\ntop-level namespace. Names are resolved in the top-level namespace by\nsearching the global namespace, i.e. the namespace of the module\ncontaining the code block, and the builtin namespace, the namespace of\nthe module ``__builtin__``.  The global namespace is searched first.\nIf the name is not found there, the builtin namespace is searched.\nThe global statement must precede all uses of the name.\n\nThe built-in namespace associated with the execution of a code block\nis actually found by looking up the name ``__builtins__`` in its\nglobal namespace; this should be a dictionary or a module (in the\nlatter case the module's dictionary is used).  By default, when in the\n``__main__`` module, ``__builtins__`` is the built-in module\n``__builtin__`` (note: no 's'); when in any other module,\n``__builtins__`` is an alias for the dictionary of the ``__builtin__``\nmodule itself.  ``__builtins__`` can be set to a user-created\ndictionary to create a weak form of restricted execution.\n\nNote: Users should not touch ``__builtins__``; it is strictly an\n  implementation detail.  Users wanting to override values in the\n  built-in namespace should ``import`` the ``__builtin__`` (no 's')\n  module and modify its attributes appropriately.\n\nThe namespace for a module is automatically created the first time a\nmodule is imported.  The main module for a script is always called\n``__main__``.\n\nThe global statement has the same scope as a name binding operation in\nthe same block.  If the nearest enclosing scope for a free variable\ncontains a global statement, the free variable is treated as a global.\n\nA class definition is an executable statement that may use and define\nnames. These references follow the normal rules for name resolution.\nThe namespace of the class definition becomes the attribute dictionary\nof the class.  Names defined at the class scope are not visible in\nmethods.\n\n\nInteraction with dynamic features\n=================================\n\nThere are several cases where Python statements are illegal when used\nin conjunction with nested scopes that contain free variables.\n\nIf a variable is referenced in an enclosing scope, it is illegal to\ndelete the name.  An error will be reported at compile time.\n\nIf the wild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a\nfunction and the function contains or is a nested block with free\nvariables, the compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nIf ``exec`` is used in a function and the function contains or is a\nnested block with free variables, the compiler will raise a\n``SyntaxError`` unless the exec explicitly specifies the local\nnamespace for the ``exec``.  (In other words, ``exec obj`` would be\nillegal, but ``exec obj in ns`` would be legal.)\n\nThe ``eval()``, ``execfile()``, and ``input()`` functions and the\n``exec`` statement do not have access to the full environment for\nresolving names.  Names may be resolved in the local and global\nnamespaces of the caller.  Free variables are not resolved in the\nnearest enclosing namespace, but in the global namespace. [1] The\n``exec`` statement and the ``eval()`` and ``execfile()`` functions\nhave optional arguments to override the global and local namespace.\nIf only one namespace is specified, it is used for both.\n",
  'numbers': u"\nNumeric literals\n****************\n\nThere are four types of numeric literals: plain integers, long\nintegers, floating point numbers, and imaginary numbers.  There are no\ncomplex literals (complex numbers can be formed by adding a real\nnumber and an imaginary number).\n\nNote that numeric literals do not include a sign; a phrase like ``-1``\nis actually an expression composed of the unary operator '``-``' and\nthe literal ``1``.\n",


More information about the Python-checkins mailing list