[Python-checkins] cpython (merge 3.2 -> 3.2): Branch merge

eric.araujo python-checkins at python.org
Tue Aug 9 18:11:18 CEST 2011


http://hg.python.org/cpython/rev/66a52da1c9da
changeset:   71783:66a52da1c9da
branch:      3.2
parent:      71772:41b816853819
parent:      71779:1b0b5f644090
user:        Éric Araujo <merwok at netwok.org>
date:        Mon Aug 08 16:56:00 2011 +0200
summary:
  Branch merge

files:
  Doc/install/index.rst        |  184 ++++++++++++++++------
  Doc/library/site.rst         |  126 +++++++++++----
  Doc/tutorial/interactive.rst |    7 +-
  Doc/tutorial/interpreter.rst |   24 ++-
  Doc/using/cmdline.rst        |   11 +-
  5 files changed, 255 insertions(+), 97 deletions(-)


diff --git a/Doc/install/index.rst b/Doc/install/index.rst
--- a/Doc/install/index.rst
+++ b/Doc/install/index.rst
@@ -279,6 +279,14 @@
    >>> sys.exec_prefix
    '/usr'
 
+A few other placeholders are used in this document: :file:`{X.Y}` stands for the
+version of Python, for example ``3.2``; :file:`{abiflags}` will be replaced by
+the value of :data:`sys.abiflags` or the empty string for platforms which don't
+define ABI flags; :file:`{distname}` will be replaced by the name of the module
+distribution being installed.  Dots and capitalization are important in the
+paths; for example, a value that uses ``python3.2`` on UNIX will typically use
+``Python32`` on Windows.
+
 If you don't want to install modules to the standard location, or if you don't
 have permission to write there, then you need to read about alternate
 installations in section :ref:`inst-alt-install`.  If you want to customize your
@@ -307,8 +315,61 @@
 differ across platforms, so read whichever of the following sections applies to
 you.
 
+Note that the various alternate installation schemes are mutually exclusive: you
+can pass ``--user``, or ``--home``, or ``--prefix`` and ``--exec-prefix``, or
+``--install-base`` and ``--install-platbase``, but you can't mix from these
+groups.
 
-.. _inst-alt-install-prefix:
+
+.. _inst-alt-install-user:
+
+Alternate installation: the user scheme
+---------------------------------------
+
+This scheme is designed to be the most convenient solution for users that don't
+have write permission to the global site-packages directory or don't want to
+install into it.  It is enabled with a simple option::
+
+   python setup.py install --user
+
+Files will be installed into subdirectories of :data:`site.USER_BASE` (written
+as :file:`{userbase}` hereafter).  This scheme installs pure Python modules and
+extension modules in the same location (also known as :data:`site.USER_SITE`).
+Here are the values for UNIX, including Mac OS X:
+
+=============== ===========================================================
+Type of file    Installation directory
+=============== ===========================================================
+modules         :file:`{userbase}/lib/python{X.Y}/site-packages`
+scripts         :file:`{userbase}/bin`
+data            :file:`{userbase}`
+C headers       :file:`{userbase}/include/python{X.Y}{abiflags}/{distname}`
+=============== ===========================================================
+
+And here are the values used on Windows:
+
+=============== ===========================================================
+Type of file    Installation directory
+=============== ===========================================================
+modules         :file:`{userbase}\\Python{XY}\\site-packages`
+scripts         :file:`{userbase}\\Scripts`
+data            :file:`{userbase}`
+C headers       :file:`{userbase}\\Python{XY}\\Include\\{distname}`
+=============== ===========================================================
+
+The advantage of using this scheme compared to the other ones described below is
+that the user site-packages directory is under normal conditions always included
+in :data:`sys.path` (see :mod:`site` for more information), which means that
+there is no additional step to perform after running the :file:`setup.py` script
+to finalize the installation.
+
+The :command:`build_ext` command also has a ``--user`` option to add
+:file:`{userbase}/include` to the compiler search path for header files and
+:file:`{userbase}/lib` to the compiler search path for libraries as well as to
+the runtime search path for shared C libraries (rpath).
+
+
+.. _inst-alt-install-home:
 
 Alternate installation: the home scheme
 ---------------------------------------
@@ -330,23 +391,27 @@
 
    python setup.py install --home=~
 
+To make Python find the distributions installed with this scheme, you may have
+to :ref:`modify Python's search path <inst-search-path>` or edit
+:mod:`sitecustomize` (see :mod:`site`) to call :func:`site.addsitedir` or edit
+:data:`sys.path`.
+
 The :option:`--home` option defines the installation base directory.  Files are
 installed to the following directories under the installation base as follows:
 
-+------------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| Type of file                 | Installation Directory    | Override option             |
-+==============================+===========================+=============================+
-| pure module distribution     | :file:`{home}/lib/python` | :option:`--install-purelib` |
-+------------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| non-pure module distribution | :file:`{home}/lib/python` | :option:`--install-platlib` |
-+------------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| scripts                      | :file:`{home}/bin`        | :option:`--install-scripts` |
-+------------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| data                         | :file:`{home}/share`      | :option:`--install-data`    |
-+------------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------+
+=============== ===========================================================
+Type of file    Installation directory
+=============== ===========================================================
+modules         :file:`{home}/lib/python`
+scripts         :file:`{home}/bin`
+data            :file:`{home}`
+C headers       :file:`{home}/include/python/{distname}`
+=============== ===========================================================
 
+(Mentally replace slashes with backslashes if you're on Windows.)
 
-.. _inst-alt-install-home:
+
+.. _inst-alt-install-prefix-unix:
 
 Alternate installation: Unix (the prefix scheme)
 ------------------------------------------------
@@ -355,7 +420,7 @@
 perform the build/install (i.e., to run the setup script), but install modules
 into the third-party module directory of a different Python installation (or
 something that looks like a different Python installation).  If this sounds a
-trifle unusual, it is---that's why the "home scheme" comes first.  However,
+trifle unusual, it is---that's why the user and home schemes come before.  However,
 there are at least two known cases where the prefix scheme will be useful.
 
 First, consider that many Linux distributions put Python in :file:`/usr`, rather
@@ -383,17 +448,15 @@
 executables, etc.)  If :option:`--exec-prefix` is not supplied, it defaults to
 :option:`--prefix`.  Files are installed as follows:
 
-+------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| Type of file                 | Installation Directory                              | Override option             |
-+==============================+=====================================================+=============================+
-| pure module distribution     | :file:`{prefix}/lib/python{X.Y}/site-packages`      | :option:`--install-purelib` |
-+------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| non-pure module distribution | :file:`{exec-prefix}/lib/python{X.Y}/site-packages` | :option:`--install-platlib` |
-+------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| scripts                      | :file:`{prefix}/bin`                                | :option:`--install-scripts` |
-+------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| data                         | :file:`{prefix}/share`                              | :option:`--install-data`    |
-+------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
+================= ==========================================================
+Type of file      Installation directory
+================= ==========================================================
+Python modules    :file:`{prefix}/lib/python{X.Y}/site-packages`
+extension modules :file:`{exec-prefix}/lib/python{X.Y}/site-packages`
+scripts           :file:`{prefix}/bin`
+data              :file:`{prefix}`
+C headers         :file:`{prefix}/include/python{X.Y}{abiflags}/{distname}`
+================= ==========================================================
 
 There is no requirement that :option:`--prefix` or :option:`--exec-prefix`
 actually point to an alternate Python installation; if the directories listed
@@ -418,7 +481,7 @@
 alternate Python installation, this is immaterial.)
 
 
-.. _inst-alt-install-windows:
+.. _inst-alt-install-prefix-windows:
 
 Alternate installation: Windows (the prefix scheme)
 ---------------------------------------------------
@@ -433,20 +496,18 @@
 to install modules to the :file:`\\Temp\\Python` directory on the current drive.
 
 The installation base is defined by the :option:`--prefix` option; the
-:option:`--exec-prefix` option is not supported under Windows. Files are
-installed as follows:
+:option:`--exec-prefix` option is not supported under Windows, which means that
+pure Python modules and extension modules are installed into the same location.
+Files are installed as follows:
 
-+------------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| Type of file                 | Installation Directory    | Override option             |
-+==============================+===========================+=============================+
-| pure module distribution     | :file:`{prefix}`          | :option:`--install-purelib` |
-+------------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| non-pure module distribution | :file:`{prefix}`          | :option:`--install-platlib` |
-+------------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| scripts                      | :file:`{prefix}\\Scripts` | :option:`--install-scripts` |
-+------------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------+
-| data                         | :file:`{prefix}\\Data`    | :option:`--install-data`    |
-+------------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------+
+=============== ==========================================================
+Type of file    Installation directory
+=============== ==========================================================
+modules         :file:`{prefix}\\Lib\\site-packages`
+scripts         :file:`{prefix}\\Scripts`
+data            :file:`{prefix}`
+C headers       :file:`{prefix}\\Include\\{distname}`
+=============== ==========================================================
 
 
 .. _inst-custom-install:
@@ -460,13 +521,29 @@
 or you might want to completely redefine the installation scheme.  In either
 case, you're creating a *custom installation scheme*.
 
-You probably noticed the column of "override options" in the tables describing
-the alternate installation schemes above.  Those options are how you define a
-custom installation scheme.  These override options can be relative, absolute,
+To create a custom installation scheme, you start with one of the alternate
+schemes and override some of the installation directories used for the various
+types of files, using these options:
+
+====================== =======================
+Type of file           Override option
+====================== =======================
+Python modules         ``--install-purelib``
+extension modules      ``--install-platlib``
+all modules            ``--install-lib``
+scripts                ``--install-scripts``
+data                   ``--install-data``
+C headers              ``--install-headers``
+====================== =======================
+
+These override options can be relative, absolute,
 or explicitly defined in terms of one of the installation base directories.
 (There are two installation base directories, and they are normally the same---
 they only differ when you use the Unix "prefix scheme" and supply different
-:option:`--prefix` and :option:`--exec-prefix` options.)
+``--prefix`` and ``--exec-prefix`` options; using ``--install-lib`` will
+override values computed or given for ``--install-purelib`` and
+``--install-platlib``, and is recommended for schemes that don't make a
+difference between Python and extension modules.)
 
 For example, say you're installing a module distribution to your home directory
 under Unix---but you want scripts to go in :file:`~/scripts` rather than
@@ -493,15 +570,16 @@
 a subdirectory of :file:`{prefix}`, rather than right in :file:`{prefix}`
 itself.  This is almost as easy as customizing the script installation directory
 ---you just have to remember that there are two types of modules to worry about,
-pure modules and non-pure modules (i.e., modules from a non-pure distribution).
-For example::
+Python and extension modules, which can conveniently be both controlled by one
+option::
 
-   python setup.py install --install-purelib=Site --install-platlib=Site
+   python setup.py install --install-lib=Site
 
-The specified installation directories are relative to :file:`{prefix}`.  Of
-course, you also have to ensure that these directories are in Python's module
-search path, such as by putting a :file:`.pth` file in :file:`{prefix}`.  See
-section :ref:`inst-search-path` to find out how to modify Python's search path.
+The specified installation directory is relative to :file:`{prefix}`.  Of
+course, you also have to ensure that this directory is in Python's module
+search path, such as by putting a :file:`.pth` file in a site directory (see
+:mod:`site`).  See section :ref:`inst-search-path` to find out how to modify
+Python's search path.
 
 If you want to define an entire installation scheme, you just have to supply all
 of the installation directory options.  The recommended way to do this is to
@@ -553,8 +631,8 @@
 
    python setup.py install --install-base=/tmp
 
-would install pure modules to :file:`{/tmp/python/lib}` in the first case, and
-to :file:`{/tmp/lib}` in the second case.  (For the second case, you probably
+would install pure modules to :file:`/tmp/python/lib` in the first case, and
+to :file:`/tmp/lib` in the second case.  (For the second case, you probably
 want to supply an installation base of :file:`/tmp/python`.)
 
 You probably noticed the use of ``$HOME`` and ``$PLAT`` in the sample
@@ -571,7 +649,7 @@
    needed on those platforms?
 
 
-.. XXX I'm not sure where this section should go.
+.. XXX Move this to Doc/using
 
 .. _inst-search-path:
 
diff --git a/Doc/library/site.rst b/Doc/library/site.rst
--- a/Doc/library/site.rst
+++ b/Doc/library/site.rst
@@ -2,18 +2,21 @@
 ================================================
 
 .. module:: site
-   :synopsis: A standard way to reference site-specific modules.
+   :synopsis: Module responsible for site-specific configuration.
 
 **Source code:** :source:`Lib/site.py`
 
 --------------
 
+.. highlightlang:: none
+
 **This module is automatically imported during initialization.** The automatic
 import can be suppressed using the interpreter's :option:`-S` option.
 
 .. index:: triple: module; search; path
 
-Importing this module will append site-specific paths to the module search path.
+Importing this module will append site-specific paths to the module search path
+and add a few builtins.
 
 .. index::
    pair: site-python; directory
@@ -28,11 +31,11 @@
 if it refers to an existing directory, and if so, adds it to ``sys.path`` and
 also inspects the newly added path for configuration files.
 
-A path configuration file is a file whose name has the form :file:`package.pth`
+A path configuration file is a file whose name has the form :file:`{name}.pth`
 and exists in one of the four directories mentioned above; its contents are
 additional items (one per line) to be added to ``sys.path``.  Non-existing items
-are never added to ``sys.path``, but no check is made that the item refers to a
-directory (rather than a file).  No item is added to ``sys.path`` more than
+are never added to ``sys.path``, and no check is made that the item refers to a
+directory rather than a file.  No item is added to ``sys.path`` more than
 once.  Blank lines and lines beginning with ``#`` are skipped.  Lines starting
 with ``import`` (followed by space or tab) are executed.
 
@@ -42,8 +45,7 @@
 
 For example, suppose ``sys.prefix`` and ``sys.exec_prefix`` are set to
 :file:`/usr/local`.  The Python X.Y library is then installed in
-:file:`/usr/local/lib/python{X.Y}` (where only the first three characters of
-``sys.version`` are used to form the installation path name).  Suppose this has
+:file:`/usr/local/lib/python{X.Y}`.  Suppose this has
 a subdirectory :file:`/usr/local/lib/python{X.Y}/site-packages` with three
 subsubdirectories, :file:`foo`, :file:`bar` and :file:`spam`, and two path
 configuration files, :file:`foo.pth` and :file:`bar.pth`.  Assume
@@ -76,74 +78,124 @@
 
 After these path manipulations, an attempt is made to import a module named
 :mod:`sitecustomize`, which can perform arbitrary site-specific customizations.
-If this import fails with an :exc:`ImportError` exception, it is silently
-ignored.
+It is typically created by a system administrator in the site-packages
+directory.  If this import fails with an :exc:`ImportError` exception, it is
+silently ignored.
 
-.. index:: module: sitecustomize
+.. index:: module: usercustomize
+
+After this, an attempt is made to import a module named :mod:`usercustomize`,
+which can perform arbitrary user-specific customizations, if
+:data:`ENABLE_USER_SITE` is true.  This file is intended to be created in the
+user site-packages directory (see below), which is part of ``sys.path`` unless
+disabled by :option:`-s`.  An :exc:`ImportError` will be silently ignored.
 
 Note that for some non-Unix systems, ``sys.prefix`` and ``sys.exec_prefix`` are
 empty, and the path manipulations are skipped; however the import of
-:mod:`sitecustomize` is still attempted.
+:mod:`sitecustomize` and :mod:`usercustomize` is still attempted.
 
 
 .. data:: PREFIXES
 
-   A list of prefixes for site package directories
+   A list of prefixes for site-packages directories.
 
 
 .. data:: ENABLE_USER_SITE
 
-   Flag showing the status of the user site directory. True means the
-   user site directory is enabled and added to sys.path. When the flag
-   is None the user site directory is disabled for security reasons.
+   Flag showing the status of the user site-packages directory.  ``True`` means
+   that it is enabled and was added to ``sys.path``.  ``False`` means that it
+   was disabled by user request (with :option:`-s` or
+   :envvar:`PYTHONNOUSERSITE`).  ``None`` means it was disabled for security
+   reasons (mismatch between user or group id and effective id) or by an
+   administrator.
 
 
 .. data:: USER_SITE
 
-   Path to the user site directory for the current Python version or None
+   Path to the user site-packages for the running Python.  Can be ``None`` if
+   :func:`getusersitepackages` hasn't been called yet.  Default value is
+   :file:`~/.local/lib/python{X.Y}/site-packages` for UNIX and non-framework Mac
+   OS X builds, :file:`~/Library/Python/{X.Y}/lib/python/site-packages` for Mac
+   framework builds, and :file:`{%APPDATA%}\\Python\\Python{XY}\\site-packages`
+   on Windows.  This directory is a site directory, which means that
+   :file:`.pth` files in it will be processed.
 
 
 .. data:: USER_BASE
 
-   Path to the base directory for user site directories
-
-
-.. envvar:: PYTHONNOUSERSITE
-
-
-.. envvar:: PYTHONUSERBASE
+   Path to the base directory for the user site-packages.  Can be ``None`` if
+   :func:`getuserbase` hasn't been called yet.  Default value is
+   :file:`~/.local` for UNIX and Mac OS X non-framework builds,
+   :file:`~/Library/Python/{X.Y}` for Mac framework builds, and
+   :file:`{%APPDATA%}\\Python` for Windows.  This value is used by Distutils to
+   compute the installation directories for scripts, data files, Python modules,
+   etc. for the :ref:`user installation scheme <inst-alt-install-user>`.  See
+   also :envvar:`PYTHONUSERBASE`.
 
 
 .. function:: addsitedir(sitedir, known_paths=None)
 
-   Adds a directory to sys.path and processes its pth files.
+   Add a directory to sys.path and process its :file:`.pth` files.  Typically
+   used in :mod:`sitecustomize` or :mod:`usercustomize` (see above).
+
 
 .. function:: getsitepackages()
 
-   Returns a list containing all global site-packages directories
-   (and possibly site-python).
+   Return a list containing all global site-packages directories (and possibly
+   site-python).
 
    .. versionadded:: 3.2
 
+
 .. function:: getuserbase()
 
-   Returns the "user base" directory path.
-
-   The "user base" directory can be used to store data. If the global
-   variable ``USER_BASE`` is not initialized yet, this function will also set
-   it.
+   Return the path of the user base directory, :data:`USER_BASE`.  If it is not
+   initialized yet, this function will also set it, respecting
+   :envvar:`PYTHONUSERBASE`.
 
    .. versionadded:: 3.2
 
+
 .. function:: getusersitepackages()
 
-   Returns the user-specific site-packages directory path.
-
-   If the global variable ``USER_SITE`` is not initialized yet, this
-   function will also set it.
+   Return the path of the user-specific site-packages directory,
+   :data:`USER_SITE`.  If it is not initialized yet, this function will also set
+   it, respecting :envvar:`PYTHONNOUSERSITE` and :data:`USER_BASE`.
 
    .. versionadded:: 3.2
 
-.. XXX Update documentation
-.. XXX document python -m site --user-base --user-site
 
+The :mod:`site` module also provides a way to get the user directories from the
+command line:
+
+.. code-block:: sh
+
+   $ python3 -m site --user-site
+   /home/user/.local/lib/python3.3/site-packages
+
+.. program:: site
+
+If it is called without arguments, it will print the contents of
+:data:`sys.path` on the standard output, followed by the value of
+:data:`USER_BASE` and whether the directory exists, then the same thing for
+:data:`USER_SITE`, and finally the value of :data:`ENABLE_USER_SITE`.
+
+.. cmdoption:: --user-base
+
+   Print the path to the user base directory.
+
+.. cmdoption:: --user-site
+
+   Print the path to the user site-packages directory.
+
+If both options are given, user base and user site will be printed (always in
+this order), separated by :data:`os.pathsep`.
+
+If any option is given, the script will exit with one of these values: ``O`` if
+the user site-packages directory is enabled, ``1`` if it was disabled by the
+user, ``2`` if it is disabled for security reasons or by an administrator, and a
+value greater than 2 if there is an error.
+
+.. seealso::
+
+   :pep:`370` -- Per user site-packages directory
diff --git a/Doc/tutorial/interactive.rst b/Doc/tutorial/interactive.rst
--- a/Doc/tutorial/interactive.rst
+++ b/Doc/tutorial/interactive.rst
@@ -156,17 +156,18 @@
 quotes, etc., would also be useful.
 
 One alternative enhanced interactive interpreter that has been around for quite
-some time is `IPython`_, which features tab completion, object exploration and
+some time is IPython_, which features tab completion, object exploration and
 advanced history management.  It can also be thoroughly customized and embedded
 into other applications.  Another similar enhanced interactive environment is
-`bpython`_.
+bpython_.
 
 
 .. rubric:: Footnotes
 
 .. [#] Python will execute the contents of a file identified by the
    :envvar:`PYTHONSTARTUP` environment variable when you start an interactive
-   interpreter.
+   interpreter.  To customize Python even for non-interactive mode, see
+   :ref:`tut-customize`.
 
 
 .. _GNU Readline: http://tiswww.case.edu/php/chet/readline/rltop.html
diff --git a/Doc/tutorial/interpreter.rst b/Doc/tutorial/interpreter.rst
--- a/Doc/tutorial/interpreter.rst
+++ b/Doc/tutorial/interpreter.rst
@@ -236,6 +236,29 @@
        exec(open(filename).read())
 
 
+.. _tut-customize:
+
+The Customization Modules
+-------------------------
+
+Python provides two hooks to let you customize it: :mod:`sitecustomize` and
+:mod:`usercustomize`.  To see how it works, you need first to find the location
+of your user site-packages directory.  Start Python and run this code:
+
+   >>> import site
+   >>> site.getusersitepackages()
+   '/home/user/.local/lib/python3.2/site-packages'
+
+Now you can create a file named :file:`usercustomize.py` in that directory and
+put anything you want in it.  It will affect every invocation of Python, unless
+it is started with the :option:`-s` option to disable the automatic import.
+
+:mod:`sitecustomize` works in the same way, but is typically created by an
+administrator of the computer in the global site-packages directory, and is
+imported before :mod:`usercustomize`.  See the documentation of the :mod:`site`
+module for more details.
+
+
 .. rubric:: Footnotes
 
 .. [#] On Unix, the Python 3.x interpreter is by default not installed with the
@@ -243,4 +266,3 @@
    simultaneously installed Python 2.x executable.
 
 .. [#] A problem with the GNU Readline package may prevent this.
-
diff --git a/Doc/using/cmdline.rst b/Doc/using/cmdline.rst
--- a/Doc/using/cmdline.rst
+++ b/Doc/using/cmdline.rst
@@ -229,7 +229,8 @@
 
 .. cmdoption:: -s
 
-   Don't add user site directory to sys.path
+   Don't add the :data:`user site-packages directory <site.USER_SITE>` to
+   :data:`sys.path`.
 
    .. seealso::
 
@@ -468,7 +469,8 @@
 
 .. envvar:: PYTHONNOUSERSITE
 
-   If this is set, Python won't add the user site directory to sys.path
+   If this is set, Python won't add the :data:`user site-packages directory
+   <site.USER_SITE>` to :data:`sys.path`.
 
    .. seealso::
 
@@ -477,7 +479,10 @@
 
 .. envvar:: PYTHONUSERBASE
 
-   Sets the base directory for the user site directory
+   Defines the :data:`user base directory <site.USER_BASE>`, which is used to
+   compute the path of the :data:`user site-packages directory <site.USER_SITE>`
+   and :ref:`Distutils installation paths <inst-alt-install-user>` for ``python
+   setup.py install --user``.
 
    .. seealso::
 

-- 
Repository URL: http://hg.python.org/cpython


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