# Why isn't Python king of the hill?

Bob Drzyzgula bob at drzyzgula.org
Sat Jun 2 21:34:41 EDT 2001

```On Sat, Jun 02, 2001 at 09:52:57PM +0000, Grant Edwards wrote:
> On Sat, 2 Jun 2001 21:28:45 +0000 (UTC), E. Mark Ping <emarkp at CSUA.Berkeley.EDU> wrote:
>
> >>So do I.  But every time I've seen an application _depend_ on exact
> >>representations, its caused problems.  Perhaps the FP code you've
> >>seen was better, but in my experience code that depends on exact
> >>represention has caused problems.
> >
> >Ah, but your example was exact representation of *integers*, not just
> >any value.
>
> What I've seen happen: code is written by a programmer who
> knows that the input values are going to be integer values that
> can be represented exactly.  It works fine for a few years.
...

One occasionally useful source of solid thought on this
issue is of course Knuth's Seminumerical Algorithms,
Chapter 4, "Arithmetic". Knuth goes so far as to refuse to
use the normal operators +, -, x and / for floating point
operations (from Section 4.2.1, 3/e):

Since floating point is inherently approximate, not
exact, we will use "round" symbols [graphic of the
normal operators with circles drawn around them] to
stand for floating point addition, subtraction...

At the beginning of section 4.2.2, he goes on:

Floating point computation is by nature inexact, and
programmers can easily misuse it so that the computed
answers consist almost entirely of "noise". One of the
principal problems of numerical analysis is to determine
how accurate the results of certain numerical methods
will be. There's a credibility gap. We don't know
how much of the computer's answers to believe. Novice
computer users solve the problem by implicitly trusting
the computer as an infallible authority; they tend
to believe that all digits of a printed answer are
significant. Disillusioned computer users have just
the opposite approach; they are constantly afraid that
their answers are almost meaningless. Many serious
mathematicians have attempted to analyze a sequence of
floating point operations rigorously, but have found the
task so formidable that they have tried to be content

Knuth of course goes on to explain, in mind-numbing
detail, *exactly* "how much of the computer's

That chapter also includes around eighty pages on
rational arithmetic, FWIW.