strong/weak - dynamic/static [Was: Getting started]

Alex Martelli aleax at
Thu Sep 19 11:36:33 EDT 2002

Jacek Generowicz wrote:
> Could someone provide a serious reference (i.e. something which would
> have gone through some sort of editorial/peer/technical review, rather
> than someone's random opinions on the web) explaining or defining the
> concepts of weak, strong, dynamic and static typing.

For example, Amer Diwan's lessons on Fundamentals of Programming
Languages at the University of Colorado are on the web as PDF files,
all info and links at --
I wouldn't consider these "somebody's random opinions on the web"...
it IS a regular, qualified university course.

The introduction to types, in particular, is at:

and the already-referenced URL gives some fundamental
bibliography (I'm prejudiced in favor of Carlo Ghezzi's
text, but that, of course, is just because he's a compatriot:-).


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