class vs function ???

Sean Ross sross at
Sat Feb 21 19:20:06 CET 2004

"Gaurav Veda" <gveda at> wrote in message
news:1c764367.0402210857.579f59ab at
> a = 1
> print a
> def fun1():
>     global b
>     b = "inside fun1"
>     print b
> fun1()
> def c1():
>     print a
>     print b
>     c = 12
>     def fun2():
>         global d
>         d = "We are dead !!!"
>         print d
>     fun2()
> c1()
> class c2:
>     pass
> print d
> print c
> Traceback (most recent call last):
>   File "", line 21, in ?
>     print c
> NameError: name 'c' is not defined
> Waiting for some 'logical' explanation !!!

The error message _is_ the logical explanation:

The name 'c' has not been defined in the scope where
'print c' is called.

You have a variable 'c' earlier in the code, yes, but that
c is a local variable of function c1(), i.e., the name 'c' _is_
defined in the scope of that function (but _only_ in that
scope). It is _not_ defined at the program scope, which
is where you've tried to use it.

I'll avoid going over Python's scoping rules here, they can
be found elsewhere. Good luck,


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