A critic of Guido's blog on Python's lambda

Tomasz Zielonka tomasz.zielonka at gmail.com
Mon May 8 06:52:35 CEST 2006

I V wrote:
> Monads are one of those parts of functional programming I've never really
> got my head around, but as I understand them, they're a way of
> transforming what looks like a sequence of imperative programming
> statements that operate on a global state into a sequence of function
> calls that pass the state between them.

This is a description of only one particular kind of monad - a state
monad. A generalisation of your statement would be something like this:
"they're a way of writing what looks like a sequence of imperative
programming statements that, depending on the monad, can have certain
computational side-effects (like operating on a global state) in a
purely functional way". But this doesn't explain much. If you want to
know more, there are some pretty good tutorials on

> So, what would be a statement in an imperative language is an anonymous
> function that gets added to the monad, and then, when the monad is run,
> these functions get executed.

A monad is a type, it isn't run. The thing you run can be called a
monadic action. You don't add functions to a monad (in this sense), you
build a monadic action from smaller monadic actions, gluing them with
functions - here's where anonymous functions are natural.

> The point being, that you have a lot of small functions (one for each
> statement) which are likely not to be used anywhere else, so defining
> them as named functions would be a bit of a pain in the arse.


> Actually, defining them as unnamed functions via lambdas would be annoying
> too, although not as annoying as using named functions - what you really
> want is macros, so that what looks like a statement can be interpreted is
> a piece of code to be executed later.

Haskell has one such "macro" - this is the do-notation syntax. But it's
translation to ordinary lambdas is very straightforward, and the choice
between using the do-notation or lambdas with >>= is a matter of

Best regards

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