# yield keyword usage

Steve Holden steve at holdenweb.com
Tue Jul 31 02:47:57 CEST 2007

```Ehsan wrote:
> hi
> coulde any one show me the usage of  "yield" keyword specially in this
> example:
>
>
> """Fibonacci sequences using generators
>
> This program is part of "Dive Into Python", a free Python book for
> experienced programmers.  Visit http://diveintopython.org/ for the
> """
>
> __author__ = "Mark Pilgrim (mark at diveintopython.org)"
> __version__ = "\$Revision: 1.2 \$"
> __date__ = "\$Date: 2004/05/05 21:57:19 \$"
>
> def fibonacci(max):
>     a, b = 0, 1
>     while a < max:
>         yield a
>         a, b = b, a+b
>
> for n in fibonacci(1000):
>     print n,
>
A function body with at least one yield expression (formerly a yield
statement) in its body returns a generator when called:

>>> def gen(i):
...   for k in range(i):
...     yield k*k
...
>>> g = gen(3)
>>> g
<generator object at 0x7ff2822c>
>>>

The same function can be called multiple times to create independent
generators - the particular example I have given created a generator for
a given number of squares.

The generator can be used in an iterative context (such as a for loop),
but in actual fact it observes the Python iterator protocol, so the
generator has a .next() method, which can be used to extract the next
value from it. Calling the .next() method runs the generator until a
yield expression is encountered, and the value of the yield expression
is the return value of the next method:

>>> g.next()
0
>>> g.next()
1
>>> g.next()
4

When the generator function terminates (either with a return statement
or by dropping off the end) it raises a StopIteration exception. This
will terminate an iteration, but in other contexts it can be handled
just like any other exception:

>>> g.next()
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
StopIteration
>>>

So the fibonacci example you quote is a generator function that will
yield a sequence of Fibonacci numbers up to but not including the value
of its argument.

regards
Steve
--
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