Static variable vs Class variable

Marc 'BlackJack' Rintsch bj_666 at
Tue Oct 9 18:59:59 CEST 2007

On Tue, 09 Oct 2007 09:16:12 -0700, minkoo.seo at wrote:

> I've got a question on the differences and how to define static and
> class variables.

First you have to define what you mean by "static".

> AFAIK, class methods are the ones which receives the
> class itself as an argument, while static methods are the one which
> runs statically with the defining class.

`classmethod`\s receive the class as first arguments, `staticmethod`\s are
just functions bound to the class object.

> Hence, my understanding is that static variables must be bound to the
> class defining the variables and shared by children of parent class
> where the variable is defined. But, please have a look at this code in
> which a guy told me that the variable a is static:

Ask the guy what he means by "static".

>>>> class Foo:
> 	a = 1
> 	@classmethod
> 	def increment(cls):
> 		cls.a += 1
> 		print cls.a
> Here, I am defining variable a which, I believe is class variable,
> i.e., variable that is not bound to Foo itself.

No you define a class attribute that *is* bound to the class `Foo`.

> Rather, a is bound to the class which is accessing the variable. The code
> that corroborates this idea is as follows:
>>>> class Child1(Foo):
> 	pass
>>>> Child1.increment()
> 4

Four!?  Hard to believe.

>>>> class Child2(Foo):
> 	pass
>>>> Child2.increment()
> 4
> This means that Child1 and Child2 does not share variable a which means
> that variable a is class variable rather than static variable.
> Could you please comment on this? Is a static or class variable? What's
> the most recent way of defining 'class' and 'static' variables?

There is no such thing as a "static" variable.  Think of attributes that
are bound to objects.  All dynamically.

What happens is: you bind a 1 to the attribute `Foo.a` in the `Foo` class

When you call `Child1.increment()` the class method will be called with
`Child1` as first argument.  Now ``cls.a += 1`` is executed which is
somewhat like a short form of ``cls.a = cls.a + 1``.  So this is reading
the attribute `a` from `Child1` and then bind the result to `Child1`. 
`Child1` doesn't have an attribute `a`, so it is looked up in the parent
class.  But the result is then bound to `Child1`.  So you are reading from
`Foo` and writing to `Child1`.  That's it.

	Marc 'BlackJack' Rintsch

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