Adding Priority Scheduling feature to the subprocess

Nick Craig-Wood nick at
Mon Feb 25 18:30:03 CET 2008

TimeHorse <TimeHorse at> wrote:
>  On Feb 22, 4:30 am, Nick Craig-Wood <n... at> wrote:
> > Interestingly enough this was changed in recent linux kernels.
> > Process levels in linus kernels are logarithmic now, whereas before
> > they weren't (but I wouldn't like to say exactly what!).
>  Wow!  That's a VERY good point.  I ran a similar test on Windows with
>  the 'start' command which is similar to nice but you need to specify
>  the Priority Class by name, e.g.
>  start /REALTIME python.exe
>  Now, in a standard operating system you'd expect some variance between
>  runs, and I did find that.  So I wrote a script to compute the Mode
>  (but not the Standard Deviation as I didn't have time for it) for each
>  Priority Class, chosen each run at random, accumulated the running
>  value for each one.  Now, when I read the results, I really wish I'd
>  computed the Chi**2 to calculate the Standard Deviation because the
>  results all appeared within very close relation to one another, as if
>  the Priority Class had overall very little effect.  In fact, I would
>  be willing to guess that say NORMAL and ABOVENORMAL lie with one
>  Standard Deviation of one another!
>  That having been said, the tests all ran in about 10 seconds so it may
>  be that the process was too simple to show any statistical results.  I
>  know for instance that running ffmpeg as NORMAL or REALTIME makes a
>  sizable difference.

You need to run N x tasks at normal priority which just use up CPU, eg

  python -c "while 1: pass"

N needs to be the number of CPUs that you have.

If you don't do that then your time test prog will just run at the
full CPU speed and not test the scheduling at all!

>  So, I concede the "Unified Priority" may indeed be dead in the water,
>  but I am thinking of giving it once last go with the following
>  suggestion:
>  0.0 == Zero-Page (Windows, e.g. 0) / +20 (Unix)
>  1.0 == Normal (Foreground) Priority (Windows, e.g. 9) / 0 (Unix)
>  MAX_PRIORITY == Realtime / Time Critical (Windows, e.g. 31) / -20
>  (Unix)
>  With the value of MAX_PRIORITY TBD.  Now, 0.0 would still represent
>  (relatively) 0% CPU usage, but now 1.0 would represent 100% of
>  'Normal' priority.  I would still map 0.0 - 1.0 linearly over the
>  scale corresponding to the given operating system (0 - 9, Window; +20
>  - 0, Unix), but higher priorities would correspond to > 1.0 values.
>  The idea here is that most user will only want to lower priority, not
>  raise it, so it makes lowering pretty intuitive.  As for the linear
>  mapping, I would leave a note in the documentation that although the
>  scale is "linear", the operating system may choose to behave as if the
>  scale is linear and that the user should consult the documentation for
>  their OS to determine specific behavior.  This is similar to the
>  documentation of the file time-stamps in os.stat, since their
>  granularity differs based on OS.  Most users, I should think, would
>  just want to make their spawn "slower" and use the scale do determine
>  "how much" in a relative fashion rather than expecting hard-and-fast
>  numbers for the actually process retardation.
>  Higher than Normal priorities may OTHO, be a bit harder to deal with.
>  It strikes me that maybe the best approach is to make MAX_PRIORITY
>  operating system dependent, specifically 31 - 9 + 1.0 = +23.0 for
>  Windows and -20 - 0 + 1.0 = +21.0 for Unix.  This way, again the
>  priorities map linearly and in this case 1:1.  I think for most users,
>  they would choose a "High Priority" relative to MAX_PRIORITY or just
>  choose a small increment about 1.0 to add just a little boost.
>  Of course, the 2 biggest problems with this approach are, IMHO, a) the
> < Normal scale is percent but the > Normal scale is additive.
>  However, there is no "Simple" definition of MAX_PRIORITY, so I think
>  using the OS's definition is natural. b) This use of the priority
>  scale may be confusing to Unix users, since 1.0 now represents
>  "Normal" and +21, not +/-20 represents Max Priority.  However, the
>  definition of MAX_PRIORITY would be irrelevant to the definition of
>  setPriority and getPriority, since each would, in my proposal, compute
>  for p > 1.0:
>  Windows: 9 + int((p - 1) / (MAX_PRIORITY - 1) * 22 + .5)
>  Unix: -int((p - 1) / (MAX_PRIORITY - 1) * 20 + .5)
>  Anyway, that's how I'd propose to do the nitty-gritty.  But, more than
>  anything, I think the subprocess 'priority' methods should use a
>  priority scheme that is easy to explain.  And by that, I propose:
>  1.0 represents normal priority, 100%.  Any priority less than 1
>  represents a below normal priority, down to 0.0, the lowest possible
>  priority or 0%.  Any priority above 1.0 represents an above normal
>  priority, with MAX_PRIORITY being the highest priority level available
>  for a given os.
>  Granted, it's not much simpler than 0 is normal, -20 is highest and
>  +20 is lowest, except in so far as it being non-intuitive to consider
>  a lower priority number representing a higher priority.  Certainly, we
>  could conform all systems to the +20.0 to -20.0 floating point system,
>  but I prefer not to bias the methods and honestly feel percentage is
>  more intuitive.
>  So, how does that sound to people?  Is that more palatable?

I think it might give people the idea that if you set it to 0.1 you'll
get 1/10 of the cpu than normal.  Likewise 2.0 etc.  There is
something to be said for the deliberately somewhat arbitrary nice
levels in the unix world!

Nick Craig-Wood <nick at> --

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