Quesion on class.attributes assignment

John Hanks john.hanks0 at gmail.com
Fri Jul 25 21:36:44 CEST 2008


Hi,

I am reading a python program now but I just cannot understand how the
values of class attributes are assigned and changed. Here is the original
code url:
http://agolb.blogspot.com/2006/01/sudoku-solver-in-python.html
Here I am concerned is how attribute matrix.rows is changed. Through pdb
debugging, I can see in line 97, once "self.solutions = set((val,))" is
executed, cell.row and matrix.rows will be updated. But I did not see any
assignment codes here. How could this change happen then? Thanks a lot!

John

# http://agolb.blogspot.com/2006/01/sudoku-solver-in-python.html
#!/usr/bin/env python
#
# sudoku-solver version 3
#
# Some ideas ripped-off from:
# http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/8729
# http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Cookbook/Python/Recipe/440542
# Pavol solver in
#
http://groups.google.com/group/comp.lang.python/browse_thread/thread/5087890f4c5e770d
#
# Copyright 2005 Ago,
# But you are free to copy, reuse, modify and distribute the code as you see
fit

from copy import deepcopy
class DeadEnd(Exception): pass


class Matrix:
    def __init__(self, input):
        self.rows = [[] for i in range(9)]
        self.cols  = [[] for i in range(9)]
        self.submatrices = [[] for i in range(9)]
        self.cells = [Cell(i,self) for i in range(81)]
        self.subdiagonals = [self.rows[i][j+i%3] for i in range(9) for j in
[0,3,6]]
        input = [s not in '-*' and int(s) or 0 for s in input if s in
'0123456789-*']
        for cell,val in zip(self.cells, input):
            if val: cell.setSolution(val)

    def solve(self): #Brute-force solver
        self.solveByReduction()
        lensols=[(len(c.solutions),c.index) for c in self.cells if not
c.solved]
        if not lensols: return True
        unsolved = min(lensols)[1]
        solutions = list(self.cells[unsolved].solutions)
        for s in solutions:
            tmpmatrix = deepcopy(self)
            try:
                tmpmatrix.cells[unsolved].setSolution(s)
                if tmpmatrix.solve():
                    self.update(tmpmatrix)
                    return True
            except DeadEnd: pass

    def solveByReduction(self):
        while True:
            self.changed = False
            for c in self.cells: c.solve()
            for c in self.subdiagonals: c.skim()
            if not self.changed: break

    def update(self, m):
        self.rows, self.cols, self.submatrices, self.cells,
self.subdiagonals=\
            m.rows, m.cols, m.submatrices, m.cells, m.subdiagonals

    def __str__(self):
        return "\n".join(str([c for c in row ])[1:-1] for row in self.rows)


class Cell:
    def __init__(self, index, matrix):
        self.solved = False
        self.matrix = matrix
        self.index = index
        self.row = matrix.rows[index/9]
        self.col = matrix.cols[index%9]
        self.submatrix = matrix.submatrices[((index/9)/3)*3+(index%9)/3]
        self.row.append(self)
        self.col.append(self)
        self.submatrix.append(self)
        self.solutions = set(range(1,10))

    def solve(self):
        if self.solved: return
        if len(self.solutions) == 1:
            self.setSolution(self.solutions.pop())
        else:
            sol = set()
            for cells in [self.row, self.col, self.submatrix]:
                otherSolutions = self.cells2sols(cells, self)
                sol |= (self.solutions - otherSolutions)
            if len(sol) > 1: raise DeadEnd()
            if sol: self.setSolution(sol.pop())

    def skim(self):
        submatrix = set(self.submatrix)
        for r in  (set(self.row), set(self.col)):
            subset1 = submatrix - r
            subset2 = r - submatrix
            solsNotIn1 = set(range(1,10)) - self.cells2sols(subset2)
            solsNotIn2 = set(range(1,10)) - self.cells2sols(subset1)
            for c in subset1: c.delSolutions(solsNotIn1)
            for c in subset2: c.delSolutions(solsNotIn2)

    def setSolution(self, val):
        self.solved = True
        self.solutions = set((val,))
        self.matrix.changed = True
        for other in self.row+self.col+self.submatrix:
            if other is self: continue
            if other.solutions == self.solutions: raise DeadEnd()
            other.delSolutions(self.solutions)

    def delSolutions(self, val):
        if not self.solved and val & self.solutions:
            self.solutions -= val
            self.matrix.changed = True
            if not self.solutions: raise DeadEnd()

    def __repr__(self):
        return str(self.solved and list(self.solutions)[0] or
list(self.solutions))

    @staticmethod
    def cells2sols(cells, exclude=None):
        return set(s for c in cells for s in c.solutions if c is not
exclude)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    input ='''
1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2
0,9,0,4,0,0,0,5,0
0,0,6,0,0,0,7,0,0
0,5,0,9,0,3,0,0,0
0,0,0,0,7,0,0,0,0
0,0,0,8,5,0,0,4,0
7,0,0,0,0,0,6,0,0
0,3,0,0,0,9,0,8,0
0,0,2,0,0,0,0,0,1
'''
    matrix = Matrix(input)
    matrix.solve()
    print matrix
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