Problem with lower() for unicode strings in russian

Alexey Moskvin dbf at
Mon Oct 6 06:39:09 CEST 2008

Martin, thanks for fast reply, now anything is ok!
On Oct 6, 1:30 am, "Martin v. Löwis" <mar... at> wrote:
> > I have a set of strings (all letters are capitalized) at utf-8,
> That's the problem. If these are really utf-8 encoded byte strings,
> then .lower likely won't work. It uses the C library's tolower API,
> which works on a byte level, i.e. can't work for multi-byte encodings.
> What you need to do is to operate on Unicode strings. I.e. instead
> of
>   s.lower()
> do
>   s.decode("utf-8").lower()
> or (if you need byte strings back)
>   s.decode("utf-8").lower().encode("utf-8")
> If you find that you write the latter, I recommend that you redesign
> your application. Don't use byte strings to represent text, but use
> Unicode strings all the time, except at the system boundary (where
> you decode/encode as appropriate).
> There are some limitations with Unicode .lower also, but I don't
> think they apply to Russian (specifically, SpecialCasing.txt is
> not considered).
> HTH,
> Martin

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