is python Object oriented??

MRAB google at
Sun Feb 1 10:27:48 EST 2009

David Bolen wrote:
> thmpsn.m.k at writes:
>> I don't know how you would do it in C# (or Java for that matter).
>> In C++ you can play with pointers to "get at" some memory location
>> somewhere in the object. The only portable way to know the exact
>> location between the beginning of the object and the desired member is
>> the offsetof() macro, but as I understand it this only works for POD
>> types, which means that it won't work for classes such as:
>> class NonPOD
>> {
>> private:
>>     int a;
>>     int b;
>> public:
>>     NonPOD();
>>     ~NonPOD();
>>     int C();
>> };
>> (I haven't ever actually tried it, so I'm not sure.)
>> Nevertheless, you can play and hope for the best. For example, if the
>> member you want to get at is 'b', then you can do:
>> NonPOD obj;
>> std::cout << "obj.b = " << *(int*) ((unsigned char*) &obj + sizeof
>> (int)) << std::endl;
>> and hope that the compiler didn't leave a hole between the 'a' member
>> and the 'b' member.
> Probably moving off topic, but I don't think you have to get anywhere
> near that extreme in terms of pointers, unless you're trying to deal
> with instances for which you have no source but only opaque pointers.
> I haven't gotten stuck having to do this myself yet, but I believe one
> commmon "hack" for the sort of class you show above is to just
> "#define private public" before including the header file containing
> the class definition.  No fiddling with pointers, offsets, or
> whatever, just normal object access syntax past that point.
> Of course, I believe such a redefinition violates the letter of the
> C++ standard, but most preprocessors do it anyway.  Also, it won't
> handle the case where the "private:" is not used, but the members are
> just declared prior to any other definition, since a class is private
> by default.
You can also "#define class struct" before including the header file. 
The only difference between 'class' and 'struct' in C++ is that the 
members of a class are private by default and the members of a struct 
are public by default.

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