is python Object oriented??
hungvn94 at gmail.com
Fri Jan 30 06:56:13 CET 2009
On Jan 30, 4:19 am, Michael Torrie <torr... at gmail.com> wrote:
> M Kumar wrote:
> > but still I am not clear of the execution of the code, when we write or
> > execute a piece of python code without defining class, predefined class
> > attributes are available (not all but __name__ and __doc__ are available).
> > does it mean anything to this topic. Is it necessory to have __module__,
> > __dict__ and __bases__ for a class object in python?
> I think you're confused as to what object-oriented means. OO defines
> the internals of a language more than a particular programming paradigm.
> Obviously python lets you program in a variety of paradigms, including
> procedural and event-driven, but it is all very much object-oriented.
> So ignore those that say python doesn't force you to use OOP, when in
> fact it's unavoidable. It's just that you're not forced to place all
> your code in class definitions. You don't need to because your code is
> already object-oriented in that you're manipulating objects and their
> As others have said, Python is an object-oriented language through and
> through, closer to Smalltalk in many ways, the grand-daddy of all OO
> It appears that you are only really familiar with Java, and that leads
> to a number of interesting misconceptions about OO. Java's bizarre OO
> requires everything to be in a class, which leads many people to believe
> this is what OO should be. In fact Java is a bit odd when it comes to
> OO, as there are many things in Java that aren't in fact objects. For
> example, primitives are intrinsic types and are not objects.
> Furthermore class definitions are not objects either, at least from the
> programmer's pov. You can't manipulate them by standard means as you
> can in Smalltalk and Python. In Smalltalk and Python a "class" is an
> object just as much as an instance of a class is an object which has a
> constructor factory method that returns instance objects. Java also has
> very strange ways of doing singleton patterns. You have to wrap
> singletons in class and define them as "static." I think this was
> inherited from C++.
> The most basic object in a python script is the module object which
> represents the namespace of the current script. In effect a module
> object is a singleton. It has a few attributes, and you can use it to
> look up any of the objects it contains, such as functions, objects
> (so-called variables), classes, etc. Everything in python is an object.
> The statement:
> a = 4
> defines an integer object "4" and binds a name to it, 'a.' You can even
> check to see what methods the object supports by doing:
> >>> dir(4)
> ['__abs__', '__add__', '__and__', '__class__', '__cmp__', '__coerce__',
> '__delattr__', '__div__', '__divmod__', '__doc__', '__float__',
> '__floordiv__', '__getattribute__', '__getnewargs__', '__hash__',
> '__hex__', '__index__', '__init__', '__int__', '__invert__', '__long__',
> '__lshift__', '__mod__', '__mul__', '__neg__', '__new__', '__nonzero__',
> '__oct__', '__or__', '__pos__', '__pow__', '__radd__', '__rand__',
> '__rdiv__', '__rdivmod__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__',
> '__rfloordiv__', '__rlshift__', '__rmod__', '__rmul__', '__ror__',
> '__rpow__', '__rrshift__', '__rshift__', '__rsub__', '__rtruediv__',
> '__rxor__', '__setattr__', '__str__', '__sub__', '__truediv__', '__xor__']
> dir(a) would return the same thing. As you can see, all the operators
> that can be performed with a number object are defined. This little
> exercise alone should show you how much more object-oriented Python is
> than Java.
> Python's OO capabilities are really exposed when you start extending
> built-in types, or doing meta programming where you dynamically alter
> classes (and instance objects) on the fly.
I'm new to Python and also wondering about OOP in Python.
I want to justify the above question (is Python Object-Oriented?).
Does Python follow the concepts/practices of Encapsulation,
Polymorphism and Interface, which are quite familiar to Java
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