# Exotic Logics

Wed Jun 17 19:30:39 CEST 2009

```On Jun 17, 10:05 am, pdpi <pdpinhe... at gmail.com> wrote:
> On Jun 17, 5:37 pm, Lie Ryan <lie.1... at gmail.com> wrote:
>
>
>
> > Steven D'Aprano wrote:
> > > On Tue, 16 Jun 2009 22:46:14 -0700, William Clifford wrote:
>
> > >> I was staring at a logic table the other day, and I asked myself, "what
> > >> if one wanted to play with exotic logics; how might one do it?"
>
> > > This might be useful for you, and if not useful, at least it might blow
> > > your mind like it did mine.
>
> > > (This is not original to me -- I didn't create it. However, I can't find
> > > the original source.)
>
> > > Imagine for a moment that there are no boolean values.
> > > There are no numbers.  They were never invented.
> > > There are no classes.
> > > There are no objects.
> > > There are only functions.
>
> > > Could you define functions that act like boolean values? And could you
> > > define other functions to operate on them?
>
> > > def true(x, y):
> > >     return x
>
> > > def false(x, y):
> > >     return y
>
> > > def print_bool(b):
> > >     print b("true", "false")
>
> > String isn't considered object?
>
> > Also, b/true()/false() is a function object, isn't it? Unless function
> > is first-class, you can't pass them around like that, since you need a
> > function pointer (a.k.a number); but if function is first-class then
> > there it is an object.
>
> What Steven was doing was implementing some of the more basic stuff
> from Lambda calculus in python. If you're implementing a different
> system in an existing language, you'll need to use _some_ facilities
> of the original language to interface with the outside world.

Sir!  Entropy levels are approaching dangerously low levels.  We don't
even have enough entropy to fi

```