nohup and os.system

Cameron Simpson cs at zip.com.au
Thu Mar 12 06:37:10 CET 2009


On 11Mar2009 21:05, Gideon <gideon.simpson at gmail.com> wrote:
| I've got a python script, batch.py that, amongst other things,
| executes commands:
| 
| os.system('cmd1')
| os.system('cmd2')
| 
| now, these programs output certain information at the command line,
| and if i execute
| 
| ./batch.py
| 
| it shows up as I would expect.
| 
| However, if i run
| 
| nohup ./batch.py &
| 
| then while everything runs, but the intermediate output that generated
| by each os.system call does not get appended to nohup.out until
| *after* the command finishes executing.  Is there a way I can get this
| data to be appended in real time?
| 
| What I'm doing in practice is sticking a lightweight python script
| around an existing fortran binary, and I'd like to be able to monitor
| the progress of the binary be checking the nohup.out log.

You're being bitten by a standard bit of stdio-on-UNIX. With the stdio
library, stdout behaves differently (by default) if attached to a
terminal. If stdout is attached to a terminal it is line buffered,
and output is flushed on newlines. Otherwise it is block buffered
and flushed when the buffer fills (8192 bytes or some number like that,
depending on the system).

This is for efficiency: with block buffering, when you call the stdio
fwrite() function is merely copies data into a buffer, and does not call an
OS write() call unless the buffer is full. This results in fewer OS calls,
fewer data copies, fewer context switches and thus higher throughput.

Programs usually line buffer to a terminal because that produces more
timely output for people such as yourself when watching it.

This buffering is happening inside the cmd1 and cmd2 programs, not in
your python script. (Python will buffer like this too, but that's not
your problem here.)

With nohup, the outputs of cmd1 and cmd2 are going to the nohup.out
file, and thus are set to block buffering. Unless cmd1 and cmd2 have
special command line switches to get them to line buffer (or no-buffer)
your only recourse is to attach them to terminals, thus tricking them
into doing line buffering again. Fortunately, this is made convenient by
the script command. For example, try changing the string "cmd1" into the
string:

  script -a -q -f nohup.out cmd1

(You will probably need GNU script for the -f option; see "man script"
for details, or just try it.)

The other thing to be aware of when doing this is that script logs the
output post the terminal character driver; this will normally translate
newlines in the program output into carriage-return and then newline
because that is what a terminal requires to move the cursor as needed.

Cheers,
-- 
Cameron Simpson <cs at zip.com.au> DoD#743
http://www.cskk.ezoshosting.com/cs/

Network Planning Constraint Of The Month:
        You can't send bits over a non-existant link.
                - Valdis Kletnieks <valdis at vtvm1.cc.vt.edu>



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