Needed: Real-world examples for Python's Cooperative Multiple Inheritance

Giampaolo Rodolà g.rodola at
Mon Nov 29 16:48:11 CET 2010

2010/11/24 Raymond Hettinger <python at>:
> I'm writing-up more guidance on how to use super() and would like to
> point at some real-world Python examples of cooperative multiple
> inheritance.
> Google searches take me to old papers for C++ and Eiffel, but that
> don't seem to be relevant to most Python programmers (i.e. a
> WalkingMenu example where a submenu is both a Entry in a Menu and a
> Menu itself).  Another published example is in a graphic library where
> some widgets inherit GraphicalFeature methods such as location, size
> and NestingGroupingFeatures such as finding parents, siblings, and
> children.  I don't find either of those examples compelling because
> there is no particular reason that they would have to have overlapping
> method names.
> So far, the only situation I can find where method names necessarily
> overlap is for the basics like __init__(), close(), flush(), and
> save() where multiple parents need to have their own initialization
> and finalization.
> If you guys know of good examples, I would appreciate a link or a
> recap.
> Thanks,
> Raymond
> --

In pyftpdlib I used multiple inheritance to implement FTP over SSL:

I can't say it's been natural/intuitive though, and it took me a while
to make it work properly.
super() is one of the few things in Python I really don't understand properly.

--- Giampaolo

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