a basic bytecode to machine code compiler

Dan Stromberg drsalists at gmail.com
Sat Apr 2 21:47:18 CEST 2011

On Sat, Apr 2, 2011 at 12:05 PM, John Nagle <nagle at animats.com> wrote:

> On 4/2/2011 3:30 AM, Stefan Behnel wrote:
>> Cython actually supports most Python language features now (including
>> generators in the development branch), both from Python 2 and Python 3.
>> Chances are that the next release will actually compile most of your
>> Python code unchanged, or only with minor adaptations.
>    Cython requires the user to insert type declarations, though, to
> get a speed improvement.

Actually, Cython often gives modest speed improvements without type
declarations, and greater improvements with type declarations.  For still
further improvements, you can turn to C datastructures in Cython.

It surprises me how often people think of Cython as a weird dialect of
Python.  I know I used to before actually giving Cython a try.  Cython's
really pretty close to CPython; it just has some C-like things it can do

   Shed Skin has a good type inference system, but it insists on
> a unique type for each object (which includes "null"; a type of
> "str or null" is not acceptable).  The rest of Shed Skin, outside
> the type inference system, is not very well developed.
>    There's a path there to a fast Python with some restrictions.
> The Shed Skin inference engine with the Cython engine might have
> potential.

I'm not sure Shedskin and Cython are that compatible in their backends,
though I imagine they could share ideas more.  ISTR that Cython already does
some type inference without restricting types much.

>    PyPy gets some speedups, mostly by recognizing when numbers can be
> unboxed.

For my current project, I find that Pypy gets quite remarkable speedups,
even when compared to Cython:


The algorithm being tested is a byte-by-byte content-based checksum.

(I believe I've shared the above link here before)

   There's no easy way to speed up Python; that's been tried.
> It needs either a very, very elaborate JIT system, more complex
> than the ones for Java or Self, or some language restrictions.
> The main restriction I would impose is to provide a call that says:
> "OK, we're done with loading, initialization, and configuration.
> Now freeze the code."  At that moment, all the global
> analysis and compiling takes place.  This allows getting rid
> of the GIL and getting real performance out of multithread
> CPUs.

Freezing things is a nice idea - one I suggested on the unladen swallow list
a while back.

But Pypy seems to be doing quite well without it, at least in my limited
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