interactive help on the base object

Chris Angelico rosuav at
Mon Dec 9 03:57:28 CET 2013

On Mon, Dec 9, 2013 at 1:41 PM, Mark Janssen <dreamingforward at> wrote:
>>> What methods, if any does it provide?  Are they all abstract? etc???
>> Pretty much nothing useful :-)
>> py> dir(object)
>> [...]
> So (prodding the student), Why does everything inherit from Object if
> it provides no functionality?
> Practicality-beats-purity-yours?

Nothing useful to call directly. An int has some useful methods in Python:

>>> (258).to_bytes(2,"little")

So does a list:

>>> [1,4,1,5,9].count(1)

But there's nothing you'd normally want to call from object itself
(except maybe __repr__). There *are*, however, important pieces of
default functionality. Steven mentioned __eq__, and there's also its
pair __hash__. The default system works because the root type provides
implementations of those two functions:

>>> a = object()
>>> b = object()
>>> a == b
>>> d = {a:"A", b:"B"}
>>> d[a]

And it's important that these sorts of things work, because otherwise
a simple Python class would look like this:

class Foo:
    def __new__(self): pass
    def __init__(self): pass
    def __hash__(self): return id(self)
    def __eq__(self, other): return self is other
    # ...

This repetition is exactly what inheritance is good at solving.
Therefore putting that functionality into a base class makes sense;
and since everything MUST have these functions to be able to be used
plausibly, putting them in the lowest base class of all makes the most


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