New to Python - block grouping (spaces)

Marko Rauhamaa marko at
Mon Apr 20 07:09:35 CEST 2015

Chris Angelico <rosuav at>:

> On Mon, Apr 20, 2015 at 12:54 PM, Steven D'Aprano
> <steve+comp.lang.python at> wrote:
>> On Mon, 20 Apr 2015 06:41 am, Marko Rauhamaa wrote:
>> Python has a noncanonical textual representation?
>> What is a noncanonical textual representation, and where can I see
>> some?
> I think what Marko means is that there is a textual way to represent
> Python source code, and there are multiple files that represent
> identical Python programs, hence "noncanonical". If you have two UTF-8
> encoded files that contain the same text, they will have the exact
> same bytes in them, because UTF-8 defines a canonical byte
> representation for text. You can't say that about Python source.

Yes, more than one Python source file produces an identical AST, and
none of them is obviously the "normal form."


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