[Tkinter-discuss] and or ??

Michael Lange klappnase at web.de
Thu Aug 18 11:54:10 CEST 2011


Thus spoketh "守株待兔" <1248283536 at qq.com> 
unto us on Thu, 18 Aug 2011 12:09:52 +0800:

> there is a code:
> #coding:utf-8
> from Tkinter import * 
> from sys import stdout, exit                 # lambda generates a
> function 
> widget = Button(None,                        # but contains just an
> expression text='Hello event world',  
>              command=(lambda: stdout.write('Hello lambda world\n') or
> exit()) ) 
> widget.pack() 
> widget.mainloop()
> when you click the button,there is output : Hello lambda world, then
> exit the program. i am confused, why not use "and" ?  i made a try, if
> i use "or",the program will not exit ,why?

You seem to expect that the "and" inside the body of your lamdba function
will force the interpreter to execute first the stdout.write() command
"and" then the exit() command. Actually however using "and" or "or" in
your lambda will cause the whole expression to be evaluated as True or
False. Now what happens is:

First case:
    stdout.write('Hello lambda world\n') and exit()

This evaluates to True if *both* parts are True. So the interpreter first
evaluates stdout.write('Hello lambda world\n') . The return value of this
call is "None" which evaluates to False so the whole expression will
evaluate to False, no matter what the second part does - the interpreter
will not even try.

Second case:
    stdout.write('Hello lambda world\n') or exit()

This evaluates to True if *one or both* parts are True. Now again the
interpreter tries stdout.write() first, gets a "False" and so tries
to check the result of the second statement. Unfortunately it never gets
to see the result, because exit() stops the interpreter ;)

Maybe this behavior is easier to understand if you try something like
this at a python prompt:

>>> from sys import stdout
>>> print stdout.write('foo\n')
>>> print stdout.write('foo\n') or stdout.write('bar\n')
>>> print stdout.write('foo\n') and stdout.write('bar\n')
>>> if stdout.write('foo\n'):
...     print 'True'
... else:
...     print 'False'

I hope this helps


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