[Python-Dev] Speeding up CPython 5-10%
yselivanov.ml at gmail.com
Wed Jan 27 13:25:27 EST 2016
tl;dr The summary is that I have a patch that improves CPython
performance up to 5-10% on macro benchmarks. Benchmarks results on
Macbook Pro/Mac OS X, desktop CPU/Linux, server CPU/Linux are available
at . There are no slowdowns that I could reproduce consistently.
There are twodifferent optimizations that yield this speedup:
LOAD_METHOD/CALL_METHOD opcodes and per-opcode cache in ceval loop.
LOAD_METHOD & CALL_METHOD
We had a lot of conversations with Victor about his PEP 509, and he sent
me a link to his amazing compilation of notes about CPython performance
. One optimization that he pointed out to me was LOAD/CALL_METHOD
opcodes, an idea first originated in PyPy.
There is a patch that implements this optimization, it's tracked here:
. There are some low level details that I explained in the issue,
but I'll go over the high level design in this email as well.
Every time you access a method attribute on an object, a BoundMethod
object is created. It is a fairly expensive operation, despite a
freelist of BoundMethods (so that memory allocation is generally
avoided). The idea is to detect what looks like a method call in the
compiler, and emit a pair of specialized bytecodes for that.
So instead of LOAD_GLOBAL/LOAD_ATTR/CALL_FUNCTION we will have
LOAD_METHOD looks at the object on top of the stack, and checks if the
name resolves to a method or to a regular attribute. If it's a method,
then we push the unbound method object and the object to the stack. If
it's an attribute, we push the resolved attribute and NULL.
When CALL_METHOD looks at the stack it knows how to call the unbound
method properly (pushing the object as a first arg), or how to call a
This idea does make CPython faster around 2-4%. And it surely doesn't
make it slower. I think it's a safe bet to at least implement this
optimization in CPython 3.6.
So far, the patch only optimizes positional-only method calls. It's
possible to optimize all kind of calls, but this will necessitate 3 more
opcodes (explained in the issue). We'll need to do some careful
benchmarking to see if it's really needed.
Per-opcode cache in ceval
While reading PEP 509, I was thinking about how we can use
dict->ma_version in ceval to speed up globals lookups. One of the key
assumptions (and this is what makes JITs possible) is that real-life
programs don't modify globals and rebind builtins (often), and that most
code paths operate on objects of the same type.
In CPython, all pure Python functions have code objects. When you call
a function, ceval executes its code object in a frame. Frames contain
contextual information, including pointers to the globals and builtins
dict. The key observation here is that almost all code objects always
have same pointers to the globals (the module they were defined in) and
to the builtins. And it's not a good programming practice to mutate
globals or rebind builtins.
Let's look at this function:
Here are its opcodes:
2 0 LOAD_GLOBAL 0 (print)
3 LOAD_GLOBAL 1 (ham)
6 CALL_FUNCTION 1 (1 positional, 0 keyword pair)
10 LOAD_CONST 0 (None)
The opcodes we want to optimize are LAOD_GLOBAL, 0 and 3. Let's look at
the first one, that loads the 'print' function from builtins. The
opcode knows the following bits of information:
- its offset (0),
- its argument (0 -> 'print'),
- its type (LOAD_GLOBAL).
And these bits of information will *never* change. So if this opcode
could resolve the 'print' name (from globals or builtins, likely the
latter) and save the pointer to it somewhere, along with
globals->ma_version and builtins->ma_version, it could, on its second
call, just load this cached info back, check that the globals and
builtins dict haven't changed and push the cached ref to the stack.
That would save it from doing two dict lookups.
We can also optimize LOAD_METHOD. There are high chances, that 'obj' in
'obj.method()' will be of the same type every time we execute the code
object. So if we'd have an opcodes cache, LOAD_METHOD could then cache
a pointer to the resolved unbound method, a pointer to obj.__class__,
and tp_version_tag of obj.__class__. Then it would only need to check
if the cached object type is the same (and that it wasn't modified) and
that obj.__dict__ doesn't override 'method'. Long story short, this
caching really speeds up method calls on types implemented in C.
list.append becomes very fast, because list doesn't have a __dict__, so
the check is very cheap (with cache).
A straightforward way to implement such a cache is simple, but consumes
a lot of memory, that would be just wasted, since we only need such a
cache for LOAD_GLOBAL and LOAD_METHOD opcodes. So we have to be creative
about the cache design. Here's what I came up with:
1. We add a few fields to the code object.
2. ceval will count how many times each code object is executed.
3. When the code object is executed over ~900 times, we mark it as
"hot". We also create an 'unsigned char' array "MAPPING", with length
set to match the length of the code object. So we have a 1-to-1 mapping
between opcodes and MAPPING array.
4. Next ~100 calls, while the code object is "hot", LOAD_GLOBAL and
LOAD_METHOD do "MAPPING[opcode_offset()]++".
5. After 1024 calls to the code object, ceval loop will iterate through
the MAPPING, counting all opcodes that were executed more than 50 times.
6. We then create an array of cache structs "CACHE" (here's a link to
the updated code.h file: ). We update MAPPING to be a mapping
between opcode position and position in the CACHE. The code object is
7. When the code object is "optimized", LOAD_METHOD and LOAD_GLOBAL use
the CACHE array for fast path.
8. When there is a cache miss, i.e. the builtins/global/obj.__dict__
were mutated, the opcode marks its entry in 'CACHE' as deoptimized, and
it will never try to use the cache again.
Here's a link to the issue tracker with the first version of the patch:
. I'm working on the patch in a github repo here: .
There are many things about this algorithm that we can improve/tweak.
Perhaps we should profile code objects longer, or account for time they
were executed. Maybe we shouldn't deoptimize opcodes on their first
cache miss. Maybe we can come up with better data structures. We also
need to profile the memory and see how much more this cache will require.
One thing I'm certain about, is that we can get a 5-10% speedup of
CPython with relatively low memory impact. And I think it's worth
If you're interested in these kind of optimizations, please help with
code reviews, ideas, profiling and benchmarks. The latter is especially
important, I'd never imagine how hard it is to come up with a good macro
I also want to thank my company MagicStack (magic.io) for sponsoring
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