# Download ASTROS User`s Reference Manual for Version 20.

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Advanced CAE Applications for Professionals Software that works — for you.SM ASTROS User’s Reference Manual for Version 20 UNIVERSAL ANALYTICS, INC. © 1997 UNIVERSAL ANALYTICS, INC. Torrance, California USA All Rights Reserved First Edition, March 1997 Second Edition, November 1997 Restricted Rights Legend: The use, duplication, or disclosure of the information contained in this document is subject to the restrictions set forth in your Software License Agreement with Universal Analytics, Inc. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government of the United States is subject to the restrictions set forth in Subdivision (b)(3)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause, 48 CFR 252.227-7013. The concepts and examples contained herein is for educational purposes only and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or design. All information is subject to change without notice. Universal Analytics Inc. does not warrant that this document is free of errors or defects and assumes no liability or responsibility to any person or company for direct or indirect damages resulting from the use of any information contained herein. UNIVERSAL ANALYTICS, INC. 3625 Del Amo Blvd., Suite 370 Torrance, CA 90503 Tel: (310) 214-2922 FAX: (310) 214-3420 USER’S MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 2. RUNNING ASTROS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1.OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 2.1.1.Executing ASTROS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2.The ASTROS Configuration and Preference Files . . . . 2.1.2.1.The Format of Preference Files . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3.Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.4.The Configuration Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.4.1.The Host Configuration Section . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.4.2.The eBASE Kernel Configuration Section . . . . . 2.1.4.3.The ASTROS Configuration Section . . . . . . . . 2.1.4.4.The eBASE:APPLIB and eBASE:MATLIB Sections 2.1.4.5.The eSHELL Configuration Section . . . . . . . . . 2.1.5.Dynamic Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.6.The eBASE Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.6.1.The Two Types of Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.6.2.The Logical and Physical Views of the Database . . 2.1.6.3.The Physical Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.6.4.ASSIGNing Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.6.5.Database File Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.6.6.Very Large Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.7.Host Computer Dependencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-7 2-7 2.2.UNIX-BASED COMPUTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 2.2.1.Executing ASTROS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 2.2.2.ASTROS File Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 ASTROS i USER’S MANUAL 2.2.2.1.Unique ASTROS files 2.2.2.2.Databases . . . . . . 2.2.3.The eSHELL Program . . . 2.2.4.Automatic Preference Files 2.2.5.Online Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 . 2-9 2-10 2-10 2-10 3. THE INPUT DATA STREAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.1.INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.2.THE RESOURCE COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 3.2.1.THE ASSIGN COMMAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2. ASSIGN COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS FOR HOST COMPUTERS 3.2.2.1. UNIX SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3.THE MEMORY COMMAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 3-6 3-6 3-9 3.3. THE INCLUDE DIRECTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 3.4. THE DEBUG PACKET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 3.4.1. EXECUTIVE SYSTEM DEBUG COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2. DATABASE AND MEMORY MANAGER DEBUG COMMANDS 3.4.3. INTERMEDIATE RESULTS PRINTING COMMANDS . . . . . 3.4.4. MISCELLANEOUS DEBUG COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.5. SEQUENCER INTERMEDIATE PRINT COMMANDS . . . . . 4. THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-17 3-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4.1. THE MAPOL PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 4.2. MAPOL EDIT COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 4.3. THE STANDARD EXECUTIVE SEQUENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 4.4. STANDARD EXECUTIVE SEQUENCE STRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 4.4.1. MAPOL Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2. The Solution Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2.1. MAPOL Engineering and Utility Modules . . . . . . 4.4.2.2. The Preface Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2.3. The Analysis/Optimization Segments . . . . . . . 4.4.3. Modifying the Standard MAPOL Sequence . . . . . . . . 4.4.4. Restart Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.4.1. Ensuring proper STATUS of the run-time database 4.4.4.2. Suspending/Restarting Execution . . . . . . . . . 4.4.4.3.Resetting MAPOL Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 4-12 4-13 4-19 4-19 4-20 4-22 4-22 4-23 4-23 4.5. MAPOL PROGRAM LISTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 ii ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 5. THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 5.1. OPTIMIZE AND ANALYZE SUBPACKETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 5.2. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 5.3. DISCIPLINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 5.3.1. DISCIPLINE OPTIONS . . . . 5.3.2. STATICS Discipline Options . 5.3.3. MODES Discipline Options . . . 5.3.4. SAERO Discipline Options . . . 5.3.5. FLUTTER Discipline Options . 5.3.6. TRANSIENT Discipline Options 5.3.7. FREQUENCY Discipline Options . . . . . . . . . 5-9 . 5-12 . 5-12 . 5-12 . 5-13 . 5-13 . 5-13 5.4. OUTPUT REQUESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14 5.4.1. Subset Options . . . . . . . 5.4.2. Response Quantity Options 5.4.3. Form Options . . . . . . . . 5.4.4. Labeling Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5. SOLUTION CONTROL COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14 5-16 5-17 5-17 5-17 6. THE FUNCTION PACKET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6.1.BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6.2. THE FUNCTION EVALUATION PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6.2.1.Solution Control Packet . . . . . . 6.2.1.1.Synthetic Objective Function 6.2.1.2.Synthetic Design Constraints 6.2.2.Bulk Data Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 6-2 6-3 6-4 6.3.FUNCTION SYNTAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 6.3.1.Mathematical Functions . . . . . . . . 6.3.2.Response Functions . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2.1.Design Variable Function . . . . 6.3.2.2.Selection Functions . . . . . . . 6.3.2.3.Geometric Functions . . . . . . 6.3.2.4.Grid Point Response Functions . 6.3.2.5.Element Response Functions . . 6.3.2.6.Natural Frequency Constraints . 6.3.2.7.Flutter Response Functions . . . 6.3.2.8.Static Aero Response Functions 6.3.3.Ordered Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASTROS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 6-5 6-7 6-7 6-7 6-9 6-9 6-11 6-11 6-12 6-13 6-14 iii USER’S MANUAL 6.5.INSTRINSIC RESPONSE COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25 7. THE BULK DATA PACKET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 7.1. BULK DATA ECHO OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 7.2. FORMAT OF THE BULK DATA ENTRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 7.3. DATA FIELD FORMATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4 7.4. ERROR CHECKING IN THE INPUT FILE PROCESSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 7.5. BULK DATA ENTRY SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 7.5.1. Aerodynamic Load Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.2. Applied Dynamic Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.3. Applied Static Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.4. Boundary Condition Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.5. Design Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.6. Design Variables, Linking and Optimization Parameters 7.5.7. Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.8. Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.9. Miscellaneous Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.10. Selection Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.11. Steady Aerodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.12. Structural Element Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.13. Structural Element Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.14. Unsteady Aerodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.15. Discipline Dependent Problem Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 7-6 7-6 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-8 7-8 7-8 7-9 7-9 7-9 7-10 7-10 7-11 7.6. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ASTROS AND NASTRAN BULK DATA . . . . . . 7-11 7.7. BULK DATA DESCRIPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13 8. OUTPUT FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 8.1. SYSTEM CONTROLLED OUTPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 8.1.1. Default Output Printed by Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 8.1.2. Error Message Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 8.2. SOLUTION CONTROL OUTPUT OPTIONS 8.2.1. Element Response Quantities . . . 8.2.1.1. Aerodynamic Element Output 8.2.1.2. Bar Element Output . . . . . . 8.2.1.3. ELAS Element Output . . . . 8.2.1.4. IHEX1 Element Output . . . . 8.2.1.5. IHEX2 Element Output . . . . 8.2.1.6. IHEX3 Element Output . . . . iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9 8-10 8-11 8-13 8-13 8-15 8-16 ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 8.2.1.7. Rod Element Output . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1.8. QDMEM1/TRMEM Element Output . 8.2.1.9. QUAD4/TRIA3 Element Output . . . 8.2.1.10. Shear Panel Output . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2. Nodal Response Quantities . . . . . . . . . 8.2.3. Design Variables and Design Constraints . 8.2.4. Flutter/Normal Modes Response Quantities 8.2.5. Aeroelastic Trim Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17 . 8-17 . 8-19 . 8-22 . . 8-22 . 8-25 . 8-29 . 8-30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-34 8.4. OTHER SELECTABLE QUANTITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-36 8.3. SUMMARY OF SOLUTION RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.1. Intermediate Steady Aerodynamic Matrix Output . . 8.4.2. Intermediate Unsteady Aerodynamic Matrix Output 8.4.3. Flutter Root Iteration Output . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.4. Stress Constraint Computation Output . . . . . . . 8.4.5. Intermediate Optimization Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5. EXECUTIVE SEQUENCE OUTPUT UTILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-36 . 8-36 . 8-37 . 8-37 . 8-38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.1. Structural Set Definition Print Utility, USETPRT 8.5.2. Special Matrix Print Utility, UTGPRT . . . . . . 8.5.3. General Matrix Print Utility, UTMPRT . . . . . 8.5.4. General Relation Print Utility, UTRPRT . . . . 8.5.5. General Unstructured Print Utility, UTUPRT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6. THE eSHELL INTERACTIVE PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-38 8-39 8-39 8-39 8-40 8-40 9. MAPOL PROGRAMMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 9.1. INTRODUCTION AND USER OPTIONS 9.1.1. USER OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2. MAPOL PROGRAM FORM . . . . . . . . 9.1.3. THE STANDARD ASTROS SOLUTION . . 9.1.4. MODIFYING THE STANDARD SOLUTION 9.1.5. CREATING MAPOL PROGRAMS . . . . . 9.1.6. SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 9-2 9-3 9-3 9-3 9-4 9.2. DATA TYPES AND DECLARATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 9.2.1. DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION 9.2.2. COMMENTARY . . . . . . . . 9.2.3. SIMPLE DATA TYPES . . . . . 9.2.3.1. Data Type INTEGER . . . 9.2.3.2. Data Type REAL . . . . . 9.2.3.3. Data Type COMPLEX . . 9.2.3.4. Data Type LOGICAL . . . 9.2.3.5. Data Type LABEL . . . . 9.2.4. COMPLEX DATA TYPES . . . ASTROS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 9-6 9-6 9-6 9-6 9-7 9-7 9-7 9-8 v USER’S MANUAL 9.2.4.1. Data Types MATRIX and IMATRIX . . . . . 9.2.4.2. Data Type Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.4.3. Data Types UNSTRUCT and IUNSTRUCT 9.2.4.4. Data Base Entity Declaration Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8 . 9-8 9-10 9-10 9.3. EXPRESSIONS AND ASSIGNMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11 9.3.1. ARITHMETIC EXPRESSIONS . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1.1. Arithmetic Operators . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1.2. Arithmetic Operands . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1.3. Evaluation of Arithmetic Expressions . . . 9.3.1.4. The Uses of Parentheses . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1.5. Type and Value of Arithmetic Expressions 9.3.2. LOGICAL EXPRESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.2.1. Logical Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.2.2. Logical Operands . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.2.3. Evaluation of Logical Expressions . . . . 9.3.3. RELATIONAL EXPRESSIONS . . . . . . . . . 9.3.3.1. Relational Operators . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.3.2. Relational Operands . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.3.3. Evaluation of Relational Expressions . . . 9.3.4. MATRIX EXPRESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.4.1. Matrix Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.4.2. Matrix Operands and Expressions . . . . 9.3.5. ASSIGNMENT STATEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11 9-11 9-11 9-12 9-12 9-13 9-13 9-13 9-14 9-14 9-15 9-15 9-16 9-16 9-16 9-16 9-17 9-17 9.4. CONTROL STATEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19 9.4.1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.2. THE UNCONDITIONAL GOTO STATEMENT 9.4.3. ITERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.3.1. The FOR...DO Loop . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.3.2. The WHILE...DO Loop . . . . . . . . . 9.4.4. THE IF STATEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.4.1. The Logical IF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.4.2. The Block IF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.4.3.The IF...THEN...ELSE . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.4.4. Nested IF Statements . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.5. THE END AND ENDP STATEMENTS . . . . 9.5. INPUT/OUTPUT STATEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19 9-19 9-19 9-19 9-20 9-21 9-21 9-22 9-22 9-23 9-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-23 9.5.1. THE PRINT STATEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-23 9.6. PROCEDURES AND FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24 9.6.1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.2. PROGRAM UNITS AND SCOPE OF VARIABLES 9.6.3. DEFINING A PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.4. INVOKING A PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24 9-24 9-25 9-26 ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 9.6.5. FUNCTION PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.5.1.Examples of Variable Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.6. INTRINSIC FUNCTION PROCEDURES AND INTRINSIC PROCEDURES 9.6.7. INTRINSIC MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.8. INTRINSIC RELATIONAL PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.9. GENERAL INTRINSIC PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-26 9-27 9-27 9-27 9-28 9-28 10. REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 ASTROS vii USER’S MANUAL This page is intentionally blank. viii ASTROS USER’S MANUAL LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3-1. Structure of the ASTROS Input Data Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Figure 3-2. Features of a Sample ASTROS Input Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 Figure 3-3. Function of the ASSIGN Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 Figure 4-1. Structure of the Standard MAPOL Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 Figure 7-1. Bulk Data Entry Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 Figure 8-1. BAR Element Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11 Figure 8-2. BAR Element Forces Sign Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11 Figure 8-3. IHEX1 Element Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14 Figure 8-4. IHEX2 Element Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15 Figure 8-5. IHEX3 Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16 Figure 8-6. ROD Element Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17 Figure 8-7. QDMEM1 Element Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18 Figure 8-8. TRMEM Element Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19 ASTROS ix USER’S MANUAL Figure 8-9. QUAD4 Element Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20 Figure 8-10. TRIA3 Element Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20 Figure 8-11. Shear Panel Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23 Figure 9-1. Schematic Representation of Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9 Figure 9-2. MAPOL Program Using Relational Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-31 x ASTROS USER’S MANUAL LIST OF TABLES Table 1-1. Command Syntax Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Table 2-1. The Preference File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Table 3-1. Executive (MAPOL) Debug Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13 Table 3-2. Database Debug Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14 Table 3-3. Intermediate Results Debug Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16 Table 3-4. Miscellaneous Debug Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17 Table 3-5. Sequencer Debug Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 Table 4-1. MAPOL Edit Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 Table 4-2. Real Parameters in the Standard Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7 Table 4-3. Integer Modelling Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8 Table 4-4. Integer Design Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 Table 4-5. Integer Aerodynamic Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 Table 4-6. Integer Discipline Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 Table 4-7. Logical Discipline Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 Table 4-8. Summary of ASTROS Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 Table 5-1. Levels of Solution Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 Table 5-2. Summary of ASTROS Disciplines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 ASTROS xi USER’S MANUAL Table 5-3. Summary of Discipline Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11 Table 5-4. Response Quantity Output Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18 Table 5-5. Response Quantities by Discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19 Table 6-1. Mathematical Intrinsics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 Table 6-2. Selection Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7 Table 6-3. Element Response Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10 Table 8-1. DEBUG and ASSIGN DATABASE Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3 Table 8-2. Boundary Condition Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3 Table 8-3. Active Boundary and Constraint Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 Table 8-4. Resequencing Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 Table 8-5. Active Constraint Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 Table 8-6. Approximate Optimization Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 Table 8-7. Design Iteration History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 Table 8-8. ASTROS Execution Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Table 8-9. ASTROS Aerodynamic and Structural Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10 Table 8-10. BAR Element Output Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12 Table 8-11. IHEX1 Element Solution Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14 Table 8-12. ROD Element Solution Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18 Table 8-13. QDMEM1 Solution Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20 Table 8-14. QUAD4 and TRIA3 Solution Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21 Table 8-15. SHEAR Solution Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23 Table 8-16. Displacement Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24 Table 8-17. Complex Displacement Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24 Table 8-18. Design Variable Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-27 Table 8-19. Design Constraint Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-27 Table 8-20. Flutter Solution Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-29 Table 8-21. Modal Participation Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30 xii ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 8-22. Real Eigenanalysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30 Table 8-23. Symmetric Trim Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-32 Table 8-24. Antisymmetric Trim Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-34 Table 8-25. Summary of Output Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-35 Table 9-1. MAPOL Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 Table 9-2. Summary of MAPOL User Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 Table 9-3. MAPOL Arithmetic Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11 Table 9-4. MAPOL Operation Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13 Table 9-5. MAPOL Logical Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13 Table 9-6. Evaluation of MAPOL Logical Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14 Table 9-7. Relational Operators in MAPOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15 Table 9-8. Matrix Operators in MAPOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16 Table 9-9. Assignment Rules in MAPOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18 Table 9-10. Intrinsic Mathematical Functions in MAPOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-29 Table 9-11. Intrinsic Relational Procedures in MAPOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-30 ASTROS xiii USER’S MANUAL This page is intentionally blank. xiv ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION There are five manuals documenting ASTROS, the Automated Structural Optimization System: • • • • • The User’s Reference Manual The Theoretical Manual The Programmer’s Manual The ASTROS eBASE Schemata Definition The Installation and System Support Manual This User’s Manual provides a complete description of the user interface to the ASTROS system in order to facilitate the preparation of input data. It introduces the features of the ASTROS system that enable the user to direct the software system and documents the mechanisms by which the user can communicate with the system. It is assumed that the reader is familiar, from a study of the Theoretical Manual, with the engineering capabilities of the ASTROS system and is using this manual to define the form of the particular input that directs the system to perform a desired function. The Theoretical Manual describes the range of capabilities of the ASTROS system, while the Programmer’s Manual is provided to give details of the internal function of the engineering and programming utility modules. The eBASE Schemata Manual documents all of the database entities. The Installation and System Support Manual describes how ASTROS is installed on host computers, and how it may be configured for customized use. This manual is intended to provide the user with a convenient reference for all forms of input to the system and is therefore organized along the same lines as the input data stream. The discussion of each topic is brief and generic and is followed by detailed documentation of the user inputs. Information on ASTROS output formats is in a separate chapter as is the description of the Matrix Analysis Problem Oriented Language (MAPOL) used for programming ASTROS. ASTROS INTRODUCTION 1-1 USER’S MANUAL Finally, this manual is directed toward the engineer/designer/analyst who is using ASTROS to perform engineering design or analysis. While ASTROS is perfectly capable of performing many tasks not explicitly supported in the standard execution, the user must know the engineering software in considerable detail to direct the system to perform these alternative functions. The mechanisms by which these more advanced features are invoked are included in this manual but no attempt is made to provide sufficient information to the user to generate new analysis features or to grossly modify the existing capabilities of the system. These more advanced topics are treated in the Programmer’s Manual which documents the individual modules in the system and their interactions. Rudimentary modifications to the execution sequence and changes to execution parameters are discussed in detail in this manual. Machine and installation-dependent aspects of ASTROS are also contained in the Programmer’s Manuals rather than in the User’s Manual. Only those machine-dependent issues that are logically related to the preparation of the input are discussed in this manual. Machine-dependencies in the input are limited to the naming conventions for the run time database files and the parameters that can be used on the ASSIGN DATABASE entry. Other machine dependencies are handled as part of the installation of the system on each particular host machine. These issues are documented in the Programmer’s Manual since they are relevant only to the system manager, not to the user. It will be apparent to many readers that the NASTRAN structural analysis system was used as a guide in the design of the ASTROS program. Both NASTRAN and ASTROS comprise large scale, finite element structural analysis in executive driven software systems. Therefore, many of the input and output features are similar. NASTRAN has become an industry-standard in finite element structural analysis with many pre- and post-processors developed around NASTRAN data. To maintain maximal compatibility, many aspects of the ASTROS input are similar in form or purpose to those in NASTRAN and, in many other cases, the same nomenclature has been adopted. In some instances in this document, therefore, ASTROS input will be compared and contrasted to NASTRAN input in order to present a concise picture of the ASTROS input and to assist the reader familiar with NASTRAN in making the connection to the equivalent item in ASTROS. Although familiarity with NASTRAN is not a prerequisite to understanding the ASTROS documentation, sufficient numbers of potential ASTROS users are expected to be familiar with the NASTRAN system to justify the sometimes casual reference to NASTRAN features. Chapter 1 contains a description of the ASTROS input file, database assignment and debug control inputs. Chapters 2 through 5 are organized to parallel the input file structure. Within each of these chapters, the function of the particular input packet is presented along with illustrations of how the data are prepared. Each packet is described in a generic fashion so as to indicate how the sophisticated user can make use of the more advanced features of the system without cluttering the discussion with details of the input structures. The detailed documentation of the separate input structures of the data packet then follow within each Chapter. This form of documentation enables this manual to be useful as a guide to the beginning user as well as a reference for the experienced user. While there are a number of advanced input features, the required input for most jobs is the ASSIGN DATABASE command, described in Section 1.3, and the Solution Control and Bulk Data packets described in Chapters 3 and 5, respectively. In Chapter 6, following the input stream descriptions, the output features of the ASTROS system are documented. While these features are selected through directives in the input data stream, they are sufficiently numerous and complex to justify a separate chapter devoted solely to output requests. The 1-2 INTRODUCTION ASTROS USER’S MANUAL output capabilities of the system are described in very general terms while the output requests available for each analysis discipline and optimization feature are documented in detail. Most output is selected through Solution Control directives that are documented in Chapter 3, but some are selected through modifications to the executive (MAPOL) sequence. Chapter 2 documents all of the output utilities available to the user through MAPOL directives and gives several examples of modifying the MAPOL sequence to obtain additional output. Other features are described in the MAPOL Programmer’s Manual which comprises Chapter 7. Many examples of user input are used throughout this document. In order to ease the burden of interpretation, the conventions shown in Table 1-1 are used in the examples unless otherwise noted. Chapter 7, which describes the MAPOL programming interface, describes additional conventions required for the programming syntax of MAPOL. Table 1-1. Command Syntax Conventions MAPOL NOGO Capital letters indicate that the phrase must appear exactly as shown MAPOL params Lower case italic symbols act as generic place holders indicating that an option or options can or must be included MAPOL GO NOGO Symbol(s) enclosed in brackets [ ] are optional. If more than one symbol is available they will be stacked in vector notation with any defaults denoted by boldface. INCLUDE < filename > A required symbol is enclosed in angle brackets. If the angle brackets surround an option list, at least one of the available options must be selected. BEGIN_BULK The underscore (_) is used to signify a required blank space. ASTROS INTRODUCTION 1-3 USER’S MANUAL This page is intentionally blank. 1-4 INTRODUCTION ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Chapter 2 RUNNING ASTROS As is the case with all major software systems that are available across a broad spectrum of host computers and operating systems† ASTROS has features which are implemented differently on different computers. The most common differences are in the way you execute ASTROS and other UAI software products, the management of dynamic memory, and the manner in which files are handled during execution. This Chapter describes these for the most commonly used operating systems. † All computer models and operating system names are trademarks of their respective manufacturers and vendors. ASTROS RUNNING ASTROS 2-1 USER’S MANUAL 2.1.OVERVIEW This section provides you with an overview of the areas of ASTROS that are directly affected by your host computer and its operating system. 2.1.1.Executing ASTROS The manner in which you invoke a ASTROS execution is completely dependent on the operating system of your host computer. Subsequent sections of this chapter describe this operation for the most common host computers upon which ASTROS is currently available. You will note that Section 2.2 includes all of the host computers using the Unix operating system and its derivatives. 2.1.2.The ASTROS Configuration and Preference Files In general, UAI’s suite of engineering software products uses computing resources intensively. As a result, there are a number of parameters that must be set to achieve optimal resource management on a given host computer. These parameters, taken as a group, are called the Configuration of the products. The configuration is provided through one or more files. These files include parameters which are used for controlling database locations, physical file characteristics, memory utilization, and algorithm control. For maximum flexibility, configurations may be controlled by the site, i.e. the UAI support specialist, or the end user. Many different configurations may be defined for a site. For example, when configuring ASTROS, the UAI support specialist may create different configurations for very small and for very large analyses. The starting point for configuring the UAI products is the Default Preference File, uaidef, included in your delivery. The other modifications described above are made in other Preference Files. The actual configuration used for a given execution is determined by applying the specified Preference Files in the following sequence: • First, the Default Preference File is processed and all parameters included in this file are set to their specified values • Second, the System Preference File is processed, and any parameters included in it replace those previously defined • Third, the User Preference File is processed, and again, any parameters included in it replace those previously defined. In summary, the final configuration is the union of the Preference files. The Default Preference file contains a value for every parameter used by the product suite. The other Preference Files need only contain those parameters that differ from, and override, the default values. 2-2 RUNNING ASTROS ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Each Preference File is composed of as many as six Sections: • • • • • • The Host Section The eBase Section The eBase:applib Section The eBase:matlib Section The eShell Section The ASTROS Section The format of the Preference File and a brief description of its various sections are described in the following sections. 2.1.2.1. The Format of Preference Files A Preference File is a text file which is composed of as many as six Sections indicated above. Each Section includes a header followed by the parameters associated with the Section. For ease-of-use, the [eBase] and [ASTROS] Sections are subdivided into groups which contain related parameters. The form of the file is shown in Table 2-1. 2.1.3.Configuration Parameters Configuration parameters are defined using one of the forms: param_name = value param_name = ( value,value,...,value ) The param_names are case-insensitive. The values, when character strings or floating point numbers with exponents, are also case-insensitive unless they are enclosed in single quotations (tics) as: param_name = ’This is a Case-Sensitive String’ Only one parameter may be specified on each line of the file. Any characters that appear after value are treated as commentary and ignored. You may also enter comments into the file by beginning a line with any of the characters $, *, or #. 2.1.4.The Configuration Sections The following sections provide an overview of the six Configuration Sections. Details of each section, as well as information needed to define specific configuration parameters, are found in the ASTROS System Support Manual. Contact your System Support Specialist if you require this information. 2.1.4.1. The Host Configuration Section The Host Configuration Section includes parameters which identify the type of the host computer, and specify the Preference File templates. ASTROS RUNNING ASTROS 2-3 USER’S MANUAL Table 2-1. The Preference File Format [Host] HOST_params [eBase] < Computing Resources > eBase_params < I/O System Parameters > eBase_params < Program Authorization > eBase_params [eBase:applib] eBase:applib_params [eBase:matlib] eBase:matlib_params [ASTROS] < Print File Controls > ASTROS_params < Computing Resources > ASTROS_params < Matrix Conditioning > ASTROS_params < Data Checking > ASTROS_params < Analysis Output Control > ASTROS_params < Solution Techniques > ASTROS_params < Element Options > ASTROS_params < I/O System Parameters > ASTROS_params < Optimization Control Options > ASTROS_params < Program Authorization > ASTROS_params [eShell] eShell_params 2-4 RUNNING ASTROS ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 2.1.4.2. The eBase Kernel Configuration Section The eBase Configuration File Section includes parameters which control the eBase Engineering Database Management System kernel. These include such information as default paths were databases are stored, physical block sizes for databases, and security information. 2.1.4.3. The ASTROS Configuration Section The ASTROS Configuration Section includes parameters which control the program. These include controls on peripheral and computing resources, model data checking, program defaults, and so forth. 2.1.4.4. The eBase:applib and eBase:matlib Sections The eBase:applib and eBase:matlib Configuration Sections include such items as dynamic memory sizes for applib, and timing constants for the matlib high-performance matrix utilities. 2.1.4.5. The eShell Configuration Section The eShell Configuration Section includes parameters which control the eShell interactive interface to eBase. It includes such items as system database locations and dynamic memory specifications. 2.1.5.Dynamic Memory The architecture of ASTROS allows the modeling and analysis of finite element models of virtually unlimited size. Most numerical calculations perform at maximum efficiency when all data for the operation fits in the working memory space of the program. Many operations may be performed even when all data that they require does not fit in memory by using what is called spill logic. Spill logic simply involves the paging of data to and from disk storage devices as necessary. For very large jobs, spill commonly occurs. In such cases, providing ASTROS with additional working memory can often improve performance. On the other hand, you do not want to give ASTROS excess memory, because it will reduce resources that could be used for other processes on your system. Under certain circumstances, excess memory may actually degrade the performance of ASTROS and, in extreme cases, even your computer system. ASTROS has a second independent dynamic memory which is used to operate on databases that are attached to the execution. This memory is typically much smaller than the working memory. The main factor influencing the amount of database memory required is the block size used by the active databases. This is described in detail in subsequent sections. The working memory for ASTROS is dynamically acquired during execution. The amount of space that is actually used by the program is typically controlled by the ASTROS execution procedure or the MEMORY Executive Control command. Some host computers have alternate means of controlling this memory. ASTROS RUNNING ASTROS 2-5 USER’S MANUAL 2.1.6.The eBase Database With ASTROS Version 13, UAI introduced the Engineering Database Management System, eBase, into ASTROS. This advanced scientific database technology greatly enhances the data handling capabilities of ASTROS compared with the older CADDB database found in the original ASTROS program. 2.1.6.1. The Two Types of Databases There are two types of eBase databases in ASTROS. The first type is the run-time database, or RUNDB. This database is used to store the relations and matrices which are used in performing your analysis task. At the end of your job, the RUNDB may be deleted. The second type is the archival database. This type of database represents any eBase database that you wish to use during an ASTROS execution. The database may be created by ASTROS, or by a second application which uses the eBase applib or matlib Applications Programming Interface (API). 2.1.6.2. The Logical and Physical Views of the Database To fully understand the database technology, you must understand the two views of the database. Each database is called a logical database. This term is used because from an engineering viewpoint, the database is a single entity which is used in its entirety. The manner in which the logical database is stored on your host computer depends on the amount of data it contains and the availability of disk storage devices. The physical view is a mapping of a logical database to some number of physical files on your host computer. It may be necessary for you to understand the physical model because, for very large analyses, it may be more efficient to organize the actual files in a manner that allows higher performance on your host. 2.1.6.3. The Physical Model Each eBase database, regardless of its use, has two components manifested as a minimum of two physical files. The first of these components is called the INDEX component. This component is always a single physical file. It contains information which identifies and locates actual database entities. These entities themselves are stored in the DATA component. To provide the maximum flexibility for a wide variety of data storage requirements, the data components may be stored in a number of different physical files. Most database systems are organized in this manner, because the index component is generally small in size and referenced often, while the data component may be extremely large and not fit in a single file or even on a single disk drive. 2.1.6.4. ASSIGNing Databases Each logical database must be defined in the ASTROS job stream. Details of this are found in Chapter 2. 2.1.6.5. Database File Names The naming of database files follows a convention that is different from that of other UAI/NASTRAN files. The file names are generated automatically at execution time. The conventions used are also described starting in Section 2.2 of this chapter. 2-6 RUNNING ASTROS ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 2.1.6.6. Very Large Databases You may be solving extremely large problems with ASTROS. In such cases it may be possible that a databases exceeds the capacity of a single disk drive. ASTROS has made provision for this and you must contact your UAI System Support Specialist for details describing the use of this advanced feature. 2.1.7.Host Computer Dependencies The sections that follow provide detailed information describing the differences in ASTROS execution procedures and commands which depend on your host computer system. 2.2.UNIX-BASED COMPUTERS This section describes the host-dependent information that you need to execute ASTROS on Unix-based computer systems. UAI supports a wide variety of manufacturers including Silicon Graphics, Hewlett Packard, IBM RS/6000, Sun, and more. For a complete list of platforms, please contact your UAI sales representative. 2.2.1.Executing ASTROS An sh script file, called astros, is provided to execute ASTROS. To execute you enter: astros −m W memory K P [ -p prefname ] M B [ -e astros_exe ] [ -c config_file ] filelist where memory specifies the amount of memory that the job will use. Options allow you to use shorthand notation for large values and allocation types. The options K and M indicate that the memory value is specified in thousands or millions of units, respectively. The units may be specified in single precision words (W), bytes (B), or machine precision words (P). If none of these arguments are used, then memory is assumed to be single precision words. Chapter 3 has a further discussion of memory allocation. The prefname specifies the substitution string used to generate Preference File names. When performing software development with ASTROS, there may be several versions of the program. The name astros_exe specifies the name of the ASTROS executable program version to use. By default, a file named astros.out located in the local directory, or the version in the installation directory, will be used. The config_file allows you to override the default uaidef file that is referenced through the UAICONFIG global variable. This may be a useful option if more than one ASTROS system is available at your site. Finally, filelist specifies a list of one or more file names, separated by spaces, that contain ASTROS input data streams. The actual file names must have the proper trailing component, which is usually .d. The script file will execute ASTROS using each of the data files that you provide. Examples illustrating the use of the script are shown below. ASTROS RUNNING ASTROS 2-7 USER’S MANUAL 1. Execute ASTROS using the input file test.d astros test 2. Execute ASTROS in the background for all of the input files in directory /astros/demodata. astros /astros/demodata/*.d & 3. Execute ASTROS using the input file test.d and request one million words of memory. astros -m 1000000 test or astros -m 1mw test or astros -m 1000kw 4. Suppose that you have created a Preference File name my.pref, execute ASTROS using the input file test.d using these preferences. astros -p my test 5. Suppose you have created your own version of ASTROS, named myastros.out, in your local directory. Execute input file test.d using this program version. astros -e myastros test 2-8 RUNNING ASTROS ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 2.2.2.ASTROS File Names When you execute the astros script a number of files may be created which have names that are automatically generated by the program. These are described in this section. 2.2.2.1. Unique ASTROS files There are three unique files that are used frequently by ASTROS. These are unique in the sense the program will automatically define file names for these if you do not explicitly ASSIGN them. These files, and their default names, are shown in the table below: FILE May Override with ASSIGN Command? Generated Name if ASSIGN Command is Not Used The print file NO filename.prt The log file NO filename.log The PUNCH file YES filename.pch The filename represents the name of the file containing the ASTROS input data stream. The log file is a special file that contains the history of your execution. You may monitor the progress of your job by viewing the log file periodically. Upon completion of the job, the log file is appended to the print file, and then deleted. 2.2.2.2. Databases Each database that you use during an execution is comprised of at least two physical files. The trailing components of these file names is always generated by ASTROS. When you ASSIGN a database with a status of NEW and provide a physical file name, phys_name, the program generates the file names: phys_name.EDB and phys_name.00 There may be times, most often in the case of the RUNDB, that you ASSIGN a database with a status of TEMP. In such cases, the program internally generates file names that are unique to your job. The detailed rules used to generate these names are given in the System Support Manual. These simple rules pertain to the simplest and most used ASSIGNments of databases. If you are using very large databases, then there are additional rules. These will be provided by your ASTROS System Support Specialist. ASTROS RUNNING ASTROS 2-9 2.2.3.The eShell Program If your site has the eShell interactive eBase interface program, then to execute this program you enter: eshell [-ps prefname] [-pu prefname] [-pl prefname] [database] where: prefname Specifies the substitution string used to generate Preference File names. You may specify a different string for the System (-ps), the User (-pu) and the Local (-pl) preference files. If you have the unusual case where all of these files have the same name, you may use the option -p followed by the prefname. database Is the name of a database to be opened with read access. This places you in the command mode. Unless directed otherwise by eShell commands, all subsequent output will be sent to the terminal device. The optional prefname information is an advanced feature used for customizing eShell which is described in the Installation Guide and System Support Manual. The eShell Tutorial Problem library is available. Contact your Systems Support Specialist to obtain the name of the directory where these problems may be found. A description of how you may use them is given in the eShell User’s Manual. 2.2.4.Au22 USER’S MANUAL 2.2.5.Online Manuals The entire suite of ASTROS manuals is available online in the Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). This allows you to view the documentation on any computer that has the Adobe ® Acrobat® Reader 3.0. Readers for the MAC, PC, Sun (OS and Solaris), and HP were delivered with your system. To use the documents, from the command line you enter: uaidoc [manual_name] If you omit the manual_name, then you will see a splash screen that allows you to navigate to the appropriate manual. You may also go directly to a manual by placing its name on the command lines. The names of the astros manuals are: • • • • • • ASTROS astros_theory astros_prog astros_ref astros_schema eshell system_support RUNNING ASTROS 2-11 USER’S MANUAL This page is intentionally blank. 2-12 RUNNING ASTROS ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Chapter 3. THE INPUT DATA STREAM 3.1.INTRODUCTION The ASTROS user directs the system through an input data stream composed of a Resource Section, which allocates ASTROS databases and specifies memory utilization, which is followed by multiple Data Packets. Each packet contains a set of related data providing the information needed to execute ASTROS. The packets begin with a keyword indicating the nature of the data within the packet and terminate with an ending keyword or with the start of the next data packet. All the packets in the input data stream are optional, although the order in which they must appear is fixed. The purpose of this section is to document the structure of the input data stream. Detailed documentation of the data within each data packet is then presented in separate chapters. Figure 3-1 shows the general form of the input data stream and Figure 3-2 illustrates the actual input stream features with a sample stream for a ten bar truss model. The first non-blank record of the input file must be either the ASSIGN command or a Resource Section. If an ASSIGN command is used, then this command will enable you to attach the run-time database(s) that are used during the execution of the ASTROS system. There are four optional data packets following the ASSIGN command which, if they are present, must appear in the order shown. The first is the DEBUG packet which contains debug commands to control or select specific actions within the executive and database management systems. The second packet is the MAPOL packet containing the executive system control directives consisting of either a standalone MAPOL program or EDIT commands to modify the standard MAPOL program. If the MAPOL packet is absent, the unmodified standard MAPOL sequence directs the execution. The Solution Control commands appear in the third optional packet denoted by the keyword SOLUTION. These commands select the engineering data to be used in each subcase from the set of data provided in the Bulk Data packet. The fourth packet is the FUNCTION packet. It contains the definition of functions which allow the user to define new design constraints or an objective function. These functions may combine nodal and element response quantities for various boundary conditions and disciplines. The final ASTROS THE INPUT DATA STREAM 3-1 USER’S MANUAL —————— —————— —————— Any number of leading blank lines The Resource Section ASSIGN RUNDB = <name> <status> <PASSWORD=password> [params] MEMORY DEBUG —————— —————— DEBUG directives used for tracing input stream errors MAPOL [option-list] or EDIT [option-list] MAPOL program or EDIT commands allow user modifications to the standard ASTROS solution sequence —————— —————— SOLUTION Solution Control Directives select optimization and analysis disciplines —————— —————— FUNCTIONS [option_list] Function definitions Used to define objective or constraint functions —————— —————— BEGIN_BULK [option_list] —————— —————— … … … Bulk Data Entries defines the structural and aero models, boundary conditions, loading cases, and other engineering data and the design model — design variables and constraints — required when performing design. Similar to NASTRAN [ENDDATA] Bulk Data Terminator Figure 3-1. Structure of the ASTROS Input Data Stream 3-2 THE INPUT DATA STREAM ASTROS USER’S MANUAL ASSIGN RUNDB=TENBAR,NEW,REALLOC,PASSWORD=SHAZAM DEBUG DESIGN=5 EDIT NOLIST INSERT 1463 CALL UTMPRT (,[AMAT]); SOLUTION TITLE = TEN BAR TRUSS OPTIMIZE PRINT DCON=ALL, HIST BOUNDARY SPC = 1 LABEL = STATIC ANALYSIS STATICS (MECH = 1), CONST (STRESS = 100, GENERAL = 100) END ANALYZE BOUNDARY SPC = 1, METHOD = 2 STATICS ( MECH = 1 ) LABEL = FINAL STATIC ANALYSIS PRINT DISP = ALL MODES LABEL = FINAL MODAL ANALYSIS PRINT (MODES=ALL) DISP = ALL, ROOT=ALL END BEGIN BULK GRID, 1, , 720.0, 360.0, 0.0 GRID, 2, , 720.0, 0.0, 0.0 GRID, 3, , 360.0, 360.0, 0.0 GRID, 4, , 360.0, 0.0, 0.0 GRID, 5, , 0.0, 360.0, 0.0 GRID, 6, , 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 CROD, 1, 10, 3, 5 CROD, 2, 10, 1, 3 CROD, 3, 10, 4, 6 ... CROD, 9, 10, 2, 3 CROD, 10, 10, 1, 4 PROD, 10, 2, 15.0 MAT1, 2, 1.E+7, , 0.3, 0.1, , , , 25000.0, SPC1, 1, 123456, 5, 6 SPC1, 1, 3456, 1, THRU, 4 FORCE, 1, 2, , -1.E5, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0 FORCE, 1, 4, , -1.E5, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0 CONVERT, MASS, 2.59E-3 EIGR, 2, GIV, 0.0, 700.0, 2, 2, , MPPARM, ISCAL, 1 DESELM, 1, 1, CROD, 6.667E-3, 1000.0, 2.0, DESELM, 2, 2, CROD, 6.667E-3, 1000.0, 2.0, ... DESELM, 9, 9, CROD, 6.667E-3, 1000.0, 2.0, DESELM, 10, 10, CROD, 6.667E-3, 1000.0, 2.0, DCONVMM, 100, 2.5+4, -2.5+4, , 2 DCONDSP, 100, 1, UPPER, 2.0, POSNOD1, 1, 2, DCONDSP, 100, 2, UPPER, 2.0, POSNOD2, 2, 2, ... DCONDSP, 100, 8, LOWER, -2.0, NEGNOD1, 4, 2, -25000.0 , ABC, +BC, , , ROD1 ROD2 , , ROD9 ROD10 MAX 1.0 1.0 1.0 ENDDATA Figure 3-2. Features of a Sample ASTROS Input Stream ASTROS THE INPUT DATA STREAM 3-3 USER’S MANUAL data packet is the BULK DATA packet. The BULK DATA packet contains the engineering data describing the finite element structural model, the aerodynamic model(s), and the design model, as well as all the data needed to perform the specific analysis and/or optimization tasks. The MAPOL, SOLUTION and BULK DATA packets are analogous to the NASTRAN executive control, case control and bulk data decks, respectively. In interpreting the input data stream, ASTROS recognizes the keywords shown in Figure 3-1. These keywords must be the first nonblank characters on the line (leading blanks are allowed) and have the structure shown. In some cases the keyword is also a command line that makes up part of the data packet which it initiates. In these cases, the command parameters are documented in the User’s Manual chapter discussing the details of the associated data packet. For example, the MAPOL keyword is part of a command that directs the MAPOL compiler to take certain actions. The detailed discussion of the MAPOL command is therefore contained in Chapters 2 and 7 of this manual. ASTROS automatically converts the case of the input data stream when necessary. The only portions of the data which are not converted are file names which are used in the INCLUDE command, the Resource Section, and the Solution Control commands TITLE, SUBTITLE and LABEL. This allows the user to freely enter data in any case. Be aware, however, that file names are never converted and that when using an ASTROS host computer in which case is important, such as Unix, then the correct case must always be used in file names. The section of the ASTROS input data steam that appears before the first packet header (e.g. DEBUG, EDIT, or SOLUTION) is called the Resource Section. This section may contain any number of ASSIGN commands and a MEMORY command. The INCLUDE command is used only as a convenience. These are discussed in detail in the following sections. 3-4 THE INPUT DATA STREAM ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 3.2.THE RESOURCE COMMANDS As introduced earlier, there are two commands that may appear in the Resource Section. One or more ASSIGN commands and an optional MEMORY command. These are described in the following sections. 3.2.1.THE ASSIGN COMMAND The ASSIGN command identifies the run-time database files to be used in the current ASTROS execution and specifies certain parameters associated with the files. The format of this command is: NEW ASSIGN logical_name [= phys_name] , OLD [,REALLOC] TEMP [,PASSWORD = pass][,IBLKSIZE = nwib][,DBLKSIZE = nwdb] READ ,ACCESS = WRITE [,params] ADMIN where, dbname is a name identifying the run time database files (maximum of 8 characters or fewer, depending on the local host. password Passwords are used, but they are not required, only when USE is RUNDB, ARCHIVE, SOF or NLDB. For databases with a STATUS of NEW, the same password is used for the READ, WRITE and ADMIN privileges. The eSHELL command: SET PASSWORD may be used to change any or all of the passwords as desired. For OLD databases, the password must match the access type specified by the ACCESS parameter. NEW OLD TEMP Defines the status of the file. The file may be NEW, in which case it is allocated at run-time, an existing or OLD file, which is the default, or a TEMP file which is deleted at the end of the run. REALLOC Requests that a new physical file be reallocated if it already exists. If you specify NEW for a file that already exists, and you do not include the REALLOC parameter, your job will be terminated. params are optional (installation dependent) parameters e.g., DBLKSIZE = n, IBLKSIZE = n, etc. logical_name Defines a logical ASTROS file name. ASTROS THE INPUT DATA STREAM 3-5 USER’S MANUAL The entries on the ASSIGN commands are keyword controlled, but the options within the command must be entered in the order shown. The keywords may be separated by commas or blanks. An example is: ASSIGN RUNDB=ASTDB,OLD,PASSWORD=SECRET Figure 3-3 illustrates the function of the ASSIGN command. In the case shown, the installation dependent parameters DLOC and ILOC have been used to select the physical devices on which the requested files for DB1 reside. The optional params on the ASSIGN command may or may not be keyword controlled and are installation dependent. They provide a mechanism for the user to direct machine or installation dependent file operations to be performed by the ASTROS procedure. At each site, the installation of the code involves a definition of these parameters and the form they must take. The ASTROS system is currently functional on numerous host systems including VAX/Ultrix, IBM/AIX, SGI 4D series and Crimson/Indigo series, HP/9000 series, CRAY/UNICOS, DECStation, Convex, and SunSparcstation. The availability on a specific computer may be obtained by contacting UAI. The next section documents the installation-dependent ASSIGN parameters for some of the more common features/hosts. These features, however, may be customized to a very high degree and may be modified by the local system manager. Further documentation of the ASSIGN command is left to the local installation or will be included in the delivery material. The Programmer’s Manual contains the detailed description of how these and other machine dependent parameters are defined. 3.2.2. ASSIGN COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS FOR HOST COMPUTERS This section contains the descriptions of the machine and installation dependent parameters on the ASSIGN command for three machines on which ASTROS is currently functional. The parameters that are available at each site are listed and details of their use are presented. The user is cautioned that these are site dependent parameters which may be different for each installation even if the host system is the same. This documentation is provided both as an example to the system programmer and because the features that have been made available on these machines are very likely to exist on most machines that may be used. The user is referred to their ASTROS system manager for the particulars of the interface between the local host system and ASTROS. The following section describes parameters for computers using Unix-based Operating Systems 3.2.2.1. UNIX SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION The ASSIGN command supplies the ASTROS system with the root name of the database files, the status of those files, and a set of user parameters. The status is selected from NEW, OLD or TEMP and the set of user parameters can be any of the following keyword commands: ILOC= path Specifies the location of the Index Component file. DLOC= path Specifies the location of the Data Component files. DBLKSIZE= n CADDB data files block size in words. IBLKSIZE= n CADDB index file block size in words. 3-6 THE INPUT DATA STREAM ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Figure 3-3. Function of the ASSIGN Command ASTROS THE INPUT DATA STREAM 3-7 USER’S MANUAL Note that the DLOC parameter may specify a series of locations when very large databases are being created. The format is then: DLOC=(path_1,path2,...) TEMP Database Example: When the status is TEMP a temporary database is created and no data is kept after the run. The other legal optional parameters are DBLKSIZE and IBLKSIZE. ASSIGN RUNDB=MYDB,TEMP,PASSWORD=X,DBLKSIZE=2048,IBLKSIZE=256 NEW Database Example: When the status is NEW, a new database is created. If the files already exist, they will be overwritten. voldbroot.EDB - index file voldbroot.00 - data file 1 Other legal parameters are DLOC, ILOC, DBLKSIZE and IBLKSIZE. ASSIGN RUNDB=MYDB,NEW,PASSWORD=X,REALLOC,DLOC=/tmp/,ILOC=/tmp/ In this example, a database with files /tmp/MYDB.EDB and /tmp/MYDB.00 are created. If existing files are found they will be overwritten. OLD Database Example: When the status is OLD, an old database is used. The physical files that make up the database must exist. Two, or more, files are used to store the database. The names of these files are as follows: voldbroot.EDB - index file voldbroot.00 - data file 1 The DLOC and ILOC parameters, along with the root database name, are used to form the names. No other parameters are legal. Here is an example: ASSIGN RUNDB=X,OLD,PASSWORD=X,DLOC=/home/dir1/,ILOC=/home/dir1/ In this example a database with files /home/dir1/MYDB.EDB and /home/dir1/MYDB.00 are used. 3-8 THE INPUT DATA STREAM ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 3.2.3.THE MEMORY COMMAND The MEMORY command specifies the amount of memory ASTROS will use for the internal storage of data. The format of this command is: work_mem WORKING = work_mem MEMORY EBASE = eb_mem PHYSICAL = phys_mem work_mem Specifies the dynamic working memory size used by ASTROS modules. The working memory may be increased for large problems to reduce the amount of physical I/O. Note, however, that this may cause increased paging. Contact your ASTROS Support Specialist for additional details. eb_mem Specifies the eBASE database memory size. This memory is a separate memory pool used by the database during execution. Normally the default value in the Preference File is sufficient, but if you use block sizes larger than the default for any database, this value may need to be increased. phys_mem Specifies the real physical memory memory size. The physical memory is used to control certain advanced algorithms. Contact your ASTROS Support Specialist for additional details. The units of the memory size are determined by the two optional command arguments. M K W B P The first argument indicates an order of magnitude for memory_space, M for millions, K for thousands. The second argument indicates the unit specifier as single precision words (W), bytes (B), or computer precision words (P). If neither is present, then memory_space is taken to be single precision computer words. The working memory for ASTROS is dynamically acquired during execution. The amount of memory used is determined, in order of precedence, by the MEMORY Resource command, the - m option of the astros script, and the configuration parameter working_memory. You may provide default values for this command in the <Computing Resources> group of the [ASTROS] Section of the Preference File. ASTROS has two high-performance solvers which take advantage of the latest developments in sparse matrix algorithm technology. The first of these is the symmetric matrix decomposition used in static analyses, and the second is the Lanczos eigenextraction method. This latter method is used for extracting a modest number of eigenvalues from very large systems. When these solvers are used, memory requirements may become significant. The figures below give upper and lower bound estimates for the amount of ASTROS THE INPUT DATA STREAM 3-9 USER’S MANUAL UPPER BOUND UPPER BOUND LOWER BOUND Cray LOWER BOUND Others memory that you should specify on your MEMORY Command. Although the eigensolver takes slightly more memory, about 20%, the same figures may be used to approximate the requirements for either solver. Note, that in the case of the Linear Solver, if you do not specify enough memory for the new algorithm, the program will revert to the old solution algorithm. This is not the case for Lanczos — the job will terminate. These curves have been created using a representative sample of real analysis jobs. They are intended only to be used as guidelines — a specific job may take significantly more or less memory than indicated. For example, to execute ASTROS using 12 million words of working memory, any of the following commands may be used: MEMORY = 12000000; or MEMORY = 12000KW; or MEMORY = 12MW 3.3. THE INCLUDE DIRECTIVE The input data stream typically resides in a single file, but the user can direct the input stream interpreter to include other files through the use of the INCLUDE directive in the primary input stream. The format of the INCLUDE command is: INCLUDE <filename> where, filename is a name identifying the file to be included (maximum of 72 characters). The filename, which is used in a FORTRAN OPEN statement, must satisfy the requirements of the particular host system for file names. Beyond this restriction, the user is free to have any set of contigu- 3-10 THE INPUT DATA STREAM ASTROS USER’S MANUAL ous non-blank characters in the filename. In order to avoid the possibility of an infinite recursion, there is a restriction on the include feature that no INCLUDE statement can appear in a file that is being included. For example, if the file "TENBAR" is being included, it may not itself contain an INCLUDE directive. The input stream interpreter will terminate with an appropriate error message should this occur. The INCLUDE directive can appear anywhere in the input stream after the ASSIGN command. The ASSIGN must always appear as the first non-blank line in order to allow the use of the run time database in the subsequent input stream interpretation. A single data packet can be split among included files or an INCLUDE file may contain parts of multiple data packets. The input interpreter merely replaces the INCLUDE directive with the data contained in the named file so the only requirement is that the input stream that results from the combination of all INCLUDEs have the form of a normal input stream. The INCLUDE feature can be very useful in certain circumstances. For example, a special user developed MAPOL sequence can be stored and maintained external to the files containing the engineering data for particular runs; or, conversely, the bulk data representing a large model can be included into the file containing the solution control directives. ASTROS THE INPUT DATA STREAM 3-11 USER’S MANUAL 3.4. THE DEBUG PACKET The debug packet represents a development tool and is intended to be used primarily by those responsible for maintaining the software. The debug packet provides the system programmer with the means to invoke or control certain executive and database management system functions that are helpful in tracking the ASTROS execution and/or testing the executive and database management system software. However, because some of the debug options can be useful to the general user, the debug packet is fully documented in the User’s Manual rather than in the Programmer’s Manual. This section documents each of the debug options and indicates how the option can be useful in debugging the ASTROS procedure. Emphasis is placed on those debug options that are of interest to the general user. The debug packet is initiated by the keyword DEBUG, which must appear alone on the line of the input stream that follows the last command in the Resource Section, and that precedes any other data packet. Following the initiator, any number of debug lines can be included in the data stream. Each debug command line can be composed of a number of debug commands, appearing in any order, separated by blanks or commas. The DEBUG packet is terminated when a new data packet initiator, or the end of the input stream, is encountered. Most debug commands consist of single keywords which toggle flags activating the debug functions. The appearance of these debug keywords is all that is required to activate the option. Other debug commands select that a flag take on a particular value. These commands have the form: <command> = <value> There can be any number of blanks between the end of the command keyword, the value and the equal sign, but neither the command nor the value can contain imbedded blanks. Any errors in the DEBUG packet input will result in warnings but will not terminate the execution and the erroneous command will be ignored. The tables shown in this section indicate the list of keywords that can be included in the DEBUG packet. The debug commands are grouped into executive system and database management system debugs. Each of these groups is described in greater detail in the following sections. 3-12 THE INPUT DATA STREAM ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 3.4.1. EXECUTIVE SYSTEM DEBUG COMMANDS The first four executive system keywords are intended to assist the system programmer in following the actions of the MAPOL compiler and execution monitor. The options are shown in Table 3-1. As such, they are of limited value to the general user. The MATRIX option, however, can be useful in tracking the execution of the MAPOL program. It echoes the matrix utility calls for all matrix operations that are in the MAPOL sequence. For example, if the MAPOL program includes the expression: [A] := TRANS( [B] ) * [C] + [D]; the MATRIX trace echoes the resultant call to the MPYAD large matrix utility with the arguments shown in detail. This trace can be very useful in determining which particular MAPOL instruction is being executed when a problem occurs. Large MAPOL programs with many loops and a large number of matrix expressions can be debugged quite simply using the MATRIX trace. All MAPOL statements that result in calls to any of the large matrix utilities, such as PARTN, MERGE, MPYAD, and MXADD are echoed. LOGBEGIN and LOGMODULE provide expanded echoes of the module timing summary that is found at the end of each ASTROS output file. When problems cause early termination of the job, these options provide the name of the last module entered prior to the failure. This provides a starting point to diagnose the problem. Table 3-1. Executive (MAPOL) Debug Commands KEYWORD MSTACK MEXEC MOBJ MAPOL compiler stack output MAPOL execution debug flag MAPOL object code debug packet MTRACE MAPOL trace debug output MATRIX MAPOL peeper matrix operation trace LOGMODULE Expanded log entries for each module LOGBEGIN ASTROS DESCRIPTION Beginning entries for each module in log file THE INPUT DATA STREAM 3-13 USER’S MANUAL 3.4.2. DATABASE AND MEMORY MANAGER DEBUG COMMANDS The database management system has a number of debug options which can be divided into three categories: trace options, control options and memory manager options. These are shown in Table 3-2. The first group of database debug commands contain two tracing options: TRACE and IOSTAT. The IOSTAT keyword selects either a FULL tracing or a SUMmary. The first of these options and the IOSTAT=FULL option are further controlled by the ENTITY option which completes the first group of keywords. Note: the tracing keywords generate an overwhelming amount of data which are often of limited use unless the user is familiar with the internal structure of the database files. The ENTITY keyword limits the activation of the tracing options to those times when the named database matrix, relation or unstructured entity is open. If no entity specification is made, the traces are active for all database operations. In addition to their role in debugging the database software, the trace options provide a useful means of debugging the interface between a user written module and the database. The database control options CALLSTAT and NOCOREDIR provide user control over two internal database functions. The CALLSTAT option compiles a summary of the number of calls made to each database subroutine. This summary, in combination with the IOSTAT option, provides statistics on the number of database operations in the execution. The NOCOREDIR option is made available for machines with limited core memory resources. If NOCOREDIR is selected, the database manager stores the database directories on the database files rather than in core. This can substantially reduce the database memory requirements at the cost of increasing the number of input/output operations. Table 3-2. Database Debug Commands KEYWORD TRACE DESCRIPTION Traces all database CALLs Database I/O tracing IOSTAT=parm ENTITY=name CALLSTAT NOCOREDIR NODELAYCRE MEMORY FULL Full trace of I/O activity SUM Summary of I/O activity Restricts tracing to entity name Compiles statistics on the number of calls to each database routine at the end of a job. Turns off the option to store directories in core Turns off the option that delays entity creation until the entity is opened Memory manager debug print 3-14 THE INPUT DATA STREAM ASTROS USER’S MANUAL The last group of database debug options consists of the MEMORY command. This option causes an echo of all the memory management calls made in the modules. The user can then track the ASTROS execution into the engineering modules themselves. In addition to the echo, the MEMORY option invokes a checksum operation which checks for the integrity of the memory block headers on every memory manager operation. If the checksum fails, a message is written to the effect that a block header has been overwritten. This option is very effective in uncovering errors in engineering modules that make use of dynamic memory allocation. 3.4.3. INTERMEDIATE RESULTS PRINTING COMMANDS Many of the ASTROS engineering modules have intermediate output print options that are useful in tracing the details of an analysis or in reviewing the quality of the inputs. These many options are listed in Table 3-3. ASTROS THE INPUT DATA STREAM 3-15 USER’S MANUAL Table 3-3. Intermediate Results Debug Commands KEYWORD DESCRIPTION Intermediate unsteady Aero matrices AMP=n 1 >1 DESIGN=n Prints the SKJ matrix and, if only one group, includes AJJ, QKJ and QJJ if they exist Includes D1JK, D2JK and AJJT matrices 1 Prints initial design information 2 Includes function values at each iteration 3 Includes internal Microdot parameters 4 Includes search directions 5 Includes gradient information 6 Includes scaling information 7 Includes one-dimensional search information Additional flutter eigenextraction information FLUTTRAN=n 1 >1 Prints the number of iterations required to find each flutter root Includes the estimated roots for each iteration MKUSET redundant set warnings MKUSET=n >0 Prints warning messages if the same degree of freedom is placed in a set more than once. Planar steady aerodynamics geometry option SAROGEOM=n >0 ASTROS execution stops in module STEADY after the steady aerodynamic geometry has been computed. No printed output is generated unless the STEADY debug is also used. Prints additional constraint data SCEVAL=n >0 Prints the stress or strain components, the constraint type and the constraint value for each constrained element/layer. Prints or punches SHAPE or SHAPEM Bulk Data entries automatically created by the SHPGEN capability. SHPGEN=opt PRINT to print the generated Bulk Data entries PUNCH to punch the generated Bulk Data entries BOTH to print and punch the generated Bulk Data entries Steady preface USSAERO output STEADY=n 1 Prints steady aerodynamic model geometry 2 Includes stability coefficient data 3 Includes pressure data 4 Includes velocity components and matrix output 3-16 THE INPUT DATA STREAM ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 3.4.4. MISCELLANEOUS DEBUG COMMANDS Table 3-4 shows several miscellaneous DEBUG commands which are used to control optimization and looping, optimization scaling, and geometry checking of plate elements. Table 3-4. Miscellaneous Debug Commands KEYWORD DVWARNING=opt DESCRIPTION Sets a limit for the number of design override linking warnings (e.g. Torsion Set to Zero for Design) issued by any one element type. Use keyword ALL or integer value n. Default=50. Controls scaling of design variables MPSCAL=opt ON OFF Scales global variables to unity before Microdot is invoked (Default). Does not scale variables. Enables Panel Buckling diagnostics 0 Turn off diagnostic print. 1 Print roots only. 2 Print roots and eigenmatrix. PBKNINIT=n n Initial number of terms in the Panel Buckling series solution, must be less than PBKNMAX. PBKNMAX=n n Maximum number of terms in the Panel Buckling series solution. PBKDIAG=n Power used in linearizing the Panel Buckling constraint 1 λreq val G=F Default = 3.0. λ PBKPWER=val val STRESS_DV=opt opt Determines whether the check for stress constraints on undesigned elements will be a warning or fatal error. Value is WARNING (Default) or FATAL. WARPMX=val val The maximum allowed warping value for QUAD4 elements. ZERODOBJ=val val Specifies a tolerance value for defining the objective function to be the same from one iteration to the next. ZEROITER=n n ASTROS Specifies the maximum number of design iterations that may have the same objective function value before ASTROS is terminated. THE INPUT DATA STREAM 3-17 USER’S MANUAL 3.4.5. SEQUENCER INTERMEDIATE PRINT COMMANDS There are a number of print and control options for the grid point sequencer that are shown in Table 3-5. Table 3-5. Sequencer Debug Commands KEYWORD DESCRIPTION Selects sequencing intermediate print SEQPRINT=opt DETAIL DIAGNOSTIC Requests detailed print of sequencing Requests diagnostic print Select sequencer method CM SEQMETH=meth NOSEQMPC Selects the Cuthill-McKee Method GPS Selects the Gibbs-Poole-Stockmayer Method ALL Selects the best of both 1 and 2 Requests that MPCs not be processed during sequencing Selects sequencing method BAND Selects minimum bandwidth criteria PROF Selects profile criteria SEQCRIT=crit RMS WAVE SEQPUNCH SEQOFF Selects RMS criteria elects minimum wavefront criteria Requests punching of SEQGP bulk data entries Deselects sequencing 3-18 THE INPUT DATA STREAM ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Chapter 4. THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL The ASTROS system is controlled by an Executive System. One of the functions of the ASTROS executive system, described in detail in Reference 1, is to determine the sequence in which the modules of the program are invoked. For ASTROS, the Matrix Analysis Problem Oriented Language (MAPOL) has been developed to perform this executive system task. The MAPOL language has its conceptual roots in the Direct Matrix Abstraction Program (DMAP) capability developed for the NASTRAN structural analysis system (Reference 2). MAPOL provides the same advantages to the ASTROS system and represents a considerable advance over DMAP in that MAPOL is a structured, procedural language that directly supports high order matrix operations, manipulation of database entities and complex data types. Moreover, the syntax of the language looks much like that of any scientific programming language and so is easily learned by anyone who knows FORTRAN or PASCAL. From the user’s point of view, ASTROS is directed by a sequence of control statements "coded" in the MAPOL language just as a NASTRAN rigid format is coded in the DMAP "language." ☞ The majority of users will use the standard MAPOL sequence. This is the default, and as such it requires no special action. Advanced users may optionally edit the standard sequence or write their own "program". The methods used to do this are described in this Chapter. Because changes to the executive system are an advanced topic, first-time users may proceed directly to Chapter 4. The executive system within ASTROS compiles the MAPOL program and executes the resultant "ASTROS machine code" which directs the execution of the ASTROS procedure. (Note that ASTROS is NOT written in MAPOL, only the executive control algorithm is written in the MAPOL language. In fact, ANSI standard FORTRAN was used to write the compiler for MAPOL and for all the engineering software of the ASTROS system.) MAPOL allows you to manipulate the software system in many ways to tailor the available capabilities to perform particular tasks. At a higher level of sophistication, you may add modules to the system or replace modules that already exist. Obviously, some of these features ASTROS THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-1 USER’S MANUAL require a knowledge of the ASTROS system that is beyond the scope of the User’s Manual. Those features that require detailed information are more fully discussed in the Programmer’s Manual, but their existence is emphasized here in order to introduce you to the flexibility that the executive system provides. This Chapter presents the mechanics of the MAPOL packet. The potential of the executive system to tailor the ASTROS software is explored in this discussion of the standard sequence. In addition to this Chapter, Chapter 8 presents a detailed description of the MAPOL language, its syntax and features. It cannot be overemphasized that, while the capabilities implemented in the ASTROS software are significant, the true power embodied in the ASTROS system is its immense flexibility, largely provided by the executive system and its MAPOL language. The MAPOL packet is initiated either by the keyword MAPOL or by the keyword EDIT and is terminated upon encountering the SOLUTION CONTROL packet, the BULK DATA packet or the end of the input stream. In addition, each of the initiator keyword commands act as directives to the MAPOL compiler to take specific actions. The MAPOL and EDIT commands are: MAPOL GO NOGO EDIT GO NOGO LIST NOLIST LIST NOLIST where: GO NOGO LIST NOLIST selects whether the MAPOL program is to be executed after compilation. selects whether the MAPOL source code is to be written to the output file. The MAPOL command is followed by a MAPOL program which can be any syntactically complete set of MAPOL statements as described in the chapter on MAPOL Programming (Chapter 9). The EDIT command indicates that the MAPOL packet will consist of edit commands that INSERT, DELETE or REPLACE lines of the standard executive sequence. 4.1. THE MAPOL PROGRAM If the MAPOL packet begins with the MAPOL command line, the compiler assumes that the remaining statements in the packet constitute a complete MAPOL program. That program can be any set of MAPOL statements that satisfy the rules of the language as presented in Chapter 8. The program can call any of a number of intrinsic functions (including most of the common FORTRAN intrinsic functions) and any of the "engineering" utilities and modules that are available in ASTROS. You can access these modules in any desired order, subject only to limits imposed by the engineering modules themselves. In addition, you can write special purpose modules and define them to the compiler through the SYSTEM GENERATION (SYSGEN) program discussed in the Programmer’s Manual. Thus, a wide range of tasks can be performed using the ASTROS system in combination with a MAPOL program. 4-2 THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL The MAPOL language can be read and written easily by anyone familiar with a scientific programming language. This feature opens the advantages of the executive system to the average user without requiring specialized knowledge in computer science or requiring effort to learn a radically different programming language. You will often find the simplicity and power of the MAPOL language enables many tasks to be performed using the ASTROS system that are not explicitly supported in the standard executive sequence. 4.2. MAPOL EDIT COMMANDS If the MAPOL packet begins with the EDIT command line, the compiler assumes that the remainder of the packet (if any) is composed of MAPOL edit commands and new MAPOL statements that modify the standard executive sequence. The set of edit commands is given in Table 4-1. They allow you to insert, delete and replace lines of the standard MAPOL sequence. All of the edit commands reference a line number or range of line numbers. The line numbers are those in a compiled listing of the standard MAPOL sequence which is written as part of the system generation task. When editing the standard sequence, you are cautioned to obtain the most recent listing either from the SYSGEN output or by executing ASTROS with an input stream containing only an ASSIGN command and the one line MAPOL packet: EDIT LIST NOGO This input stream will result in an output file containing the current listing of the standard executive sequence. 4.3. THE STANDARD EXECUTIVE SEQUENCE As previously mentioned, the MAPOL language has its conceptual roots in the DMAP "language". In order to allow the user of NASTRAN to perform certain predefined analyses, a set of "rigid formats" or DMAP algorithms were written, alleviating the user of the need to learn the details of the control language. Each rigid format allowed the user to perform analyses in a different engineering discipline; for example, static structural analyses, normal modes analyses, or transient analyses. In a similar manner, a standard executive sequence or MAPOL algorithm is available in the ASTROS system which supports all Table 4-1. MAPOL Edit Commands STATEMENT Modify the standard solution EDIT DELETE REPLACE INSERT a ASTROS FUNCTION a[,b] a[,b] Remove lines a through b inclusive Removes lines a through b inclusive and replaces them with the following lines Insert the lines following the command after line a THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-3 USER’S MANUAL the engineering disciplines and optimization features of the procedure. Unlike the multiple DMAP rigid formats, however, there is a single MAPOL sequence that supports all the available engineering disciplines as well as optimization. This fundamental difference is necessary to permit multidisciplinary optimization. One consequence of having a single multidisciplinary algorithm is that the standard sequence appears to be very complicated. The purpose of this section is to present the internal structure and flow of the standard MAPOL sequence thereby providing the user with sufficient information to tailor the standard sequence to suit individual needs. The discussion in this section will be general in order to provide the necessary overview and to introduce the concepts embodied in the standard sequence. Modifications to the standard sequence will be presented primarily in terms of capabilities but the presentation will be supported by examples that represent both simple and more complex modifications. Finally, the Chapter closes with a detailed line-by-line presentation of the standard executive sequence. The reader is also referred to the Programmer’s Manual for information on the addition of modules to the ASTROS engineering library. 4.4. STANDARD EXECUTIVE SEQUENCE STRUCTURE The standard MAPOL sequence consists of two major components: the variable declarations and the solution algorithm. The solution algorithm can be further divided into preface modules, the optimization segment and the final analysis segment. The declaration segment declares all variables used in the MAPOL sequence. This includes all integer and real scalar variables as well as high order variables: relations, matrices and unstructured database entities. Within the solution algorithm, the preface modules comprise a group of engineering modules exercised prior to the boundary condition loops to perform a number of system initialization tasks; e.g. loads generation and the computation of invariant aerodynamic matrices. The separate optimization and analysis segments consist of a loop on the number of (optimization or analysis) boundary conditions in the current execution. In the optimization segment, a second boundary condition loop is performed to obtain the sensitivities of active boundary condition dependent constraints in preparation for the optimization task. Figure 4-1 provides the standard algorithm structure showing how multidisciplinary optimization is performed in ASTROS. It is readily apparent that the structure of the standard MAPOL sequence has been determined by the requirement to perform multidisciplinary optimization. Each of the segments of the standard sequence are discussed in greater detail in the following sections. 4-4 THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL PREFACE SEGMENT Initialization (PREFACE) Segment WHILE NOT CONVERGED DO For Each Boundary Condition Do ANALYSIS PHASE Discipline 1 Subcase 1 Subcase 2 … Discipline 2 … Constraints Constraints End Do Select Active Constraints OPTIMIZATION SEGMENT For Each Active Boundary Condition Do SENSITIVITY PHASE Active Discipline 1 Active Subcase 1 Active Subcase 1 … Active Discipline 2 … Constraint Sensitivities Constraint Sensitivities End Do OPTIMIZATION PHASE Redesign Based on Current Active Constraints and Constraint Sensitivities END DO For Each Boundary Condition Do FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT Discipline 1 Subcase 1 Subcase 2 … Discipline 2 … End Do Figure 4-1. Structure of the Standard MAPOL Sequence ASTROS THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-5 USER’S MANUAL 4.4.1. MAPOL Declarations MAPOL is a strongly typed language that requires all variables used in a program unit (either the main program or a procedure) to be declared. This applies to both simple variables like real and integer scalar or array variables and to high order variables (like MATRIX) that refer to database entities. The first several hundred lines of the standard sequence consist solely of these variable declarations. Tables 4-2 through 4-7 give a summary of the scalar parameters used in the standard MAPOL sequence. These parameters, initialized in engineering modules or in the MAPOL sequence, are used as either logic control flags or arguments to the engineering modules. The tables, which are catagorized by function, provide a brief description of each variable and a list of modules (where applicable) that use the parameter. For a description of all the variables used as arguments of the engineering modules, refer to the ASTROS Programmer’s Manual. It should be noted that all of these variables can be directly modified within the MAPOL algorithm at your discretion. A discussion of those parameters that you are most likely to want to modify is given in Section 4.4.3, but the experienced user is free to change any variable in the MAPOL sequence. Higher order variables fall into two categories: MAPOL entities and hidden entities. MAPOL entities are those that actually appear in the MAPOL sequence while hidden entities are those that are declared but do not subsequently appear in the sequence. Their declaration ensures that the corresponding database entity is created and can be used by a number of engineering modules without requiring the entity name to appear in the argument list. Hidden entities are typically those that contain the raw data needed by many modules; e.g. bulk data, geometry data and connectivity data. The declarations of the higher order variables are arranged to place logically related entities together. Several of the matrix entities, it should be noted, are subscripted, for example [KLLINV(1000)]. The subscripted matrix entity allows the ASTROS software to perform multiple analyses in several boundary conditions and retain the information needed to compute the sensitivities of the active constraints retained from each of these boundary conditions. The ASTROS executive system generates a name for each subscripted variable, and that name is used by all the engineering modules receiving the subscripted entity name as an argument. The actual database entity name need not be known. This does, however, impose the following restriction: a subscripted entity may not be used as a hidden entity in any engineering module; it must appear in the calling list for the module because only the executive system knows the actual name of the database entity corresponding to the current subscript value. In the standard sequence, provision has been made for up to 1000 entities (doubly subscripted arrays of entities are set up for 30 boundary conditions and 33 secondary subscript values), but you can change the declared number of subscripts to match the required range of indices. 4-6 THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 4-2. Real Parameters in the Standard Sequence PARAMETER NAME USED IN MODULES ALPHA SOLUTION FSD Exponential move limit for fully stressed design. Set through the Solution Control OPTIMIZE command. 0.90 CNVRGLIM DESIGN FSD Convergence test limit specifying the maximum percent objective change for the appropriate problem to be considered converged. Output from SOLUTION. 0.50 CTL ACTCON DESIGN FSD Criteria for defining a constraint to be active in determining convergence in ACTCON. If value > CTL, the constraint is active. Set in DESIGN or FSD. CTLMIN ACTCON DESIGN FSD Criteria for denoting a constraint to be feasible in determining convergence in ACTCON. If maximum constraint value <CTLMIN, the design is feasible. Set in DESIGN, or FSD. EPS SOLUTION ACTCON Criteria used in ACTCON for selecting active constraints. All constraints with values greater than EPS will be retained. Set through the Solution Control OPTIMIZE command. (See also NRFAC) -0.10 FDSTEP NLEMG EBKLEVAL MAKDFV MAKDFU Finite difference step size for sensitivity calculations. 0.001 FMAX GRD1 GRD2 K6ROT EMG DESCRIPTION The maximum frequency value associated with the NEIV eigenvalues computed for dynamic reduction in the current boundary condition. Output from GDR1. Stiffness value for plate element drilling degrees of freedom. MACH SAERODRV Mach number for the current case. Set in SAERODRV. MOVLIM SOLUTION DESIGN MAKDFV TCEVAL A move limit applied to the physical design variable (V) for mathematical programming methods. The move is: V/MOVLIM < V < V * MOVLIM. Set through the Solution Control OPTIMIZE command. NRFAC SOLUTION ACTCON Criteria used in ACTCON for selecting active constraints. At least NRFAC times NDV constraints will be retained. Set through the Solution Control OPTIMIZE command. (See also EPS) QDP SAERODRV SAERO others Dynamic pressure value used in the current steady aeroelastic subcase. Output from SAERODRV used subsequently in MAPOL expressions and modules. TCEVAL The window in which the MOVLIM bound is overridden to allow local variables to change sign. If WINDOW is 0.0, then the local variable may not change sign. If it is nonzero, the half-width of a band around zero, called EPS, is computed by: EPS = WINDOW/100 * MAX( ABS(TMIN),ABS(TMAX) ) If the local variable falls within the band, then the new minimum or maximum for the current iteration is changed to lie on the other side of zero from the local variable. Output from SOLUTION. WINDOW ASTROS DEFAULT 0.0 2.0 ( >1.0) 3.0 0.0 (≥0.0) THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-7 NAME MODULES DESCRIPTION ASIZE GDR3 BC N/A BCID many DDFLG DDLOAD ESIZE BCBGPDT others GNORM GDR3 GSIZEB IFP others The number of structural degrees of freedom in the model. Output from IFP and subsequently used in many modules. GSIZE GDR4 others GSIZEB modified subject to dynamic reduction. HSIZE FLUTTRAN OFPEDR REIG others LJSET GDRi Number of degrees of freedom in the j-set in dynamic reduction. Set in GDR1. LKSET GDRi Number of degrees of freedom in the k-set in dynamic reduction. Set in GDR1. LSIZE GDR1 The number of l-set degrees of freedom. NEIV GDR1 GDR2 An output from GDR1 indicating the number of eigenvalues below the maximum frequency specified for dynamic reduction. NGDR BOUND Logical flag equal to negative one if dynamic reduction is selected for the current boundary condition. NMPC BOUND ABOUND NOMIT BOUND ABOUND The number of a-set degrees of freedom. Boundary condition loop counter. Boundary condition identification number. Indicates if the current statics subcases contain design dependent (gravity or thermal) loads. Output by DDLOAD. The number of extra points in the boundary condition. The sum of LJSET and LKSET. Number of eigenvectors extracted by the REIG module. Set in REIG. Logical flag equal to the number of degrees of freedom in the multipoint constraint set for the current boundary condition. USER’S MANUAL Table 4-4. Integer Design Parameters NAME MODULES DESCRIPTION FSDE SOLUTION The last iteration to use fully stressed design. Output from SOLUTION. FSDS SOLUTION FSD The first iteration to use fully stressed design. Output from SOLUTION. MAXITER SOLUTION ACTCON Parameter set in the MAPOL sequence indicating the maximum number of resizing cycles that are to be performed. Set through the Solution Control OPTIMIZE command. (Def = 15) MPE SOLUTION The last iteration to use mathematical programming. Output from SOLUTION. MPS SOLUTION FSD The first iteration to use mathematical programming. Output from SOLUTION. NACSD ABOUND The number of active stress and displacement constraints in the current active boundary condition. Used to select either the virtual load or gradient method in sensitivity analysis. Set in ABOUND. NAUS ABOUND The number of active displacement vectors for statics. Set in ABOUND. NBNDCOND SOLUTION NDV MAKEST, others NITER N/A NUMOPTBC SOLUTION The total number of boundary conditions in the solution control packet. Equal to the number of optimization boundary conditions plus the number of analysis boundary conditions. Output from SOLUTION. The number of global design variables in the design model. Set by MAKEST and used in many subsequent modules. The current optimization iteration number. The number of optimization boundary conditions in the solution control packer. Set in SOLUTION. Table 4-5. Integer Aerodynamic Parameters NAME MODULES MINDEX ABOUND, AEROSENS, BOUND, PFAERO The index value for the Mach number dependent subscripted steady aerodynamic matrices. Typically has a value used to select the proper matrices for the current boundary condition. SUB S SAERODRV SAERO others Identifies the subcase subscript. SAERO subcases with the same symmetry Mach number, MINDEX, trim type, and dynamic pressure are processed using the same subscript. This occurs with multiple load conditions with the same aero correction. SYM BOUND A control flag denoting whether the symmetric (SYM=1) or antisymmetric (SYM=-1) steady aeroelastic matrices are to be used are to be used in the current boundary condition. ASTROS DESCRIPTION THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-9 USER’S MANUAL Table 4-6. Integer Discipline Parameters NAME MODULES DESCRIPTION BDFR BOUND Indicates if there are any direct FREQUENCY response subcases in the current boundary condition. BDRSP BOUND Indicates if there are either TRANSIENT or FREQUENCY response disciplines in the current boundary condition. BDTR BOUND Indicates if there are any direct TRANSIENT response subcases in the current boundary condition. BDYN BOUND Indicates if there are any dynamic analyses (FLUTTER, TRANSIENT or FREQUENCY) in the current boundary condition. BFLUTR BOUND Indicates if there are any FLUTTER analyses in the current boundary condition. BGUST BOUND Indicates if there are any gust loads for either TRANSIENT or FREQUENCY disciplines in the current boundary condition. BLOAD BOUND Indicates if there are any mechanical, thermal or gravity static applied loads in the current boundary condition. BMASS BOUND Indicates if a mass matrix exists in the current boundary condition. BMFR BOUND Indicates if there are any modal FREQUENCY response subcases in the current boundary condition. BMODES BOUND Indicates if there are any disciplines that require that a normal MODES analysis be performed. BMTR BOUND Indicates if there are any modal TRANSIENT response subcases in the current boundary condition. BSAERO BOUND Indicates if there are any SAERO subcases in the current boundary condition. DMODES BOUND Indicates if there are any modal disciplines in the current boundary condition. NGDR BOUND Indicates if dynamic reduction is selected for the current boundary condition. 4-10 THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 4-7. Logical Discipline Parameters NAME MODULES ACTAEFF ABOUND TRUE if the current boundary condition has any active aeroelastic effectiveness constraints. ACTAERO ABOUND TRUE if the current boundary condition has any active constraints associated with SAERO analyses. ACTBAR ABOUND TRUE if the current boundary condition has any active Euler buckling constraints. ACTBOUND ABOUND TRUE if the current boundary condition has any active constraints. ACTDYN ABOUND TRUE if the current boundary condition has any active frequency constraints. ACTFLUT ABOUND TRUE if the current boundary condition has any active flutter constraints. ACTPNL ABOUND TRUE if the current boundary condition has any active panel buckling constraints. ACTUAG AROSNSDR ACTUAGG MAKDFU TRUE if the current boundary condition has any active displacement or stress constraint sensitivities. AEFLG SAERO Logical array which indicates whether the current SAERO subscript value has aeroelastic effectiveness constraints applied to it. APPCNVRG DESIGN ACTCON TRUE when the approximate problem was converged in a previous iteration. GLBCNVRG ACTCON TRUE when global convergence has been reached. K2GGFLG MK2GG LOOP — M2GGFLG MK2GG PFLAG ACTCON DESPUNCH ASTROS DESCRIPTION TRUE if the current boundary condition has any active displacements or accelerations. Set TRUE in MK2GG if a K2GG matrix is input for the current boundary condition. General logical used to control DO-WHILE loops. Set TRUE in MK2GG if an M2GG matrix is input for the current boundary condition. Set TRUE in ACTCON if DESPUNCH needs to punch a new model. THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-11 USER’S MANUAL 4.4.2. The Solution Algorithm Finite element structural analysis, which forms the core of the ASTROS system, requires the manipulation of large matrices. The MAPOL control language is designed with this requirement in mind and, therefore, is able to directly support the manipulation of matrices. Consequently, the majority of the MAPOL sequence consists of matrix equations. The algorithmic nature of the MAPOL syntax allows the reader to follow these matrix operations fairly easily, and the notation roughly follows that used in the Theoretical Manual. Therefore, the focus of this section is the description of modules called by the MAPOL sequence. There are a number of engineering and utility modules called to perform tasks associated with the several analysis disciplines supported by the ASTROS system. Table 4-8 of Section 4.4.2.1 lists the modules defined to the ASTROS executive system, and provides a brief description of each. Not all of these modules appear in the standard solution sequence. These are included in the table to ensure its completeness and usefulness in modifying the standard sequence. The use of these modules is discussed in more detail in the section on modifying the standard MAPOL sequence and are more fully documented in the Programmer’s Manual. The brief descriptions of the remaining segments of the standard algorithm that follow, coupled with the inherent readability of MAPOL syntax, provide a complete picture of the flow through the standard sequence. 4-12 THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 4.4.2.1. MAPOL Engineering and Utility Modules This section contains a brief description, shown in Table 4-8, of each of the MAPOL addressable modules defined to the ASTROS executive system. The intrinsic mathematical functions of the MAPOL language are not included. The TYPE column indicates whether a module is used for ENGineering functions, MATrix manipulations, UTILity operations, or to address the eBASE database. Table 4-8. Summary of ASTROS Modules MODULE TYPE DESCRIPTION ABOUND ENG Generates flags for the current boundary condition during the sensitivity calculation. These are then returned to the executive sequence to direct the execution of the required sensitivity analyses. ACTCON ENG Determines whether the design task has converged. If the optimization has not converged, this module selects which constraints are to be included in the current redesign. On termination or print request, this routine computes the values of the local design variables. AEROEFFS ENG Evaluates aeroelastic effectiveness sensitivities. AEROSENS ENG Computes the sensitivities to active strength constraints and/or aeroelastic effectiveness constraints for active steady aeroelastic optimization boundary conditions. AMP ENG Computes the discipline dependent unsteady aerodynamic matrices for FLUTTER and GUST analyses. ANALINIT ENG Initializes the final analysis pass. APFLUSH ENG Flushes the current values of user function responses and gradients at the beginning of each design iteration. APPEND MAT Appends one matrix to another. AROSNSDR ENG Driver for SAERO sensitivity analysis. AROSNSMR ENG Merges SAERO sensitivities for each subscript into [MATOUT] in case order for active subcases. BCBGPDT ENG Builds the boundary condition dependent grid point coordinate relation, BGPDT, for the specified boundary condition. BCBULK ENG Builds boundary condition dependent matrices, transfer functions and initial conditions. BCEVAL ENG Evaluates the constraints of PBAR1 cross-sectional parameters. BCIDVAL ENG Converts the boundary condition index value (BC) into the user assigned value. ASTROS THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-13 USER’S MANUAL Table 3-8. Summary of ASTROS Modules — Continued MODULE NAME TYPE BOUND ENG Returns flags to the MAPOL sequence that define the matrix reduction path for the current boundary condition. BOUNDUPD ENG Updates boundary condition definitions. CEIG ENG Computes the complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix. COLMERGE MAT Merges two or more submatrices into a single matrix based on column partitioning vectors. COLPART MAT Partitions a matrix into two or more submatrices based on column partitioning vectors. CONORDER ENG Reorders constraints in boundary condition order to match the order in which constraint sensitivities are computed. DCEVAL ENG Evaluates displacement constraints in the current boundary condition. DDLOAD ENG Computes the sensitivities of design dependent loads for active boundary conditions. DECOMP MAT Decomposes a matrix into its triangular factors. DESIGN ENG Performs redesign by math programming methods based on the current set of active constraints and constraint sensitivities. DESPUNCH UTIL Writes new modified Bulk Data entries for the current design iteration to the PUNCH file. DMA ENG Assembles the direct and/or modal stiffness, mass and/ or damping matrices including extra point degrees of freedom for dynamic analysis disciplines. DYNLOAD ENG Assembles the direct and/or modal time and/or frequency dependent loads including extra point degrees of freedom for dynamic response disciplines. DYNRSP ENG Computes the direct or modal displacements, velocities and accelerations for TRANSIENT and FREQUENCY analyses. EBKLEVAL ENG Evaluates Euler buckling constraints. EBKLSENS ENG Evaluates Euler buckling constraint sensitivity. EDR ENG Computes the stresses, strains, grid point forces and strain energies for elements selected for output for the particular boundary condition. EMA1 ENG Assembles the linear element stiffness and mass matrices (stored in the KELM and MELM entities) into the linear design sensitivity matrices DKVI, DMVI. EMA2 ENG Assembles the element stiffness and mass matrix sensitivities (stored in the DKVI and DMVI entities) into the global stiffness and mass matrices for the current design iteration. EMG ENG Computes the element linear stiffness, mass, thermal load and stress component sensitivities for all structural elements. EXIT UTIL Terminates the execution of the MAPOL sequence. Useful to terminate modified MAPOL sequences. FBS MAT Performs the forward-backward substitution to solve systems of linear equations. FCEVAL ENG Evaluates the current value of all frequency constraints. FLUTDMA ENG Assembles the dynamic matrices for the FLUTTER disciplines. FLUTDRV ENG Driver for FLUTTER analyses. DESCRIPTION 4-14 THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 3-8. Summary of ASTROS Modules — Continued MODULE NAME TYPE FLUTQHHL ENG Processes the [QKKL] matrix with normal modes for FLUTTER. FLUTSENS ENG Computes the sensitivities of active flutter constraints in the current active boundary condition. FLUTTRAN ENG Performs flutter analyses in the current boundary condition and evaluates any flutter constraints if it is an optimization boundary condition with applied flutter constraints. FNEVAL ENG Evaluates user-defined objective and constraint functions. FPKEVL ENG Compiles the FUNCTION Packet and instantiates user functions that have been invoked in Solution Control. FREDUCE ENG Reduces the symmetric or asymmetric f-set stiffness, mass and/or loads matrix to the a-set if there are omitted degrees of freedom. FREQSENS ENG Computes the sensitivities of active frequency constraints in the current active boundary condition. FSD ENG Performs redesign by fully stressed design methods based on the set of applied stress constraints. All other applied constraints are ignored. GDR1 ENG Computes the shifted stiffness matrix and the rigid body transformation matrix [GGO] to be used in Phase 2 of Generalized Dynamic Reduction. GDR2 ENG Computes the orthogonal basis [PHIOK] for the general Krylov subspace to be used in Phase 3 of Generalized Dynamic Reduction. GDR3 ENG Computes the transformation matrix [GSUBO] for Generalized Dynamic Reduction. GDR4 ENG Computes transformations between displacement sets useful for data recovery from Generalized Dynamic Reduction. GDVGRAD ENG Computes design variable sensitivity for intricsic functions. GDVRESP ENG Computes design variable responses for intrinsic functions. GFBS MAT Performs the forward-backward substitution phase to solve general systems of linear equations that have been decomposed with module DECOMP. GPSP ENG Processes the n-set stiffness matrix to identify singularities and, if requested, automatically remove them. GPWG ENG Grid point weight generator module. GREDUCE ENG Reduces the symmetric g-set stiffness, mass or loads matrix to the n-set if there are multipoint constraints in the boundary condition. GTLOAD ENG Assembles the current static applied loads matrix for any statics subcases in the current boundary condition from the constant simple load vectors and the design dependent load sensitivities. IFP ENG Reads the Bulk Data File and loads the input data to relations. Computes the external coordinate system transformation matrices and creates the basic grid point data. Also performs bandwidth minimization. INERTIA ENG Computes the rigid body accelerations for statics analyses with inertia relief. ITERINIT ENG Initializes the CONST relation for the current iteration. LAMINCON ENG Computes constraint values for laminate thickness constraints. ASTROS DESCRIPTION THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-15 USER’S MANUAL Table 3-8. Summary of ASTROS Modules — Continued MODULE NAME TYPE LAMINSNS ENG Computes constraint sensitivities for laminate thickness constraints. LODGEN ENG Assembles the simple load vectors and simple load sensitivities for all applied loads in the Bulk Data File. MAKDFU ENG Assembles the sensitivities to the displacements of active stress and displacement constraints in the current active boundary condition. MAKDFV ENG Assembles the sensitivities of active thickness constraints. MAKDVU ENG Multiplies the stiffness or mass design sensitivities by the active displacements or accelerations. MAKEST ENG Generates the element summary relational entities for all structural elements. Determines the design variable linking and generates sensitivities for any thickness constraints. MERGE MAT Merges two or more submatrices into a single matrix based on row and column partitioning vectors. MKAMAT ENG Assembles the constraint sensitivity matrix from the sensitivity matrices formed by MAKDFU and the sensitivities of the displacements for active static load conditions in the current active boundary condition. MKDFDV ENG Computes the sensitivity of PBAR1 cross-sectional parameters with respect to design variables. MKDFSV ENG Computes the matrix [DFSV] which contains the design variable nonlinear s-matrix derivatives related to active stress and strain constraint sensitivity terms. MKPVECT MAT Generates partitioning vectors. MKUSET ENG Generates the structural set definition entity USET for each boundary condition and forms the partitioning vectors and transformation matrices used in matrix reduction. MK2GG ENG Interprets solution control and generates the [M2GG] and [K2GG] matrices if necessary. MSWGRESP ENG Computes element mass or weight intricsic response function. NLEMA1 ENG Assembles the element design variable linear and nonlinear stiffness and mass matrices into the design sensitivity matrices. NLEMG ENG Computes the element nonlinear stiffness, mass, thermal load and stress component sensitivities for all structural elements. NLLODGEN ENG Assembles the simple nonlinear load vectors and simple nonlinear load sensitivities for all applied loads in the Bulk Data File. NREDUCE ENG Reduces the symmetric n-set stiffness, mass or loads matrix to the f-set if there are single point constraints in the boundary condition. NULLMAT ENG Breaks database equivalences from previous boundary conditions. OFPAEROM ENG Solves for the SAERO applied loads and displacements on aero boxes for output requests. OFPDISP ENG Prints selected displacements, velocities and/or accelerations from any analyses in the current boundary condition. OFPALOAD ENG Solves for the SAERO applied loads and constraint forces for output processing. OFPDLOAD ENG Processes output requests for dynamics loads (transient frequency, and gust). OFPEDR ENG Prints selected element stress, strain, force and/or strain energies from any analyses in the current boundary condition. DESCRIPTION 4-16 THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 3-8. Summary of ASTROS Modules — Continued MODULE NAME TYPE OFPGRAD ENG Processes output requests for objective and constraint gradients. OFPLOAD ENG Prints selected applied external loads from any analyses in the current boundary condition. OFPMROOT ENG Processes output requests for normal modes. OFPSPCF ENG Processes output requests for single-point constraint forces. PARTN MAT Partitions a matrix into two or more submatrices based on row and column partitioning vectors. PBKLEVAL ENG Evaluates panal buckling constraints. PBKLSENS ENG Evaluates panal buckling constraint sensitivity. PFBULK ENG Performs a number of preface operations to form additional collections of data. QHHLGEN ENG Computes the discipline dependent unsteady aerodynamic matrices for GUST analyses in the modal structural system. RBCHECK ENG Outputs to the print file the rigid body checks computed for each support point. RECEND CADDB RECOVA ENG Recovers the symmetric or asymmetric f-set displacements or accelerations if there are omitted degrees of freedom. REIG ENG Computes the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system as directed by the boundary METHOD selection. RELCND CADDB Sets conditions on attribute values for MAPOL retrieval of relational entities. RELADD CADDB Adds a tuple to an entity opened with RELUSE. RELEND CADDB Closes an entity opened from the MAPOL sequence using RELUSE. RELGET CADDB Retrieves a relational tuple into execution memory for a relation opened for use in the MAPOL sequence. RELUPD CADDB Performs a relational update from execution memory of a tuple retrieved using RELGET. RELUSE CADDB Opens a relational entity for access from the executive sequence. ROWMERGE MAT Merges two or more submatrices into a single matrix based on row partitioning vectors. ROWPART MAT Partitions a matrix into two or more submatrices based on row partitioning vectors. SAERO ENG Solves the trim equation for steady aeroelastic trim analyses. Computes the rigid and flexible stability coefficients for steady aeroelastic analyses and the aerodynamic effectiveness constraints for constrained optimization steady aerodynamic analyses. SAERODRV ENG Driver for SAERO disciplines. SAEROMRG ENG Merges the SAERO results into [MATOUT] in case order. SCEVAL ENG Computes the stress and/or strain constraint values for the statics or steady aeroelastic trim analyses in the current boundary condition. SDCOMP MAT Decomposes a symmetric matrix into its lower triangular factor and a diagonal matrix. SHAPEGEN UTIL Generates a set of SHAPE entries based on the element centroidal locations for a group of selected elements. ASTROS DESCRIPTION Terminates setting conditions on a MAPOL relational access. THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-17 USER’S MANUAL Table 3-8. Summary of ASTROS Modules — Continued MODULE NAME TYPE SOLUTION ENG Interprets the solution control packet, forms the CASE entity and outputs certain key parameters to the executive sequence. SPLINES ENG Generates interpolation matrix relating displacements and forces between the steady aero and structural models. SPLINEU ENG Generates interpolation matrix relating displacements and forces between the unsteady aero and structural models. STEADY ENG Computes rigid unit forces and aeroelastic corrections for steady aero. STEADYNP ENG Computes rigid trimmed forces for non-planar models. TCEVAL ENG Computes the current values of thickness constraints for this optimization iteration. TRNSPOSE MAT Transposes a matrix. UNSTEADY ENG Computes unsteady generalized forces. USETPRT UTIL Prints the structural set definition table from the USET entity for the specified boundary condition. UTGPRT UTIL Prints several specific matrix entities in an interpretable form. UTMPRG UTIL Purges matrix entities. UTMPRT UTIL To print any matrix entity. UTRPRG UTIL Purges relational entities. UTRPRT UTIL To print any relational entity. Only the first twelve attributes are printed and character attributes must be eight characters in length or they will be ignored. UTUPRG UTIL Purges unstructured entities. UTUPRT UTIL To print any unstructured entity. WOBJGRAD ENG Computes the default objective function (weight) sensitivity. YSMERGE ENG A special purpose merge utility for merging YS-like vectors (vectors of enforced displacements) into matrices for data recovery. DESCRIPTION 4-18 THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 4.4.2.2. The Preface Segment In the context of optimization, invariant data is computed only once and reused subsequently for each iteration. This is the underlying principle used in defining preface modules. In each instance, the data generated are invariant with respect to the design variables. The preface segment begins with a call to the solution control interpreter to determine the number and types of analyses to be performed. The input file processor (IFP) is then called. The element connection data and element matrices are then formed. PFBULK is then called to perform error checking operations on a variety of user input data. The EMA1 is called to compute the design invariant stiffness and mass sensitivities to the global design variables. Then the simple loads and load sensitivities are computed in LODGEN. If any planar static aerodynamic analyses are requested in the solution control, the STEADY and SPLINES modules are called to create the aerodynamic matrices required for the aeroelastic analysis. Finally, unsteady aerodynamics matrices are computed for GUST and FLUTTER analyses in UNSTEADY, AMP and SPLINEU. 4.4.2.3. The Analysis/Optimization Segments The remainder of the MAPOL algorithm consists of the optimization and analysis segments. Any particular boundary condition is either an optimization boundary condition (implying that the quantities computed in the disciplines selected in the solution control are constrained and that the structure is to be optimized subject to those constraints) or an analysis boundary condition. The design of the ASTROS system requires that all optimization boundary conditions precede any analysis boundary conditions. The analysis segment (labeled the "final analysis") is intended to follow an optimization with analyses in disciplines whose output values are not constrained but are of interest to the designer or to provide the user with an opportunity to view additional output not desired within the optimization loop. Also the analysis segment can be used on a stand alone basis to perform any desired analyses. Both the optimization and analysis segments consist of an initial loop on the number of boundary conditions. The analyses in these loops support all the disciplines currently available in the ASTROS system and differ only in the respect that the analysis segment does not have calls to constraint evaluation modules and the optimization segment has convergence tests and design iteration initialization outside the analysis boundary condition loop. The first step in these loops is to assemble the boundary condition dependent number of degrees of freedom (extra points are BC selectable in ASTROS). Then additional PFBULK-like operations are performed in BCBULK to ensure that BC-dependent user input is correct. Then the global stiffness and/or mass matrices are assembled and, if needed, the global loads matrix. Following these tasks, there are several BLOCK IF statements on the various dependent structural sets. In executing each block, the required matrix partitions and reductions are performed. Once the reduced matrices have been obtained for the analyses being performed within the loop, the lowest level response quantities (e.g. displacements, eigenvalues, etc.) are computed. Following the solution, the execution proceeds through another group of dependent set BLOCK IF’s to recover the solution vectors to the global set. At this point, the analysis segment is completed with calls to the output file processor modules to compute and output high level response quantities (e.g. stresses). In the optimization phase of the optimization segment, the ACTCON module determines the status of the global convergence flag CONVERGE and, if the optimization is not complete, the redesign task is per- ASTROS THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-19 USER’S MANUAL formed. Three redesign methods are supported by the standard sequence and selected through the Solution Control. If the option for Fully Stressed Design (FSD) is selected, the redesign is performed in the FSD modules. The mathematical programming method only requires sensitivity information. In this case, the sensitivities of the active constraints (chosen by ACTCON based on the NRFAC and EPS parameters) are computed. The sensitivities of the active constraints which are explicit functions of the design variables are computed first in the MAKDFV module. Then the second boundary condition loop within the optimization segment begins. The ABOUND routine determines the types of active constraints in each boundary condition and outputs logic flags to control the subsequent sensitivity computations. Then boundary condition dependent constraints which are explicit functions of the design variables (frequency and flutter) are computed. Next, the sensitivities of the constraints to the displacements for those STATICS constraints which are explicit functions of the displacements (e.g., stress and displacement constraints) are computed using the MAKDFU module. For these types of constraints, the product of the stiffness sensitivities and the displacements and the mass sensitivities and the accelerations are also computed and modified appropriately to account for design dependent loads and inertia relief. The resulting matrix is then reduced and used to solve for the sensitivities of the displacements to the design variables. This matrix is recovered to the free displacement set in a manner similar to the recovery of the outputs in the analysis phase of the optimization segment. The final module within the boundary condition loop for sensitivity evaluation is MKAMAT. Within this module the constraint sensitivities to the design variables are formed from the product of the two sensitivity matrices previously obtained. For static aeroelastic analyses, a procedure similar to that for STATICS is used twice: once for "pseudodisplacements" that allow computation of aeroelastic effectiveness derivatives and once for real displacements that support the static strength constraints. The static aeroelastic sensitivity code is further complicated by the generality of the aeroelastic correction matrix selections, which are subcase dependent. After all the active optimization boundary conditions have been processed, the DESIGN module is called. Within this module, the approximate design problem is arranged for use by the optimizer and is solved. Following convergence of the approximate problem, execution returns to the top of the optimization loop and a complete reanalysis of all the boundary conditions is performed. Once completed, the ACTCON module determines if the global problem is converged and, if so, sets the global convergence flag to TRUE causing the execution to pass to the top of the analysis segment. If any analysis boundary conditions exist, they will be processed in a manner similar to the analysis phase of the optimization segment. After performing the requested final analyses (if any) the executive system terminates the ASTROS execution. 4.4.3. Modifying the Standard MAPOL Sequence The standard MAPOL sequence is provided to allow you to run the ASTROS system without detailed knowledge of the MAPOL language or the standard sequence. There is not, however, any requirement that the standard sequence be used. Chapter 8 outlines the procedure for writing a valid MAPOL sequence, and any series of syntactically correct MAPOL statements may be used to direct the ASTROS procedure. All the engineering, utility and matrix manipulation modules shown in Subsection 4.4.2.1 are available to any MAPOL sequence used to direct the system. In addition, there are a number of intrinsic functions, such as SIN and ABS, that are also available. Their use is detailed in the MAPOL Programming chapter. The sophisticated MAPOL user is thus provided with a very flexible control language to 4-20 THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL manipulate the ASTROS system. This Section describes simple modifications to the standard algorithm to print out additional data items, to fine tune the optimization algorithm and to restore an ASTROS analysis that was partially executed on a previous run. No set of examples, however, can possibly indicate the full range of available capabilities; the user is therefore cautioned not to be overly constrained by this discussion. In order to avoid vast quantities of output and to limit the execution time, the standard output is kept to a minimum. Several utilities, listed in Section 4.4.2.1, can, however, be inserted in the standard sequence to output data stored on the database. In addition, a utility has been written to print out the structural set definition table to aid in the debugging of the structural model. The UTMPRT, UTGPRT, UTRPRT and UTUPRT print utilities dump the contents of specified database entities to the user’s output file. These can be used anywhere in the MAPOL sequence after the specified entity has been filled with data. The USETPRT utility provides the user with the ability to print the structural set definition table (USET) in a format which aids in debugging the structural model. These utilities provide the user with some simple tools to allow closer interaction with the data stored on the database and to provide capability to more closely track the execution. The print utilities provide data visibility without modifying the basic execution of the standard sequence. At a slightly more complex level, the user might desire to fine tune the optimization procedure or to track the iterations of the optimizer more closely. Table 4-4 includes a number of parameters which are used by ASTROS to direct the optimization. All of these parameters can be modified through the OPTIMIZE command in solution control. That modification, however, only occurs once. Any of these parameters can be changed by the user at any point in the MAPOL sequence. For example, the MOVLIM parameter could be changed to a different value after the fifth iteration by placing the following statement immediately after the WHILE test on GLBCNVRG: IF NITER > 5 MOVLIM = 1.5; Obviously, the conditional testing can become as complex as the MAPOL programmer desires. The brief discussion above does not begin to describe all the options open to the sophisticated ASTROS user. It does, however, outline some of the most commonly performed modifications to the standard MAPOL algorithm. The concepts described can be extended to a large number of similar changes; e.g., modifying the input dynamic pressure value within the MAPOL sequence could be done to avoid re-running the base run of an ASTROS execution. At a more advanced level, the MAPOL relational database entity utilities can be used to directly modify the design variable values or objective sensitivities. ASTROS THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-21 USER’S MANUAL 4.4.4. Restart Capability Although ASTROS does not support a formal restart capability, this does not imply that restarts cannot be performed in ASTROS. The restart capability in ASTROS is limited in that you must use a modified MAPOL sequence in order to terminate the system early and the restarted job MUST use a tailored MAPOL sequence to restart the job at the desired point. Otherwise, there are no limits to what can be done by the experienced user. The ASTROS restart capability is best described as a full featured Manual Restart — ASTROS does not have an Automated Restart. There are several reasons why you may wish to suspend an ASTROS execution and then perform a restart, and the program supports this basic capability. For example, you may wish to examine the progress of a design after each optimization iteration. With the run stopped, you would then have the freedom to use eSHELL and alter ASTROS data to redirect the optimization path, if desired. As a second example, you may suspend execution and, again using eSHELL, replace ASTROS-computed data with their external equivalent (such as the QHHL or QKKL matrices of unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficients). Clearly, the ability to suspend/restart executions in combination with the eSHELL environment opens limitless possibilities. Without an automated restart, however, you are responsible for ensuring that several requisite tasks are completed. These are ☞ ☞ ☞ Ensuring that the run-time database has the proper STATUS on suspension and on restart. ☞ Ensuring that those scalar variable(s) that are common to both the original and the restart MAPOL sequences are initialized to the correct value(s) Selecting where in the MAPOL sequence to suspend execution. Writing a MAPOL sequence to restart execution. This may or may not be a modification to the standard sequence. Each of these tasks are discussed in the following sections. 4.4.4.1. Ensuring proper STATUS of the run-time database When suspending execution, the run-time database must be saved. ASTROS stores all the information that it has generated during the execution on the run-time database and, on any restart, the downstream modules will expect that those data will exist when they are executed in the restart environment. The run-time database is also the location of the data that the user may wish to modify or add to using eSHELL prior to initiating the restart. Saving the run-time database is done by selecting a STATUS of NEW (with the optional user parameter, KEEP, if required on the local host) on the ASSIGN DATABASE entry. For example, ASSIGN DATABASE CALVIN HOBBES NEW ASSIGN DATABASE CALVIN HOBBES NEW KEEP 4-22 THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL When restarting ASTROS using an existing database whose contents are to be preserved, ASTROS must be notified to attach the existing run-time database files without re-initializing them. This is done by selecting a STATUS of OLD on the ASSIGN DATABASE entry. For example ASSIGN DATABASE CALVIN HOBBES OLD If the STATUS of OLD is not given, existing database files are typically overwritten by the system. The STATUS flag indicates the status of the data not of the files so the files may exist with a STATUS of NEW and will result in the database contents being replaced by the new execution. 4.4.4.2. Suspending/Restarting Execution ASTROS execution is controlled by the MAPOL sequence that is supplied in the MAPOL packet. This may be the standard sequence (if the packet is omitted), an edited version of the standard sequence, or a user supplied sequence. To suspend execution, a MAPOL sequence must be defined which results in clean termination (one without fatal errors) of the ASTROS execution. This may be the standard execution or, more typically, an edited standard sequence or even a standalone MAPOL program. Most commonly, the suspension is performed by editing the standard MAPOL sequence and inserting an EXIT call after the last line that is to be executed in the current execution. Alternatively, if no missing IF-THEN-ENDIFs or ENDDOs result, portions of the sequence can simply be deleted. Some care should be taken in suspending execution in the middle of DO and DO WHILE loops or block IFs. Although possible to do, suspensions during execution of these repetitive segments can leave the system in a state that is more difficult to reinitialize on the restart exectution. Some experience with MAPOL and with ASTROS is needed before attempting these more complex suspensions. Suspending execution at the beginning or end of the preface, analysis phase (of either the optimization or final analysis segements) or the sensitivity phase is most likely to yield success. To restart the execution, you must generate a special MAPOL program either by editing the standard sequence or by writing a new sequence. The restart execution of ASTROS does not have any information on where the initial execution terminated. Only the data on the database is saved (i.e., available for the current execution). Obviously, the new execution may start up at any point the user wishes and need not be associated with the area where the initial run terminated (although only experienced ASTROS users should attempt to drastically alter the flow of the MAPOL sequence). To generate the special MAPOL sequence, the user may use a GOTO statement to jump ahead in the standard sequence to the restart point or the user may use the EDIT commands to delete those initial sections that no longer need execution. The latter is typically the case when the preface segment is "saved" for restart. If the user deletes lines, care should be taken not to delete half of a looping construct or block IF since that will result in a MAPOL compilation error. The restart MAPOL sequence must also contain any new statements that are required to reset values of MAPOL scalar parameters. 4.4.4.3. Resetting MAPOL Parameters In the ASTROS system, all the values of MAPOL variables are stored on the database. For the complex data types like RELATIONs and MATRICEs, this is obvious, since their data resides on the database for ASTROS THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL 4-23 USER’S MANUAL eSHELL execution or other processing. Less obviously, the simple data types like REAL and INTEGER (including arrays) are also saved on the database. These data are not easily viewed in the eSEHLL context, but are saved in a way that the MAPOL compiler can recognize. When a restart job is performed, the existence of these old data causes the MAPOL compiler to determine the correspondence between the original data and the new MAPOL sequence. Whenever a variable of the same name and type is found, its initial value is recovered from the old data thus "restoring" the value of the original variable to the last value it contained. In the restart execution, however, the user must make sure that the last value of the variable is the desired initial value for restart. In some cases, the variables contain "invariants" like the variable NDV which contains the number of global design variables. In other cases, like BC, the variable is a loop counter that should be reset. The MAPOL sequence may perform the reinitialization automatically (for example if a DO loop is re-executed for values 1 through 10, the do loop counter will be reset to 1 no matter what value it contains). If, however, the restart MAPOL omits the loop, the last loop counter that was achieved will be stored in the loop counter on restart. Determining which MAPOL parameters should be left alone and which should be reset (rather than default to their last value) is the challenge of the manual restart. Tables 4-2 through 4-7 (section 4.4.1) of this Manual have a list of all the MAPOL parameters. These tables list each parameter and give a description of how and where the parameter is used. Together with the ASTROS Programmer’s Manual, which document the actions that occur in each ASTROS module, the user can decide which parameters should be reset and which should be allowed to default to the value set in the initial execution. 4.5. MAPOL PROGRAM LISTING The current MAPOL listing is not given here because it is subject to change, if you wish to obtain the current listing, you may print the file MAPOLSEQ.DAT, which is delivered with your software, or use the method described in Section 4.2. Contact your UAI Systems Support Specialist for information about this file. 4-24 THE EXECUTIVE SYSTEM AND MAPOL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Chapter 5. THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET The solution control packet provides the means by which the user selects the optimization and analysis tasks to be performed by the ASTROS system, their order of execution and the engineering data related to each. The solution control commands are analogous in purpose to the NASTRAN Case Control commands but they are very different in form and subtly different in interpretation. Understanding the differences between ASTROS and NASTRAN in the area of solution control is fundamental in understanding multidisciplinary optimization in the ASTROS system because the solution control command structure follows directly from the ASTROS capability to perform multidisciplinary analyses in a single run. It is critical that the user clearly understand the subtleties of solution control syntax and hierarchies. This section, therefore, augments the presentation of the solution control mechanics with a discussion of the design considerations that are embodied in the solution control commands. The detailed definition of all solution control commands follows at the end of the chapter. In ASTROS, the solution control is very closely linked to the structure of the standard MAPOL sequence. It may be advantageous for the beginning user to read the standard MAPOL sequence discussion in the preceding section and to study the Theoretical Manual discussion of multidisciplinary optimization before reading the remainder of this section. The solution control packet is initiated with the keyword SOLUTION which follows the DEBUG and MAPOL packets (if present) in the input data stream. The packet is terminated when the BULK DATA packet, or the end of the input stream, is encountered. The data are composed of solution control statements which can begin in any column and can extend over multiple physical records. Each statement is formed from a combination of keywords separated by blanks or commas as indicated in the detailed syntactical descriptions at the end of the chapter. Further, each command keyword can be abbreviated by the first four (or more) characters of the keyword. The solution control packet follows a prescribed hierarchy with the following levels: ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-1 USER’S MANUAL INITIAL LEVEL (Level 1) TYPE OF BOUNDARY CONDITION (Level 2) BOUNDARY CONDITION(S) (Level 3) DISCIPLINE(S) (Level 4) Each of these levels is discussed in the following sections and compared and contrasted to their NASTRAN counterparts. In addition to these hierarchical commands, there are commands for output processing that can occur at several levels in the hierarchy. This section presents the available commands and output quantities, but the reader is referred to Chapter 5 of this document for the in-depth presentation of ASTROS output processing. The hierarchical nature of solution control means that, if the user enters a command at one level in the hierarchy, it remains in effect at all subsequent levels at or below the current one unless overridden. If it is overridden at the same level, that overwrites the original command. If, on the other hand, the command is overridden at a lower level, it only supercedes the original command for the duration of that level and lower levels. Solution Control reverts to use the higher level default after the lower level has been left. Table 5-1 describes how the commands move from one level to the next and the defaults that they use in each. Table 5-1. Levels of Solution Control INCREASING LEVELS CURRENT LEVEL IS: IF COMMAND IS: USE DEFAULTS FROM: THEN MOVE TO: LEVEL 1 (Initial) ANALYZE OPTIMIZE LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 2 BOUNDARY LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 3 Discipline commands LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 DECREASING LEVELS IF COMMAND IS: USE DEFAULTS FROM: THEN MOVE TO: Discipline commands LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 BOUNDARY LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 END LEVEL 1 LEVEL 1 (e .g .S TA TI CS ) LEVEL 4 5-2 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET (e.g.STATICS) ASTROS USER’S MANUAL The user must be aware of these hierarchies especially when requesting output at higher levels. It is possible to get print requests by default where they are not expected if one is not careful with the solution control hierarchy. Another common problem is to place an output request on the wrong side of a level-incrementing solution command thus placing a command at a higher level than expected. Consider the following two examples: EXAMPLE 1 OPTIMIZE BOUNDARY SPC=1 LABEL = CASE 1 STATICS (MECH=10) ... LABEL = CASE 2 STATICS (MECH=20) ... LABEL = CASE 3 STATICS (MECH=30) ... END EXAMPLE 2 OPTIMIZE BOUNDARY SPC=1 STATICS (MECH=10) LABEL = CASE 1 ... STATICS (MECH=20) LABEL = CASE 2 ... STATICS (MECH=30) LABEL = CASE 3 ... END In example 1, there are three discipline commands, STATICS, and three LABEL commands, one for each discipline. The indenture in the example helps to explain the results of these commands. The first STATICS case will be labelled CASE 2, because the LABEL command appears at LEVEL 4 with the STATICS (MECH=10) command. Similarly, the second STATICS case will be labelled CASE 3. Finally, the third STATICS case will be labelled CASE 1 because that particular LABEL command appeared at LEVEL 3 prior to STATICS (MECH=10). Example 2 illustrates the probable intent of the user. Here, the LABEL commands are placed below the STATICS command. As a result, the LABELs match the cases. 5.1. OPTIMIZE AND ANALYZE SUBPACKETS ASTROS has been designed primarily to be an automated design tool, but it can also perform analyses without doing any design. This is reflected in the division of the solution control packet into two subpackets, either of which is optional. The first, or OPTIMIZE, subpacket defines the boundary condition(s) and discipline(s) which will generate design constraints to be used in the redesign task. In defining an optimization boundary condition, the user either implicitly or explicitly specifies that constraints be applied to certain (discipline dependent) response quantities. ASTROS then considers the complete set of constraints from all disciplines in all optimization boundary conditions in the redesign task. The second, ANALYZE, subpacket defines analyses that are to be performed on the possibly redesigned structure. The ANALYZE subpacket is intended to provide the designer with the means to obtain additional output that is not desired during the optimization phase or to perform additional analyses which were not performed in the design task. It can also be used to perform analyses on structures that are not to be designed at all. The form of the solution control packet is then: ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-3 USER’S MANUAL SOLUTION OPTIMIZE ... ... Optimization Subpacket ... END ANALYZE ... ... Analysis Subpacket ... END If optimization is being performed, the OPTIMIZE subpacket must precede the ANALYZE subpacket. Any number of boundary conditions and/or disciplines can be performed in either subpacket. 5.2. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Each analysis discipline requires a set of physical boundary conditions and, in the case of unrestrained structures, a set of fictitious supports. These are defined in ASTROS in a manner very similar to that in NASTRAN; namely, through the definition of multipoint constraints (MPC), single point constraints (SPC) and support points (SUPORT). Unlike NASTRAN, however, ASTROS requires a more rigorous definition of a boundary condition. The reason for this is that the user must ensure that the system matrices at each stage of matrix reduction up to the analysis set are uniquely defined by the boundary condition specification. At or below the analysis set, certain disciplines allow looping over families of direct matrix input, damping options, transfer functions, etc. For example, if the user intends to perform a normal modes analysis, a modal transient analysis and a modal flutter analysis in the same boundary condition, ASTROS requires that the modal representation of the system under analysis be the same for each discipline in the boundary condition. This requirement, which is necessary to efficiently perform multidisciplinary analysis, adds a number of additional parameters to the boundary condition definition beyond the MPC, SPC and SUPORT definitions. They include definitions to perform matrix reductions (available in NASTRAN through Bulk Data but not always selectable in the Case Control Packet) as well as selection of additional point degrees of freedom. In NASTRAN, these data are either implicitly selected through the rigid format selection and/or bulk data or are a "discipline option" in the case control packet. While the boundary condition definition in ASTROS appears to be very complex, it is relatively simple if one realizes that the fundamental purpose of the BOUNDARY command is to uniquely specify the system level matrices and the matrix reductions that should be performed on them. The ASTROS automatic singularity feature, AUTOSPC, is the default in all cases. Unlike NASTRAN, this feature is selectable by boundary condition. There is one level of boundary condition specification which is not treated in the BOUNDARY command. It deals with symmetry options which play a restrictive role in multidisciplinary analysis, especially for aerodynamic disciplines. The symmetry options are often limited by the nature of the structural and/or aerodynamic models that are defined in the bulk data packet. For example, if the structural model is a half model only, the user cannot specify that asymmetric structural boundary conditions be analyzed. As a more common example, the user might want to perform an asymmetric aeroelastic analysis with a 5-4 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL structural half model. Unfortunately, this is not possible in ASTROS. Whenever possible, the implicit (model-defined) boundary condition specifications that existed in the NASTRAN bulk data definitions and in the interface between bulk data and solution control have been replaced with solution control dependent options. There are, however, still limitations imposed through the interactions between the model and the solution control on combining symmetric/antisymmetric and asymmetric boundary conditions within a single run. The eleven boundary condition specifications in ASTROS are shown in the following table: OPTION AUTOSPC BCID CMETHOD DYNRED ESET INERTIA DESCRIPTION Controls the automatic singularity processor. Optional boundary condition identification number. Specifies an EIGC bulk data entry which gives eigenvalue extraction data if an eigenanalysis is to be performed. Invokes dynamic reduction. Specifies the extra point DOF’s to be included in dynamic response analyses. Specifies a JSET bulk data set for dynamic reduction. M2GG Specifies the name of the direct mass matrix input in the structural set (g-set) to be included in ALL analyses. K2GG Specifies the name of the direct stiffness matrix input in the structural set (g-set) to be included in ALL analyses. METHOD Specifies an EIGR bulk data entry which gives eigenvalue extraction data if an eigenanalysis is to be performed. MPC Selects multi-point constraints defining dependency relations among specific DOF’s. REDUCE SPC SUPPORT Defines the DOF’s to be retained after a Guyan reduction. Selects single point constraints defining DOF’s with fixed or prescribed motion. Defines DOF’s to provide support conditions for free-free modal extraction, inertial relief and aeroelastic analyses. A boundary condition is defined by the BOUNDARY request and one or more of these further specifications, all of which, except BCID and AUTOSPC, point to bulk data entries. The boundary condition identification number, BCID, is only used by the Function Packet (see Section 4) when user-defined constraint functions are defined which span two or more different boundary conditions. Note that all boundary conditions must have identification numbers, or none may have them. User functions may still span boundary conditions by using default BCID values. The default is the ordinal numbering of the boundaries from 1 to n. As enumerated above, the specification of METHOD and ESET at this level in the hierarchy is in recognition of the fact that a number of the disciplines could require different sets of data for the associated items and it is desirable to group operations with one set of items together. This does, by definition, create a restriction that only one eigenanalysis and only one size of p-size matrices can be accommodated per boundary condition. Examples of boundary definitions are: ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-5 USER’S MANUAL BOUNDARY BOUNDARY BOUNDARY BOUNDARY BOUNDARY BOUNDARY SPC MPC SPC SPC SPC SPC = = = = = = 100 10, SPC = 100 10, MPC = 20, REDUCE = 30, SUPPORT = 40 10, REDUCE = 20, AUTOSPC = NO, METHOD = 100 1, K2GG = STIFF, M2GG = MASS 4, DYNRED = 2, INERTIA = 4 Note that all desired specifications are listed and that their order of appearance is not important. At least one option is required. Several boundary conditions may appear within a given subpacket. For example: ANALYZE BOUNDARY SPC = 10 STATICS (MECH=5) ... ... BOUNDARY SPC = 20, REDUCE = 30, METHOD = 1111 STATICS (THERM=10) ... ... MODES ... ... END In this case, a STATICS analysis is performed using the first boundary condition followed by a STATICS and modes analysis for the second boundary condition. Note that unlike NASTRAN, the sets of points to be retained in the Guyan reduction and used for the support definition are selected. The appearance of a BOUNDARY command leads to expensive matrix partitioning and decomposition operations. Therefore, some thought should be expended to avoid unnecessary computer resource use. For example, suppose an ASTROS execution was directed to perform static analyses with two boundaries: SPC=10 and SPC=20, and a dynamic analysis with two boundaries: SPC=10 and SPC=100. The direct solution sequence could be: 5-6 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL ANALYZE BOUNDARY SPC = 10 STATICS (MECH=10) BOUNDARY SPC = 20 STATICS (MECH=20) ... ... BOUNDARY SPC = 10, METHOD = 30 MODES ... ... BOUNDARY SPC = 100, METHOD = 40 MODES ... ... END This sequence would cause four separate partitionings of the system level matrices. On the other hand, the sequence: ANALYZE BOUNDARY SPC = 10, METHOD=30 STATICS (MECH=10) ... MODES ... BOUNDARY SPC = 20 STATICS ((MECH=20) ... ... BOUNDARY SPC = 100, METHOD = 40 MODES ... ... END eliminates one of the four partitioning operations. 5.3. DISCIPLINES A number of types of analyses, or disciplines, can be performed during a given ANALYZE or OPTIMIZE boundary condition. In fact, it is this multidisciplinary capability that makes the ASTROS code viable in a preliminary design context. The preceding sections have already alluded to the fact that each of these disciplines has an associated set of commands: ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-7 USER’S MANUAL ANALYZE BOUNDARY SPC = 30 DISCIPLINE 1 ... ... DISCIPLINE 2 ... ... END A suite of eight disciplines are available in ASTROS as shown in Table 5-2. Of these options, TRANSIENT and FREQUENCY do not generate any design constraints and so are not useful in OPTIMIZE boundary conditions. Should the user wish to see output from these disciplines during the optimization, however, they are supported in the OPTIMIZE subpacket. The standard MAPOL sequence contains almost no restrictions on the combination of disciplines and subcases in a boundary condition. SAERO disciplines, for example, require multiple symmetry, Mach number and dynamic pressure dependent correction matrices. The standard algorithm automatically re-sorts the input subcases to solve the maximum number of right hand sides for a given aeroelastic correction matrix. The results are then returned to the order specified by the user, with no limitations imposed. Similarly, the flutter discipline loops over a set of direct dynamic input matrices to accommodate multiple closed loop systems using a single set of structural matrices. The only limits are those of symmetry discussed earlier in which the structural and aerodynamic symmetries should be the same for all subcases in a boundary condition and the restriction to a single transient and a single frequency response per boundary condition. Table 5-2. Summary of ASTROS Disciplines DISCIPLINE STATICS 5-8 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET DESCRIPTION Static structural analysis MODES Normal modes of vibration SAERO Steady-state aeroelastic analysis FLUTTER Aeroelastic stability analysis TRANSIENT Transient response analysis FREQUENCY Frequency response analysis ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 5.3.1. DISCIPLINE OPTIONS Each of the disciplines requires further options to completely define the execution process. These options point to set IDs in the bulk data packet that define engineering data. For example, the STATICS discipline requires that loads information be supplied. This is implemented in ASTROS by a parenthetical "phrase" attached to the STATICS discipline: SOLUTION OPTIMIZE STRATEGY=FSD ... ... STATICS (MECH=10) ... ... END In this case, bulk data applied load entries with a set ID of 10 are used to construct a mechanical load vector in a STATICS analysis. In general, the discipline commands have the form: <disc> <type> [<caseid>] [(<option> = <n>, <option> = <n>)] The discipline options that are available are: OPTION MECHANICAL GRAVITY THERMAL TRIM DCON DCONSTRAINT DCFUNCTION Specify load set IDs for the STATIC discipline. Specifies a TRIM bulk data entry which gives flight condition information for the SAERO discipline. Specifies the set IDs of constraint bulk data entries that apply for the given discipline. Specifies the set ID of a DCFUNC Bulk Data entry. STRESS STRESSCONSTRAINT Specifies the set IDs of stress constraint bulk data entries that apply for the given STATICS or SAERO discipline. STRAIN STRAINCONSTRAINT Specifies the set IDs of strain constraint bulk data entries that apply for the given STATICS or SAERO discipline. DLOAD Specifies applied loads for the TRANSIENT and FREQUENCY disciplines. TSTEP Specifies the time step for the TRANSIENT discipline as well as for the discrete form of the GUST discipline. FSTEP Specifies the frequencies for the FREQUENCY and the harmonic form of the GUST discipline. IC Specifies the initial conditions that are to be used in the direct method for the TRANSIENT discipline. FFT ASTROS DESCRIPTION Specifies that the Fast Fourier technique is to be used in the TRANSIENT or GUST disciplines. THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-9 USER’S MANUAL OPTION FLCOND CONTROL DESCRIPTION Specifies parameters for the FLUTTER discipline. Specifies the name of a control surface modifier matrix for flutter analysis. GUST Specifies that a gust analysis is to be performed for the accompanying transient or frequency discipline. K2PP Specifies an input stiffness matrix on the physical degrees of freedom for FREQUENCY, TRANSIENT and FLUTTER disciplines. M2PP Specifies an input mass matrix on the physical degrees of freedom for FREQUENCY, TRANSIENT and FLUTTER disciplines. B2PP Specifies an input damping matrix on the physical degrees of freedom for FREQUENCY, TRANSIENT and FLUTTER disciplines. TFL Specifies transfer functions that are to be included in FREQUENCY, TRANSIENT and FLUTTER disciplines. DAMPING Specifies structural or viscous damping to be used in FREQUENCY, TRANSIENT and FLUTTER disciplines. The discipline types are: OPTION DESCRIPTION DIRECT Specifies that the direct method is to be used in the TRANSIENT or FREQUENCY disciplines. MODAL Specifies that the modal method is to be used in the TRANSIENT or FREQUENCY disciplines. SYMMETRIC Specifies that the SAERO subcase is to use aerodynamics derived with symmetric conditions about the Y=0 plane. ANTISYMMETRIC Specifies that the SAERO subcase is to use aerodynamics derived with antisymmetric conditions about the Y=0 plane. The case identification number, caseid, is only used by the Function Packet (see Section 4) when user-defined constraint functions are defined which span two or more different analysis disciplines. Note that all disciplines must have identification numbers, or none may have them. User functions may still span disciplines by using default caseid values. The default is the ordinal numbering of the disciplines from 1 to n. Table 5-3 presents a matrix that defines options and types available for each of the disciplines. In addition, disciplines requiring particular boundary condition specifications are noted; for example, modal disciplines require a METHOD specification on the BOUNDARY command. The following subsections present each discipline in turn to more explicitly define the discipline options. Most importantly, these subsections present the definition of a "subcase" of the discipline as it is defined in the ASTROS system and present the response quantities that can be constrained in the optimization task. 5-10 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 5-3. Summary of Discipline Options DISCIPLINE COMMAND STAT TRAN FREQ DLOAD ● ● TSTEP ● MECH ❍ GRAV ❍ THERM ❍ MODE SAER FLUT ● TRIM DCONSTRAINT ❍ ❍ ❍ ❍ DCFUNCTION ❍ ❍ ❍ ❍ STRESS ❍ ❍ STRAIN ❍ ❍ ● FSTEP IC ❍ FFT ❍ ❍ DIRECT ❍ ❍ MODAL ❍ ❍ ● FLCOND GUST ❍ ❍ ❍ K2PP ❍ ❍ ❍ M2PP ❍ ❍ ❍ B2PP ❍ ❍ ❍ TFL ❍ ❍ ❍ DAMPING ❍ ❍ ❍ SYMMETRIC ❍ ANTISYMMETRIC ❍ Notes: Required Commands: ● Optional Commands: ❍ ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-11 USER’S MANUAL 5.3.2. STATICS Discipline Options One or more of the MECHANICAL, GRAVITY or THERMAL load specifications must be called out as a discipline option for STATICS. Each STATICS discipline constitutes one subcase (one load vector) so specifying a combination of load types will generate a linear combination of the selected loads. A reference to the LOAD bulk data entry as a MECHANICAL load can also be used to obtain linear load combinations. If the STATICS discipline appears in the OPTIMIZE subpacket, the DCONSTRAINT option can be used to refer to DCONDSP bulk data entries to apply displacement constraints. Stress constraints defined on DCONTW, DCONTWM, DCONTWP, DCONVM, DCONVMM, DCONVMP are selected by the STRESSCONSTRAINT option. Strain constraints defined on DCONFT, DCONFTM, DCONFTP, DCONEP, DCONEPM and DCONEPP are selected by the STRAINCONSTRAINT option. All DCONxxx bulk data entries, such as DCONTHK, that do not have SETID fields will be applied to the model in combination with set selectable constraints to make up the set of design constraints. Finally, the DCFUNCTION option may be used to select functional constaints that are applied to the STATIC responses from the current solution. 5.3.3. MODES Discipline Options MODES is completely defined for analysis by the METHOD boundary specification, which refers to an EIGR bulk data entry selecting the eigenvalue extraction method. If, however, the modal analysis is performed in the OPTIMIZE subpacket, the DCONSTRAINT option can be used to apply frequency constraints through the DCONFRQ bulk data entry. Note that more than one frequency can be constrained and that more that one constraint can be placed on the same modal frequency. The user is warned against defining the frequency constraints in such a way as to specify an excluded range of frequencies for a mode; for example, requiring that a modal frequency be below 10 Hz OR above 20 Hz. ASTROS treats all applied constraints as Boolean AND statements so the above example would be interpreted by ASTROS as an inconsistent requirement that the frequency be both above 20 Hz and below 10 Hz. All DCONxxx bulk data entries, such as DCONTHK, that do not have SETID fields will be applied to the model in combination with set selectable constraints to make up the set of design constraints. Additionally, the DCFUNCTION option may be used to select functional constaints that are applied to the MODES responses from the current solution. In ASTROS, each eigenvector is considered to be a separate subcase. It is important to note in this case that more than one subcase is represented by a single solution control discipline statement. In output requests, therefore, the subcases for which output is desired must be explicitly selected. This is presented in greater detail in Section 5.4 and in Chapter 6. 5.3.4. SAERO Discipline Options The SAERO discipline must have a TRIM condition and symmetry type specified in the solution control. The symmetry default is SYMMETRIC. For analysis, this selection completes the specification of the discipline with each TRIM condition generating one subcase. In the OPTIMIZE subpacket, the DCONSTRAINT option can be used to select a number of different constraint types which depend on the type of TRIM analysis selected. In general the DCONSTRAINT can refer to DCONDSP bulk data entries for displacement constraints, DCONCLA for lift effectiveness constraints, DCONALE for aileron effectiveness constraints, DCONSCF for stability coefficient constraints and DCONTRM for constraints on trim parameters. The SAERO discipline always generates a static displacement field to which any static constraint may be applied. Stress constraints defined on DCONTW, DCONTWM, DCONTWP, DCONVM, DCONVMM, DCONVMP are 5-12 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL selected by the STRESSCONSTRAINT option. Strain constraints defined on DCONFT, DCONFTM, DCONFTP, DCONEP, DCONEPM and DCONEPP are selected by the STRAINCONSTRAINT option. All DCONxxx bulk data entries, such as DCONTHK, that do not have SETID fields will be applied to the model in combination with set selectable constraints to make up the set of design constraints. Finally, the DCFUNCTION option may be used to select functional constaints that are applied to the SAERO responses from the current solution. 5.3.5. FLUTTER Discipline Options The FLUTTER discipline must have a flight condition specified in the solution control through the FLCOND option. In addition, the K2PP, B2PP, M2PP, TFL and DAMPING options may be used with or without an ESET Boundary Condition option to impose a case-by-case set of additional inputs/degrees-of-freedom for modelling control systems, etc. For analysis, this selection completes the specification of the discipline with each FLCOND condition generating up to one "subcase" (consisting of up to one flutter eigenvector) for each Mach number and density ratio if flutter occurs. In the OPTIMIZE subpacket, the DCONSTRAINT option can be used to select DCONFLT bulk data entries to place a required damping limit on each of the roots extracted in the flutter analysis. The DCFUNCTION option may also be used to select functional constaints that are applied to the FLUTTER responses in the current solution.The actual flutter root and eigenvector cannot be obtained in the OPTIMIZE subpacket. 5.3.6. TRANSIENT Discipline Options The TRANSIENT discipline must have time step and load information specified in the solution control through the TSTEP and DLOAD options. This discipline has no associated constraints and, while it is fully supported in the OPTIMIZE subpacket, it will not generate data for use in the re-design task. There are many additional options which can be selected in transient analysis. These are 1) initial conditions, which can be selected through the IC option for DIRECT transient analyses; 2) Fast Fourier Transform techniques, which are selected with the FFT option; and 3) discrete gust loads, which are applied using the GUST option. In each case, the solution control option points to a bulk data entry having the same name. In addition, the K2PP, B2PP, M2PP, TFL and DAMPING options may be used with or without an ESET Boundary Condition option to impose a case-by-case set of additional inputs/degrees-of-freedom for modelling control systems, etc. In ASTROS, each time step for which output is saved is considered to be a separate subcase. It is important to note that, like the MODES discipline, more than one subcase is represented by a single solution control discipline statement. In output requests, therefore, the subcases for which output is desired must be explicitly selected. This is presented in greater detail in section 5.4 and in Chapter 6. 5.3.7. FREQUENCY Discipline Options The FREQUENCY discipline is very similar to the TRANSIENT discipline presented in the preceding subsection. Frequency step and load information are specified in the solution control through the FSTEP and DLOAD options. This discipline has no associated constraints and, while it is fully supported in the OPTIMIZE subpacket, it will not generate data for use in the re-design task. There are two additional options which can be selected in frequency response analysis. These are 1) Fast Fourier Transform techniques, which are selected with the FFT option; and 2) harmonic gust loads, which are applied using the GUST option. In each case, the solution control option points to a bulk data entry having the same name. In addition, the K2PP, B2PP, M2PP, TFL and DAMPING options may be used with or without an ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-13 USER’S MANUAL ESET Boundary Condition option to impose a case-by-case set of additional inputs/degrees-of-freedom for modelling control systems, etc. In ASTROS, each frequency step for which output is saved is considered to be a separate subcase. It is important to note that, like the MODES discipline, more than one subcase is represented by a single solution control discipline statement. In output requests, therefore, the subcases for which output is desired must be explicitly selected. This is presented in greater detail in Subsection 5.4 and in Chapter 6. 5.4. OUTPUT REQUESTS Most analysis disciplines in ASTROS have response quantities (displacements, stresses, strains, etc.) computed at either grid points, structural elements or aerodynamic elements. The user can select that these results be written to the print (output) file through the PRINT command and its associated options or written to a punch file through the PUNCH command. In addition, there are a number of solution control commands that can be used to label the output. This subsection documents the PRINT and PUNCH commands and the labeling commands and discusses their use. The PRINT and PUNCH commands are identical in form and interpretation, so the PRINT command will be used to represent both commands in the following discussion. There are also many features and utilities available to the user to obtain output through modifications to the executive MAPOL sequence. These include direct use of MAPOL utilities, modification of print parameters in functional module calling sequences and user written procedures or modules. These output capabilities and a more complete discussion of the output processing ( PRINT and PUNCH ) capabilities of the ASTROS system is presented in Chapter 6 of this manual. The PRINT and PUNCH commands have a number of options which can be separated into three groups: subset options, response quantity options and form options. The subset options select a set of subcases and/or design iterations to which the PRINT command applies while the remaining options select the actual data quantities that are desired; (e.g. stresses, strains, and displacements) and the form in which complex quantities are to be printed. The output selection can appear at any level of the solution control hierarchy and will apply at that level until it is overridden. When more than one discipline is covered by a print request at the boundary level, ASTROS will consider only the relevant print requests for each discipline. For example, if STATICS and FLUTTER are performed, the STATICS discipline will ignore any ROOTS requests and the flutter discipline will ignore any STRESS requests. 5.4.1. Subset Options As indicated in the preceding subsections, some disciplines have more than one subcase per solution control statement. Others, like STATICS and SAERO have a separate solution control statement for each subcase. In all cases, disciplines within the OPTIMIZE subpacket may be analyzed at one or more design iterations. When one subcase is defined per statement, the user is free to modify the print requests from subcase to subcase; for example: ANALYZE BOUNDARY SPC = 10 STATICS ( MECH = 10 ) PRINT STRESS = ALL, DISP = 100 STATICS ( MECH = 20, GRAV = 100 ) PRINT DISP = ALL 5-14 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL specifies that stresses for all elements and displacements for nodes listed in set 100 be printed for the first subcase (mechanical loads with set identification 10) and only the displacements be printed for the next load condition. When the discipline generates more than one subcase, however, the user must specify the subcases to which the PRINT request applies. For example: ANALYZE BOUNDARY SPC=10, METHOD=1000 MODES PRINT (MODES=ALL) DISP=100 selects the displacements (eigenvectors) for all the computed mode shapes be printed. If the MODES=ALL selection were not included in the PRINT statement, the user would get no output at all. The user is cautioned that the output processing in ASTROS is designed to limit output to those quantities that are explicitly selected and, therefore, the default for subcase option MODES is that no modes are selected. Whenever multiple subcases are generated by a discipline, as in the case of MODES, TRANSIENT and FREQUENCY, a subcase selection option is required on the PRINT command in order to get any output. If the discipline appears in the OPTIMIZE subpacket, the user may request that the output appear only at certain iterations. For example: OPTIMIZE BOUNDARY SPC=10, METHOD=1000 MODES (DCON=1000) PRINT (ITER=10, MODES=ALL) DISP=100 selects the displacements (eigenvectors) for all the computed mode shapes be printed at the iterations given in ITERLIST 10. Unlike the other subset selectors, the default for ITER is ALL. Omission of the ITER selector therefore implies that the quantity will be printed at every iteration. This default is a consequence of compatibility with early versions of ASTROS in which there was no ITERATION selection at all. The subset selections can be specified at two levels as parenthetical phrases attached to the print or punch statement. At the higher level, the subset options generate defaults for the entire print or punch statement. For example: PRINT (ITER=10, TIME=ALL) STRESS=ALL, STRAIN=ALL requests that all stresses and strains at all time steps for the iterations in ITERLIST 10 be printed. In addition, the subset options can be attached to the individual quantity options to override the print default. For example: PRINT (ITER=10, TIME=ALL) STRESS=ALL, STRAIN(TIME=10)=ALL overrides the TIME=ALL default for the strain output. At both levels, the defaults are NONE for TIME, FREQ and MODE and ALL for ITER. ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-15 USER’S MANUAL The subset options in ASTROS are: OPTION DESCRIPTION FREQUENCY Selects the frequency steps of frequency response disciplines at which output is desired by referencing a FREQLIST bulk data entry. ITERATION Selects the design iterations at which output is desired by referencing a ITERLIST bulk data entry. MODE Selects the eigenvectors of a normal modes discipline at which output is desired by referencing a MODELIST bulk data entry. TIME Selects the time steps of transient response analysis at which output is desired by referencing a TIMELIST bulk data entry. 5.4.2. Response Quantity Options ASTROS is able to compute a number of response quantities for each discipline type. Each discipline type generates a different set of quantities so that the quantity selected by a particular keyword can sometimes change from one discipline to another. In addition, the available quantities are sometimes a function of the boundary condition type. For example, the flutter mode shape is not available as an output from a flutter analysis performed in the OPTIMIZE subpacket. This subsection will present the available quantities, the PRINT options which select them and the limitations (if any) on their availability. Table 5-4 summarizes the available PRINT and PUNCH response quantity options. As in NASTRAN, stresses, strains and element forces are computed in the element coordinate system at predetermined or user selected points in the element. Nodal quantities are computed in the global coordinate system. CGRA, DCON, GDES, KSNS, MODEL, MSNS, OGRA and HIST are only applicable in the OPTIMIZE subpacket above the first BOUNDARY (since these requests transcend all analyses). The DISP option for flutter analyses is only applicable in the ANALYZE subpacket. Other options are available independent of the boundary condition type. Table 5-5 presents a matrix of response quantity options for each discipline type, showing the applicability of each option. Any requests for quantities that do not apply to the particular discipline will be ignored by the output processor without warning. Most options can be ALL, NONE or an integer value which selects bulk data entry sets listing the items for which the response quantity is desired. For example, the STRESS option points to the ELEMLIST bulk data entity which lists the elements for which stresses are desired. The NONE option is used to override a default established through a print or punch request at a higher level in the hierarchy. The ASTROS output philosophy is similar to that of NASTRAN in that it is assumed that mistakes in the output requests should not terminate execution. If, for example, the requested structural element does not exist in the model, the output request will be ignored without any warning to the user. Other output request errors in ASTROS are treated in a similar manner, occasionally generating a warning message, but more typically resulting in no visible indication that the request was in error. Therefore the user can, in most cases, request output that does not apply to the discipline, for entities (nodes or elements) which do not exist and/or for subcases that are not defined without causing termination of the execution. 5-16 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 5.4.3. Form Options For complex response quantities, the form option is provided to select either RECTANGULAR or POLAR form. Rectangular form gives the cartesian components of the quantity in the rectangular complex plane in which the first number represents the real component and the second number the imaginary component. Polar form gives the components in polar coordinates in which the first number represents the radial distance from the origin (the magnitude) and the second represents the angular displacement from the real coordinate axis (the phase angle). The phase angle is computed in degrees. The form can be specified at two levels as parenthetical phrases attached to the print or punch statement. At the higher level, the form option generates a default for the entire print or punch statement. For example: PRINT (POLAR) STRESS=ALL, STRAIN=ALL requests that polar form be used for both stress and strain response quantities. In addition, the form option can be attached to the individual quantity options to override the print default. For example: PRINT (POLAR) STRESS=ALL, STRAIN(RECT)=ALL overrides the polar default for the strain output. At both levels, the default form is rectangular and any polar requests for real output quantities are ignored. 5.4.4. Labeling Options Labeling of printed output is performed through the use of three optional commands identical in form to their NASTRAN counterparts: OPTION DESCRIPTION TITLE A title header that will appear as the first line on each page of output. SUBTITLE A secondary header that will appear on the second line of each page of output. LABEL A tertiary header that is typically used to identify subcase (discipline level) output. Each of these commands can appear at any level in the solution control hierarchy and will be applied until superseded. 5.5. SOLUTION CONTROL COMMANDS The ASTROS Solution Control Commands are described in this section. ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-17 USER’S MANUAL Table 5-4. Response Quantity Output Options OPTION ACCELERATION AIRDISPLACEMENT CGRADIENT DCONSTRAINT DISPLACEMENTS DESCRIPTION Selects accelerations at nodal points. Selects displacements on aerodynamic boxes. Selects gradients of active constraints. Selects active constraints at each iteration. Selects displacements at nodal points. ENERGY Selects strain energy at structural elements. FORCE Selects element forces at structural elements. GDESIGN Selects global design variables. GPFORCE Selects grid point forces at nodal points. GPWG Selects print of grid point weight summary. KSNS Selects stiffness sensitivities at design variables. LDESIGN Selects local design variables. LOAD Selects applied loads at nodal points. MASS Selects mass matrix at nodal points. MODEL MSNS OGRADIENT Selects Bulk Data at current design point. (PUNCH only) Selects mass sensitivities at design variables. Selects gradient of the objective function. QHH Selects QHH generalized unsteady aerodynamic forces at modes. QHJ Selects QHJ generalized unsteady aerodynamic forces at modes. ROOT SPCFORCE STIFFNESS Selects flutter and normal modes roots (eigenvalues). Selects forces of single point constraint at nodal points. Selects stiffness matrix at nodal points. STRAIN Selects strains at structural elements. STRESS Selects stresses at structural elements. TPRESSURE TRIM VELOCITY Selects trim pressures at aerodynamic boxes. Selects trim and stability coefficients for steady aeroelastic analyses. Selects velocities at nodal points. 5-18 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 5-5. Response Quantities by Discipline OPTION DESIGN STAT MODE ✓ ACCEL DCONSTRAINT ✓ ✓ ✓ ENERGY FORCE ✓ ✓ GPWG LDESIGN ✓ ✓ MASS MSNS OGRADIENT ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ LOAD MODEL FREQ ✓ GPFORCE KSNS TRANS ✓ ✓ DISP GDESIGN FLUT ✓ ✓ AIRDISP CGRADIENT SAERO ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ QHH ✓ ✓ QHJ ✓ ROOT SPFORCE STIFFNESS STRAIN STRESS TPRESSURE TRIM VELO ASTROS ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-19 USER’S MANUAL This page is intentionally blank. 5-20 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: $ $ Description: Allows commentary data to be placed in the Solution Control packet. Hierarchy Level: Various Format: $ THIS IS A COMMENT ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-21 ANALYZE Solution Control Command: USER’S MANUAL ANALYZE Description: The first command in the ANALYZE subpacket Hierarchy Level: Type of run Format: ANALYZE 5-22 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: BOUNDARY BOUNDARY Description: Specifies the displacement sets and related data used in a particular boundary condition. Hierarchy Level: Boundary condition Format and Examples: BOUNDARY [BCID = bcid,] MPC = i, SPC = j, REDUCE = k, SUPPORT = l, METHOD = m, CMETHOD = t, PRINT _______ [,PUNCH USING s] [,EPS = x] = AUTOSPC NOPRINT ____ YES NO DYNRED = n, INERTIA = o, ESET = p, K2GG = q, M2GG = r BOUNDARY SPC = 6 BOUNDARY SPC = 10, REDUCE = 20, SUPPORT = 30 BOUNDARY SPC = 12, DYNRED = 100, INERTIA = 100, K2GG = FUSSTIFF BOUNDARY AUTOSPC(NOPRINT, PUNCH USING 1001) = YES, SUPPORT = 101 Option Meaning bcid Boundary condition identification number. (Integer>0) i Set identification of a multipoint constraint set. Invokes MPC and MPCADD bulk data entries. (Integer>0) j Set identification of a single point constraint set. Invokes SPC, SPC1 and SPCADD bulk data entries. (Integer>0) k Set identification of a static condensation set. Invokes ASET, ASET1, OMIT and OMIT1 bulk data entries. (Integer>0) l Set identification of the free body support. Invokes SUPORT bulk data entries. (Integer>0) m Set identification of the EIGR bulk data entry to be used. (Integer>0) n Selects the dynamic reduction parameters from the DYNRED bulk data entry (Integer>0) o Selects the JSETi bulk data entries identifying inertia relief degrees of freedom for performing dynamic reduction (Integer>0) p Set identification of the extra degrees of freedom for the boundary condition. Invokes EPOINT bulk data entries. (Integer>0) q Selects the direct input stiffness matrix in the g-set. This matrix will be added to KGG for this boundary condition. Refers to a DMI or DMIG Bulk Data entry. ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-23 BOUNDARY USER’S MANUAL r Selects the direct input mass matrix in the g-set. This matrix will be added to MGG for this boundary condition. Refers to a DMI or DMIG Bulk Data entry. s Specifies a set identification number to be used for punching the SPC Bulk Data entries generated by the AUTOSPC option. (Integer>0, less than 9 digits) t Defines a default EIGC set identification to be used by the CEIG module if it is passed a zero value in its call sequence. x Defines the AUTOSPC threshhold. Singularities with values less than x are automatically constrained. (Real, Default=10-8) Remarks: 1. If any BOUNDARY has a bcid, then all boundaries must have a bcid. All bcid values must be unique, but they need not be in any particular order. Boundaries are implicitly numbered from 1 to n if no bcid values are specified. The bcid is only used as a reference from user defined functions in the Function Packet. 2. Note that the REDUCE and ESET set specifications are innovative relative to NASTRAN. 3. The bulk data entries will not be used in ASTROS unless selected in Solution Control. 4. None of the options are required but at least one must appear. 5. K2GG and M2GG affect the system stiffness and mass matrices, respectively, for all disciplines within the boundary condition. 6. K2GG and M2GG names will typically refer to DMI or DMIG entries but may refer to any data base matrix entity of the proper dimension. 7. The AUTOSPC command: AUTOSPC(PRINT,EPS=1.0E-8) = YES is the default value. To disable the feature, use: AUTOSPC = NO 5-24 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: END END Description: Indicates the end of a subpacket. Hierarchy Level: End Format: END Remarks: 1. The ANALYZE and OPTIMIZE subpackets each require an END command. ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-25 FLUTTER USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: FLUTTER Description: Invokes the flutter analysis discipline Hierarchy Level: Discipline Format and Examples: FLUTTER [caseid] (FLCOND = i, DCONSTRAINT = j, DCFUNCTION = q, CONTROL = k, K2PP = l, M2PP = m, B2PP = n , TFL = o, DAMPING = p, DCFUNCTION = q) FLUTTER (FLCOND = 100) FLUTTER (FLCOND = 100, CONTROL = AILERON, K2PP = KAIL, TFL = 5) Option Meaning caseid Case identification number. (Integer>0) i Set identification of a FLUTTER bulk data entry that provides flutter parameters. j Set identification of a DCONFLT bulk data entry that defines flutter constraint conditions. k Selects the input matrix for splining the extra points to the aerodynamic model. Refers to a DMI bulk data entry. l Selects the direct input stiffness matrix. Refers to a DMI or DMIG bulk data entry. m Selects the direct input mass matrix. Refers to a DMI or DMIG bulk data entry. n Selects the direct input damping matrix. Refers to a DMI or DMIG bulk data entry. o Selects the transfer function set to be added to the input matrices. Refers to TF bulk data entries. p Set identification of VSDAMP and/or TABDMP bulk data entries that define damping data. q Set identification of DCONF constraint functions. Remarks: 1. If any discipline has a caseid, then all disciplines must have a caseid. All caseid values must be unique, but they need not be in any particular order. Disciplines are implicitly numbered from 1 to n if no caseid values are specified. The caseid is only used as a reference from user defined functions in the Function Packet. 2. The FLCOND option is required, all others are optional. 3. M2PP, B2PP and K2PP and CONTROL names will typically refer to DMI and DMIG entries, but may refer to any existing database entity of the proper dimension. 4. The use of the CONTROL matrix requires that extra points be defined in the boundary condition. 5-26 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: FREQUENCY FREQUENCY Description: Invokes the frequency response analysis discipline Hierarchy Level: Discipline Format and Examples: FREQUENCY type [caseid] (DLOAD = i, FSTEP = j, GUST = k, K2PP = l, M2PP = m,B2PP = n, TFL = o, DAMPING = p) FREQUENCY DIRECT (DLOAD = 10, FSTEP = 20) FREQUENCY MODAL (DLOAD = 100, FSTEP = 30, M2PP = MFREQ, TFL = 5) FREQUENCY DIRECT (DLOAD = 100, FSTEP = 20 , GUST = 55) Option Meaning type Selects the solution approach from DIRECT or MODAL. caseid Case identification number. (Integer>0) i Set identification of a DLOAD bulk data entry. j Set identification of frequency bulk data entries (FREQ, FREQ1, or FREQ2) that define the frequency steps for the analysis. k Set identification of a GUST bulk data entry which defines the gust parameters. l Selects the direct input stiffness matrix. Refers to a DMI or DMIG bulk data entry. m Selects the direct input mass matrix. Refers to a DMI or DMIG bulk data entry. n Selects the direct input damping matrix. Refers to a DMI or DMIG bulk data entry. o Selects the transfer function set to be added to the input matrices. Refers to TF bulk data entries. p Set identification of VSDAMP and/or TABDMP bulk data entries that define damping data. Remarks: 1. If any discipline has a caseid, then all disciplines must have a caseid. All caseid values must be unique, but they need not be in any particular order. Disciplines are implicitly numbered from 1 to n if no caseid values are specified. The caseid is only used as a reference from user defined functions in the Function Packet. 2. The FREQUENCY discipline does not generate design constraints for optimization. 3. type, DLOAD and FSTEP are required. 4. No more than one FREQUENCY analysis can be done in a single boundary condition. 5. M2PP, B2PP and K2PP names will typically refer to DMI and DMIG entries, but may refer to any existing database entity of the proper dimension. ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-27 K6ROT USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: K6ROT Description: Provides a stiffness value for in-plane stiffnesses for plate elements. Hierarchy Level: Initial level (above ANALYZE/OPTIMIZE) Format and Examples: K6ROT = val K6ROT = 1.0 K6ROT = 10.0E3 Option val Meaning Real value used to compute the stiffness associated with the in-plane rotations of plate elements (Default K6ROT = 0.0, K6ROT ≥ 0.0) 5-28 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: LABEL LABEL Description: Provides identifying information on subcase output. Hierarchy Level: Label information Format and Examples: LABEL = n LABEL = SYMMETRIC MANEUVER LOAD Option n Meaning Any descriptive message that the user wishes to use to distinquish output. Remarks: 1. LABEL information is used until it is superseded. 2. The LABEL command is optional. 3. Labels are limited to no more than 72 characters. ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-29 MODES USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: MODES Description: Selects the Normal Modes discipline. Hierarchy Level: Discipline Format and Examples: MODES [caseid] (DCONS = n, DCFUNCTION = o) MODES MODES (DCONS = 10) Option Meaning caseid Case identification number. (Integer>0) n Set identification of DCONFRQ bulk data entries which define frequency constraints for the optimization task. o Set identification of DCONF constraint functions. Remarks: 1. If any discipline has a caseid, then all disciplines must have a caseid. All caseid values must be unique, but they need not be in any particular order. Disciplines are implicitly numbered from 1 to n if no caseid values are specified. The caseid is only used as a reference from user defined functions in the Function Packet. 2. Only one modal analysis can be performed in a boundary condition using the EIGR bulk data entry selected on the BOUNDARY command. 5-30 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: OPTIMIZE OPTIMIZE Description: Invokes the ASTROS design capability Hierarchy Level: Type of boundary condition Format and Examples: OPTIMIZE MINIMIZE STRATEGY = ((m1,niter1),(m2,niter2),(m3,niter3)), MAXITER = n, MAXIMIZE MOVLIM = o, WINDOW = p, ALPHA = r, CNVRGLIM = s, NRFAC = t, EPS = u, FDSTEP = v, ________, DCFUNCTION = x FDSTEP = v, OBJECTIVE = WEIGHT w OPTIMIZE OPTIMIZE MAXITER = 10, NRFAC = 0.6, EPS = -.05, MOVLIM = 1.3 OPTIMIZE STRATEGY = FSD, ALPHA = 0.8, MAXFSD = 10 OPTIMIZE STRATEGY = (FSD, 3), ALPHA = 0.8, MAXFSD = 10 Option Meaning m1,m2,m3 The strategy to be used in optimization. Either MP for math programming methods or FSD for fully stressed design. The order of input on the strategy command is the order that will be used. Each strategy, MP or FSD, may only appear once. Default for m1=MP. (Only MP methods will be used) niter1, niter2, niter3 The number of iterations for m1, m2 and m3 respectively. The default for each is to use the last named method for those iterations remaining up to MAXITER. If MAXITER is less than the sum of specified iterations, ASTROS will warn the user but stop at MAXITER iterations. STRATEGY MP for iterations 1 thru MAXITER STRATEGY = MP MP for iterations 1 thru MAXITER STRATEGY = FSD,5 FSD for iterations 1 thru 5 MP for iterations 6 thru MAXITER STRATEGY = ((FSD,5),MP) FSD for iterations 1 thru 5 MP for iterations 6 thru MAXITER n The maximum number of iterations to be performed using MPor FSD. Default = 15. o The move limit applied to local design variables in MP. The local variable after each redesign will lie between t/MOVLIM and t*MOVLIM where t is the initial value. Default = 2.0, must be greater than 1.0. p The window around zero in which the MOVLIM bound is overridden to allow the local variable to change sign. If WINDOW=0.0, the local variable may not change sign. If WINDOW is nonzero, the half width of a band around zero, EPS is computed ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-31 OPTIMIZE USER’S MANUAL EPS = WINDOW/100 * MAX ( ABS(TMIN), ABS(TMAX) ) If the local variable falls within the band, the new minimum or maximum for the current iteration is changed to lie on the other side of zero from the local variable. The bandwidth EPS is a percentage of the larger of TMAX or TMIN where WINDOW specifies the percentage. Default = 0.0, must be greater than or equal to 0.0. r Exponential move limit for FSD. Numbers less than 1.0 result in a smaller move with smoother convergence. Ignored if STRAT=MP, Default = 0.90, must be greater than 0.0 s Convergence limit specifying the maximum percentage change in the objective function that can be considered converged. Default = 1.0, must be greater than 0.0. t Constraint retention factor for MP methods. The number of active constraints will be at least NRFAC times the number of design variables. Default = 3.0. u Constraint retention parameter in which all constraints having a value greater than EPS will be considered active. Default = -0.10 v Finite difference step size for nonlinear design variables. The relative design FDSTEP ⋅ v ; v ≠ 0.0 for finite difference computavariable increment ∆ v = FDSTEP ; v = 0.0 tion. Default = 0.001 must be greater than zero. w Objective function selected from WEIGHT, the default value, or the set identification of a single scalar DCONF function. x Identification number of DCONF Bulk Data entries defining subcase independent functions. Remarks: 1. None of the options are required. 2. MAXITER and CNVRGLIM are global parameters that apply to the MP and FSD strategies. 3. MOVLIM and WINDOW control the move limits for MP. WINDOW is only useful for LOCAL design variables that need to cross between positive and negative values. 4. NRFAC and EPS control the constraint deletion algorithm for MP, both values are always applied. 5-32 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: PRINT PRINT Description: Specifies the required output file processing for the print file or CADDB database. Hierarchy Level: Various Format and Examples: PRINT (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, MODE ACCE (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, AIRD (Form, ITER = b, MODE = c, BUCK (ITER = b) = ag CGRA (ITER = b) = h, DCON (ITER = b) = i, DISP (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, ENER (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, FORC (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, GDES (ITER = b) = m, GPFO (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, GPWG (ITER = b) = n1, KSNS (ITER = b) = o, LDES (ITER = b) = p, LOAD (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, MASS (ITER = b) = r, MSNS (ITER = b) = t, OGRA (ITER = b) = u, QHH (ITER = b, MODE = c) = x, QHJ (ITER = b, MODE = c) = y, ROOT (Form, ITER = b, MODE = c) SPCF (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, STIF (ITER = b) = ab, STRA (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, STRE (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, TPRE (ITER = b) = ae, VELO (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, TRIM = c, TIME = d) TIME = d) = e, TIME = d) = f, MODE = c, TIME = d) = j, MODE = c, TIME = d) = k, MODE = c, TIME = d) = l, MODE = c, TIME = d) = n, MODE = c, TIME = d) = q, = z, MODE = c, TIME = d) = aa, MODE = c, TIME = d, ah) = ac, MODE = c, TIME = d, ah) = ad, MODE = c, TIME = d) = af PRINT DISP = ALL PRINT (RECT, MODE = 10, ITER = 20) DISP(ITER = LAST) = 6, ENERGY(POLA) = 10 PRINT (MODE = NONE) Options Meaning Form RECT or POLA requests output in RECTangular or POLAr format (See Remarks 1 and 2). a Set identification of a FREQLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the frequencies at which output is to be printed (See Remark 2). b Set identification of an ITERLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the optimization iterations at which output is to be printed (See Remark 2). ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-33 PRINT USER’S MANUAL c Set identification of a MODELIST bulk data entry that is used to request the modes at which output is to be printed (See Remark 2). d Set identification of a TIMELIST bulk data entry that is used to request the times at which output is to be printed (See Remark 2). e Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which accelerations are to be printed. f Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the aerodynamic box elements at which displacements for the aerodynamic model are to be printed. h Set identification of an DCONLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the the subset of active constraints for which gradients are to be printed (See Remark 2). i Set identification of an DCONLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the the subset of active constraints which are to be printed (See Remark 2). j Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which displacements are to be printed. k Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the elements for which strain energies are to be printed. l Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the elements for which forces are to be printed. m Set identification of a GDVLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the global design variable IDs for which global design variables are to be printed. n Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which grid point forces are to be printed. n1 Either ALL or NONE depending on whether the GPWG is to be computed/printed. If a GPWG entry is in the Bulk Data file, it will be used by the algorithm. o Set identification of an LDVLIST and/or a GDVLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the design variables for which stiffness sensitivities are to printed. p Set identification of an LDVLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the local design variable IDs for which local design variables are to be printed. q Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which applied loads are to be printed. r Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points degrees of freedom for which the mass matrix is to be printed. t Set identification of an LDVLIST and/or a GDVLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the design variables for which mass sensitivities are to printed. u Set identification of a GDVLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the design variables for which objective function gradients are to be printed. x Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the aerodynamic elements for which QHH is to be printed. y Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the aerodynamic elements for which QHJ is to be printed. z Set identification of an MODELIST bulk data entry that is used to request the modes for which flutter and normal modes eigenvalue results are to be printed. 5-34 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL PRINT aa Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which SPC forces are to be printed. ab Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points degrees of freedom for which the stiffness matrix is to be printed. ac Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the elements at which strains are to be printed. ad Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the elements for which stresses are be printed. ae Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the aerodynamic elements for which the pressure coefficients at aeroelastic trim are to be printed. af Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which velocities are to be printed. ag Specifies the elements for which local buckling results are to be printed, may be ALL or NONE. ah Selects the type of stresses or strains to be output for composite elements. The options are: LAYER, LAMINATE or BOTH. The default is LAYER. Remarks: 1. Form is an optional parameter for printing complex data. RECTangular data outputs complex data with real and imaginary components while POLAr outputs complex data using magnitude and phase. 2. If used with the PRINT command, all data that are not otherwise specified use the requested Form, FREQ, ITER, MODE, and TIME, if applicable for that type of data. If used with an option, Form, FREQ, ITER, MODE, and TIME override the global request. Options a through af can be either ALL, NONE, or a positive integer, and additionally, option b (ITER) can be LAST, and options h (CGRA) and i (DCON) can be ACTIVE. ALL requests all values. NONE turns off a request from a previous hierarchy while an integer value refers to a bulk data entry. LAST requests that output be printed for only the final value in a list. For example, ITER=LAST selects output for the final iteration in an optimization. ACTIVE selects the active constraints. 3. HIST and TRIM are toggles. If they are present, the specified data are printed. TRIM indicates that stability derivative data associated with an aeroelastic trim are to be printed. HIST indicates that the design iteration history summary is to be printed. 4. Aerodynamic macro elements are selected indirectly. A macro element is chosen by selecting one or more aerodynamic box elements contained within the macro element. 5. See Table 47 for a summary of how the items are printed or written to the CADDB database. ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-35 PUNCH USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: PUNCH Description: Specifies the required output file processing for the punch file Hierarchy Level: Various Format and Examples: PUNCH (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, MODE ACCE (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, AIRD (Form, ITER = b, MODE = c, BUCK (ITER = b) = ah, CGRA (ITER = b) = h, DCON (ITER = b) = i, DISP (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, ENER (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, FORC (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, GDES (ITER = b) = m, GPFO (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, GPWG (ITER = b) = n1, KSNS (ITER = b) = o, LDES (ITER = b) = p, LOAD (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, MASS (ITER = b) = r, MODEL (ITER = ag) = ah MSNS (ITER = b) = t, OGRA (ITER = b) = u, QHH (ITER = b,MODE=c) = x, QHJ (ITER = b,MODE=c) = y, ROOT (Form, ITER = b, MODE = c) SPCF (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, STIF (ITER = b) = ab, STRA (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, STRE (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, TPRE (ITER = b) = ae, VELO (Form, FREQ = a, ITER = b, TRIM = c, TIME = d) TIME = d) = e, TIME = d) = f, MODE = c, TIME = d) = j, MODE = c, TIME = d) = k, MODE = c, TIME = d) = l, MODE = c, TIME = d) = n, MODE = c, TIME = d) = q, = z, MODE = c, TIME = d) = aa, MODE = c, TIME = d, aj) = ac, MODE = c, TIME = d, aj) = ad, MODE = c, TIME = d) = af PUNCH DISP = ALL PUNCH (RECT, MODE = 10, ITER = 20) DISP(ITER = LAST) = 6, ENERGY(POLA) = 10 PUNCH (MODE=NONE) Options Meaning Form RECT or POLA requests output in RECTangular or POLAr format (See Remarks 1 and 2). a Set identification of a FREQLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the frequencies at which output is to be punched (See Remark 2). b Set identification of an ITERLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the optimization iterations at which output is to be punched (See Remark 2). 5-36 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL PUNCH c Set identification of a MODELIST bulk data entry that is used to request the modes at which output is to be punched (See Remark 2). d Set identification of a TIMELIST bulk data entry that is used to request the times at which output is to be punched (See Remark 2). e Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which accelerations are to be punched. f Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the aerodynamic box elements at which displacements for the aerodynamic model are to be punched. h Set identification of an DCONLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the the subset of active constraints for which gradients are to be punched (See Remark 2). i Set identification of an DCONLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the the subset of active constraints which are to be punched (See Remark 2). j Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which displacements are to be punched. k Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the elements for which strain energies are to be punched. l Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the elements for which forces are to be punched. m Set identification of a GDVLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the global design variable IDs for which global design variables are to be punched. n Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which grid point forces are to be punched. n1 Either ALL or NONE depending on whether the GPWG is to be computed/punched. If a GPWG entry is in the Bulk Data file, it will be used by the algorithm. o Set identification of an LDVLIST and/or a GDVLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the design variables for which stiffness sensitivities are to punched. p Set identification of an LDVLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the local design variable IDs for which local design variables are to be punched. q Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which applied loads are to be punched. r Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points degrees of freedom for which the mass matrix is to be punched. t Set identification of an LDVLIST and/or a GDVLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the design variables for which mass sensitivities are to punched. u Set identification of a GDVLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the design variables for which objective function gradients are to be punched. x Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the aerodynamic elements for which QHH is to be punched. y Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the aerodynamic elements for which QHJ is to be punched. z Set identification of an MODELIST bulk data entry that is used to request the modes for which flutter and normal modes eigenvalue results are to be punched. ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-37 PUNCH USER’S MANUAL aa Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which SPC forces are to be punched. ab Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points degrees of freedom for which the stiffness matrix is to be punched. ac Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the elements at which strains are to be punched. ad Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the elements for which stresses are be punched. ae Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the aerodynamic elements for which the pressure coefficients at aeroelastic trim are to be punched. af Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry that is used to request the grid points at which velocities are to be punched. ag Specifies the iterations at which the design model will be punched. May be ALL, NONE, LAST, or the set identification of an ITERLIST bulk data entry which specifies the iterations at which to punch the model. ah Specifies the portion of the model which will be punched. May be ALL or NONE. (Note: an integer value is accepted and treated as ALL) ai Specifies the elements for which local buckling results are to be punched, may be ALL or NONE. aj Selects the type of stresses or strains to be output for composite elements. The options are: LAYER, LAMINATE or BOTH. The default is LAYER. Remarks: 1. Form is an optional parameter for printing complex data. RECTangular data outputs complex data with real and imaginary components while POLAr outputs complex data using magnitude and phase. 2. If used with the PRINT command, all data that are not otherwise specified use the requested Form, FREQ, ITER, MODE, and TIME, if applicable for that type of data. If used with an option, Form, FREQ, ITER, MODE, and TIME override the global request. Options a through af can be either ALL, NONE, or a positive integer, and additionally, option b (ITER) can be LAST, and options h (CGRA) and i (DCON) can be ACTIVE. ALL requests all values. NONE turns off a request from a previous hierarchy while an integer value refers to a bulk data entry. LAST requests that output be printed for only the final value in a list. For example, ITER=LAST selects output for the final iteration in an optimization. ACTIVE selects the active constraints. 3. HIST and TRIM are toggles. If they are present, the specified data are punched. TRIM indicates that stability derivative data associated with an aeroelastic trim are to be punched. HIST indicates that the design iteration history summary is to be punched. 4. Aerodynamic macro elements are selected indirectly. A macro element is chosen by selecting one or more aerodynamic box elements contained within the macro element. 5. See Table 47 for a summary of how the items are punched or written to the CADDB database. 5-38 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: SAERO SAERO Description: Invokes the static aerodynamics discipline Hierarchy Level: Discipline Format and Examples: SAERO [caseid] [symtype] ( TRIM = k ,DCON = o, STRESS = m, STRAIN = n, DCFUNCTION = p) SAERO (TRIM = 60) SAERO ANTISYMMETRIC (TRIM = 70, STRESS = 100) Option Meaning caseid Case identification number. (Integer>0) symtype Selects the symmetry type for the subcase from SYMMETRIC or ANTISYMMETRIC. (Default is SYMMETRIC) k Set identification of a TRIM bulk data entry which provides flight condition information. m Set identification for stress constraints as defined by DCONVM, DCONVMM, DCONVMP, DCONTW, DCONTWM, or DCONTWP bulk data entries. n Set identification for strain constraints as defined by DCONEP, DCONEPM, DCONEPP, DCONFT, DCONFTM, or DCONFTP bulk data entries. o Set identification for displacement constraints as defined by DCONDSP, DCONTRM, DCONCLA, DCONALE, or DCONSCF bulk data entries. p Set identification of DCONF constraint functions. Remarks: 1. If any discipline has a caseid, then all disciplines must have a caseid. All caseid values must be unique, but they need not be in any particular order. Disciplines are implicitly numbered from 1 to n if no caseid values are specified. The caseid is only used as a reference from user defined functions in the Function Packet. 2. TRIM is required. Both symtyp and the CONSTRAINT section are optional. 3. SAERO disciplines may be freely combined with other ASTROS disciplines. 4. For compatibility, the alternate form of constraint specification shown below is also allowed. Its use is, however, discouraged. SAERO [ symtype ] ( TRIM = k ),CONSTRAINT(STRESS=m,STRAIN=n,GENERAL=o) ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-39 SOLUTION Solution Control Command: USER’S MANUAL SOLUTION Description: The first command in the solution control packet. Hierarchy Level: Beginning of solution Format: SOLUTION Remarks: 1. One SOLUTION command must always appear as the first command of the solution control packet. 5-40 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: STATICS STATICS Description: Invokes the statics analysis discipline Hierarchy level: Discipline Format and Examples: STATICS [caseid] (MECH = i, THERMAL = j, GRAVITY = k, DCON = o, STRESS = m, STRAIN = n, DCFUNCTION = p) STATICS (MECH = 10) STATICS (MECH = 4, THERMAL = 6, DCFUNCTION = 10) Option Meaning caseid Case identification number. (Integer>0) i Set identification for external loads as defined by LOAD, PLOAD, FORCE, FORCE1, MOMENT, and MOMENT1 bulk data entries. j Set identification for temperatures defined by TEMP or TEMPD bulk data entries. k Set identificaton of GRAV bulk data entries which define gravity forces. m Set identification for stress constraints defined by DCONVM, DCONVMM, DCONVMP, DCONTW, DCONTWM, or DCONTWP bulk data entries. n Set identification for strain constraints defined by DCONEP, DCONEPM, DCONEPP, DCONFT, DCONFTM, or DCONFTP bulk data entries. o Set identification of DCONDSP bulk data entries which define displacement constraints. p Set identification of DCONF constraint functions. Remarks. 1. If any discipline has a caseid, then all disciplines must have a caseid. All caseid values must be unique, but they need not be in any particular order. Disciplines are implicitly numbered from 1 to n if no caseid values are specified. The caseid is only used as a reference from user defined functions in the Function Packet. 2. The sum of all the loads forms a single right hand side for a statics analysis. 3. At least one of the load types must be present. The CONSTRAINT section is optional. 4. Gravity forces may be included indirectly if referenced by the LOAD bulk data entry. 5. For compatibility, the alternate form of constraint specification shown below is also allowed. Its use is, however, discouraged. STATICS (MECH = i, THERMAL = j, GRAVITY = k), CONSTRAINT(STRESS=m,STRAIN=n,GENERAL=o) ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-41 SUBTITLE USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: SUBTITLE Description: Defines a subtitle which will appear in the output. Hierarchy Level: Label information Format and Example: SUBTITLE = n SUBTITLE = SUPERSONIC DESIGN CONDITION Option n Meaning Any descriptive information can be inserted here Remarks: 1. SUBTITLE information is used until it is superseded. 2. The SUBTITLE command is optional. 3. Subtitles are limited to 72 characters. 5-42 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: TITLE TITLE Description: Defines a title which will appear in the output. Hierarchy Level: Label information Format and Examples: TITLE = n TITLE = DESIGN OF A FORWARD SWEPT WING MODEL Option n Meaning Any descriptive information can be inserted here Remarks: 1. TITLE information is used until it is superseded. 2. The TITLE command is optional. 3. Titles are limited to no more that 72 characters. ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-43 TRANSIENT USER’S MANUAL Solution Control Command: TRANSIENT Description: Invokes the transient analysis discipline Hierarchy Level: Discipline Format and Examples: TRANSIENT type [caseid] (DLOAD = i, TSTEP = j, FFT = k, IC = l, GUST = m, K2PP = n, M2PP = o, B2PP = p, TFL = q, DAMPING = r ) TRANSIENT MODAL (DLOAD = 10, TSTEP = 20) TRANSIENT DIRECT (DLOAD = 100, TSTEP = 30, K2PP = KFREQ, IC = 45, TFL = 5) TRANSIENT MODAL (DLOAD = 100, TSTEP = 20 , FFT = 999, GUST = 55) Option Meaning caseid Case identification number. (Integer>0) type Selects the solution approach from DIRECT or MODAL. i Set identification of a DLOAD bulk data entry. j Set identification of TSTEP bulk data entries which provide the time step information for the analysis. k Set identification of an FFT bulk data entry which provides parameters to use the Fast Fourier Transform methods in performing the transient analysis. l Set identification of IC bulk data entries which define the initial conditions. m Set identification of a GUST bulk data entry which defines the gust parameters. n Selects the direct input stiffness matrix. Refers to a DMI or DMIG bulk data entry. o Selects the direct input mass matrix. Refers to a DMI or DMIG bulk data entry. p Selects the direct input damping matrix. Refers to a DMI or DMIG bulk data entry. q Selects the transfer function set to be added to the input matrices. Refers to TF bulk data entries. r Set identification of VSDAMP and/or TABDMP bulk data entries that define damping data. Remarks: 1. If any discipline has a caseid, then all disciplines must have a caseid. All caseid values must be unique, but they need not be in any particular order. Disciplines are implicitly numbered from 1 to n if no caseid values are specified. The caseid is only used as a reference from user defined functions in the Function Packet. 5-44 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 2. The TRANSIENT discipline does not generate design constraints for optimization. 3. type, DLOAD and TSTEP are required. 4. If GUST is present, FFT must also be used. 5. Initial conditions, IC, are only valid for DIRECT analyses. IC cannot be used with GUST or FFT. 6. No more than one TRANSIENT analysis can be done in a single boundary condition. 7. M2PP, B2PP and K2PP names will typically refer to DMI and DMIG entries, but may refer to any existing database entity of the proper dimension. ASTROS THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET 5-45 USER’S MANUAL This page is intentionally blank. 5-46 THE SOLUTION CONTROL PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Chapter 6. THE FUNCTION PACKET 6.1. BACKGROUND The Function Packet allows the user to define one or more functional forms that may be used to define an objective function or synthetic design constraints beyond those available directly through the Bulk Data packet. The Function Packet consists of functions that define mathematical equations which may reference intrinsic response functions for grid point and element response quantities, such as displacements and stresses. Furthermore, these responses may be selected from any of the optimization boundary conditions or discipline cases. 6.2. THE FUNCTION EVALUATION PROCEDURE The user references the functions defined in the Function Packet from the Bulk Data Packet. The Bulk Data Packet, in turn, is referenced from the Solution Control Packet. Specifically, the Solution Control Packet references the functional design constraint or objective in the Bulk Data Packet in a manner similar to the way it currently references other design constraints. The Bulk Data Packet then links the design constraint to the functions within the the Function Packet. The Function Packet, in turn, defines the function specifications. The Function Packet is compiled by ASTROS at run-time. The compiled code, which is stored on the ASTROS CADDB database (see the Programmer’s Manual for a detailed description of CADDB), is then used to evaluate functions as necessary during the design process. The Function Packet, while it may look like a Fortran program, is non-procedural. This means that the functional definitions, including any intermediate terms used in the functions, may be specified in any order. When it is necessary to evaluate a function during an ASTROS execution, the evaluation is performed by a process called ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-1 USER’S MANUAL instantiation. Instantiation is the process of determining the value of a function by retrieving the components needed to evaluate it. During instantiation, ASTROS determines the validity of each function both in terms of its syntax and that of the other functions it may use. This process determines that each function is legal, completely defined, and that the supporting Bulk Data, if any, are present on the database. As part of this operation, the actual number of function evaluations (or "instances") is determined. The user may define one function in the function packet but invoke it many times. Each of the invocations must be legal and complete. The instantiation process results in the creation of data structures that describe each instance (constraint or function evaluation). These data structures are used by ASTROS to control the computation of the constituent responses. For example, if a function calls for the SIGX stress of QUAD4 100, ASTROS will ensure that the stress component is computed. Following the normal constraint screening process, active synthetic constraints along with these data structures are used to compute required sensitivities. This is done by explicitly differentiating the user functions and using the chain rule to compute constraint gradients from the necessary response derivatives. The response gradients are computed in the normal ASTROS manner. The following sections describe the relationship between the Solution Control Packet (including the OPTIMIZE command), the Bulk Data Packet and the Function Packet. 6.2.1. Solution Control Packet The Solution Control packet is used to select functions for use as either design constraints or as the objective function. The relevant commands are described in the following sections. 6.2.1.1. Synthetic Objective Function The ASTROS OPTIMIZE command is used to specify the objective function and the type of optimization to be performed. The general form of the command is: OPTIMIZE WEIGHT MINIMIZE OBJECTIVE = set−id MAXIMIZE [ DCFUNCTION = indep-set-id ] other-options WEIGHT is a keyword that selects the weight as objective function (the original ASTROS objective function) while set-id is the identification number of ONE DCONF Bulk Data entry that may be used to define a synthetic objective. The DCONF entry MUST be one that resolves to a single scalar value. If the optional OBJECTIVE specifier is omitted, WEIGHT is selected by default. The OPTIMIZE and MINIMIZE options direct ASTROS to minimize the objective function while MAXIMIZE directs the opposite. The indep-set-id allows the user to specify a single subcase independent functional constraint. (See Chapter 3 for details about the other-options.) 6-2 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL To illustrate the use of the OPTIMIZE command, consider the following examples. For the standard weight minimization problem, the following are equivalent: OPTIMIZE MAXITER = 10, CNVRGLIM = 1.3 OPTIMIZE OBJECTIVE = WEIGHT, MAXITER = 10, CNVRGLIM = 1.3 MINIMIZE OBJECTIVE = WEIGHT, MAXITER = 10, CNVRGLIM = 1.3 To minimize the scalar function defined by DCONF 101: MINIMIZE OBJECTIVE = 101, MAXITER = 10, MOVLIM = 1.7 OPTIMIZE OBJECTIVE = 101, MAXITER = 10, MOVLIM = 1.7 To maximize the scalar function defined by DCONF 2001: MAXIMIZE OBJECTIVE = 2001, MAXITER = 15, CNVRGLIM = 1.5, MOVLIM = 1.3 6.2.1.2. Synthetic Design Constraints Subcase independent constraints, such as weight and thickness, may be selected directly using the DCFUNCTION option of the OPTIMIZE command: OPTIMIZE DCFUNCTION = indep-set-id The DCFUNCTION defines a Design Constraint Function. In addition, the user has a mechanism to specify subcase-dependent constraints by using the DCFUNCTION option within the four disciplines: • STATICS— Static structural analysis MODES — Normal modes of vibration • SAERO — Steady-state aeroelastic analysis • FLUTTER — Aeroelastic stability analysis • When defining functional constraints which are subcase dependent, a similar DCFUNCTION option is included within each discipline: <disc> <type> [<case_id>] (DCFUNCTION = set-id) where set-id is the identification number of one or more DCONF Bulk Data entries. For example: OPTIMIZE DCFUNCTION = 1000 Subcase Independent Functional Contraint BOUNDARY SPC = 1 STATICS (...,DCFUNCTION = 101,...) Subcase Dependent Functional Contraint ... BOUNDARY SPC = 2, METHOD = 10 MODES (...,DCFUNCTION = 201,...) Subcase Dependent Functional Contraint ... ... END ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-3 USER’S MANUAL An additional option is available for each of the ASTROS discipline commands. Each discipline may include an identification number, case-id, which can be used in selecting response quantities for user functions. This identification number simply follows the discipline name: STATICS [case-id] (...) MODES [case-id] (...) If case-ids are not specified, then they are numbered consecutively from 1 to n. If case-ids are specified, then they must appear for all discipline commands. In a typical case, the case-id associated with a constrained response will be inherited from the discipline that references the function. It is possible, however, to explicitly reference a case-id in a user function. You use this feature to create synthetic functions that combine results from many subcases. 6.2.2. Bulk Data Packet The calling arguments that instantiate functional design constraints are defined using the DCONF entry in the Bulk Data packet. The primary use of functions is for synthetic response constraints, and synthetic objective functions that are requested in the Solution Control packet. In the following example, the Bulk Data Packet defines values for the element identification numbers and the allowable stress resultant for functional design constraint 101. It points to the function, SIG, in the Function Packet. This will be more fully explained in subsequent sections. BEGIN BULK DCONF 101 +DCN1 EID SIG 10 ALLOW +DCN1 45000.0 ENDDATA The DCONF Bulk Data defines the calling arguments for the named function, SIG. Each argument is defined by its name (e.g. EID) and the value to be used in this invocation of the function. Notice that, by using name/value pairs, there is no order dependence. While arguments may thus be defined on the DCONF entry, it is still required to define all of the function arguments. 6.3. FUNCTION SYNTAX The function packet contains the functional specification equations that are used as either the design constraints or the objective function. This packet has the general form: FUNCTIONS ... func_def ... ENDFUNC where func_def is the definition of a specific function. Each function, func_def, must have a single variable specified on the left of an equality expression: 6-4 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL var_name [ (argi) ] = expression; Where variable names, var_name, may be any string of one to eight alphanumeric characters starting with a letter. Arguments, argi, may also be passed to the function and used in the expression. These arguments must be referenced in the expression and on the design constraint Bulk Data entry, DCONF. Expressions combine arguments, constants and other functions. They may be continued over multiple lines as long as the final line ends with a semicolon (;) character. All of the rules for arithmetic expression evaluation follow the standard rules of FORTRAN. Note that unlike FORTRAN, arguments which are not used may be omitted from the calling list, as is the case with the MAPOL language. Examples of this will be shown in later Subsections. The following example defines a function which computes the allowable value of the stress resultant for an element. FUNCTIONS ... SIG(eid,allow)= (SQRT( STRESS(eid,SIGX)**2 + STRESS(eid,SIGY)**2 ) / allow ) - 1.0; ... ENDFUNC In this example, the function name is SIG which has two arguments, the element identification number, eid, and the allowable stress, allow. It also references one intrinsic response function, STRESS, and one mathematical intrinsic, SQRT. Specifically, intrinsic functions are built-in functions which retrieve either standard mathematical functions such as sine and cosine, or they are the functions which recover the solution results, which are called response functions. There are 20 mathematical functions and 27 response functions which may be used in the Function Packet. 6.3.1. Mathematical Functions There are 20 intrinsic mathematical functions. The definitions for these functions are shown in Table 6-1. 6.3.2. Response Functions The 27 available response functions fall into the following categories: • • • • • • • • Design Variables Selection Geometry Grid Point Response Element Response Natural Frequency Flutter Static Aero Each of these is described in the following Sections. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-5 USER’S MANUAL Table 6-1. Mathematical Intrinsics FUNCTION DESCRIPTION ABS(a) Absolute value: a ACOS(a) Inverse cosine: cos−1( a ) ASIN(a) Inverse sine: sin−1( a ) ATAN2(a,b) Inverse tangent: tan−1 ( a⁄b ) CMPLX(a,b) Convert to complex: a + bi COS(a) DEGS(a) Cosine: cos ( a ) Convert to degrees: aπ 180 EXP(a) Exponential function ea HERTZ(a) a Convert to hertz 2π IMAG(a) Use the imaginary part of complex a INT(a) Convert to integer LOG(a) Loge LOG10(a) Log10 MOD(a,b) Remainder RADS(a) 180 a Convert to radians π REAL(a) Use the real part of complex a SIGN(a) Algebraic sense function, -1 for negative a, +1 for positive a, and 0 if a=0 SIN(a) Sine: sin( a ) SQRT(a) Square root TAN(a) Tangent: tan( a ) The arguments a and b represent either constants or expressions. 6-6 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL 6.3.2.1. Design Variable Function To specify the current value of a design variable, the function: DV dvid GDVLIST ( sid ) is used, where the design variable is specified in the Bulk Data Packet as an identification, dvid, or as a set, GDVLIST. 6.3.2.2. Selection Functions Selection functions are provided to aid in the reference of data items, such as grid or element identifications. The data items may be referenced by either individual data entries through the definition of values passed in the DCONF argument list or by data lists through the passing of a list defined in the Bulk Data packet. The functions that represent data lists are shown in Table 6-2 along with the Bulk Data entries which define the set lists. The argument represents a list, sid, defined by the parameters in DCONF Bulk Data. 6.3.2.3. Geometric Functions Geometric functions are provided to facilitate the eventual definition of geometry based design variable linking and to define kinematic admissibility constraints. The first function is: Table 6-2. Selection Functions SELECTION FUNCTION BULK DATA ENTRY DESCRIPTION CASELIST( sid) CASELIST Case List DENSLIST( sid) DENSLIST Density List ELEMLIST( sid) ELEMLIST Element List GDVLIST(sid ) GDVLIST Global design variable List GRIDLIST( sid) GRIDLIST Grid List ITERLIST( sid) ITERLIST Iteration List LDVLIST(sid ) LDVLIST Local design variable List MACHLIST( sid) MACHLIST Mach List MODELIST( sid) MODELIST Mode List PLYLIST(sid ) PLYLIST Ply List VELOLIST( sid) VELOLIST Velocity List ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-7 USER’S MANUAL gid COORD , GRIDLIST ( sid ) X1 X2 X3 [ , cid ] The COORD function retrieves the current value of a geometric coordinate X1, X2, or X3 for the requested grid points referenced either as a grid value or a grid list, GRIDLIST. The grid point will be retrieved in the selected coordinate system, cid. If the cid reference is omitted, then the coordinate value is returned in the input coordinate system of the GRID point, i.e. the CP field of the Bulk Data entry GRID. A cid of 0 requests that the coordinate be returned in the basic coordinate system. The interpretation of X1, X2, and X3 depends on whether the cid coordinate system is rectangular, cylindrical, or spherical. In addition to the grid point geometry, there are functions which return information about the specific finite elements. These are: eid plyid THICK , ELEMLIST ( elem_sid ) PLYLIST ( ply_sid ) X1 eid CENTROID , X2 [,cid] ELEMLIST ( elem _ sid ) X3 eid plyid WEIGHT , ELEMLIST ( elem_sid ) PLYLIST ( ply_sid ) eid plyid MASS , ELEMLIST ( elem_sid ) PLYLIST ( ply_sid ) The THICK function returns the thickness of the requested two-dimensional element. The CENTROID function returns the centroid of the requested one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional element in the coordinate system cid. The WEIGHT function returns the weight of the element selected and the MASS function returns the mass of the element selected. The element is referenced either by an element identification, eid, or an element list, ELEMLIST. If an element identification number is used, then the eid must be unique. If element identification numbers are not unique, then an element list must be used. If the cid reference is omitted, or is 0, then the coordinate is returned in the basic coordinate system. Otherwise, it is returned in the specified coordinate system. Composite elements must have their layer numbers specified by a layer number, plyid, or a layer list, PLYLIST. The PLYLIST is not required for non-composite elements, and if present, it is ignored. 6-8 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL 6.3.2.4. Grid Point Response Functions The grid point response function is defined by: T1 T2 T3 gid caseid DISP , R1 [, cid ] , GRIDLIST ( grid_sid ) CASELIST ( case_sid ) R2 R3 where DISP represents displacements. This function allows the current grid result values in the coordinate system, cid, of a component T1, T2, T3, R1, R2 or R3 for the requested grid points, defined either by its value, gid, or a grid point list, GRIDLIST, to be retrieved in the requested CASE value or list. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. If the cid reference is omitted, then the coordinate value is returned in the displacement coordinate system of the grid points. A cid of 0 requests that the coordinate be returned in the basic coordinate system. 6.3.2.5. Element Response Functions The element response functions are defined by: STRESS ( elemop,stress_comp[,plyop][,caseop][,modeop] ) STRAIN ( elemop,strain_comp[,plyop][,caseop][,modeop] ) where: elemop plyop => => eid ELEMLIST ( elem_sid ) plyid PLYLIST ( ply_sid ) caseop => caseid CASELIST ( case sid ) modeop => modeid MODELIST ( mode_sid ) These functions allow a component of the requested element results, referenced either by its value, eid, or a list, ELEMLIST, to be retrieved for the requested CASEs and MODEs value or list. When an element identification is used then the eid must be unique and if the eid is not unique, then an element list must be used. Composite elements must have their layer numbers specified by a layer number, plyid, or a layer list, PLYLIST. The element response components, for composite elements, will always be recovered at the center of the layer. The allowable response components for each element type are shown in Table 6-3. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-9 USER’S MANUAL Table 6-3. Element Response Components ELEMENT SIGAXL SIGTOR SIG1 SIG2 MAXSHEAR ROD BAR QUAD4 TRIA3 stress_comp SIGAXL SIGCA SIGDA SIGEA SIGFA SIGCB SIGDB SIGEB SIGFB strain_comp EPSAXL EPSCA EPSDA EPSEA EPSFA EPSCB EPSDB EPSEB EPSFB SHEAR MAXSHEAR MAXSHEAR QDMEM1 TRMEM SIGX SIGY TAUXY SIG1 SIG2 MAXSHEAR FIBER TRANSV EPSX EPSY EPSXY EPS1 EPS2 MAXSHEAR FIBER TRANSV MIDPLANE SIGX SIGY TAUXY SIG1 SIG2 MAXSHEAR FIBER TRANSV EPSX EPSY EPSXY EPS1 EPS2 MAXSHEAR FIBER TRANSV TOP SURFACE TSIGX TSIGY TTAUXY TSIG1 TSIG2 TMAXSHEAR TFIBER TTRANSV TEPSX TEPSY TEPSXY TEPS1 TEPS2 TMAXSHEAR TFIBER TTRANSV BOTTOM SURFACE BSIGX BSIGY BTAUXY BSIG1 BSIG2 BMAXSHEAR BFIBER BTRANSV BEPSX BEPSY BEPSXY BEPS1 BEPS2 BMAXSHEAR BFIBER BTRANSV 6-10 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL The specific discipline request defines whether the case and/or mode is a valid request in the response functions. The mode sequence number is used only if the discipline is MODES. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. 6.3.2.6. Natural Frequency Constraints To select a natural frequency computed in a MODES discipline, the function: modeid caseid FREQ , MODELIST ( mode_sid ) CASELIST ( case_sid ) is used. Again, a single mode, modeid, or a list of modes, MODELIST, is selected. The optional caseid allows the selection of modes from a specific case. 6.3.2.7. Flutter Response Functions The flutter response functions are FROOT, FDAMP, and FFREQ which represent the flutter root, flutter damping, and flutter frequency, respectively. These functions are defined by: FROOT ( machop [,densop][,modeop][,velop][,caseop] ) FDAMP GAMMA [,machop][,densop][,modeop][,velop][,caseop] ZETA FFREQ ( machop [,densop][,modeop][,velop][,caseop] ) where: machop => MACHLIST ( mach_sid ) densop => DENSLIST ( dens_sid ) modeop => MODELIST ( mode_sid ) velop caseop => => mvalue dvalue modeid vvalue VELOLIST ( vel_sid ) caseid CASELIST ( case_sid ) The arguments to the first function, FROOT, includes a Mach value, machop, in either of the two forms shown. It may be an explicit value, mvalue, or a Mach list, MACHLIST. Similarly, it requires a density ratio value, dvalue, or a density list, DENSLIST, selected mode index, modeid, or a mode list, ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-11 USER’S MANUAL MODELIST, for the modes in the flutter set and the analysis velocity value, vvalue, or a velocity list, VELOLIST. The function FROOT then returns a complex number representing the flutter root: p = k(γ+i) The arguments to the second function, FDAMP, are a component, GAMMA or ZETA, the Mach value, a density ratio, a selected mode index for the modes in the flutter set and the analysis velocity. The function then returns the specified flutter damping coefficient as defined below. Re (p) Im (p) γ = Re (p) ln 2 Re (p) ζ = Im (p) ; for complex p ; for real p 2 2 + Re (p) 1⁄ 2 ; for complex p The third function, FFREQ, has the same arguments as FROOT and returns the frequency in radians. Conversion to Hertz may be accomplished by using the HERTZ intrinsic function. 6.3.2.8. Static Aero Response Functions The static aero response functions are defined by: caseid FLEXCF axis , trim_param , CASELIST ( case_sid ) caseid RIGIDCF axis , trim_param , CASELIST ( case_sid ) caseid TRIM trim_param , CASELIST ( case_sid ) where FLEXCF, RIGIDCF and TRIM represent flexible stability coefficient, rigid direct stability coefficient, and trim parameter values, respectively. The flex and rigid functions allow as input the axis, axis, and the trim parameters, trim_param. The trim function inputs only the trim parameters. When axis (see below) is ROLL, PITCH or YAW, these functions return their appropriate results in radians. If degrees are required, the results may be converted using the DEGS intrinisic function. The optional caseid allows the selection of a specific case. 6-12 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL The allowable values for axis are: axis = DRAG SIDE LIFT ROLL PITCH YAW The allowable control surfaces, trim_param, are: trim_param = ALPHA BETA PRATE QRATE RRATE PACCEL QACCEL RACCEL … User Surfaces where the User Surfaces are defined using either AESURF or CONLINK Bulk Data entries. 6.3.3. Ordered Sets As seen, functions allow the user to define synthetic response constraints and synthetic objective functions. To allow maximum flexibility, a single function may be referenced many times. Because multiple references may become verbose, a special provision has been made to allow the use of sets. When using a single set in a function, the results are straight-forward. The function is instantiated for every entry in the set. When multiple sets are used, there are several ways to define the resulting values of a function. Specifically, these methods relate to the number of members, or cardinality, and the order of the resulting sets. An unambiguous definition of multiple set use has been implemented. Each set that appears in the function MUST have the same cardinality, or, one or more of the sets may have a single member. When the function is evaluated, the members of each set are placed in a one-to-one correspondence with each other. Consider the following example: FUNCTIONS ... FUN1 = DISP(GRIDLIST(1),T1,,CASELIST(1001)); ... ENDFUNC BEGIN BULK ... GRIDLIST,1,1,2 CASELIST,1001,3,4 ... ENDDATA ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-13 USER’S MANUAL This results in two function evaluations: DISP(1,T1,,3) DISP(2,T1,,4) Other examples of set use are presented in the following Section. 6.4. EXAMPLES The following examples demonstrate how the definition and linking of the functions with the Solution Control, Bulk Data, and the Function Packet is accomplished. For each of the examples, the Solution Control packet references the functional design constraint in the Bulk Data Packet. The Bulk Data Packet then links the design constraint to the Functional Packet and the Function Packet defines the function specifications. Example 1: Displaced Coordinate Limit The following example computes four constraints for the displaced coordinate, X, for a set of four grid points, assuming that XOLD and T1 are in the same coordinate system. First, the Solution Control packet references the functional design constraint, 101, in the Bulk Data Packet for the STATICS discipline of boundary condition 1. OPTIMIZE ... BOUNDARY SPC = 1 STATICS (..., DCFUNCTION = 101, ...) ... END The Function Packet defines the function specification for computing the allowable displaced coordinates. The general expression for the Function packet is: XNEW = XOLD + T1 for grids 5, 10, 15, 20 This expression is then coded in the Function packet as: FUNCTIONS ... $ Location of the X coordinate for the supplied Grid list XOLD(GLIST)= COORD(GLIST, X1); $ Location of the displaced coordinate XNEW(GLIST)= XOLD(GLIST) + DISP(GLIST, T1); $ Constraint for the displaced coordinate CONST(GLIST,ALLOW)= ( XNEW(GRIDLIST(GLIST)) / ALLOW ) - 1.0; ... ENDFUNC 6-14 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL The Bulk Data Packet defines the grid list, glist, and arguments for constraint set 101 The constraint set links the design constraint, CONST, to the Functional Packet, and defines two arguments. The first argument identifies the GRIDLIST to use in the function and the second argument defines the allowable upper limit, allow, of the constraint. Note that this is the technique used to define a normalized constraint for the optimization step. It is highly recommended that functional constraints be normalized in this manner. In order for the optimizer to perform properly, it is mandatory that the synthetic constraint be negative when satisfied and positive when violated. It is recommended that the synthetic constraint be normalized such that its values are on the order of unity. The Bulk Data used to define the functional parameters is then given by: BEGIN BULK ... GRIDLIST 1 DCONF 101 +DCN1 GLIST 5 10 15 20 CONST 1 ALLOW +DCN1 100.0 ENDDATA Example 2: Stress Resultant Limits The following example computes multiple constraints for the stress resultants of selected QUAD4 elements. The Solution Control packet references the functional design constraint, 101, in the Bulk Data Packet for the STATICS discipline of boundary condition 1. OPTIMIZE ... BOUNDARY SPC = 1 STATICS (..., DCFUNCTION = 101, ...) ... END The Function Packet defines the function specification for computing the allowable stress resultant. The general expression for this is: RESULT = ASTROS SIGX 2 + SIGY 2 √ THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-15 USER’S MANUAL This is then applied to all QUAD4 elements in the range of 1 through 10000 by the following Function Packet: FUNCTIONS ... $ Alias for the element list selection function ELST(ELIST)= ELEMLIST(elist); $ Stress resultant RESULT(ELIST)= SQRT(STRESS(ELST(ELIST),SIGX)**2 + STRESS(ELST(ELIST),SIGY)**2); $ Constraint for the Stress resultant CONST(ELIST,ALLOW)= ( RESULT(ELIST) / ALLOW ) - 1.0; ... ENDFUNC The Bulk Data Packet defines the element list for the QUAD4 elements, defines functions and arguments for design constraint set 101, which points to the design constraint function, CONST. The first argument identifies the ELEMLIST to use in the function and the second argument defines the allowable upper limit of each constraint. BEGIN BULK ... ELEMLIST 1 DCONF 101 +DCN1 ELIST QUAD4 1 THRU 10000 CONST 1 ALLOW +DCN1 100.0+3 ENDDATA Example 3: Noninterference Constraints This example computes 16 constraints for the relative location between two sets of grid points, G1 and G2. The relative location equals the magnitude of the square root of the sum of the squares of the displaced coordinate divided by the sense of the dot product between the points such that a positive number means that the two points are not touching. This algorithm assumes that the geometric locations and the displacements are in the same coordinate system. The equations to be programmed are shown in the following: G1 = 5 , 6 ,7 ,..., 18 , 19 , 20 G2 = 105 , 106 ,107 ,..., 118 , 119 , 120 In the following equations the elements of these sets are denoted by i ∈ G2 , j ∈ G1 : 6-16 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL XMAGij = T1i + δT1i − T1j + δT1j 2 T2i + δT2i − T2j + δT2j + 2 + T3i + δT3i − T3j + δT3j 2 1⁄ 2 ; i ∈ G1 , j ∈ G2 SDOTij = sign T1i − T1j T1i + δT1i − T1j + δT1j + T2i − T2j T2i + δT2i − T2j + δT2j + T3i − T3j T3i + δT3i − T3j + δT3j RDISPij = ; i ∈ G1 , j ∈ G2 XMAGij SDOT ij The solution control packet references the functional design constraint, 101, in the Bulk Data Packet for the STATICS discipline of boundary condition 1. OPTIMIZE ... BOUNDARY SPC = 1 STATICS (..., DCFUNCTION = 101, ...) ... END ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-17 USER’S MANUAL The Function Packet defines the function specifications for computing the relative displacements between two sets of grid points. FUNCTIONS ... $ $ Alias for the grid list GLST(GLIST) = GRIDLIST(GLIST); $ XMAG = magnitude XMAG(GLIST1,GLIST2) = SQRT(((COORD(GLIST1,X1)+DISP(GLIST1,T1))-(COORD(GLIST2,X1)+DISP(GLIST2,T1)))**2+ ((COORD(GLIST1,X2)+DISP(GLIST1,T2))-(COORD(GLIST2,X2)+DISP(GLIST2,T2)))**2+ ((COORD(GLIST1,X3)+DISP(GLIST1,T3))-(COORD(GLIST2,X3)+DISP(GLIST2,T3)))**2); $ SDOT = Sign of the dot product Continued on following page. SDOT(GLIST1,GLIST2) = SIGN((COORD(GLIST2,X1)+DISP(GLIST2,T1)-COORD(GLIST1,X1)-DISP(GLIST1,T1)) * (COORD(GLIST2,X1) - COORD(GLIST1,X1)) + (COORD(GLIST2,X2)+DISP(GLIST2,T2)-COORD(GLIST1,X2)-DISP(GLIST1,T2)) * (COORD(GLIST2,X2) - COORD(GLIST1,X2)) + (COORD(GLIST2,X3)+DISP(GLIST2,T3)-COORD(GLIST1,X3)-DISP(GLIST1,T3)) * (COORD(GLIST2,X3) - COORD(GLIST1,X3))); $ Constraint for relative disp $ RDISP = -(XMAG/SDOT) RDISP(GLIST1,GLIST2) = -XMAG(GLST(GLIST1),GLST(GLIST2)) / SDOT(GLST(GLIST1),GLST(GLIST2)); ENDFUNC The Bulk Data Packet defines two grid lists, references design constraint 101, which links the design variable, RDISP, to the Functional Packet, and defines two arguments. The arguments identify the GRIDLISTs to use in the function. BEGIN BULK ... GRIDLIST 1 5 THRU 20 GRIDLIST 2 105 THRU 120 DCONF 101 RDISP +DCN1 GLIST1 1 GLIST2 2 +DCN1 ENDDATA Example 4: Constraint Instantiation with Explicit Subcases The following example computes five constraints from subcases defined independently of the analysis discipline. The function evaluates the expression which takes the displacement component T3 and divides by 2.0 for a set of grid points recovered for a set of unique displacements. The solution 6-18 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL control packet references the functional design constraint, 101, in the Bulk Data Packet for the STATIC discipline of boundary condition 1. OPTIMIZE ... DCFUNCTION = 101 BOUNDARY SPC = 1 STATICS 1000 STATICS 2000 STATICS 3000 STATICS 4000 STATICS 5000 ... END (...) (...) (...) (...) (...) The Function Packet defines the function specification for computing the allowable displacement component T3. The general expression for the function is: COMP = T3 2.0 for grid grid grid grid grid 5 recovered at 10 rec o veredat 15 recovered at 20 recovered at 25 recovered at subcase 1000 subcase 2000 subcase 3000 subc ase 4000 subcase 5000 which is defined by the Function packet: FUNCTIONS ... $ Recover the Normalized Displacement component T3 $ for given grid and subcase list COMP(GLIST,CLIST,FACT) = DISP(GRIDLIST(GLIST),T3,,CASELIST(CLIST)) / FACT; $ Constraint for the displacement component CONST(GLIST,CLIST,ALLOW)=( COMP(GLIST,CLIST,2.0)/ALLOW )-1.0; ... ENDFUNC The Bulk Data Packet defines a grid list and a subcase list, references design constraint 101, which links the design variable, CONST, to the Functional Packet, and defines three arguments. The first argument represents the GRIDLIST identification, the second argument is the CASELIST identification and the third argument defines the allowable upper limit of the constraint. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-19 USER’S MANUAL BEGIN BULK ... GRIDLIST 1 5 10 15 20 25 CASELIST 101 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 DCONF 101 +DCN1 GLIST CONST 1 CLIST +DCN1 101 ALLOW 0.2 ENDDATA Example 5: Multiple Function Evaluations The following example will compute 25 constraints. The function evaluates the expression which takes two times the displacement component T3 for a set of grid points recovered for subcases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. The solution control packet references the functional design constraint, 101, in the Bulk Data Packet for the STATICS discipline of boundary condition 1. OPTIMIZE ... BOUNDARY SPC = 1 STATICS (..., DCFUNCTION = 101, ...) ... END The Function Packet defines the function specification for computing the allowable displacement component for T3. The general expression for the Function packet is: COMP = 2*T3 for grids 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 which is defined by the Function packet: FUNCTIONS ... $ Recover the Displacement component, T3, times 2.0 COMP(GLIST,CASEID,MULPT) = MULPT * DISP(GRIDLIST(GLIST),T3,,CASEID); $ Constraint for the component value CONST(GLIST,CASEID,MULPT,ALLOW) = ( COMP(GLIST,CASEID,MULPT) / ALLOW ) - 1.0; ... ENDFUNC The Bulk Data Packet gives the grid list, defines five invocations of design constraint 101, references the design constraint function, CONST, and defines its four arguments. The arguments identify the multiplier used with the displacement component, the GRIDLIST, the subcase identification and the allowable upper limit of the constraint. 6-20 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL BEGIN BULK ... GRIDLIST 1 5 10 15 DCONF 101 CASE1 CONST +DCN1 GLIST 1 CASEID 1 DCONF 101 CASE2 CONST +DCN1 GLIST 1 CASEID 2 DCONF 101 CASE3 CONST +DCN1 GLIST 1 CASEID 3 DCONF 101 CASE4 CONST +DCN1 GLIST 1 CASEID 4 DCONF 101 CASE5 CONST +DCN1 GLIST 1 CASEID 5 20 25 +DCN1 MULPT 2 ALLOW 20.0 +DCN1 MULPT 2 ALLOW 20.0 +DCN1 MULPT 2 ALLOW 20.0 +DCN1 MULPT 2 ALLOW 20.0 +DCN1 MULPT 2 ALLOW 20.0 ENDDATA Example 6: Invalid List Cardinality The following example demonstrates an invalid request for a set of grid point data recovered for a list of unique subcases. The solution control packet references the functional design constraint 101, in the Bulk Data Packet for the STATICS discipline of boundary condition 1. OPTIMIZE ... BOUNDARY SPC = 1 STATICS (..., DCFUNCTION = 101, ...) ... END The Function Packet defines the function specification for computing the allowable displacements component for T3. The general expression for the Function packet is: COMP = 2∗T3 for grid grid grid grid 5 recovered 10 recovered 15 recovered 20 recovered at at at at subcase subcase subcase subcase 1 2 3 4 which is defined by the Function packet: ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-21 USER’S MANUAL FUNCTIONS ... $ Recover the Displacement component, T3, times 2.0 COMP(GLIST,CLIST,MULT) = MULT * DISP(GRIDLIST(GLIST),T3,,CASELIST(MLIST)); $ Constraint for the Component Value CONST(GLIST,CLIST,MULT,ALLOW)= ( COMP(GLIST,CLIST,MULT) / ALLOW ) - 1.0; ... ENDFUNC The Bulk Data Packet defines the grid list and subcase identification list, defines the design constraints 101, which references the design constraint function, CONST, and defines its four arguments. The arguments identify the GRIDLIST, the CASELIST, the multiplier used with the displacement component, and the allowable upper limit of the constraint. BEGIN BULK ... $ Grid list with 4 Grid points identified GRIDLIST 1 5 10 15 20 $ Subcase list with 5 Subcases identified CASELIST 101 DCONF 101 +DCN1 GLIST 1 2 3 4 5 CONST 1 CLIST +DCN1 101 MULT 2 ALLOW 100 ENDDATA There are no constraints generated because the GRIDLIST contains four values and the CASELIST contains five values. ASTROS will terminate during the processing of the user input data. As indicated earlier, the cardinality of the sets must be equal. Example 7: Missing Bulk Data The following example demonstrates an invalid request for constraints of the normal stress in the element’s X direction. The solution control packet references the functional design constraint, 101, in the Bulk Data Packet for the STATICS discipline of boundary condition 1. OPTIMIZE ... BOUNDARY SPC = 1 STATICS (..., DCFUNCTION = 101, ...) ... END The Function Packet defines the function specification for computing the allowable normal stress in the element X-direction. The general expression for the Function packet is: 6-22 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL VALUE = SIGX for elements 5, 10, 15, 20 which is defined by the Function packet: FUNCTIONS ... $ Constraint for Element Stress VALUE(ELIST) = ( STRESS(ELEMLIST(ELIST),SIGX) / 25000.0 ) - 1.0; ... ENDFUNC The Bulk Data Packet defines design constraint 101, defines the design constraint function, VALUE, and defines one argument, the ELEMLIST identification (1), for the function. BEGIN BULK ... $ Design Constraint Function DCONF 101 +DCN1 ELIST VALUE +DCN1 1 ENDDATA No constraints will be generated because element list 1 is not defined in the Bulk Data packet. Example 8: Missing Argument Definitions The following example demonstrates an invalid request to compute the constraints for the normal stress in the element’s X direction. The solution control packet references the functional design constraint, 101, in the Bulk Data Packet for the STATICS discipline of boundary condition 1. OPTIMIZE ... BOUNDARY SPC = 1 STATICS (..., DCFUNCTION = 101, ...) ... END The Function Packet defines the function specification for computing the allowable normal stress in the element’s X direction. The general expression for the Function packet is: VALUE = SIGX for elements 5, 10, 15, 20 which is defined by the Function packet: ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-23 USER’S MANUAL FUNCTIONS ... $ Constraint for Element stress VALUE(ELIST) = (STRESS(ELEMLIST(ELIST),SIGX)/45000.0 ) - 1.0; ... ENDFUNC The Bulk Data Packet defines design constraint 101, which referenced the design constraint function, VALUE: BEGIN BULK ... ELEMLIST 1 DCONF 101 +DCN1 GLIST 5 10 15 20 VALUE +DCN1 1 ENDDATA No constraints will be generated because there is no definition in the DCONF bulk data entry for the element list argument. Example 9: Modified Flutter Damping Constraint The following example will compute 32 constraints on the critical damping ratio ζ for mach values of 0.8 and 1.2, density ratio values of 0.8 and 1.0, mode index list of 1 and 2, and a velocity list from 600.0 through 1000.0. The solution control packet references the functional design constraint, 101, in the Bulk Data Packet for the FLUTTER discipline of boundary condition 1. OPTIMIZE ... BOUNDARY SPC = 1 FLUTTER (..., DCFUNCTION = 101, ...) ... END The Function Packet defines the function specification for computing the constraint values for ζ . The general expression for the Function packet is: Re (p) ζ = Im (p) 2 + Re (p) 2 1⁄ 2 ; where p is the flutter eigenvalue. which is defined by the Function packet: 6-24 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL FUNCTIONS ... $ Constraint for ZETA 0.15 ZETA(MACH, DENS, MODE, VINDX ) = 1.0 - ( FDAMP(ZETA,MACH, DENS, MODE, VELOLIST(VINDX)) / 0.15); ... ENDFUNC The Bulk Data Packet defines values for the MACH, DENS, MODE, and VELO arguments, for function design constraint 101 which points to the function, ZETA, in the Functional Packet. BEGIN BULK ... $ Velocity list VELOLIST 4 600. 800. 900. 1000. $ Design constraint function request DCONF 101 M0P810K ZETA +DCN1 MACH 0.8 DENS DCONF 101 M0P8SL ZETA +DCN1 MACH 0.8 DENS DCONF 101 M1P210K ZETA +DCN1 MACH 1.2 DENS DCONF 101 M1P2SL ZETA +DCN1 MACH 1.2 DENS DCONF 101 M0P810K ZETA +DCN1 MACH 0.8 DENS DCONF 101 M0P8SL ZETA +DCN1 MACH 0.8 DENS DCONF 101 M1P210K ZETA +DCN1 MACH 1.2 DENS DCONF 101 M1P2SL ZETA +DCN1 MACH 1.2 DENS +DCN1 0.8 MODE 1 VINDX 4 +DCN1 1.0 MODE 1 VINDX 4 0.8 MODE 1 VINDX 4 +DCN1 +DCN1 1.0 MODE 1 VINDX 4 +DCN1 0.8 MODE 2 VINDX 4 +DCN1 1.0 MODE 2 VINDX 4 +DCN1 0.8 MODE 2 VINDX 4 +DCN1 1.0 MODE 2 VINDX 4 ENDDATA 6.5. INSTRINSIC RESPONSE COMMANDS The ASTROS Instrinsic Response Function Commands are described in this section. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-25 $ Comment: USER’S MANUAL $ Purpose: To insert commentary text into the Function packet. Usage: $ any text may appear here 6-26 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Function: CENTROID CENTROID Purpose: To return the centroidal coordinates of the requested elements. Usage: X1 eid CENTROID , X2 [,cid] ELEMLIST ( elem_sid ) X3 Function Argument: eid Identification of an element specified in the Bulk Data Packet. elem_sid Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry used to specify an element. Xi Component for the geometric coordinate. cid Identification of a coordinate system specified in the Bulk Data Packet. Notes: 1. When an element identification is used then the eid must be unique and if the eid is not unique, then an element list must be used. 2. If the cid reference is omitted, then the coordinate value is returned in the input coordinate system of the element. 3. A cid of 0 requests that the coordinate be returned in the basic coordinate system. 4. The interpretation of X1, X2, and X3 depends on whether the cid coordinate system is rectangular, cylindrical, or spherical. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-27 COORD USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Function: COORD Purpose: To retrieve the current value of a geometric coordinate. Usage: gid COORD , GRIDLIST ( grid _ sid ) X1 X2 X3 [ , cid ] Function Arguments: gid Identification of a grid specified in the Bulk Data Packet. grid_sid Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry used to specify the grid. Xi Component for the geometric coordinate. cid Identification of a coordinate system specified in the Bulk Data Packet. Notes: 1. If the cid reference is omitted, then the coordinate value is returned in the input coordinate system of the GRID point. 2. A cid of 0 requests that the coordinate be returned in the basic coordinate system. 3. The interpretation of X1, X2, and X3 depends on whether the cid coordinate system is rectangular, cylindrical, or spherical. 6-28 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Function: DISP DISP Purpose: To retrieve the current value of a displacement. Usage: T1 T2 T3 gid caseid DISP , R1 [, cid ] , GRIDLIST ( grid_sid ) CASELIST ( case_sid ) R2 R3 Function Arguments: gid Identification of a grid point specified in the Bulk Data Packet. grid_sid Set identification of a GRIDLIST bulk data entry used to specify the grid. Ti,Ri Displacement component to recover. cid Identification of a coordinate system specified in the Bulk Data Packet. caseid Identification of a subcase. case_sid Set identification of a CASELIST bulk data entry used to specify the subcase identification number. Notes: 1. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. 2. If the cid reference is omitted, then the coordinate value is returned in the output coordinate system of the grid points. 3. A cid of 0 requests that the coordinate be returned in the basic coordinate system. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-29 DV USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Response Function: DV Purpose: To retrieve the current value of a design variable. Usage: dvid DV GDVLIST ( gdv _ sid ) Function Arguments: dvid Identification of a design variable specified in the Bulk Data packet. gdv_sid Set identification of a GDVLIST Bulk Data entry used to specify the design variable. 6-30 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Function: FDAMP FDAMP Purpose: To retrieve the current value of flutter damping. Usage: FDAMP GAMMA [,machop][,densop][,modeop][,velop][,caseop] ZETA where: machop => MACHLIST ( mach_sid ) densop => DENSLIST ( dens_sid ) modeop => MODELIST ( mode_sid ) => velop caseop => mvalue dvalue modeid vvalue VELOLIST ( vel_sid ) caseid CASELIST ( case_sid ) Fucntion Arguments: mvalue Mach value mach_sid Set identification of a MACHLIST bulk data entry used to specify the mach value. dvalue Density ratio value, dens_sid Set identification of a DENSLIST bulk data entry used to specify the density ratio value. modeid Mode index. mode_sid Set identification of a MODELIST bulk data entry used to specify the mode index. vvalue Velocity value. vel_sid Set identification of a VELOLIST bulk data entry used to specify the velocity value. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-31 FDAMP USER’S MANUAL caseid Subcase identification. case_sid Set identification of a CASELIST bulk data entry used to specify the subcase number. Notes: 1. When the component GAMMA is specified the following equation is used. Re (p) Im (p) γ = Re (p) ln 2 ; for complex p ; for real p When the component ZETA is specified the following equation is used. Re (p) ζ = Im (p) 2 + Re (p) 2 1⁄ 2 ; for complex p 2. The specific discipline request defines whether the case and/or mode is a valid request in the response functions. 3. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. 6-32 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Function: FFREQ FFREQ Purpose: To retrieve the current value of the flutter frequency. Usage: FFREQ ( machop [,densop][,modeop][,velop][,caseop] ) where: machop => mvalue MACHLIST ( mach_sid ) densop => dvalue DENSLIST ( sid ) dens _ modeop => modeid MODELIST ( sid ) mode _ => velop caseop => vvalue VELOLIST ( vel sid ) _ caseid CASELIST ( case sid ) _ Function Arguments: mvalue Mach value mach_sid Set identification of a MACHLIST bulk data entry used to specify the mach value. dvalue Density ratio value, dens_sid Set identification of a DENSLIST bulk data entry used to specify the density ratio value. modeid Mode index. mode_sid Set identification of a MODELIST bulk data entry used to specify the mode index. vvalue Velocity value. vel_sid Set identification of a VELOLIST bulk data entry used to specify the velocity value. caseid Subcase identification. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-33 FFREQ USER’S MANUAL case_sid Set identification of a CASELIST bulk data entry used to specify the subcase number. Notes: 1. The frequency is returned in Radians. Conversion to Hertz may be accomplished by using the HERTZ intrinsic function. 2. The specific discipline request defines whether the case and/or mode is a valid request in the response functions. 3. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. 6-34 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL FLEXCF FLEXCF Intrinsic Function: Purpose: To retrieve flexible stability coefficients for a specific trim parameter from a Static Aerodynamics analysis. Usage: caseid FLEXCF axis , trim_param , CASELIST ( case_sid ) Function Arguments: axis Input axis. param Trim parameters. caseid Subcase identification. case_sid Set identification of a CASELIST bulk data entry used to specify the subcase number. Notes: 1. This function returns its results in radians. If degrees are required, the results may be converted using the DEGS intrinisic function. 2. The allowable values for axis are: axis ASTROS = DRAG SIDE LIFT ROLL PITCH YAW THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-35 FLEXCF 3. USER’S MANUAL The allowable control surfaces, trim_param, are: trim_param = ALPHA BETA PRATE QRATE RRATE PACCEL QACCEL RACCEL … User Surfaces The User Surfaces are defined using AESURF Bulk Data entries. 4. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. 6-36 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL FREQ FREQ Intrinsic Function: Purpose: To retrieve the current value of the natural frequency computed in a Normal Modes analysis. Usage: FREQ modeid MODELIST ( mode_sid ) caseid , CASELIST ( case_sid ) Function Arguments: modeid Identification of a mode index. mode_sid Set identification of a MODELIST bulk data entry used to specify the mode index. caseid Subcase identification. case_sid Set identification of a CASELIST bulk data entry used to specify the subcase identification number. Notes: 1. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-37 FROOT USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Function: FROOT Purpose: To retrieve the current value of the flutter root: p = k ( γ + i ) Usage: FROOT ( machop [,densop][,modeop][,velop][,caseop] ) where: machop => mvalue MACHLIST ( mach _ sid ) densop => dvalue DENSLIST ( dens _ sid ) modeop => modeid MODELIST ( mode _ sid ) => velop caseop vvalue VELOLIST ( vel _ sid ) => caseid CASELIST ( case _ sid ) Function Arguments: mvalue Mach value mach_sid Set identification of a MACHLIST bulk data entry used to specify the mach value. dvalue Density ratio value. dens_sid Set identification of a DENSLIST bulk data entry used to specify the density ratio value. modeid Mode index. mode_sid Set identification of a MODELIST bulk data entry used to specify the mode index. vvalue Velocity value. vel_sid Set identification of a VELOLIST bulk data entry used to specify the velocity value. caseid Subcase identification. 6-38 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL FROOT case_sid Set identification of a CASELIST bulk data entry used to specify the subcase number. Notes: 1. The specific discipline request defines whether the case and/or mode is a valid request in the response functions. 2. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. 3. The function returns the Real part of the flutter root. If the Imaginary part is required, then the IMAG intrinsic function must be used. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-39 MASS USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Function: MASS Purpose: To return the mass of selected elements. Usage: eid plyid MASS , ELEMLIST ( elem_sid ) PLYLIST ( ply_sid ) Function Arguments: eid Identification of an element specified in the Bulk Data Packet. elem_sid Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry used to specify an element. plyid Identification of a layer number for a composite element. ply_sid Set identification of a PLYLIST bulk data entry used to specify the layer number for a composite element. Notes: 1. When an element identification is used then the eid must be unique and if the eid is not unique, then an element list must be used. 2. Composite elements must have their layer number specified. 6-40 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL RIGIDCF RIGIDCF Intrinsic Function: Purpose: To retrieve rigid stability coefficients for a specific trim parameter from a Static Aerodynamics analysis. Usage: caseid RIGIDCF axis , trim_param , CASELIST ( case_sid ) Function Arguments: axis Input axis. trim_param Trim parameters. caseid Subcase identification. sid Set identification of a CASELIST bulk data entry used to specify the subcase number. Notes: 1. This function returns its results in radians. If degrees are required, the results may be converted using the DEGS intrinisic function. 2. The allowable values for axis are: axis ASTROS = DRAG SIDE LIFT ROLL PITCH YAW THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-41 RIGIDCF 3. USER’S MANUAL The allowable control surfaces, trim_param, are: trim_param = ALPHA BETA PRATE QRATE RRATE PACCEL QACCEL RACCEL … User Surfaces The User Surfaces are defined using AESURF Bulk Data entries. 4. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. 6-42 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Function: STRAIN STRAIN Purpose: To retrieve current element STRAIN values. Usage: STRAIN ( elemop,strain_comp[,plyop][,caseop][,modeop] ) where: elemop => plyop => eid ELEMLIST ( elem_sid ) plyid PLYLIST ( ply_sid ) caseop => caseid CASELIST ( case_sid ) modeop => modeid MODELIST ( mode_sid ) Function Arguments: eid Identification of an element specified in the Bulk Data Packet. elem_sid Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry used to specify an element. strain_comp Element response component. plyid Identification of a layer number for a composite element. ply_sid Set identification of a PLYLIST bulk data entry used to specify the layer number for a composite element. caseid Subcase identification. case_sid Set identification of a CASELIST bulk data entry used to specify the subcase number. modeid Identification of a mode index. mode_sid Set identification of a MODELIST bulk data entry used to specify the mode index. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-43 STRAIN USER’S MANUAL Notes: 1. When an element identification is used then the eid must be unique and if the eid is not unique, then an element list must be used. 2. The allowable response components for each element type are shown in Table 20. 3. Composite elements must have their layer identification number specified. 4. Strain components will always be recovered at the center of the layer for composite elements. 5. The specific discipline request defines whether the case and/or mode is a valid request in the response functions. 6. The mode sequence number is used only if the discipline is MODES. 7. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. 6-44 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Function: STRESS STRESS Purpose: To retrieve current element STRESS values. Usage: STRESS ( elemop,stress_comp[,plyop][,caseop][,modeop] ) where: elemop => plyop => eid ELEMLIST ( elem_sid ) plyid PLYLIST ( ply_sid ) caseop => caseid CASELIST ( case_sid ) modeop => modeid MODELIST ( mode_sid ) Function Arguments: eid Identification of an element specified in the Bulk Data Packet. elem_sid Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry used to specify an element. stress_comp Element response component. plyid Identification of a layer number for a composite element. ply_sid Set identification of a PLYLIST bulk data entry used to specify the layer number for a composite element. caseid Subcase identification. case_sid Set identification of a CASELIST bulk data entry used to specify the subcase number. modeid Identification of a mode index. mode_sid Set identification of a MODELIST bulk data entry used to specify the mode index. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-45 STRESS USER’S MANUAL Notes: 1. When an element identification is used then the eid must be unique and if the eid is not unique, then an element list must be used. 2. The allowable response components for each element type are shown in Table 20. 3. Composite elements must have their layer identification number specified. 4. Stress components will always be recovered at the center of the layer for composite elements. 5. The specific discipline request defines whether the case and/or mode is a valid request in the response functions. 6. The mode sequence number is used only if the discipline is MODES. 7. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. 6-46 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Function: THICK THICK Purpose: To return the thickness of the requested two-dimensional elements. Usage: THICK eid ELEMLIST ( elem_sid ) plyid , PLYLIST ( ply_sid ) Function Arguments: eid Identification of an element specified in the Bulk Data Packet. elem_sid Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry used to specify an element. plyid Identification of a layer number for a composite element. ply_sid Set identification of a PLYLIST bulk data entry used to specify the layer number for a composite element. Notes: 1. When an element identification is used then the eid must be unique and if the eid is not unique, then an element list must be used. 2. Composite elements must have their layer number specified. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-47 TRIM USER’S MANUAL TRIM Intrinsic Function: Purpose: To retrieve trim parameters from a Static Aerodynamics analysis. Usage: TRIM trim_param , caseid CASELIST ( case_sid ) Function Arguments: trim_param Trim parameters. caseid Subcase identification. case_sid Set identification of a CASELIST bulk data entry used to specify the subcase number. Notes: 1. This function return its results in radians. If degrees are required, the results may be converted using the DEGS intrinisic function. 2. The allowable control surfaces, trim_param, are: trim_param = ALPHA BETA PRATE QRATE RRATE PACCEL QACCEL RACCEL … User Surfaces The User Surfaces are defined using AESURF Bulk Data entries. 3. If the subcase reference is omitted, then the specific discipline request defines the requested subcase. 6-48 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL Intrinsic Function: WEIGHT WEIGHT Purpose: To return the weight of selected elements. Usage: WEIGHT eid ELEMLIST ( elem_sid ) , plyid PLYLIST ( ply_sid ) Function Arguments: eid Identification of an element specified in the Bulk Data Packet. elem_sid Set identification of an ELEMLIST bulk data entry used to specify an element. plyid Identification of a layer number for a composite element. ply_sid Set identification of a PLYLIST bulk data entry used to specify the layer number for a composite element. Notes: 1. When an element identification is used then the eid must be unique and if the eid is not unique, then an element list must be used. 2. Composite elements must have their layer number specified. ASTROS THE FUNCTION PACKET 6-49 USER’S MANUAL This page is intentionally blank. 6-50 THE FUNCTION PACKET USER’S MANUAL USER’S MANUAL Chapter 7. THE BULK DATA PACKET The bulk data packet provides the ASTROS system with the engineering data needed to perform the specific tasks requested by the user. It contains the model geometries for the structural model, the aerodynamic model(s) and the design model as well as the pool of data from which the solution control requests are made. Finally, specialized information required by the analysis disciplines (e.g., Mach number and reduced frequency pairs for unsteady aerodynamic analyses) is also provided to the system through the bulk data packet. The basic input item is the bulk data entry which is directly analogous to the NASTRAN bulk data card. In fact, NASTRAN compatible formats were chosen for the ASTROS bulk data entries whenever possible because modern structures are often analyzed using large NASTRAN finite element models having tens of thousands of lines of bulk data. Further, these large models are usually prepared using software designed specifically to generate NASTRAN models. Thus, by utilizing NASTRAN bulk data structures where possible and by using the NASTRAN bulk data style for the additional engineering data, ASTROS is highly compatible with existing NASTRAN models and with current finite element model generation methods. Just as in NASTRAN, the bulk data packet begins with the keyword BEGIN BULK (which may be abbreviated BEGIN) and is terminated by the optional keyword ENDDATA or by the end of the input stream. The intervening bulk data entries can appear in any order. An alphabetically sorted listing of the bulk data input will be echoed to the output file unless suppressed by the user through the BEGIN BULK command line options. All the input entries are interpreted by IFP through templates that are defined as part of the system generation task. The templates provide for basic error checking, establish defaults and direct the placement of the raw data onto the database. The use of templates allows additional entries to be added to the system very simply without software changes. The definition of the templates and the means of adding new entries are documented in the Programmer’s Manual. In addition, the complete listing of ASTROS ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-1 USER’S MANUAL bulk data templates is included in the output summary generated by the SYSGEN system generation utility during the creation of the system database files. On restart with a bulk data packet in the input stream, the IFP module will append the new data onto the data from the previous run(s). There is no provision for deleting existing bulk data except through MAPOL sequence modifications or direct interaction using the ICE program (Reference 7). This restart feature, while limited, can be useful in many instances; e.g. when additional analysis disciplines are desired or when different output requests are desired. The remainder of this section presents the structure of the bulk data entry for ASTROS and discusses some features of the IFP module that are useful to the general user. ASTROS bulk data entries have been carefully designed to be NASTRAN compatible, so the NASTRAN User’s Manual (Reference 2) has provided much of the information in the following discussion as well as having directed the design of the IFP software. The reader is also referred to the ASTROS Programmer’s Manual for more information on the IFP module and for information on the addition of new bulk data entries. 7.1. BULK DATA ECHO OPTIONS There are special options on the BEGIN BULK command which allow the user to control the echoing of the Bulk Data. The format of this command is: BEGIN BULK ECHO NOECHO PRINT PUNCH BOTH SORT NOSORT The following table describes the actions which are performed for the various options. ECHO FILE ORDER SORT ACTION Sorted echo to the output file. PRINT UNSORT ECHO SORT Unsorted echo to the output file. Sorted echo to punch file. PUNCH UNSORT SORT Unsorted echo to punch file. Sorted echo to both output and punch files. BOTH UNSORT NOECHO 7-2 THE BULK DATA PACKET Unsorted echo to both output and punch files. No echo to either output or punch file. ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 7.2. FORMAT OF THE BULK DATA ENTRY Each bulk data entry consists of a required parent line followed by a number of optional continuation lines. Therefore, a single bulk data entry resides on one or more lines. The basic bulk data line has one mnemonic field of eight characters followed by either eight data fields of eight characters or by four data fields of 16 characters and terminates with an eight character continuation field as shown in Figure 7-1. The data field size (either eight or 16 characters) is determined by the presence of the optional large field marker in the first mnemonic field of each bulk data line. The parent line begins with a character mnemonic identifying the entry followed by 4 or 8 data fields and ending with a continuation field. The continuation lines are identical except that the leading mnemonic field contains a continuation label which is used to link it to its parent line. This structure is identical to that in NASTRAN. One important exception to NASTRAN compatibility is that ASTROS requires that the continuation lines follow continuously from the parent line although the bulk data entries themselves can be in any order. Random placement of continuations in NASTRAN is an artifact from using physical cards that were punched with the bulk data. If the card deck were dropped, the resulting random order still had to be interpretable by the code. This feature no longer needs to be supported in light of modern computer storage methods but NASTRAN compatibility dictated that similar continuation labeling be used. A continuation line is defined for a bulk data entry that requires more than eight (or four large) data fields. The last field of the parent line is used in conjunction with the first field of the continuation line as Small Field Entry with a Small Field Continuation NAME ABC +BC Small Field Entry with a Large Field Continuation NAME ABC *BC Large Field Entry with both Large and Small Field Continuations NAME* ABC *BC DEF +EF Large Field Entry with a Large Field Continuation NAME* ABC *BC Figure 7-1. Bulk Data Entry Formats ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-3 USER’S MANUAL an identifier. The parent continuation field can contain any alphanumeric entry while the first field of the continuation line contains a plus (+) as a continuation character in column 1 followed by the last 7 characters from the parent continuation label. For the parent line, the large field marker is an asterisk (*) following the name of the entry which signifies that large data fields are to be used. For continuation lines, the asterisk used as the continuation character plays the role of the large field marker as shown below. Each bulk data line must be either all narrow field or all large field, although separate lines of a single bulk data entry can have different field widths simply by using the proper field marker. This means that the same bulk data entry in wide and narrow formats are functionally identical with no need for separate templates. Unlike NASTRAN, the continuation mnemonics need not be unique among all the bulk data entries in the bulk data packet since there is no provision for randomly sorted continuations. The input on a bulk data line can either be in fixed format, in which each item must reside within the field to which it belongs, or in free format, in which fields are separated by commas and can be positioned anywhere to the left of the column in which the fixed field would normally start. Free format input is indicated by the appearance of a comma in the first 10 characters of the input line. ASTROS requires that each line (not each bulk data entry) be either all fixed or all free format and that each free format field be separated by a comma. The NASTRAN use of a blank character as a field separator is not supported. When free format input is used, the continuation lines can reside on the same physical line of input with the continuation labels either included or not as in the following equivalent examples: MKAERO1, 1, , 0.3, 0.5, , , , , ABC , +BC, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 MKAERO1, 1, , 0.3, 0.5, , , , , 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 In the latter case, ASTROS will automatically generate the missing continuation mnemonics. Care must be taken, however, that the first two data fields of the continuation line be non-blank. If not, there is an ambiguity as to whether the first continuation field constitutes a continuation label or a data field. This ambiguity causes the IFP to terminate execution with an error indicating that there is a missing continuation line. Free format input in which the parent and continuation lines are broken into separate physical lines or which explicitly include the continuation mnemonics do not suffer this limitation. Free format input is further restricted in that the break between physical lines, if needed, must occur at a break in the logical line, that is, the split must occur between the ending continuation field on the current logical line and the continuation field of the next logical line. This means, for the preceding example, that the first example entry could be broken into two lines between the ABC and +BC fields but nowhere else. When an entry is broken into multiple physical lines, the continuation mnemonics must be supplied. Obviously, fixed format input requires continuation mnemonics for any bulk data entries having continuation lines. 7.3. DATA FIELD FORMATS The interior fields of a bulk data line can contain either integer data, real data, character data or certain combinations (e.g. either integer or real data). The template for each entry defines which types of data are acceptable in each field. Each data item is limited to the number of characters that fit in the length of the field. For narrow width fields no more than eight characters can be used in the data item. Unlike NASTRAN, any extra characters will spill to the next field and will result in IFP errors, there is no provision for rounding real data to fit the field size. 7-4 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL In order to be considered valid, the data item must first satisfy the data type requirement as specified on the template. Real numbers, including zero, must contain a decimal point, although there are a number of formats supported. For example, the real number 3.1 may be encoded as shown or as 3.1E0, +3.1D00, 0.31E1, or 3.1+0. Unlike NASTRAN, however, there cannot be embedded blanks anywhere in the real number and a D edit descriptor is treated as a single precision number until actually loaded to a double precision relational attribute. Blank fields that do not have other defaults specified on the template, will be interpreted as blank characters, an integer zero or a real zero as required. Integer values must be formed from the ten decimal digits with an optional leading plus or minus sign. Character data consist of any combination of alphanumeric characters including any digits, decimal points, etc., with no restriction that the first character be alphabetic. 7.4. ERROR CHECKING IN THE INPUT FILE PROCESSOR As mentioned in the preceding subsection, the IFP module performs basic error checking to ensure that the input data is of the correct type. In addition, the templates provide for error checks that enable the IFP to check that the data satisfy particular requirements. For example, the IFP can be directed to require that a particular value be greater than zero or be one of a finite number of selections. At its most complex, the bulk data processor checks to ensure specific relationships among data on a single bulk data entry. It is important to understand, however, that no error checks occur in the IFP to ensure that references to, and interrelationships among, multiple bulk data entries are satisfied. These more complex checks occur in subsequent engineering modules. A complete description of the available template error checks and the mechanism provided to add additional error checks is presented in the Programmer’s Manual. The reader may find it helpful to study this documentation since the bulk data packet and the bulk data entries are closely linked to the software in both the SYSGEN utility and the IFP module. 7.5. BULK DATA ENTRY SUMMARY This section contains a summary of all the bulk data entries in the ASTROS system separated into logically related groups. The groups are composed of either model definition entries, subcase definition entries or general list entries. This is followed by a detailed description of each of the entries listed in this section. Section 7.6 discusses the differences between NASTRAN and ASTROS for those entries that have been changed or are completely different than in NASTRAN but that use the same mnemonic and serve a similar purpose. Entries indicated by * are unchanged from NASTRAN. 7.5.1. Aerodynamic Load Transfer Rigid load transfer definition. ATTACH SET1 * A structural grid point list for spline interpolation or a mode list for omitting normal modes in flutter analysis. SET2* SPLINE1 Structural grid point list in term of aerodynamic macroelements. * SPLINE2* ASTROS Surface spline definition for out-of-plane motion. Beam spline definition for interpolating panels and bodies. THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-5 USER’S MANUAL 7.5.2. Applied Dynamic Loads Time and phase lag definition for a spatial load. DLAGS * Linear combination of dynamic load sets. DLONLY Direct definition of dynamic spatial load. GUST Stationary vertical gust definition. RLOAD1 Frequency dependent dynamic load definition. RLOAD2 Frequency dependent dynamic load definition. TABLED1 Tabular function definition for dynamic load generation. TLOAD1 Time dependent dynamic load definition. TLOAD2 Time dependent dynamic load definition. DLOAD 7.5.3. Applied Static Loads FORCE* FORCE1 GRAV Definition of a concentrated load at a grid point. * Definition of a concentrated load at a grid point. * Definition of an acceleration vector for gravity loads. LOAD* Definition of linear load combinations. MOMENT * MOMENT1 PLOAD * Definition of a moment at a grid point. * Definition of a moment at a grid point. Definition of a pressure load over an area. PLOAD2 * Definition of a pressure load on plate elements. PLOAD4 * Definition of a pressure load on plate elements in a specified direction. TEMP * TEMPD Definition of a temperature at a structural node. * Definition of default nodal temperatures. 7.5.4. Boundary Condition Constraints ASET* ASET1 Analysis set definition. * Analysis set definition. DYNRED Dynamic reduction parameters. JSET Inertia relief mode shape parameter definition. JSET1 Inertia relief mode shape parameter definition. MPC * MPCADD Multipoint constraint definition. * Definition of combinations of MPC sets. OMIT Omit set definition. OMIT1 Omit set definition. RBAR Rigid bar element RBE1 Rigid body element RBE2 Rigid body element RBE3 Rigid body element RROD Rigid rod element 7-6 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL SPC* SPC1 Single point constraint/enforced displacement definition. * SPCADD Single point constraint definition. * SUPORT Definition of combinations of SPC sets. Definition of coordinates for determinate reactions. 7.5.5. Design Constraints DCONALE Aileron effectiveness constraint definition. DCONBK Buckling constraint definition. DCONBKE Euler buckling constraint definition. DCONCLA Lift effectiveness constraint definition. DCONDSP Displacement constraint definition. DCONEP Principal strain constraint definition. DCONEPM Principal strain constraint definition. DCONEPP Principal strain constraint definition. DCONF Functional constraint definition. DCONFLT Flutter constraint definition. DCONFRQ Modal frequency constraint definition. DCONFT Fiber/transverse strain constraint definition. DCONFTM Fiber/transverse strain constraint definition. DCONFTP Fiber/transverse strain constraint definition. DCONLAM Composite laminate constraint definition. DCONLMN Composite laminate minimum gauge constraint definition. DCONPMN Composite element ply minimum gauge constraint definition. DCONSCF Flexible stability coefficient constraint definition. DCONSDE BAR element cross-sectional parameter side constraint definition. DCONSDL BAR element cross-sectional parameter side constraint definition. DCONTH2 Composite layer thickness constraint definition for shape linking. DCONTH3 BAR element cross-sectional parameter definition for shpae linking. DCONTHK Thickness constraint definition for use with shape function design variable linking. DCONTRM Aeroelastic trim parameter constraint definition. DCONTW Tsai-Wu stress constraint definition. DCONTWM Tsai-Wu stress constraint definition. DCONTWP Tsai-Wu stress constraint definition. DCONVM Von-Mises stress constraint definition. DCONVMM Von-Mises stress constraint definition. DCONVMP Von-Mises stress constraint definition. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-7 USER’S MANUAL 7.5.6. Design Variables, Linking and Optimization Parameters DESELM Unique physical design variable definition. DESVARP Linked physical design variable definition DESVARS Linked shape function design variable definition. DVTOPTE Thickness variation type definition for bending plate element design. DVTOPTL Thickness variation type definition for an element list. DVTOPTP Thickness variation type definition based on element properties. ELIST Element list for physical linking. ELISTM Element list for physical linking of different local design variables. MPPARM Mathematical programming default parameter override. PLIST Physical design variable linking definition. PLISTM Physical design variable linking of different local design variables. SHAPE Definition of element linking factors to define a shape variable. SHAPEM Definition of element linking factors of different local design variables to define a shape variable. SHPGEN Definition of design variables using the SHAPE generation utility. 7.5.7. Geometry CORD1C* Cylindrical coordinate system definition. CORD1R * Rectangular coordinate system definition. CORD1S * Spherical coordinate system definition. CORD2C * Cylindrical coordinate system definition. CORD2R * Rectangular coordinate system definition. CORD2S * Spherical coordinate system definition. EPOINT * Extra point definition for dynamics. GRDSET * Default parameters for fields on the GRID entry. GRID * SPOINT* Grid point location and coordinate system selection. Scalar point definition. 7.5.8. Material Properties MAT1* MAT2 * MAT8* MAT9 * Isotropic elastic properties definition. Two-dimensional anisotropic properties definition. Orthotropic properties definition. Anisotropic properties definition for isoparametric hexahedral elements. 7.5.9. Miscellaneous Inputs $* Commentary data. CONVERT Conversion factor definitions. DMI Direct matrix input. 7-8 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DMIG Direct matrix input at structural nodes. MFORM Mass matrix form (LUMPED or COUPLED). List of database entities not to be purged. SAVE SEQGP * Structural set resequencing definition. 7.5.10. Selection Lists CASELIST List of subcase identification numbers. DCONLIST List of design constraint identification numbers. DENSLIST List of density ratio values. ELEMLIST List of element identification numbers. FREQLIST List of frequency step values. GDVLIST List of global design variable identification numbers. GPWG Definition of the location to perform grid point weight generation GRIDLIST List of GRID point identification numbers. ITERLIST List of iteration step identification numbers. LDVLIST List of local design variable identification numbers. MACHLIST List of Mach number values. MODELIST List of normal mode identification numbers. PLYLIST List of GRID point identification numbers. TIMELIST List of time step values. VELOLIST List of velocity values. 7.5.11. Steady Aerodynamics AEROS Reference parameters AEFACT List of real parameters. AESURF Aerodynamic control surface definition. AIRFOIL Airfoil property definition. AXSTA Body axial station parameter definition. BODY Body configuration definition. CAERO6 Macroelement (panel) definition. CONEFFS Definition of static aerodnamic control effectiveness CONLINK Definition of linked control surfaces. PAERO6 Body parameter definition. 7.5.12. Structural Element Connection BAROR Definition of default parameters for the CBAR bar element. CBAR Prismatic beam element. CELAS1 Scalar elastic spring element. CELAS2 Scalar elastic spring element. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-9 USER’S MANUAL CIHEX1* Linear isoparametric hexahedral element. CIHEX2 * Quadratic isoparametric hexahedral element. CIHEX3 * Cubic isoparametric hexahedral element. CMASS1 Scalar mass element. CMASS2 Scalar mass element. CONM1 * Direct 6 x 6 mass matrix definition at a structural node. CONM2 Concentrated mass at a structural node. CONROD Rod element. CQDMEM1 Isoparametric quadrilateral membrane element. CQUAD4 Isoparametric quadrilateral element with bending and membrane stiffness. CROD Rod element. CSHEAR Shear panel. CTRIA3 Isoparametric triangular element with bending and membrane stiffness. CTRMEM Constant strain triangular membrane element. GENEL * General element. 7.5.13. Structural Element Properties PBAR Prismatic beam element. PBAR1 Prosmatic beam element defined with standard cross-sectional parameters. PCOMP Composite laminate definition for CQDMEM1, CQUAD4, CTRIA3, and CTRMEM elements. PCOMP1 Composite laminate definition for CQUAD4 and CTRIA3 elements. PCOMP2 Composite laminate definition for CQUAD4 and CTRIA3 elements. PELAS Scalar elastic spring element. PIHEX * Linear, quadratic and cubic isoparametric hexahedral element. PMASS Scalar mass element PQDMEM1 Isoparametric quadrilateral membrane element. PROD Rod element. PSHEAR Shear panel. PSHELL Definition of shell element properties for CQUAD4 and CTRIA3 elements. PTRMEM Constant strain triangular membrane element. 7.5.14. Unsteady Aerodynamics Reference parameters AERO CAERO1 * Aerodynamic macroelement (panel) definition. CAERO2 * Body configuration definition. CONEFFF FLFACT * Definition of flutter aerodynamic control effectiveness Parameter definition for flutter analysis. 7-10 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL MKAERO1 Table of symmetries, Mach numbers, and reduced frequencies. MKAERO2 Table of symmetries, Mach numbers, and reduced frequencies. PAERO1 * Association between bodies and macroelements. PAERO2 * Body cross-section property definition. 7.5.15. Discipline Dependent Problem Control The following bulk data entries are the controlling entries referenced by Solution Control in selecting specific disciplines and subcases. In each case, many of these inputs can appear in the bulk data packet with the particular input to be used for the subcase referenced in the Solution Control Packet. FLUTTER Basic parameters for flutter analyses. TRIM Flight condition for steady aeroelastic trim analyses. Complex eigenvalue extraction parameters EIGC EIGR * Real eigenvalue extraction parameters. Fast Fourier Transform parameter definition. FFT FREQ * Frequency step definition for frequency response. * Frequency step definition for frequency response. FREQ2* Frequency step definition for frequency response. IC Initial condition definition for direct transient response (same as NASTRAN TIC entry). FREQ1 TABDMP1 TF * TSTEP Modal damping table for modal dynamic response. Dynamic transfer function definition. * VSDAMP Time step definition for transient response Definition of viscous damping based on equivalent structural damping. 7.6. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ASTROS AND NASTRAN BULK DATA Some of the bulk data entries listed in the preceding Section do not exist in the NASTRAN versions that guided the definition of the bulk data entries. Some of them do exist in other NASTRAN systems, however; the DYNRED, JSET, JSET1, PCOMP1, and PCOMP2 entries are examples. Others take the place of the NASTRAN PARAM entry which was felt to have been overused to the point where it had lost all utility. Examples of these inputs are the CONVERT, MFORM and VSDAMP entries. The steady aeroelastic model is completely new to ASTROS since NASTRAN uses the same modeling for both steady and unsteady analysis. Also, it was felt that the NASTRAN mechanism for defining dynamic loads was needlessly complicated. Working from the NASTRAN inputs, a simpler, but equally general set of entries was developed. This resulted in the generation of a number of new entries and the modification of others. The definition of the design variables, design variable linking and the design constraints is, of course, completely new for ASTROS. The majority of the changed entries have been modified to accommodate the design task. In these cases, the bulk data entry is often identical to the NASTRAN version for use in analysis with optional additional fields to specify the design data. The element connectivity and property entries are all examples of this type of change in that additional field(s) have been added to specify the maximum and minimum ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-11 USER’S MANUAL allowable physical design variable value if shape function design variable linking is used. In cases where data from NASTRAN preprocessors are used, there are no changes required unless shape function linking is desired. A more subtle set of changes was required to perform multidisciplinary analysis. In NASTRAN, as was mentioned in the discussion of the Solution Control packet, many parameters were specified as part of the model definition or discipline specification because the code was limited to performing a single analysis of the given discipline. In order to remove these artificial restrictions, these data have been moved to the proper discipline’s subcase definition. Examples of this form of modification are the addition of symmetry options to the MKAEROi, GUST, FLUTTER, and TRIM entries and the removal of subcase dependent data from the AERO entry. Further, the rigid elements, ASETi, OMITi and EPOINT entries were modified to include a set identification number to enable multiple boundary conditions and multiple control systems to be analyzed simultaneously. The last type of modification came about because of the nature of the ASTROS database management system. These were limited to the DMI and DMIG entries for direct loading of database entities. The NASTRAN inputs were not compatible with the ASTROS database and so had to be modified. In fact, these entries, while having the same name as a NASTRAN entry, are completely new entries for ASTROS. A minor additional modification to the input definitions was made for the TABDMP1 entry to make it more compact and to remove the spurious ENDT table termination symbol. In ASTROS, all tabular input entries are terminated when no more data appears and require no specific declaration of the table end. While a seemingly large number of bulk data entries have been changed relative to their NASTRAN counterparts, in fact only a few have been changed in such a way that the NASTRAN version will not work in analysis. By far, the majority of the modeling bulk data entries are completely unchanged except for certain design variable linking options. In unsteady and steady aerodynamic disciplines care must be taken to account for the subcase dependencies that NASTRAN defined implicitly or with PARAM entries. Finally, the use of ASET and OMIT entries will cause minor problems in that ASTROS requires a set identification for these entries. While this latter restriction can require some effort to fix, the gain in capability simply required that the bulk data entry be modified. The most serious potential problem using NASTRAN models in ASTROS is that the set of bulk data entries is more limited in ASTROS than in NASTRAN. The ASTROS system has been developed primarily as a multidisciplinary preliminary design tool and does not yet contain the wide range of options supported by a mature code like NASTRAN. The many NASTRAN input entries supporting these options, therefore, have not been defined to the ASTROS system because they are not supported by any ASTROS code. Thus, there will be instances where a NASTRAN input deck will have to be modified to remove these entries which serve no purpose in ASTROS. The majority of these bulk data entries deal with unsupported elements, plotting options, output options, etc., which are not felt to present a major problem. More important is the support for NASTRAN’s model definitions, most of which have already been adopted by ASTROS. 7-12 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 7.7. BULK DATA DESCRIPTIONS This Section contains a complete description of each of the ASTROS Bulk Data entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-13 USER’S MANUAL This page is intentionally blank. 7-14 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: $ $ Comment Allows commentary text to be inserted into the unsorted echo of the input Bulk Data Deck. The $ entry is otherwise ignored by the program. These entries do not appear in a sorted echo. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 $ Followed by any legitimate characters in columns 2-80 $ THIS (*,,"$$)--/ Remarks: 1. The comment entry may also be used in the Solution Control packet. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-15 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: AERO AERO Aerodynamic Physical Data Gives basic aerodynamic parameters for unsteady aerodynamic disciplines. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 AERO ACSID REFC RHOREF AERO 100 300.0 1.1E-7 Field 5 6 7 8 9 10 Contents ACSID Aerodynamic coordinate system identification (Integer ≥ 0 or Blank). See Remark 2. REFC Reference length (for reduced frequency) (Real ≥ 0). RHOREF Reference density (Real ≥ 0). Remarks: 1. This entry is required for unsteady aerodynamic disciplines. Only one AERO entry is allowed. 2. The ACSID must be a rectangular coordinate system. Flow is in the positive x-direction. If blank, the basic coordinate system is used. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-17 AEROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: AEROS Steady Aero Physical Data Gives basic aerodynamic parameters for the steady aerodynamic discipline. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 REFD REFL AEROS ACSID RCSID REFC REFB REFS GREF AEROS 10 20 10. 100. 1000. 1 Field 10 Contents ACSID Aerodynamic coordinate system identification (Integer > 0) or blank. See Remark 2. RCSID Reference coordinate system identification for rigid body motions. (Integer > 0, or blank) REFC Reference chord length (Real > 0.0) (D = 1.0) REFB Reference span (Real > 0.0) (D = 1.0) REFS Reference wing area (Real > 0.0) (D = 1.0) GREF Reference grid point for stability derivative calculations (Integer > 0). REFD Fuselage reference diameter (Real > 0) or blank (D = 1.0) REFL Fuselage reference length (Real > 0) or blank (D = 1.0) Remarks: 1. This entry is required for static aeroelasticity problems. Only one AEROS entry is allowed. 2. The ACSID must be a rectangular coordinate system. Flow is in the positive x-direction. If ACSID is blank, the Basic Coordinate system is used. 3. The RCSID must be a rectangular coordinate system. All degrees of freedom defining trim variables will be defined in this coordinate system. If RCSID is blank, the Basic Coordinate system is used. 7-18 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS Input Data Entry Description: AESURF Aerodynamic Control Surface Specifies an Aerodynamic Control Surface. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CID FBOXID LBOXID 6010 6030 AESURF LABEL TYPE ACID AESURF ELEV SYM 6000 Field 8 9 10 Contents LABEL Unique alphanumeric string of up to eight characters used to identify the control surface TYPE Surface type (Character) (Remark 2) SYM symmetric surface ANTISYM AIRFOIL USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry AIRFOIL Defines airfoil properties for the static aerodynamic model. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 AIRFOIL CONT Airfoil Definition 3 4 5 6 7 8 ACID CMPNT CP CHORD USO/THK LSO CAM X1 Y1 Z1 X12 IPANEL AIRFOIL 1 WING 1 10 +BC 0.0 0.0 50.0 0.0 Field 20 9 10 RADIUS CONT 30 ABC Contents ACID Associated aircraft component identification number referenced by a matching CAERO6 bulk data entry. (Integer > 0) CMPNT Type of aircraft component (Character) selected from: (See Remark 3) WING FIN CANARD CP Coordinate system for airfoil. (Integer > 0, or blank) (See Remark 4) CHORD Identification number of an AEFACT data entry containing a list of division points (in terms of percent chord) at which airfoil thickness and camber data are specified. (Integer > 0) USO/THK Identification number of an AEFACT data entry defining either the upper surface ordinates in percent chord if LSO is not blank, or the half thicknesses about the camber ordinates if CAM is not blank. (Integer > 0, or blank) (See Remark 3) LSO Identification number of an AEFACT data entry defining the lower surface ordinates in percent chord. Must be used in conjunction with USO. (Integer > 0, or blank) (See Remark 3) CAM Identification number of an AEFACT data entry defining the mean line (camber line) ordinates in percent chord. (Integer) (See Remark 3) RADIUS Radius of leading edge in percent chord. (Real ≥ 0.0) X1,Y1,Z1 Location of the airfoil leading edge in coordinate system CP. (Real, Y1 ≥ 0.0) X12 Airfoil chord length in x-axis coordinate of system CP. (Real > 0 or blank) IPANEL Identification number of an AEFACT data entry containing a list of chord wise cuts in percent chord for wing paneling. (Integer > 0, or blank) Remarks: 1. If the RADIUS field is blank, a round leading edge of radius zero is used. 2. IPANEL is optional and is used when different chord-wise cuts on each end of the panel are desired. 7-20 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL AIRFOIL 3. For WING components, the options for USO, LSO, THK and CAM are: All Blank Default flat plat airfoil generated automatically USO alone Lower and upper surface ordinates of airfoil are defined with effectively LSO=USO internally generated USO/LSO Lower and upper surface ordinates of airfoil are defined; CAM Must be blank THK/CAM Half thicknesses about the camber line are defined. LSO Must be blank USO/LSO/CAM Illegal over-specification of data LSO/CAM Illegal, must use THK field for half thickness CAM alone Illegal under-specification of data For CANARD components, the options are as above except that camber is not allowed so CAM Must be blank All Blank Default flat plat airfoil generated automatically USO alone Lower and upper surface ordinates of airfoil are defined with effectively LSO=USO internally generated USO/LSO Lower and upper surface ordinates of airfoil are defined; CAM Must be blank THK/CAM Illegal specification, CAM must be blank USO/LSO/CAM Illegal over-specification of data LSO/CAM Illegal, CAM must be blank CAM alone Illegal under-specification of data and CAM must be blank for CANARD For FIN components, the options are very limited: only symmetric airfoils are allowed and they must be entered as an upper surface ordinate (the lower surface ordinates are then defaulted) All Blank Default flat plat airfoil generated automatically USO alone Lower and upper surface ordinates of airfoil are defined with effectively LSO=USO internally generated. Only Legal Nonblank Fin Option 4. The basic coordinate system must be used ( CP blank ). This field exists to allow the addition of user defined coordinate systems in the future. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-21 ASET USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: ASET Selected Coordinates for the a-set Defines degrees of freedom that the user desires to place in the analysis set. Used to define the number of independent degrees of freedom. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C ID C ASET SETID ID C ID ASET 16 2 23 3516 Field 9 10 Contents SETID The set identification number of the REDUCE set. (Integer > 0) ID Grid or scalar point identification number (Integer > 0) C Component number, zero or blank for scalar points, any unique combinations of the digits 1 through 6 for grid points. Remarks: 1. When ASET and/or ASET1 entries are present, all degrees of freedom not otherwise constrained will be placed on the o-set. The o-set is a mutually exclusive set. Degrees of freedom may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 2. ASET entries must be selected in Solution Control (REDUCE=SETID) to be used. 7-22 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: ASET1 ASET1 Selected Coordinates for the a-set, Alternate Form Defines degrees of freedom that the user desires to place in the analysis set. Used to define the number of independent degrees of freedom. Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SETID C G G G G G G CONT CONT G G G -etc- ASET1 345 2 1 3 10 9 6 15 ABC 7 8 Alternate Form: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 C ID1 "THRU" ID2 ASET1 +bc ASET1 Field SETI 10 10 Contents SETID The REDUCE set identification number (Integer > 0) C Component number (any unique combination of the digits 1 through 6 with no embedded blanks) when point identification numbers are grid points; must be null or zero if point identification numbers are scalar points. G,ID1,ID2 Grid or scalar point identification numbers (Integer > 0, ID2 > ID1) Remarks: 1. When ASET and/or ASET1 entries are present, all degrees of freedom not otherwise constrained will be placed in the o-set. The o-set is a mutually exclusive set. Degrees of freedom may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 2. If the alternate form is used, all points in the sequence ID1 through ID2 are required to exist. 3. ASET1 entries must be selected in Solution Control (REDUCE=SETID) to be used. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-23 ATTACH USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: ATTACH Defines the aerodynamic control points to be attached to a reference grid for load transfer. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ATTACH EID MACROID BOX1 BOX2 RGRID ATTACH 100 111 111 118 1 Field 8 9 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) MACROID Element identification of a CAEROi or PAEROi element which contains the specified aerodynamic control points (Integer > 0) BOX1,BOX2 Starting and final box whose force is to be transferred to the referenced grid (Integer > 0, BOX2 > BOX1) RGRID Grid point identification of reference grid point (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The EID is used only for error messages. 2. This entry applies to both the steady and unsteady aerodynamic models. 3. The attached aerodynamic boxes are selected as shown below: 111 7-24 THE BULK DATA PACKET 114 117 120 112 115 118 121 116 119 122 113 ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: AXSTA AXSTA Defines body axial station parameters. There is one AXSTA for each axial station at which the surface points are defined. Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ABOD LYRAD LZRAD 10 20 AXSTA BCID XSTA CBOD AXSTA 10 10.00 0.5 Field 8 9 10 Contents BCID Body component identification number (Integer > 0) XSTA Value of the x-ordinate of the body station (Real) CBOD Value of the z-ordinate of the center line at this station. This defines the body camber (Real). ABOD Cross sectional area of the body at this station (Real ≥ 0.0). LYRAD,LZRAD Identification number of an AEFACT data entry containing a list of the y-ordinates (z-ordinates) of the body section. (Integer ≥ 0.0) Remarks: 1. If ABOD is present, the body is assumed to be circular and the radial ordinates are computed at NRAD (cf. the BODY bulk data entry) equal intervals. No LYRAD and LZRAD data are allowed when ABOD is present. 2. If ABOD is blank, LYRAD and LZRAD data must be present. 3. For Pods, CBOD, LYRAD and LZRAD data are not permitted. 4. For the fuselage, XSTA is actual x location; for pods, XSTA is relative to the XLOC value given on the BODY bulk data entry. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-25 BAROR USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: BAROR Simple Beam (BAR) Orientation Default Values Defines default values for fields 3 and 6 - 8 of the CBAR entry. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BAROR PID X1,GO X2 X3 BAROR 39 0.6 2.9 -5.87 Field 9 10 Contents PID Identification number of PBAR property entry (Integer > 0 or blank) Xi Vector components measured in displacement coordinate system at GA to determine (with the vector from end A to end B) the orientation of the element coordinate system for the bar element (Real or blank) GO Grid point identification number (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The contents of fields on this entry are used for any CBAR entry whose corresponding fields are blank. 2. Only one BAROR entry may appear in the Bulk Data Packet. 7-26 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: BODY BODY Defines body configuration parameters for steady aeroelasticity. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 XLOC YLOC ZLOC BODY BCID CMPNT CP NRAD BODY 10 FUSEL 0 3 Field 9 10 Contents BCID Body component identification number (Integer > 0) CMPNT Component type (FUSEL for the fuselage and POD for a pod) CP Coordinate system of the geometry input (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) NRAD Number of equal radial cuts used to define the body (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) XLOC,YLOC, ZLOC Ordinates of the nose of the pod in the CP coordinate system (Real) Remarks: 1. NRAD is input if equally spaced radial cuts are desired. Arbitrary radial cuts are specified using the AXSTA and AEFACT data entries. 2. The geometry given with the XLOC, YLOC, ZLOC entries is used only with POD components. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-27 CAERO1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CAERO1 Defines an aerodynamic macroelement (panel) in terms of two leading edge locations and side chords. This is used for Doublet-Lattice theory. Format and Example: 1 2 CAERO1 +BC CAERO1 +BC Aerodynamic Panel Element Connection 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID PID CP NSPAN NCHORD LSPAN LCHORD IGID X1 Y1 Z1 X12 X4 Y4 Z4 X43 1000 1 2 1 3 10 CONT ABC 0.0 Field Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) PID Identification number of property entry associated bodies CP Coordinate system for locating points 1 and 4 (Integer ≥ 0 or blank) NSPAN Number of span-wise boxes; if a positive value is given NSPAN, equal divisions are assumed; if zero or blank, a list of division points is given at LSPAN (Integer ≥ 0 or blank) NCHORD Number of chord-wise boxes; if a positive value is given NCHORD, equal divisions are assumed; if zero of blank, a list of division points is given at LCHORD (Integer ≥ 0 or blank) LSPAN Identification number of an AEFACT data entry containing a list of division points for span-wise boxes. Used only if NSPAN is zero or blank (Integer ≥ 0 or blank) LCHORD Identification number of an AEFACT data entry containing a list of division points for chord-wise boxes. Used only if NCHORD is zero or blank (Integer ≥ 0 or blank) IGID Interference group identification (aerodynamic elements with different IGIDs are uncoupled) (Integer > 0) X1,Y1,Z1; X4,Y4,Z4 Location of points 1 and 4, in coordinate system CP (Real) X12, X43 Edge chord lengths (in aerodynamic coordinate system) (Real ≥ 0, and not both zero) (Integer > 0, or blank). Used to specify Remarks: 1. The boxes are numbered sequentially, beginning with EID. 2. The continuation entry is required. 3. The number of division points is one greater than the number of boxes. Thus, if NSPAN = 3, the division points are 0.0, 0.333, 0.667, 1.000. If the user supplies division points, the first and last points need not be 0. and 1. (in which the corners to the panel would not be at the reference points). 4. A triangular element is formed if X12 or X43 = 0.0. 7-28 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL CAERO1 5. The element coordinate system (right-handed) is shown in the sketch below. Z elem 1 Y elem 1000 1003 4 1006 1001 1004 1007 1002 2 1005 1008 3 X aero = X elem ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-29 CAERO2 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CAERO2 Unsteady Aerodynamic Body Connection Defines an aerodynamic body for Doublet-Lattice aerodynamics. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID PID CP NSB NINT LSB LINT IGID X1 Y1 Z1 X12 CAERO2 1500 2 100 4 99 +BC -1.0 100 -30 CAERO2 +BC Field 10 CONT 1 ABC 175 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) PID Property identification number (Integer > 0) CP Coordinate system for locating point 1 (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) NSB Grid point identification number of connection points (Integer > 0) NINT Number of interference elements; if a positive number is given, NSB equal divisions are assumed; if zero or blank, see LSB for a list of divisions (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) LSB Identification number of an AEFACT data entry for slender body division points; used only if NSB is zero or blank (Integer ≥ ,0 or blank) LINT Identification number of an AEFACT data entry containing a list of division points for interference elements; used only if NINT is zero or blank (Integer ≥ 0, or blank IGID Interference group identification (aerodynamic elements with different IGID’s are uncoupled) (Integer > 0) X1,Y1,Z1 Location of points 1 and 4, in coordinate system CP (Real) X12 Edge chord lengths (in aerodynamic coordinate system) (Real ≥ 0, and not both zero) Remarks: 1. Point 1 is the leading point of the body. 2. All CAERO1 (panels) and CAERO2 (bodies) in the same group (IGID) will have aerodynamic interaction. 3. At least one interference element is required for each aerodynamic body specified by this entry. 4. Element identification numbers on the aerodynamic bodies must have the following sequence: (A) Panels first (B) Z bodies (see PAERO2 orientation flag) (C) ZY bodies (D) Y bodies 7-30 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CAERO6 CAERO6 Defines an aerodynamic macroelement (panel) for USSAERO. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CP IGRP LCHORD LSPAN 1 20 30 CAERO6 ACID CMPNT CAERO6 1 WING Field 8 9 10 Contents ACID Component identification number (Integer > 0) CMPNT Aircraft component (Character) selected from: WING FIN CANARD CP Coordinate system (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) (See Remark 4) IGRP Group number for this component (Integer > 0) LCHORD Identification number of an AEFACT Bulk Data entry containing a list of division points in percent chord for chord-wise boxes for the aerodynamic surface. If LCHORD is zero, the chord-wise divisions are identified by the IPANEL entry on the AIRFOIL Bulk Data entry (Integer ≥ ,0 or blank) LSPAN Identification number of an AEFACT Bulk Data entry containing a list of division points for spanwise boxes. For WINGs and CANARDs use the y (lateral) dimensional coordinates of the stations, and for FINs, use the z (vertical) dimensional coordinates. If LSPAN is zero or blank, the y/z locations from the AIRFOIL Bulk Data entries for the component ACID are used (Integer ≥ ,0 or blank) Remarks: 1. The IGRP field allows related components to be processed together for interference effects; e.g., one group could be a wing/body/tail combination while a second group could be a pod/fin combination. 2. Note that the chord-wise cuts are in percent while the span-wise cuts require physical coordinates. For span-wise cuts, y-coordinates are input for wings and canards while z-coordinates are input for fins. 3. Only the right half-plane can be modeled in USSAERO. As such, all y-coordinates specified by LSPAN must be positive. 4. The basic coordinate system must be used (CP blank). This field exists for the addition of a user defined coordinate system in the future. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-31 CASELIST USER’S MANUAL CASELIST Input Data Entry: Description: Defines a list of Subcase identification numbers. Format and Example: 1 2 CASELIST CONT CASELIST 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID CASE1 CASE2 CASE3 CASE4 CASE5 CASE6 CASE7 CASE8 CASE9 -etc- 101 1 THRU 6 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CASE1 THRU CASE2 Alternate Form: 1 2 CASELIST SID Field 10 CONT 10 Contents SID Subcase set identification number (Integer > 0) CASEi Subcase identification number (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. CASELIST Bulk Data entries are selected in the Function Packet. 2. Refer to the Solution Control discipline commands for details on assigning subcase identification numbers. 7-32 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: CBAR CBAR Simple Beam Element Connection Defines a simple beam element (BAR) of the structural model. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CBAR EID PID GA GB X1,GO X2 X3 TMAX CONT PA PB W1A W2A W3A W1B W2B W3B CBAR 2 39 7 3 13 +23 10 CONT 123 Field Contents EID Unique element identification number (Integer > 0). PID Identification number of a PBAR property entry (Default is EID unless BAROR entry has nonzero entry in Field 3) (Integer > 0) GA,GB Grid point identification numbers of connection points (Integer > 0). Xi Components of vector {v}, at end A, measured at end A, parallel to the components of the displacement coordinate system for GA, to determine (with the vector from end A to end B) the orientation of the element coordinate system for the BAR element (Real) GO Grid point identification number to optionally supply Xi (Integer > 0). Direction of orientation vector is GA to GO TMAX Maximum allowable cross-sectional area in design (Real > 0.0, or blank). Default = 104. PA,PB Pin flags for bar ends A and B, respectively (up to 5 of the unique digits 1 through 6 anywhere in the fields with no embedded blanks; Integer > 0 or blank). Used to remove connections between the grid point and selected degrees of freedom of the bar. The degrees of freedom are defined in the element’s coordinate system. The bar must have stiffness associated with the pin flag. For example, if PA=4 is specified, the PBAR entry must have a value for J, the torsional stiffness. W1A,W2A,W3A W1B,W2B,W3B Components of offset vectors wa and wb, respectively, in displacement coordinate systems at points GA and GB, respectively (Real or blank). ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-33 CBAR USER’S MANUAL Remarks: 1. The element coordinate system is shown in the following figure: Ze Plane 2 End A WA Plane 1 Ye V WB End B GIDO GID1 GID2 Xe 2. If there are no pin flags or offsets, the continuation entry may be omitted. 3. The TMAX value is used only for shape function design variable linking. 4. See the BAROR entry for default options for Fields 3 and 6 through 8. 7-34 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CELAS1 CELAS1 Defines a scalar spring element of the structural model Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 G1 C1 G2 C2 TMAX 8 1 CELAS1 EID PID CELAS1 2 6 Field Scalar Spring Connection 9 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) PID Identification number of a PELAS property entry (Default is EID) (Integer > 0) Gi Geometric grid point identification number (Integer ≥ 0) Ci Component number (6 ≥ Integer ≥ 0) TMAX Maximum value for design (Real, Default = 1.0 E4) Remarks: 1. Scalar points may be used for G1 and/or G2 in which case the corresponding C1 and/or C2 must be zero or blank. Zero or blank may be used to indicate a grounded terminal G1 or G2 with a corresponding blank or zero C1 or C2. A grounded terminal is a point whose displacement is constrained to zero. 2. The two connection points (G1, C1) and (G2, C2) must be distinct. 3. TMAX is ignored unless the element is designed using shape function linking. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-35 CELAS2 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CELAS2 Defines a scalar spring element of the structural model without reference to a property entry. Format and Example: 1 2 CELAS2 CONT CELAS2 Scalar Spring Property and Connection 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID K G1 C1 G2 C2 GE S TMIN TMAX 28 6.2+3 19 4 Field 32 10 CONT Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) K The value of the scalar spring (Real > 0.0) Gi Geometric grid point identification number (Integer ≥ 0) Ci Component number (6 ≥ Integer ≥ 0) GE Damping coefficient (Real ≥ 0.0) S Stress coefficient (Real ≥ 0.0) TMIN,TMAX Minimum and maximum values for design (Real) Remarks: 1. Scalar points may be used for G1 and/or G2 in which case the corresponding C1 and/or C2 must be zero or blank. Zero or blank may be used to indicate a grounded terminal G1 or G2 with a corresponding blank or zero C1 or C2. A grounded terminal is a point whose displacement is constrained to zero. 2. This single entry completely defines the element since no material or geometric properties are required. 3. The two connection points (G1, C1) and (G2, C2) must be distinct. 4. The TMIN and TMAX values are ignored unless shape function design variable linking is used. 7-36 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CIHEX1 CIHEX1 Defines a linear isoparametric hexahedron element of the structural model. Format and Example: 1 2 CIHEX1 CONT CIHEX1 +BC Linear Isoparametric Hexahedron Element Connection 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID PID G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 CONT G7 G8 137 5 3 8 5 4 9 14 ABC 88 602 Field 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0). PID Identification number of a PIHEX property entry (Integer > 0). (Default is EID) Gi Grid point identification numbers of connection points (Integer > 0, G1 ≠ G2 ≠...G8). Remarks: 1. Grid points G1, G2, G3, and G4 must be given in counterclockwise order about one quadrilateral face when viewed from within the element. Grid points G5, G6, G7, and G8 must also be given in counterclockwise order, and G1 and G5 must be along the same edge as shown in the figure below: G7 G6 G8 G5 G3 G2 G4 G1 2. There is no nonstructural mass. 3. The quadrilateral faces need not be planar. 4. Stresses are given in the basic coordinate system. 5. The continuation is required. 6. No physical property in this element can be used as a local design variable for automated design. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-37 CIHEX2 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CIHEX2 Quadratic Isoparametric Hexahedron Element Connection Defines a quadratic isoparametric hexahedron element of the structural model. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID PID G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 CONT CONT G7 G8 G9 G10 G11 G12 G13 G14 CONT CONT G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 G20 CIHEX1 110 7 3 8 12 13 14 9 ABC +BC 5 4 16 19 20 17 23 27 DEF +EF 31 32 33 28 25 24 CIHEX1 Field 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) PID Identification number of a PIHEX property entry (Integer > 0) (Default is EID) Gi Grid point identification numbers of connection points (Integer > 0, G1 ≠ G2 ≠ ....≠ G20). Remarks: 1. Grid points G1,...,G8 must be given in counterclockwise order about one quadrilateral face when viewed from within the element. G9,...,G12 and G13,...,G20 must also be in a counterclockwise direction with G1, G9 and G13 along the same edge as shown in the figure below: G16 G17 G18 G15 G14 G19 G20 G13 G10 G11 G12 G3 G5 G4 G9 G2 G6 G7 G8 G1 2. There is no nonstructural mass. 3. The quadrilateral faces need not be planar. 4. Stresses are given in the basic coordinate system. 5. The continuations are required. 6. No physical property in this element can be used as a local design variable for automated design. 7-38 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS CIHEX3 Input Data Entry: Description: Cubic Isoparametric Hexahedron Element Connection Defines a cubic isoparametric hexahedron element of the structural model. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID PID G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 CONT CONT G7 G8 G9 G10 G11 G12 G13 G14 CONT CONT G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 G20 G21 G22 CONT CONT G23 G24 G25 G26 G27 G28 G29 G30 CONT CONT G31 G32 CIHEX1 15 3 4 9 12 17 18 19 ABC +BC 20 13 10 7 6 5 22 25 DEF +EF 31 32 33 28 25 24 108 214 GHI +HI 106 213 413 95 67 40 45 90 +KL +KL 38 37 CIHEX1 Field 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0). PID Identification number of a PIHEX property entry (Integer > 0) (Default is EID) Gi Grid point identification number of connection points (Integer > 0, G1 ≠ G2 ≠ ... ≠ G32). G7 G15 G19 G27 G8 G9 G26 G10 G25 G18 G4 G3 G12 G24 G14 G23 G2 G22 G1 G13 G17 G21 CIHEX3 USER’S MANUAL Remarks: 1. Grid points G1,...,G12 must be given in counterclockwise order about one quadrilateral face when viewed from inside the element. G13,...,G16; G17,...,G20; and G21,..., G32 must also be in a counterclockwise direction with G1, G13, G17, and G21 along the same edge as shown in the previous figure. 2. There is no nonstructural mass. 3. The quadrilateral faces need not be planar. 4. Stresses are given in the basic coordinate system. 5. The continuations are required. 6. No physical property in this element can be used as a local design for automated design. 7-40 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CMASS1 CMASS1 Scalar Mass Connection Defines a scalar mass element of the structural model. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 G2 C2 TMAX CMASS1 EID PID G1 C1 CMASS1 32 6 2 1 Field 9 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) PID Identification number of a PMASS property entry (Default is EID) (Integer > 0) Gi Geometric grid point identification number (Integer > 0) Ci Component number (6 ≥ Integer ≥ 0) TMAX The maximum mass value allowed in design (Real, Default = 104) Remarks: 1. Scalar points may be used for G1 and/or G2 in which case the corresponding C1 and/or C2 must be zero or blank. Zero or blank may be used to indicate a grounded terminal G1 or G2 with a corresponding blank or zero C1 or C2. A grounded terminal is a point whose displacement is constrained to zero. 2. The two connection points (G1, C1) and (G2, C2), must be distinct. Except in unusual circumstances, one of them will be a grounded terminal with blank entries for G and C. 3. The TMAX value is used only for shape function design variable linking. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-41 CMASS2 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CMASS2 Scalar Mass Property and Connection Defines a scalar mass element of the structural model without reference to a property entry. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 G2 C2 TMIN TMAX CMASS2 EID M G1 C1 CMASS2 32 9.25 6 1 Field 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) M The value of the scalar mass (Real) Gi Geometric grid point identification number (Integer > 0) Ci Component number 6 ≥ Integer ≥ 0) TMIN,TMAX The minimum and maximum mass values in design (Real) Remarks: 1. Scalar points may be used for G1 and/or G2 in which case the corresponding C1 and/or C2 must be zero or blank. Zero or blank may be used to indicate a grounded terminal G1 or G2 with a corresponding blank or zero C1 or C2. A grounded terminal is a point whose displacement is constrained to zero. 2. This single entry completely defines the element since no material or geometric properties are required. 3. The two connection points (G1, C1) and (G2, C2), must be distinct. Except in unusual circumstances, one of them will be a grounded terminal with blank entries for G and C. 4. The TMIN and TMAX values are used only for shape function design variable linking. 7-42 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: CONEFFF CONEFFF Flutter aerodynamic control effectiveness data Defines adjustment factors of control surface effectiveness values for use in flutter analysis. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CONEFFF EFFID EFF MODE MACROID BOX1 BOX2 CONEFFF 10 0.60 6 1001 1007 1021 Field 8 9 10 Contents EFFID Effectiveness identification number (Integer > 0) EFF Effectiveness value (Real) MODE Structural mode to which the effectiveness is to be applied (Integer > 0) MACROID Aerodynamic component (macroelement) on which the control surface lies BOX1, BOX2 First and last box whose effectiveness is to be altered (Integer > 0, BOX2 > BOX1) Remarks: 1. The EFFID is referenced by the FLUTTER bulk data entry. 2. The EFFID need not be unique. 3. The pressures for the referenced mode and all the referenced boxes will be modified by the EFF parameter. For example, EFF = 0.60 indicates a 40 percent reduction in the effectiveness for the affected boxes. 4. Refer to the SPLINE1 bulk data entry for the interpretation of BOX1 and BOX2. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-43 CONEFFS USER’S MANUAL CONEFFS Input Data Entry: Description: Static aerodynamic control effectiveness data Defines adjustment factors for control surface effectiveness values for use in static aeroelastic analysis and nonplanar aerodynamic analysis. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 LABEL2 EFF2 LABEL3 EFF3 INBORD 0.55 CONEFFS EFFID LABEL1 EFF1 CONT LABEL4 EFF4 -etc- 10 AIL1 0.65 CONEFFS Field 9 10 CONT Contents EFFID A unique identification number identifying the set LABELi A unique alphanumeric string of up to eight characters to identify a control surface defined by an AESURF entry EFFi Effectiveness value for the associated surface (Real) Remarks: 1. The set identification number is referenced by the TRIM bulk data entry. 2. All aerodynamic forces created by the control surface will be reduced to the reference amount. For example, EFF1 = 0.70 indicates a 30 percent reduction in the forces. 7-44 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL CONLINK CONLINK Input Data Entry: Description: Linked Control Surfaces Causes control surfaces to vary in a prescribed fashion relative to one another. Format and Example: 1 2 CONLINK LABEL CONT LABEL4 CONLINK ROLL1 3 VAL4 4 5 6 7 8 9 LABEL1 VAL1 LABEL2 VAL2 LABEL3 VAL3 1.0 LEFLAP 1.0 10 CONT -etcAIL Field Contents LABEL A unique alphanumeric string of up to eight characters to identify the control surface taht is composed of other control surfaces. LABELi A unique alphanumeric string of up to eight characters to identify a control surface defined by an AESURF entry VALi Participation factor (Real) Remarks: 1. All of the LABEL surfaces must be of the same TYPE, e.g. SYM. See the AESURF entry for additional information. 2. An arbitrary number of entries are allowed. 3. The CONLINK entry may not reference the LABEL of another CONLINK entry. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-45 CONM1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CONM1 Concentrated Mass Element Connection, General Form Defines a 6 x 6 symmetric matrix at a geometric grid point of the structural model. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CONM1 EID G CID M11 M21 M22 M31 M32 CONT CONT M33 M41 M42 M43 M44 M51 M52 M53 CONT CONT M54 M55 M61 M62 M63 M64 M65 M66 CONM1 2 22 2 2.9 6.3 +1 +1 +2 4.8 +1 28.6 28.6 Field +2 28.6 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0). G Grid point identification number (Integer > 0). CID Coordinate system identification number for the mass matrix (Integer ≥ 0 or blank) Mij Mass matrix values (Real). Remarks: 1. For a less general means of defining concentrated mass at grid points, see CONM2. 2. No physical property in this element can be used as a local design variable for automated design. 7-46 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CONM2 CONM2 Concentrated Mass Element Connection, Rigid Body Form Defines a concentrated mass at a grid point of the structural model. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CONM2 EID G CID M X1 X2 X3 CONT I11 I21 I22 I31 I32 I33 TMIN CONM2 2 15 6 49.7 +23 16.2 16.2 Field 9 10 CONT TMAX 123 7.8 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0). G Grid point identification number (Integer > 0). CID Coordinate system identification number (Integer ≥ -1). A CID of –1 (integer) allows the user to input Xi as the center of gravity location in the basic coordinate system. A CID of 0 implies the basic coordinate system M Mass value (Real). Xi Offset distances from the grid point to the center of gravity of the mass in the coordinate system defined in Field 4, unless CID = –1, in which case Xi are the coordinates of the center of gravity of the mass in the basic coordinate system (Real). Iij Mass moments of inertia measured at the mass c.g., in coordinate system defined by Field 4 (Real). If CID = –1, the basic coordinate system is implied. TMIN,TMAX The minimum and maximum mass values for design (Real) Remarks: 1. The continuation entry may be omitted. 2. If CID = –1, offsets are internally computed as the difference between the grid point location and Xi. The grid point locations may be defined in a nonbasic coordinate system. In this case, the values of Iij must be in a coordinate system that parallels the basic coordinate system. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-47 CONM2 USER’S MANUAL 3. The form of the inertia matrix about its c.g. is taken as: M M SYM M M = I 11 −I21 I 22 −I31 −I 32 I 33 where: M= ∫ ρ dv I11 = ∫ ρ ( x 22 + x 23 ) dv I22 = ∫ ρ ( x 21 + x 23 ) dv I33 = ∫ ρ ( x 21 + x 22 ) dv I21 = ∫ ρ x 1 x 2 dv I31 = ∫ ρ x 1 x 3 dv I32 = ∫ ρ x 2 x 3 dv and x1, x2, x3 are components of distance from the center of gravity in the coordinate system defined in Field 4. The negative signs for the off-diagonal terms are supplied by the program. A warning message is issued if the inertia matrix is non-positive definite, as this may cause fatal errors in dynamic analysis modules. 4. For design, the mass moments of inertia must be zero. 5. The TMIN and TMAX values are used only for shape function design variable linking. 7-48 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CONROD CONROD Defines a rod element of the structural model without reference to a property entry. Format and Example: 1 2 CONROD CONT CONROD Rod Element Property and Connection 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID G1 G2 MID A J C NSM TMIN TMAX 2 16 17 23 2.69 Field 10 CONT Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0). G1,G2 Grid point identification numbers of connection points (Integer > 0) MID Material identification number (Integer > 0). A Area of rod (Real ≥ 0.0 ). J Torsional constant (Real ≥ 0.0 ). C Coefficient for torsional stress determination (Real). NSM Nonstructural mass per unit length (Real). TMIN,TMAX Minimum and maximum allowable cross-sectional areas in design (Real > 0.0, or blank) Remarks: 1. For structural problems, CONROD entries may only reference MAT1 material entries. 2. The continuation entry is optional. 3. TMAX and TMIN are ignored unless element is linked to global design variable through a SHAPE entry. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-49 CONVERT USER’S MANUAL CONVERT Input Data Entry: Description: Defines conversion factors for various physical quantities. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 QUANT1 FACTOR QUANT2 FACTOR QUANT5 FACTOR QUANT4 CONT QUANT FACTOR QUANT FACTOR -etc- CONVERT MASS 0.00259 CONVERT Field QUANTi 9 10 FACTOR CONT Contents A character string identifying the physical quantity to be converted = MASS, or VELOCITY FACTOR The conversion factor (Real ≠ 0.0) Remarks: 1. Any number of valid quantity-factor combinations can be entered on a single entry. 2. Only MASS and VELOCITY are currently valid quantity entries. 3. Input mass values will be multiplied by the input factor. Input velocities will be multiplied by the factor. 7-50 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CORD1C CORD1C Cylindrical Coordinate System Definition, Form 1 Defines a cylindrical coordinate system by reference to three grid points. These points must be defined in coordinate systems whose definition does not involve the coordinate system being defined. The first point is the origin, the second lies on the z-axis, and the third lies in the plane of the azimuthal origin. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CID G1 G2 G3 CORD1C CID G1 G2 G3 CORD1C 3 16 32 19 Field 10 Contents CID Coordinate system identification number (Integer > 0) Gi Grid point identification number (Integer > 0; G1 ≠ G2 ≠ G3). z G2 uz uθ G3 P ur G1 Z x θ R y Remarks: 1. Coordinate system identification numbers on all CORD1R, CORD1C, CORD1S, CORD2R, CORD2C, and CORD2S entries must be unique. 2. The three points G1, G2, and G3 must be noncollinear. 3. The location of a grid point (P in the sketch) in this coordinate system is given by (R, θ, Z) where θ is measured in degrees. 4. The displacement coordinate directions at P are dependent on the location of P as shown above by (ur, uθ, uz, ). 5. Points on the z-axis may not have their displacement directions defined in this coordinate system since an ambiguity results. 6. One or two coordinate systems may be defined on a single entry. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-51 CORD1R USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CORD1R Rectangular Coordinate System Definition, Form 1 Defines a rectangular coordinate system by reference to three grid points. These points must be defined in coordinate systems whose definition does not involve the coordinate systems defined. The first point is the origin, the second lies on the z-axis, and the third lies in the x-z plane. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CID G1 G2 G3 CORD1R CID G1 G2 G3 CORD1R 3 16 32 19 Field 10 Contents CID Coordinate system identification number (Integer > 0) Gi Grid point identification number (Integer > 0; G1 ≠ G2 ≠ G3). z G2 uZ ux G3 P uY G1 Z x Y X y Remarks: 1. Coordinate system identification numbers on all CORD1R, CORD1C, CORD1S, CORD2R, CORD2C, and CORD2S entries must be unique. 2. The three points G1, G2, and G3 must be noncollinear. 3. The location of a grid point (P in the sketch) in this coordinate system is given by (X, Y, Z). 4. The displacement coordinate directions at P are shown above by (ux, uy, uz) 5. One or two coordinate systems may be defined on a single entry. 7-52 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CORD1S CORD1S Spherical Coordinate System Definition, Form 1 Defines a spherical coordinate system by reference to three grid points. These points must be defined in coordinate systems whose definition does not involve the coordinate systems defined. The first point is the origin, the second lies on the z-axis, and the third lies in the plane of the azimuthal origin. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CID G1 G2 G3 CORD1S CID G1 G2 G3 CORD1S 3 16 32 19 Field 10 Contents CID Coordinate system identification number (Integer > 0) Gi Grid point identification number (Integer > 0; G1 ≠ G2 ≠ G3). z G2 θ G3 x G1 R ur P uφ uθ φ y Remarks: 1. Coordinate system identification numbers on all CORD1R, CORD1C, CORD1S, CORD2R, CORD2C, and CORD2S entries must be unique. 2. The three points G1, G2, and G3 must be noncollinear. 3. The location of a grid point (P in the sketch) in this coordinate system is given by (R, θ, φ) where θ and ϕ are measured in degrees. 4. The displacement coordinate directions at P are dependent on the locations of P as shown above by (ur, uθ, uϕ). 5. Points in the polar axis may not have their displacement direction defined in this coordinate system since an ambiguity results. 6. One or two coordinate systems may be defined on a single entry. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-53 CORD2C USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CORD2C Cylindrical Coordinate System Definition, Form 2 Defines a cylindrical coordinate system by reference to the coordinates of three grid points. The first point defines the origin. The second point defines the direction of the z-axis. The third lies in the plane of the azimuthal origin. The reference coordinate system must be independently defined. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CID RID A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 CONT CONT C1 C2 C3 CORD2C 3 17 -2.9 1.0 0.0 3.6 0.0 1.0 123 5.2 1.0 -2.9 CORD2C +23 Field 10 Contents CID Coordinate system identification number (Integer > 0) RID Reference to a coordinate system which is defined independently of new coordinate system (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) Ai,Bi,Ci Coordinates of three points in coordinate system defined by RID (Real) z B uz uθ P C ur A Z x θ R y Remarks: 1. Continuation entry must be present. 2. The three points (A1, A2, A3), (B1, B2, B3), (C1, C2, C3) must be unique and noncollinear, Noncollinearity is checked by the geometry processor. 3. Coordinate system identification numbers on all CORD1R, CORD1C, CORD1S, CORD2R, CORD2C, and CORD2S entries must all be unique. 7-54 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL CORD2C 4. An RID of zero references the basic ordinate system. 5. The location of a grid point (P in the sketch) in this coordinate is given by (R, θ, Z) where θ is measured in degrees. 6. The displacement coordinate directions at P are dependent on the location of P as shown above by (ur, uθ, uz). 7. Points on the z-axis may not have their displacement direction defined in this coordinate system since an ambiguity results. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-55 CORD2R USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CORD2R Rectangular Coordinate System Definition, Form 2 Defines a rectangular coordinate system by reference to coordinates of three points. The first point defines the origin. The second defines the direction of the z-axis. The third point defines a vector which, with the z-axis, defines the x-z plane. The reference coordinate system must be independently defined. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CID RID A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 CONT CONT C1 C2 C3 CORD2R 3 17 -2.9 1.0 0.0 3.6 0.0 1.0 123 5.2 1.O -2.9 CORD2R +23 Field 10 Contents CID Coordinate system identification number (Integer > 0) RID Reference to a coordinate system which is defined independently of new coordinate system (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) Ai,Bi,Ci Coordinates of three points in coordinate system defined by RID (Real) z B uZ ux C P uY A Z Y x y X Remarks: 1. The continuation entry must be present. 2. The three points (A1, A2, A3), (B1, B2, B3), (C1, C2, C3) must be unique and noncollinear. Noncollinearity is checked by the geometry processor. 3. Coordinate system identification numbers on all CORD1R, CORD1C, CORD1S, CORD2R, CORD2C, and CORD2S entries must all be unique. 4. An RID of zero references the basic coordinate system. 5. The location of a grid point (P in the sketch) in this coordinate system is given by (X, Y, Z) 6. The displacement coordinate directions at P are shown by (ux, uy, uz) 7-56 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CORD2S CORD2S Spherical Coordinate System Definition, Form 2 Defines a spherical coordinate system by reference to the coordinates of three points. The first point defines the origin. The second point defines the direction of the z-axis. The third lies in the plane of the azimuthal origin. The reference coordinate system must be independently defined. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CID RID A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 CONT CONT C1 C2 C3 CORD2S 3 17 -2.9 1.0 0.0 3.6 0.0 1.0 123 5.2 1.0 -2.9 CORD2S +23 Field 10 Contents CID Coordinate system identification number (Integer > 0) RID Reference to a coordinate system which is defined independently of of new coordinate system (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) Ai,Bi,Ci Coordinates of three points in coordinate system defined by RID (Real) z B θ C A x R φ ur P uφ uθ y Remarks: 1. The continuation entry must be present. 2. The three points (A1, A2, A3), (B1, B2, B3), (C1, C2, C3) must be unique and noncollinear. 3. Coordinate system identification numbers on all CORD1R, CORD1C, CORD1S, CORD2R, CORD2C and CORD2S entries must all be unique. 4. An RID of zero references the basic coordinate system. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-57 CORD2S USER’S MANUAL 5. The location of a grid point (P in the sketch) in this coordinate system is given by (R, θ, ϕ) where θ, and ϕ are measured in degrees. 6. The displacement coordinate directions at P are shown above by (ur, uθ, uϕ). 7. Points on the polar axis may not have their displacement directions defined in this coordinate system since an ambiguity results. 7-58 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CQDMEM1 CQDMEM1 Isoparametric Quadrilateral Element Connection Defines the isoparametric quadrilateral membrane element. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TMAX CQDMEM1 EID PID G1 G2 G3 G4 TM CQDMEM1 72 13 13 14 15 16 29.2 Field 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0). PID Identification number of a PQDMEM1 or PCOMP property entry (Default is EID) (Integer > 0). Gi Grid point identification numbers of connection points (Integer > 0) TM Material property orientation angle. If TM is real, the sketch below gives the sign convention for TM. If TM is an integer, the material x-axis is along the projection onto the plane of the element of the x-axis of coordinate system identified by the integer. TMAX Maximum allowable element thickness in design (Real > 0.0 or blank). (Default=104) Remarks: 1. Grid points G1 through G4 must be ordered consecutively around the perimeter of the element as shown in the figure below. Ye G3 Xm G4 TM Xe G2 G1 2. All interior angles must be less than 180°. 3. TMAX is ignored unless element is linked to global design variable by a SHAPE entry. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-59 CQUAD4 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CQUAD4 Quadrilateral plate element (QUAD4) of the structural model. This is an isoparametric membrane-bending element. Format and Example: 1 2 CQUAD4 EID CONT CQUAD4 Quadrilateral Element Connection 101 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PID G1 G2 G3 G4 TM ZOFF CONT TMAX T1 T2 T3 T4 17 1001 1005 1010 1024 45.0 0.01 ABC 0.03 0.125 0.05 0.04 +BC Field 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) PID Identification number of a PSHELL or PCOMPi entry (Default is EID) (Integer > 0). Gi Grid point identification numbers of connection points (Integer > 0). TM Material property orientation specification (Real or blank; or 0 ≤ Integer < 1,000,000). If Real or blank, specifies the material property orientation angle in degrees. If Integer, the orientation of the material x-axis is along the projection onto the plane of the element of the x-axis of the coordinate system specified by the integer value. ZOFF Offset of the element reference plane from the plane of grid points. A positive value means the +ze direction. (Real or blank, see Remark 2 for default). TMAX Maximum allowable element thickness in design (Real > 0.0). Ti Membrane thickness of element at grid points Gi (Real or blank, see Remark 3 for default). Remarks: 1. The QUAD4 geometry, coordinate systems and numbering are shown in the figure below: Ye G3 Xm G4 TM Xe G2 G1 7-60 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL CQUAD4 2. The material coordinate system (TM) and the offset (ZOFF) may also be provided on the PSHELL entry. The property data will be used if the corresponding field on the CQUAD4 entry is blank. The element reference plane is located at the mid-thickness of the element parallel to the element mean plane. 3. The Ti are optional, if not supplied they will be set to the value of T specified on the PSHELL entry. In such cases, the continuation entry is not required. 4. TMAX is ignored unless the element is linked to the global design variables by a SHAPE entry. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-61 CROD USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CROD Rod Element Connection Defines a tension-compression-torsion element (ROD) of the structural model. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 TMAX CROD EID PID G1 G2 CROD 12 13 21 23 Field 7 8 9 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0). PID Identification number of a PROD property entry (Default is EID) (Integer > 0). Gi Grid point identification numbers of connection points (Integer > 0) TMAX Maximum allowable rod area in design (Real > 0.0 or blank) Remarks: 1. See CONROD for alternative method of rod definition. 2. Only one ROD element may be defined on a single entry. 3. TMAX is ignored unless the element is linked to global design variables by a SHAPE entry. 7-62 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS CTRIA3 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CTRIA3 Defines a triangular shell element (TRIA3) of the structural model. Format and Example: 1 2 CTRIA3 EID CONT CTRIA3 Triangular Element Connection 101 3 4 5 6 7 8 PID G1 G2 G3 TM ZOFF CONT TMAX T1 T2 T3 17 1001 1005 1010 45.0 0.01 ABC 0.03 0.125 0.05 +BC Field 9 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) PID Identification number of a PSHELL or PCOMPi property entry (Default is EID) (Integer > 0). Gi Grid point identification numbers of connection points (Integer > 0). TM Material property orientation specification (Real or blank; or 0 ≤ Integer < 1,000,000). If Real or blank, specifies the material property orientation angle in degrees. If Integer, the orientation of the material x-axis is along the projection onto the plane of the element of the x-axis of the coordinate system specified by the integer value. ZOFF Offset of the element reference plane from the plane of grid points. A positive value means the +ze direction. (Real or blank, see Remark 2 for default). TMAX Maximum allowable element thickness in design (Real > 0.0) (Default = 104) Ti Membrane thickness of element at grid points Gi (Real or blank, see Remark 3 for default). Remarks: 1. The TRIA3 geometry, coordinate systems and numbering are shown in the figure below: Ye G3 Xm TM Xe G2 G1 7-64 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL CTRIA3 2. The material coordinate system (TM) and the offset (ZOFF) may also be provided on the PSHELL entry. The property data will be used if the corresponding field on the CTRIA3 entry is blank. The element reference plane is located at the mid-thickness of the element parallel to the element mean plane. 3. The Ti are optional, if not supplied they will be set to the value of T specified on the PSHELL entry. In such cases, the continuation entry is not required. 4. TMAX is ignored unless the element is linked to the global design variables by a SHAPE entry. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-65 CTRMEM USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: CTRMEM Defines a triangular membrane element. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TM TMAX CTRMEM EID PID G1 G2 G3 CTRMEM 100 500 1 7 12 Field 9 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0). PID Identification of PTRMEM or PCOMP entry (Integer > 0) Default = EID. Gi Grid point identifications of connection points (Integer > 0). TM Material orientation angle (Real) or 0 < Integer < 1,000,000. If integer, then material x-axis lies along the projection onto the plane of the element of the x-axis of coordinate system identified by the integer. TMAX Maximum allowable thickness in design. (Real ≥ 0., Default = 104) Remarks: 1. The TMAX value is used only for shape function design variable linking. 7-66 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: DCONALE DCONALE Defines an aileron effectiveness constraint of the form: AE ≤ AEREQ (upper bound) or AE ≥ AEREQ (lower bound) where, AE = – C lδa C l pb 2v Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 DCONALE SID LABEL CTYPE AEREQ DCONALE 25 OUTBDAIL LOWER 0.4 6 7 8 9 10 Field Contents SID Aerodynamic set identification for the imposed constraint (Integer > 0) LABEL A string of up to eight characters to identify the AESURF or CONLINK control surface. LABELs must be unique. CTYPE Constraint type: either UPPER for upper bound or LOWER for lower bound (Character, Default = LOWER) AEREQ Required aileron effectiveness (Real ≠ 0.0) Remarks: 1. This constraint constraint will only be applied if selected by the Solution Control discipline option DCON=SID and if an antisymmetric aeroelastic trim analysis is being performed. 2. A LOWER bound constraint excludes all values to the left of AEREQ on a real number line, while an UPPER bound constraint excludes all values to the right, irrespective of the sign of AEREQ. 3. The effectiveness in roll of multiple control surfaces may be specified using multiple DCONALE entries with one constraint generated for each LABEL/CTYPE combination. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-67 DCONBK USER’S MANUAL DCONBK Input Data Entry: Description: Buckling Constraint Definition Defines a local panel buckling constraint of the form: λREQ Lower Bound: g lower = λ 1⁄ 3 − 1.0 ≤ 0.0 for λ ≥ λREQ or: λREQ Upper Bound: g upper = 1.0 − λ Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 WIDTH DCONBK SID ETYPE EID LENGTH DCONBK 25 QUAD4 101 1.5 Field 1⁄ 3 ≤ 0.0 for λ < λREQ 7 8 9 CTYPE λREQ LOWER 3.65 10 Contents SID Plate buckling panel constraint set identification. (Integer > 0) ETYPE Plate buckling control element type. May be QUAD4 or TRIA3 (Character) EID Element identification number. (Integer > 0) LENGTH Plate buckling panel length in consistant length units. (Real > 0.0 or blank) (See Remark 3) WIDTH Plate buckling panel width in consistant length units. (Real > 0.0 or blank) (See Remark 3) CTYPE Constraint type: either LOWER for lower bound or UPPER for upper bound. (Character) λREQ Buckling eigenvalue limit. (Real, Default = 1.0) Remarks: 1. Buckling constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: Y DCON = sid G3 2. The buckling control element (which must be a designed element) supplies the running loads Nx, Ny and Nxy and material properties to the rectangular pseudo-panel of dimension LENGTH x WIDTH. 3. If LENGTH or WIDTH are omitted, the corresponding value will be computed from the rectangle that circumscribes the control element. LENGTH is defined as the side most closely associated with the element x-axis as shown in the adjoining figure. 7-68 THE BULK DATA PACKET WIDTH G4 ex ey G2 G1 LENGTH X ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONBKE DCONBKE Input Data Entry: Description: Euler Buckling Constraint Definition Defines an Euler buckling constraint of the form: λREQ Lower Bound: g lower = − 1.0 ≤ 0.0 for λ ≥ λREQ λ or: λREQ Upper Bound: g upper = 1.0 − ≤ 0.0 for λ < λREQ λ Format and Example: 1 2 DCONBKE CONT DCONBKE 3 4 5 6 7 8 SID ETYPE EID LENGTH BCTYPE CTYPE λREQ RSQR ALPHA 25 BAR 101 1.5 FIX-FIX LOWER 3.65 Field 9 10 CONT Contents SID Euler buckling constraint set identification. (Integer > 0) ETYPE Euler buckling control element type (Character) selected from: BAR ROD EID Control element identification number. (Integer > 0) LENGTH Rod buckling length in consistant length units. (Real > 0.0 or blank) (See Remark 2) BCTYPE Boundary conditions for control element. (Character) (See Remark 3) CTYPE Constraint type: either LOWER for lower bound or UPPER for upper bound. (Character) λREQ Buckling constraint value. (Real, Default = 1.0) RSQR ALPHA Parameters which define inertia linking when ETYPE is the ROD element. (Real or blank) (See Remark 4) Remarks: 1. Buckling constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: DCON = sid 2. If the LENGTH is omitted, the corresponding value will be computed from the length of the control element. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-69 DCONBKE USER’S MANUAL 3. The boundary condition types are defined in the following table: Boundary Condition BCTYPE PIN-PIN Pin connected at both ends. PIN-FIX Pinned at one end, fixed at the other. FIX-FIX Fixed at both ends. A free column: one end fixed, the other free. FREE-COL Only PIN-PIN may be used for a ROD element, while all types may apply to the BAR. 4. The inertia is computed from the relation: I = RSQR × AREAALPHA where AREA is the area of the control element. If not specified, a solid circular cross-section is assumed. 7-70 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: DCONCLA DCONCLA Defines a flexible lift curve slope constraint of the form: CLA ≤ CLAREQ or CLA ≥ CLAREQ where, CLA = Format and Example: 1 2 (C l α)f (C l α)r 3 4 DCONCLA SID CTYPE CLAREQ DCONCLA 25 UPPER 0.8 5 6 7 8 9 Field Contents SID Aerodynamic set identification for the imposed constraint (Integer > 0) CTYPE Constraint type: either UPPER for upper bound or LOWER for lower bound (Character, Default = LOWER) CLAREQ Required flexible-to-rigid lift curve slope (Real ≠ 0.0) 10 Remarks: 1. Displacement constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: DCON=SID 2. A LOWER bound constraint excludes all values to the left of CLAREQ on a real number line, while an UPPER bound constraint excludes all values to the right, irrespective of the sign of CLAREQ. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-71 DCONDSP USER’S MANUAL DCONDSP Input Data Entry: Description: Defines a deflection constraint of the form: ∑ Aj uj ≤ δ all (UPPER BOUND) or ∑ Aj uj ≥ δ (LOWER BOUND) j Format and Example: 1 2 DCONDSP CTSET CONT DCONDSP 1 +BC j 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DCID CTYPE DALL LABEL G C A G C A G C A –etc– 10 LOWER -2.3 TIP 32 3 2.0 7 3 -4.0 Field 10 CONT ABC Contents CTSET Constraint set identification number (Integer > 0) DCID Constraint identification number (Integer > 0) CTYPE Constraint type, either UPPER or LOWER bound (Character, Default = UPPER) DALL Allowable displacement (Real) LABEL User specified label to identify constraint (Character) G Grid identification (Integer > 0) C Component number—any one of digits 1 through 6 A Real coefficient (Real ≠ 0.0) Remarks: 1. Displacement constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: DCON=CTSET The CTSET is the constraint set identification number and DCID is an arbitrary constraint identifier supplied by the user. All DCONDSP that share the same CTSET and DCID will form one constraint equation. 2. Both upper and lower bounds on the deflections can be specified by this entry. For example, if constraints of the form |u| ≤ 2.0 are to be imposed, one DCONDSP entry would use CTYPE = UPPER, DALL = 2.0, G = 32, C = 3, A = 1.0 while a second entry would use CTYPE = LOWER, DALL = -2.0, G = 32, C = 3, A = 1.0. 3. Twist constraints can be specified by differencing two displacements while camber constraints can be expressed as a weighted sum of three displacements. 4. Any number of continuation entries are permitted. 5. A LOWER bound constraint excludes all values to the left of DALL on a real number line, while an UPPER bound constraint excludes all values to the right, irrespective of the sign of DALL. 7-72 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS Input Data Entry Description: DCONEP Principal Strain Constraint Definition Defines a principal strain constraint by specifying the identification numbers of constrained elements. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SS ETYPE LAYRNUM EID1 EID2 DCONEP SID ST SC CONT EID3 EID4 -etc- DCONEP 100 1.-2 -1.-2 +BC 107 108 142 Alternate Form: 1 2 3 4 1.-2 5 BAR 101 6 7 8 102 10 CONT ABC 9 10 DCONEPM USER’S MANUAL DCONEPM Input Data Entry Description: Principal Strain Constraint Definition Defines a principal strain constraint by specifying material identification numbers. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SS MID1 MID2 MID3 MID4 DCONEPM SID ST SC CONT MID5 MID6 -etc- DCONEPM 100 1.-2 +BC 111 123 Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONEPM SID -1.-2 1.-2 8888 9999 1 99 3 4 5 6 7 8 ST SC SS MAT1 THRU MAT2 Field 10 CONT ABC 9 10 Contents SID Strain constraint set identification (Integer > 0) ST Principal strain limit in tension (Real > 0.0) SC Principal strain limit in compression (Real, Default = ST) SS Principal strain limit in shear (Real > 0.0) MIDi Material identification numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. Strain constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: STRAIN=sid 2. If the alternate form is used, MID2 must be greater than or equal to MID1. Material properties in the range which do not exist are ignored. 3. The shear strain limit, SS, is used only with the SHEAR element. 4. The strain limit for compression, SC, is always treated as a negative value regardless of the sign of the input value. 7-74 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONEPP DCONEPP Input Data Entry Description: Principal Strain Constraint Definition Defines a principal strain constraint by specifying element property identification numbers. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SS PTYPE LAYRNUM PID1 PID2 DCONEPP SID ST SC CONT PID3 PID4 -etc- DCONEPP 100 1.-2 -1.-2 +BC 300 400 500 Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONEPP SID +BC PID2 1.-2 PBAR 100 200 CONT ABC 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ST SC SS PTYPE LAYRNUM PID1 THRU Field 10 10 ABC Contents SID Strain constraint set identification (Integer > 0) ST Principal strain limit in tension (Real > 0.0 ) SC Principal strain limit in compression (Real, Default = ST) SS Principal strain limit in shear (Real > 0.0) PTYPE Property type (Character) selected from: PBAR PSHEAR PCOMP PROD PQDMEM1 PCOMP1 PTRMEM PCOMP2 PSHELL LAYRNUM Layer number of a composite element (Integer > 0 or Blank) PIDi Property identification numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. Strain constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: STRAIN=sid 2. If the alternate form is used, PID2 must be greater than or equal to PID1. Property identification numbers in the range which do not exist are ignored. 3. The shear strain limit, SS, is used only with the SHEAR element. 4. The strain limit for compression, SC, is always treated as a negative value regardless of the sign of the input value. 5. LAYRNUM is only used if the element is composed of a composite material defined with PCOMP Bulk Data entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-75 DCONF USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: DCONF Functional Design Constraint Define one or more synthetic response constraints or a synthetic objective function. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 SID LNAME FNAME CONT ARG1 VAL1 ARG2 DCONF 101 +DCN1 MACH DCONF 5 6 7 8 9 CONT VAL2 ARG3 VAL3 -etc- ZETA 0.8 DENS Field 10 +DCN1 0.8 MODE 1 VELO 600.0 Contents SID Set Identification number selected by Solution Control (See Remark 1). (Integer > 0) LNAME Optional User-defined label for the design constraint function. (Character or blank) FNAME The name of a function defined in the Functions packet. (Character) ARGi The name of an argument, as given in the Functions packet, defined in the named function, FNAME. (Character) VALi The value of the parameter ARGi to be used in the named function, FNAME. (Integer or Real) Remarks: 1. The DCONF entry is selected in Solution Control with one of the two options: DCFUNCTION = sid or OBJECT = sid of the OPTIMIZE command, and/or by the option: DCFUNCTION = sid on the discipline commands STATICS, MODES, SAERO and FLUTTER. The following example computes ζ for a mach value of 0.8, a density value of 0.8, a mode index of 1 and a velocity of 600.0. 2 Re ( p ) 2 + Re ( ζ = ) p Im ( p ) 7-76 THE BULK DATA PACKET 1⁄ 2 ; where p is the complex flutter eigenvalue. ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONF The solution control packet references the functional design constraint, 101, in the Bulk Data Packet for the FLUTTER discipline of boundary condition 1. ANALYZE ... BOUNDARY SPC = 1 FLUTTER (..., DCFUNCTION=101, ...) ... END The Function Packet defines the function specification for computing the design constraint ζ > 0.15. FUNCTIONS ... ZETA(mach, dens, mode, velo )= 1.0 - ( FDAMP( ZETA ,mach, dens, mode, velo ) / 0.15) ... ENDFUNC The Bulk Data Packet defines values for the MACH, DENS, MODE, and VELO arguments, for function design constraint 101 which points to the function, ZETA, in the Functional Packet. BEGIN BULK ... DCONF,101,,ZETA,,,,,,+DCN1 +DCN1,MACH,0.8,DENS,0.8,MODE,1,VELO,600.0 ... ENDDATA 2. ARGi and VALi must be defined together. They represent, by name, the substitution parameters for the function FNAME. The following example computes the normal stress in the element’s X direction for element 1. The Function Packet defines the function specification for recovering the allowable normal stress in the element’s X direction. FUNCTIONS ... VALUE(eid,allow)= ( STRESS(eid,SIGX) / allow ) - 1.0 ... ENDFUNC The Bulk Data Packet defines the element identification and references design constraint 101 which links the design constraint, VALUE, to the Functional Packet. BEGIN BULK ... DCONF,101,EID1,VALUE,,,,,,+DCN1 +DCN1,EID,1,ALLOW,57.0+3 ... ENDDATA ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-77 DCONF USER’S MANUAL 3. The DCONF entry must uniquely define each argument to the named function and constitutes one or more references to the function FNAME. The following example computes the normal stress in the element’s X direction for elements 1 and 2. The Function Packet defines the function specification for recovering the allowable normal stress in the element’s X direction. FUNCTIONS ... VALUE(eid,allow)= ( STRESS(eid,SIGX) / allow ) - 1.0 ... ENDFUNC The Bulk Data Packet defines two design constraint function requests for the elements 1 and 2, and references design constraint 101 which links the design constraint, VALUE, to the Functional Packet. BEGIN BULK ... DCONF,101,EID1,VALUE,,,,,,+DCN1 +DCN1,EID,1,ALLOW,60.+3 DCONF,101,EID2,VALUE,,,,,,+DCN1 +DCN1,EID,2,ALLOW,60.+3 ... ENDDATA More than one constraint can be created by a single DCONF entry if list identification arguments are used: FUNCTIONS ... VALUE2(list,allow)= ( STRESS(ELEMLIST(list),SIGX) / allow ) - 1.0 ... ENDFUNC BEGIN BULK ... DCONF,101,EID1,VALUE2,,,,,,+DCN1 +DCN1,LIST,101,ALLOW,60.+3 ... ELEMLIST,101,QUAD4,1,2 ENDDATA 4. VALi must be of the type, either integer or real required by the function FNAME. 7-78 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONFLT DCONFLT Input Data Entry: Description: Flutter Constraint Definition Defines a flutter constraint in the form of a table: γ − γREQ ≤ 0.0 GFACT Format and Example: 1 2 DCONFLT CONT DCONFLT 3 4 5 6 7 8 SID VTYPE GFACT V1 GAM1 V2 GAM2 V3 GAM3 V4 GAM4 -etc- 100 EQUIV 0.1 0.0 Field 0.0 35. 9 10 CONT 0.05 Contents SID Constraint set identification, the constraints are referenced by the design constraint id in Solution Control (Integer > 0) VTYPE Nature of the velocity referred to in the table. Either TRUE for true velocity or EQUIV for equivalent air speed. Default = TRUE. GFACT Constraint scaling factor (Real > 0.0, Default = 0.10) Vi Velocity value (Real ≥ 0.0) GAMi Required damping value (Real) Remarks: 1. Flutter constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: DCON=SID 2. A negative value of GAMi refers to a stable system. 3. The Vi must be in either ascending or descending order. 4. Linear interpolation is used to determine GAMA for a given velocity. 5. At least two pairs must be entered. 6. Jumps between two points (Vi = Vi+1) are allowed, but not at the end points. If the jump point is used, the average of the two GAMi will be returned. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-79 DCONFRQ USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: DCONFRQ Defines a frequency constraint of the form: f ≤ fall or f ≥ fall Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 DCONFRQ SID MODE CTYPE FRQALL DCONFRQ 3 1 LOWER 6.0 Field 6 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Constraint set identification (Integer > 0) MODE Modal number of the frequency to be constrained (Integer > 0) CTYPE Constraint type: either UPPER for upper bound or LOWER for lower bound (Character, Default = LOWER) FRQALL Frequency constraint (in Hz.). Remarks: 1. More than one constraint can be placed on a mode allowing specification of pseudo-equality constraints. 7-80 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONFT DCONFT Input Data Entry Description: Fiber/Transverse Strain Constraint Definition Defines fiber/transverse strain constraints for composite elements by specifying the identification numbers of constrained elements. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 ETT DCONFT SID EFT EFC CONT EID2 EID3 -etc- DCONFT 100 1.-2 +BC 102 110 Alternate Form: 1 2 -1.-2 1.-3 3 4 5 EFC ETT DCONFT SID EFT CONT THRU EID2 Field 6 7 ETC ETYPE -1.-3 QUAD4 6 7 ETC ETYPE 8 9 LAYRNUM EID1 1 101 8 9 LAYRNUM EID1 10 CONT ABC 10 CONT Contents SID Strain constraint set identification (Integer > 0) EFT Tensile strain limit in the fiber direction (Real > 0.0) EFC Compressive strain limit in the fiber direction (Real, Default = EFT) ETT Tensile strain limit in the transverse direction (Real > 0.0) ETC Compressive strain limit in the transverse direction (Real, Default = ETT) ETYPE Element type (Character) selected from: QDMEM1 TRMEM QUAD4 TRIA3 LAYRNUM The layer number of a composite element (Integer > 0, or blank) EIDi Element identification numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. Strain constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: STRAIN=sid 2. Fiber/transverse strain constraints may only be applied to elements defined using composite materials. 3. If the alternate form is used, EID2 must be greater than or equal to EID1. Elements in the range which do not exist are ignored. 4. The strain limits for compression, EFC and ETC, are always treated as negative values regardless of the signs of the input values. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-81 DCONFTM USER’S MANUAL DCONFTM Input Data Entry Fiber/Transverse Strain Constraint Definition Defines fiber/transverse strain constraints for composite elements by specifying material identification numbers. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 ETT DCONFTM SID EFT EFC CONT MID4 MID5 -etc- DCONFTM 100 1.-2 +BC 19 14 Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONFTM SID -1.-2 1.-3 3 4 5 EFT EFC ETT Field 6 7 ETC -1.-3 MID1 11 6 ETC 8 9 MID2 MID3 16 7 MID1 101 8 9 THRU MID2 10 CONT ABC 10 Contents SID Strain constraint set identification (Integer > 0) EFT Tensile strain limit in the fiber direction (Real > 0.0). EFC Compressive strain limit in the fiber direction (Real, Default = EFT) ETT Tensile strain limit in the transverse direction (Real > 0.0) ETC Compressive strain limit in the transverse direction (Real, Default = ETT). MIDi Material identification numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. Strain constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: STRAIN=sid 2. Fiber/transverse strain constraints may only be applied to elements defined using composite materials. 3. If the alternate form is used, MID2 must be greater than or equal to MID1. Material properties in the range which do not exist are ignored. 4. The strain limits for compression, EFC and ETC, are always treated as negative values regardless of the signs of the input values. 7-82 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONFTP DCONFTP Input Data Entry Description: Fiber/Transverse Strain Constraint Definition Defines fiber/transverse strain constraints for composite elements by specifying property identification numbers. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 ETT ETC 3.-3 DCONFTP SID EFT EFC CONT PID2 PID3 -etc- DCONFTP 100 1.-2 1.-2 2.-3 CONT 110 120 3 4 5 EFC ETT Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONFTP SID EFT CONT THRU PID2 Field 6 7 8 9 PTYPE LAYRNUM PID1 CONT PCOMP 2 100 CONT 7 8 9 LAYRNUM PID1 6 ETC ETYPE 10 10 CONT Contents SID Strain constraint set identification (Integer > 0). EFT Tensile strain limit in the fiber direction (Real > 0.0) EFC Compressive strain limit in the fiber direction (Real, Default = EFT) ETT Tensile strain limit in the transverse direction (Real > 0.0). ETC Compressive strain limit in the transverse direction (Real, Default = ETT) PTYPE Property type (Character) selected from: PCOMP PCOMP1 PCOMP2. LAYRNUM The layer number of a composite element (Integer > 0 or blank) PIDi Property identification numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. Strain constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: STRAIN=sid 2. Fiber/transverse strain constraints may only be applied to elements defined using composite materials. 3. If the alternate form is used, PID2 must be greater than or equal to PID1. Properties in the range which do not exist are ignored. 4. The strain limits for compression, EFC and ETC, are always treated as negative values regardless of the signs of the input values. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-83 DCONLAM USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: DCONLAM Composite laminate composition constraint. Defines a constraint on the relative thickness of a ply that is part of a laminate. The constraint is of the form: tply %req − ≤ 0 (lower bound) 100 tlam tply %req − ≤ 0 (upper bound) 100 tlam Format and Example: 1 2 DCONLAM CONT DCONLAM 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CTYPE %REQ PLYNUM PLYSET LAM SID SID SID SID SID -etc- UPPER 40.0 100 ALL 1000 1001 Field 10 CONT Contents CTYPE Constraint type: either UPPER for upper bound or LOWER for lower bound. (Character, Default = UPPER) %REQ Minimum (lower bound) or maximum (upper bound) PERCENTAGE (0.0 to 100.0) of the total laminate thickness that is to be made up of the ply thickness. (see Remark 2) ( Real > 0.0 ) PLYNUM Single ply number (numbered in the order used on the PCOMPi) that constitutes the ply thickness. Only one of PLYNUM or PLYSET may be used. (Integer > 0 or blank) PLYSET Set identification number of one or more PLYLIST bulk data entries naming a set of plies whose summed thicknesses constitute the ply thickness in the constraint. Only one of PLYNUM or PLYSET may be used. (Integer > 0 or blank) LAM The character string ALL or the set identification number of one or more PLYLIST entries naming a set of plies whose summed thicknesses constitute the laminate thickness in the constraint. If ALL, the laminate is defined to be all the layers on the PCOMPs of the elements selected by SIDi. (Character = ALL or Integer > 0, Default = ALL) SID Set identification of one or more ELEMLIST entries that define the set of composite elements to which this composition constraint will be applied. (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. One and only one of either PLYNUM or PLYSET must be given. 2. The definition of ply and laminate thickness can vary from entry to entry. If PLYNUM is used to define tply that one layer constitutes a ply; otherwise tply is the sum of the layer thicknesses of all the layers listed in PLYSET. 7-84 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONLAM Similar rules are applied for tlam. If ALL is used, every layer of the element is used to compute tlam (including undesigned layers-see Remark 3); otherwise the summed thicknesses of the layers specified by the PLYLIST set will be used. As a result, there is no real distinction between a ply thickness and a laminate thickness. Typically, the ply will be a subset of the layers that define the laminate, but that is not a requirement. 3. If this constraint is applied to a composite element with undesigned layers, these layers may be freely included in the layer(s) composing the ply and/or the layer(s) composing the laminate. The only restriction is that at least one layer in the ply must be a local design variable and at least one layer in the laminate must be a local design variable. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-85 DCONLIST USER’S MANUAL DCONLIST Input Data Entry Description: Defines a list of design constraints for which constraint value output and/or constraint gradient output are desired. Format and Example: 1 2 DCONLIST Design Constraint List SID DCONLIST 1000 3 4 5 TYPE NRFAC EPS DISP Field 0.6 6 7 8 9 10 -.05 Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) TYPE The design constraint type. One of the following: FREQ FLUT DISP VMISES TSAIWU STRAIN THICK EFF SCF TRIM ALL OTHER frequency flutter displacement Von Mises Tsai-Wu strain thickness aeroelastic effectiveness stability coefficient trim all of the above all EXCEPT the above The Default value is ALL NRFAC Constraint retention factor for math programming methods. At least NRFAC * (number of design variables) constraints will be considered active. (Real > 0.0, Default = 3.0) EPS Constraint retention parameter in which all constraints having a value greater than EPS will be considered active. (Real, Default = – 0.1) Remarks: 1. NRFAC and EPS control the number of constraints that are selected for print and punch output. For constraint gradients, only those considered active by the global constraint screening algorithm (NRFAC and EPS from the OPTIMIZE command in Solution control) are available to be selected. 2. More than one DCONLIST with the same set identification number may be used to select subsets of different constraint types. 7-86 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONLMN DCONLMN Input Data Entry: Description: Defines a lower bound constraint on the total thickness of all or part of the layers of a composite element. The constraint is of the form: 1.0 − Format and Example: 1 2 DCONLMN CONT DCONLMN Field Composite laminate minimum gauge constraint. tlam ≤ 0 tmin 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 MINTHK LAM SID SID SID SID SID SID SID SID -etc- 0.20 ALL 1001 1002 10 CONT , Contents MINTHK Minimum laminate thickness. (Real > 0.0, Default = 10-4) LAM The character string ALL or the set identification number of one or more PLYLIST entries naming a set of plies whose summed thicknesses constitute the laminate thickness in the constraint. If ALL, the laminate is defined to be all the layers on the PCOMPs of the elements selected by SIDi. (Character = ALL or Integer > 0, Default = ALL) SID Set identification of one or more ELEMLIST entries that define the set of composite elements to which this composition constraint will be applied. (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. Because of the generality of the definition of the laminate, there is no real distinction between the DCONLMN and the DCONPMN constraints. Only the defaults are different to allow simple definitions of the common laminate in DCONLMN (ALL) or ply (PLYNUM) in DCONPMN. 2. The definition of laminate thickness can vary from entry to entry. If ALL is used, every layer of the element is used to compute tlam (including undesigned layers-see Remark 3); otherwise the summed thicknesses of the layers specified by the PLYLIST set will be used. 3. If this constraint is applied to a composite element with undesigned layers, these layers may be freely included in the layer(s) composing the ply and/or the layer(s) composing the laminate. The only restriction is that at least one layer in the laminate must be a local design variable. 4. If the laminate is composed of a single layer, this constraint becomes redundant with the TMIN entered on the PCOMPi field (for shape function linking) or the VMIN entered on the DESELM or DESVARP entry (for physical linking). In this case, the most critical limit will be determined from among all sources (DCONPMN, DCONLMN, TMIN/VMIN) and will be used to update the local variable side constraint. The DCONxxx entry will then be automatically removed since it will no longer be necessary. A summary of this action will be echoed to the print file. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-87 DCONPMN USER’S MANUAL DCONPMN Input Data Entry: Description: Defines a lower bound constraint on the total thickness of all or part of the layers of a composite element. The constraint is of the form: 1.0 − Format and Example: 1 2 DCONPMN Composite element ply minimum gauge constraint. tply ≤ 0 tmin 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 MINTHK PLYNUM PLYSET SID SID SID SID SID SID SID -etc- 0.010 3 1001 1002 CONT DCONPMN Field 10 CONT , Contents MINTHK Minimum ply thickness. (Real > 0.0, Default = 10-4) PLYNUM Single ply number (numbered in the order used on the PCOMPi) that constitutes the ply thickness. Only one of PLYNUM or PLYSET may be used. (Integer > 0 or blank) PLYSET Set identification number of one or more PLYLIST bulk data entries naming a set of plies whose summed thicknesses constitute the ply thickness in the constraint. Only one of PLYNUM or PLYSET may be used. (Integer > 0 or blank) SID Set identification of one or more ELEMLIST entries that define the set of composite elements to which this composition constraint will be applied. (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. One and only one of either PLYNUM or PLYSET must be given. 2. Because of the generality of the definition of the ply, there is no real distinction between the DCONLMN and the DCONPMN constraints. Only the defaults are different to allow simple definitions of the common laminate in DCONLMN (ALL) or ply (PLYNUM) in DCONPMN. 3. The definition of ply thickness can vary from entry to entry. If PLYNUM is used to define tply, that one layer constitutes a ply; otherwise tply is the sum of the layer thicknesses of all the layers listed in PLYSET. 4. If this constraint is applied to a composite element with undesigned layers, these layers may be freely included in the layer(s) composing the ply. The only restriction is that at least one layer in the ply must be a local design variable. 5. If the ply is composed of a single layer, this constraint becomes redundant with the TMIN entered on the PCOMPi field (for shape function linking) or the VMIN entered on the DESELM or DESVARP entry (for physical linking). In this case, the most critical limit will be determined from among all sources (DCONPMN, DCONLMN, TMIN/VMIN) and will be used to update the local variable side constraint. The DCONxxx entry will then be automatically removed since it will no longer be necessary. A summary of this action will be echoed to the print file. 7-88 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry Description: DCONSCF DCONSCF Stability Derivative Constraint Defines a constraint on the flexible stability derivative at the reference grid point associated with the force or moment due to a trim parameter or control surface deflection of the form: ∂CF ∂CF ∂CF ≤ ≤ ∂δ ∂δ trim ∂δ trim upper trim lower Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DCONSCF SETID ACCLAB PRMLAB CTYPE PRMREQ UNITS DCONSCF 999 PACCEL AILERON LOWER 1.0 RADIANS Field 9 10 Contents SETID Set identification number referenced by the DCONSTRAINT Solution Control option of the SAERO command. (Integer > 0) ACCLAB Alphanumeric string identifying the aerodynamic force or moment by naming the corresponding structural acceleration in a manner consistent with the TRIM entry. See Remarks 2 and 4. PRMLAB Alphanumeric string identifying a constrained control surface or aeroelastic trim parameter (e.g. ALPHA or PRATE). See Remarks 3 and 4. CTYPE Constraint type; either UPPER, for upper bound, or LOWER for lower bound. (Character, default=UPPER) PRMREQ Bound for the stability coefficient. For units, see Remarks 5 and 6. (Real) UNITS Units for the stability coefficient. Either RADIANS or DEGREES. See Remark 6. (Real,Default=DEGREES) Remarks: 1. The DCONSCF entry is selected in Solution Control with the DCONSTRAINT=SETID option of the SAERO command. 2. The ACCLAB may refer to any of the TRIM Bulk Data entry trim parameters that are structural accelerations. Valid trim parameters are NX, NY, NZ, PACCEL, QACCEL, and RACCEL. 3. The PRMLAB may refer to AESURF or CONLINK control surfaces or to any of the TRIM entry parameters except the structural accelerations. Valid selections are: PRATE, QRATE, RRATE, ALPHA, BETA, THKCAM and any control surface label. Invalid trim parameters are: NX, NY, NZ, PACCEL, QACCEL and RACCEL 4. Any combination of forces or moments and trim parameters/control surfaces may be used on this entry provided they have the same symmetry as the associated TRIM entry. Furthermore, to apply the constraint to the flexible derivative, the degree of freedom corresponding to the force or moment must be supported in the boundary condition. For example, to constrain the pitching moment, QACCEL, due to angle of attack, ALPHA, the y-rotation of the support point must be on the SUPPORT entry for the boundary condition in which the TRIM is analyzed. 5. The stability derivatives are nondimensional quantities derived from the flexible forces and moments due to "unit" parameters. The constraint is applied to the nondimensional derivative at the user-de- ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-89 DCONSCF USER’S MANUAL fined reference point. To assist the defining PRMREQ, the following normalizations are used in ASTROS: CONTROL SURFACES FORCES RATES SYMMETRIC DERVIATIVES CONTROL SURFACES MOMENTS RATES CONTROL SURFACES FORCES RATES ANTISYMMETRIC DERVIATIVES CONTROL SURFACES MOMENTS RATES stability coeff = F/(QDP*S) stability coeff = F*2*VO/(QDP*S*C) "unit" rate = unit dimensional rate * C/2*VO stability coeff = M/(QDP*S*C) stability coeff = M*4*VO/(QDP*S*C**2) "unit" rate = unit dimensional rate * C/2*VO stability coeff = F/(QDP*S) stability coeff = F*2*VO/(QDP*S*B) "unit" rate = unit dimensional rate * B/2*VO stability coeff = M/(QDP*S*B) stability coeff = M*4*VO/(QDP*S*B**2) "unit" rate = unit dimensional rate * B/2*VO F and M are the dimensional flexible forces and moments for the full vehicle; S, C, and B are the non-dimensional factors from the AEROS Bulk Data entry (the inputs are assumed to be for the full vehicle); and QDP and VO are defined on the TRIM Bulk Data entry. 6. RADIANS or DEGREES refer to the units of the unit control surface deflection or unit rate. RADIANS imply the value due to a unit RAD or RAD/S while DEGREES imply the value due to a unit DEG or DEG/S. THKCAM has no valid angular unit, hence the UNITS field is ignored. 7. A LOWER bound constraint excludes all values to the left of PRMREQ on a real number line, while an UPPER bound excludes all values to the right, irrespective of the sign of PRMREQ. 7-90 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: DCONSDE DCONSDE Defines Side constraints on BAR element cross-sectional parameters. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 DCONSDE CONT DCONSDE 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DVSYM TMIN TMAX ETYPE EID1 EID2 EID3 EID4 EID5 EID6 -etc- D1 0.1 0.3 BAR 200 205 206 3 4 5 6 7 8 TMIN TMAX ETYPE EID1 THRU EID2 Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONSDE BAR element side constraints DVSYM Field DVSYM 10 CONT 9 10 Contents Character symbol specifying the PBAR1 cross-sectional parameter. (Remark 1) D1 D6 D2 D7 D3 D8 D4 D9 D5 D10 TMIN Minimum value of the PBAR1 cross-sectional parameter specified by DVSYM. (Real, Default = 0.0001) TMAX Maximum value of the PBAR1 cross-sectional parameter specified by DVSYM. (Real, Default = 0.0001) ETYPE Character input identifying the element type. Must be: BAR EIDi Element identification numbers (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. See the PBAR1 Bulk Data entry for a description of the cross-sectional parameters. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-91 DCONSDL USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: DCONSDL BAR element side constraints Defines Side constraints on BAR element cross-sectional parameters by referencing list of elements. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ELID1 ELID2 ELID3 ELID4 ELID5 8 9 DCONSDL DVSYM TMIN TMAX CONT ELID6 ELID7 -etc- D3 0.001 0.05 99 3 4 5 6 7 TMIN TMAX ELID1 THRU ELID2 DCONSDL Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONSDL DVSYM Field DVSYM 10 CONT 10 Contents Character symbol specifying the PBAR1 cross-sectional parameter. (Remark 1) D1 D6 D2 D7 D3 D8 D4 D9 D5 D10 TMIN Minimum value of the PBAR1 cross-sectional parameter specified by DVSYM. (Real, Default = 0.0001) TMAX Maximum value of the PBAR1 cross-sectional parameter specified by DVSYM. (Real, Default = 0.0001) ELIDi Element list identification numbers (Integer > 0 or blank) (Remark 2) Remarks: 1. See the PBAR1 Bulk Data entry for a description of the cross-sectional parameters. 2. Element lists are defined using ELEMLIST Bulk Data entries. Only designed BAR elements which reference PBAR1 property entries are affected. 7-92 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: DCONTH2 DCONTH2 Defines a set of layers for a list of elements linked using SHAPE entries for which the ply thickness constraints are to be retained on all design iterations. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 DCONTH2 CONT DCONTHK ETYPE EID 3 ETYPE 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID EID EID EID EID 100 101 200 205 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID THRU EID LAYRNUM LAYRLST EID QUAD4 Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONTH2 Thickness constraints on layers of composite elements 3 CONT -etc- LAYRNUM LAYRLST Field ETYPE 10 10 Contents Character input identifying the element type. One of the following: QUAD4 QDMEM1 TRIA3 TRMEM LAYRNUM Layer number of the layer(s) to be retained. The given layer will be retained for each element in the list of elements (Integer > 0 or blank, See Remark 1) LAYRLST Set identification number of a PLYLIST bulk data entry naming a set of plies to be retained as active for each element. (Integer > 0 or blank, See Remark 1) EID Element identification number (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. One and only one of either LAYRNUM or LAYRLST must be given. Noncomposite elements must be called out on DCONTHK entries. 2. The purpose of this bulk data list is to ensure that adequate physical move limits are retained in optimization with shape function design variable linking without requiring retention of all move limits. For problems with large numbers of local variables using shape functions, the move limits often cause too many minimum thickness constraints (see Remark 3) to be retained in the optimization task. Using this bulk data entry or its noncomposite counterpart DCONTHK to name "critical" minimum gauge constraints (see Remark 4) will cause only the named elements’ thickness constraints to be computed and retained. All layers of composite elements named on DCONTHK will be retained. Note that all thickness constraints for an element will always be computed irrespective of the DCONTHK entries, but may be deleted in the constraint deletion. 3. The global design variable in shape function linking is non-physical and no reasonable restriction for a global variable move limit (side constraint) can be defined. Therefore, constraints on the local design variables controlled by shape functions are generated by ASTROS to ensure that the design is reasonable (ie, nonnegative thicknesses). ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-93 DCONTH2 USER’S MANUAL 4. The DCONTH2 entry should select a minimum number of elements linked to shape functions that will enable the optimizer to select physically reasonable designs without retaining all the minimum thickness constraints (potentially a very large number). Typically, this means N+1 elements spread over the range of the shape function (e.g. span or chord) where N is the order of the shape (N=O, UNIFORM: N=1, LINEAR, etc.). 7-94 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: DCONTH3 DCONTH3 Defines a set of BAR element cross-sectional properties for a list of elements which are linked using SHAPE entries, and for which side constraints are to be retained for all design iterations. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ETYPE DVSYM EID1 EID2 EID3 EID4 EID5 EID6 CONT EID7 EID8 -etc- DCONTH3 BAR D1 100 101 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DVSYM EID1 THRU EID2 DCONTH3 Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONTH3 ETYPE Field CONT 10 Contents ETYPE Character input identifying the element type. Must be BAR. DVSYM Symbol selecting one of the PBAR1 cross-sectional parameters. (Character) D1 D6 EIDi 10 D2 D7 D3 D8 D4 D9 D5 D10 Element identification numbers (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. The purpose of this bulk data list is to ensure that adequate physical move limits are retained in optimization with shape function design variable linking without requiring retention of all move limits. For problems with large numbers of local variables using shape functions, the move limits often cause too many minimum thickness constraints (see Remark 3) to be retained in the optimization task. Using this bulk data entry to name "critical" minimum gauge constraints (see Remark 4) will cause only the named elements’ thickness constraints to be computed and retained. Note that all thickness constraints for an element will always be computed irrespective of the DCONTH3 entries, but may be deleted in the constraint deletion. 2. The global design variable in shape function linking is non-physical and no reasonable restriction for a global variable move limit (side constraint) can be defined. Therefore, constraints on the local design variables controlled by shape functions are generated by ASTROS to ensure that the design is reasonable. 3. The global design variable in shape function linking is non-physical and no reasonable restriction for a global variable move limit (side constraint) can be defined. Therefore, constraints on the local design variables controlled by shape functions are generated by ASTROS to ensure that the design is reasonable (ie, nonnegative thicknesses). 4. The DCONTH2 entry should select a minimum number of elements linked to shape functions that will enable the optimizer to select physically reasonable designs without retaining all the minimum thickness constraints (potentially a very large number). Typically, this means N+1 elements spread over the range of the shape function (e.g. span or chord) where N is the order of the shape (N=O, UNIFORM: N=1, LINEAR, etc.). ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-95 DCONTHK USER’S MANUAL DCONTHK Input Data Entry: Defines a list of elements linked using SHAPE entries for which thickness constraints are to be retained on all design iterations. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 DCONTHK CONT DCONTHK 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ETYPE EID EID EID EID EID EID EID EID EID -etc- QDMEM1 100 101 200 205 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID THRU EID Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONTHK Thickness constraints on elements ETYPE Field ETYPE CONT 10 Contents Character input identifying the element type. One of the following: BAR CONM2 ELAS MASS QDMEM1 EID 10 QUAD4 ROD SHEAR TRIA3 TRMEM Element identification number (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. The purpose of this bulk data list is to ensure that adequate physical move limits are retained in optimization with shape function design variable linking without requiring retention of all move limits. For problems with large numbers of local variables using shape functions, the move limits often cause too many minimum thickness constraints (see Remark 2) to be retained in the optimization task. Using this bulk data entry OR its composite counterpart DCONTH2 to name "critical" minimum gauge constraints (see Remark 3) will cause only the named elements’ thickness constraints to be computed and retained. All layers of composite elements named on DCONTHK will be retained. NOTE that all elements’ thickness constraints will always be computed irrespective of the DCONTHK entries, but may be deleted in the constraint deletion. 2. The global design variable in shape function linking is non-physical and no reasonable restriction for a global variable move limit (side constraint) can be defined. Therefore, constraints on the local design variables controlled by shape functions are generated by ASTROS to ensure that the design is reasonable (ie, nonnegative thicknesses). 3. The DCONTHK entry should select a minimum number of elements linked to shape functions that will enable the optimizer to select physically reasonable designs without retaining all the minimum thickness constraints (potentially a very large number). Typically, this means N+1 elements spread over the range of the shape function (e.g. span or chord) where N is the order of the shape (N=O, UNIFORM: N=1, LINEAR, etc.). Use DCONTH2 for composite elements in which linking across layers may allow certain layers to be omitted from the retention set. 7-96 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONTRM DCONTRM Input Data Entry Description: Aeroelastic Trim Parameter Constraint Defines a trim parameter constraint of the form: δtrim ≤ δtrimReq or δtrim ≥ δtrimReq Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 DCONTRM SETID PRMLAB CTYPE PRMREQ DCONTRM 100 AILERON UPPER 25.0 Field 6 7 8 9 10 Contents SETID Set identification number referenced by the DCONSTRAINT Solution Control command. (Integer > 0) PRMLAB Alphanumeric string identifying a constrained control surface or aeroelastic trim parameter (e.g. ALPHA or PRATE). (See Remark 2.) CTYPE Constraint type; either UPPER, for upper bound, or LOWER for lower bound. (Character, Default = UPPER) PRMREQ Bound for the trim parameter. For units, see Remark 3. (Real) Remarks: 1. The DCONTRM entry is selected in Solution Control with the DCONSTRAINT=SETID option of the SAERO command. 2. The PRMLAB may refer to AESURF or CONLINK control surfaces or to any of the TRIM entry parameters, NX, NY, NZ, PACCEL, QACCEL, RACCEL, PRATE, QRATE, RRATE, ALPHA, or BETA. The only requirement is that the constrained control surface must be declared on the TRIM entry. The user will be warned if trim parameters not on the TRIM entry are constrained (since these parameters are fixed, they are design invariant). 3. The units for control surface deflections are degrees. For rates, the units should be radians/sec. For linear accelerations NX, NY, NZ, the units should be consistent, (length/sec/sec) or, if a CONVERT,MASS entry was used, should be dimensionless. Angular accelerations should be in radians/sec/sec. 4. A LOWER bound constraint excludes all values to the left of PRMREQ on a real number line, while an UPPER bound excludes all values to the right, irrespective of the sign of PRMREQ. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-97 DCONTW USER’S MANUAL DCONTW Input Data Entry Defines Tsai-Wu stress constraints by specifying the identification numbers of constrained elements Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID XT XC YT YC SS F12 ETYPE LAYRNUM EID1 EID2 EID3 -etc- DCONTW CONT Tsai-Wu Stress Constraint Definition DCONTW 100 1.+6 -1.+6 1.+4 +BC 1 102 106 110 Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONTW CONT -1.+4 1.5+3 QUAD4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID XT XC YT YC SS F12 ETYPE LAYRNUM EID1 THRU EID2 Field 10 CONT ABC 10 CONT Contents SID Stress constraint set identification (Integer > 0) XT Tensile stress limit in the longitudinal direction (Real > 0.0) XC Compressive stress limit in the longitudinal direction (Real, Default = XT) YT Tensile stress limit in the transverse direction (Real > 0.0) YC Compressive stress limit in the transverse direction (Real, Default = YT) SS Shear stress limit for in-plane stress (Real > 0.0) F12 Tsai-Wu interaction term (Real) ETYPE Element type (Character) selected from: QDMEM1 TRMEM QUAD4 TRIA3 LAYRNUM The layer number of a composite element (Integer > 0 or blank) EIDi Element identification numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. Stress constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: STRESS=sid 2. If the alternate form is used, EID2 must be greater than or equal to EID1. Elements in the range which do not exist are ignored. 3. The strain limits for compression, XC and YC, are always treated as negative values regardless of the sign of the input values. 4. LAYRNUM is only used if the element is composed of a composite material defined with PCOMP Bulk Data entries. 7-98 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONTWM DCONTWM Input Data Entry Description: Tsai-Wu Stress Constraint Definition Defines Tsai-Wu stress constraints by specifying material identification numbers Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 YC SS F12 MID1 -1.+4 1.5+3 DCONTWM SID XT XC YT CONT MID2 MID3 MID4 -etc- DCONTWM 100 1.+6 -1.+6 +BC 102 200 310 Alternate Form: 1 2 101 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 XC YT YC SS F12 MID1 DCONTWM SID XT CONT THRU MID2 Field 1.+4 10 CONT ABC 10 CONT Contents SID Stress constraint set identification (Integer > 0) XT Tensile stress limit in the longitudinal direction (Real > 0.0) XC Compressive stress limit in the longitudinal direction (Real, Default = XT) YT Tensile stress limit in the transverse direction (Real > 0.0) YC Compressive stress limit in the transverse direction (Real, Default = YT) SS Shear stress limit for in-plane stress (Real > 0.0) F12 Tsai-Wu interaction term (Real) MIDi Material identification numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. Stress constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: STRESS=sid 2. If the alternate form is used, MID2 must be greater than or equal to MID1. Materials in the range which do not exist are ignored. 3. The stress limits for compression, XC and YC, are always treated as negative values regardless of the sign of the input values. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-99 DCONTWP USER’S MANUAL DCONTWP Input Data Entry Description: Defines Tsai-Wu stress constraints by specifying element property identification numbers Format and Example: 1 2 DCONTWP CONT Tsai-Wu Stress Constraint Definition 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID XT XC YT YC SS F12 PTYPE LAYRNUM PID1 PID2 PID3 -etc- DCONTWP 100 1.+6 -1.+6 +BC 100 200 300 Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONTWP CONT 1.+4 -1.+4 1.5+3 PCOMP 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID XT XC YT YC SS F12 PTYPE LAYRNUM PID1 THRU PID2 Field 10 CONT ABC 10 CONT Contents SID Stress constraint set identification (Integer > 0) XT Tensile stress limit in the longitudinal direction (Real > 0.0) XC Compressive stress limit in the longitudinal direction (Real, Default = XT) YT Tensile stress limit in the transverse direction (Real > 0.0) YC Compressive stress limit in the transverse direction (Real, Default = YT) SS Shear stress limit for in-plane stress (Real > 0.0) F12 Tsai-Wu interaction term (Real) PTYPE Property type (Character) selected from: PQDMEM1 PTRMEM PSHELL PCOMP PCOMP1 LAYRNUM The layer number of a composite element (Integer > 0 or blank) PIDi Property identification numbers (Integer > 0) PCOMP2 Remarks: 1. Stress constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: STRESS=sid 2. If the alternate form is used, PID2 must be greater than or equal to PID1. Properties in the range which do not exist are ignored. 3. The stress limits for compression, XC and YC, are always treated as negative values regardless of the sign of the input values. 4. LAYRNUM is only used if the element is composed of a composite material defined with PCOMP Bulk Data entries. 7-100 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONVM DCONVM Input Data Entry Description: Von-Mises Stress Constraint Definition Defines a Von-Mises stress constraint by specifying the identification numbers of constrained elements Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SS ETYPE LAYRNUM EID1 EID2 DCONVM SID ST SC CONT EID3 EID4 -etc- DCONVM 100 1.+6 -1.+6 +BC 107 108 142 Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONVM SID CONT EID2 1.+4 BAR 101 102 CONT ABC 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ST SC SS ETYPE LAYRNUM EID1 THRU Field 10 10 CONT Contents SID Stress constraint set identification (Integer > 0) ST Tensile stress limit (Real > 0.0 or blank) SC Compressive stress limit (Real, Default = ST). SS Shear stress limit (Real > 0.0 or blank) ETYPE Element type (Character) selected from: BAR QDMEM1 ROD TRMEM QUAD4 TRIA3 LAYRNUM The layer number of a composite element (Integer > 0 or blank) EIDi Element identification numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. Stress constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: STRESS=sid 2. If the alternate form is used, EID2 must be greater than or equal to EID1. Elements in the range which do not exist are ignored. 3. The stress limit for compression, SC, is always treated as a negative value regardless of the sign of the input value. 4. LAYRNUM is only used if the element is composed of a composite material defined with PCOMP Bulk Data entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-101 DCONVMM USER’S MANUAL DCONVMM Input Data Entry Description: Von-Mises Stress Constraint Definition Defines a Von-Mises stress constraint by specifying material identification numbers. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SS MID1 MID2 MID3 MID4 DCONVMM SID ST SC CONT MID5 MID6 -etc- DCONVMM 100 1.+6 -1.+6 +BC 501 601 701 Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONVMM SID 1.+4 101 201 301 3 4 5 6 7 8 ST SC SS MID1 THRU MID2 Field 401 10 CONT ABC 9 10 Contents SID Stress constraint set identification (Integer > 0) ST Tensile stress limit (Real > 0.0 or blank) SC Compressive stress limit (Real, Default = ST) SS Shear stress limit (Real > 0.0 or blank) MIDi Material identification numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. Stress constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: STRESS=sid 2. If the alternate form is used, MID2 must be greater than or equal to MID1. Materials in the range which do not exist are ignored. 3. The stress limit for compression, SC, is always treated as a negative value regardless of the sign of the input value. 7-102 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DCONVMP DCONVMP Input Data Entry Description: Von-Mises Stress Constraint Definition Defines a Von-Mises stress constraint by specifying property identification numbers. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SS PTYPE LAYRNUM PID1 PID2 DCONVMP SID ST SC CONT PID3 PID4 -etc- DCONVMP 100 1.+6 -1.+6 +BC 107 108 142 Alternate Form: 1 2 DCONVMP SID CONT PID2 1.+4 PBAR 102 103 CONT ABC 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ST SC SS PTYPE LAYRNUM PID1 THRU Field 10 10 CONT Contents SID Stress constraint set identification (Integer > 0). ST Tensile stress limit (Real > 0.0 or blank) SC Compressive stress limit (Real, Default = ST) SS Shear stress limit (Real > 0.0 or blank) PTYPE Property type (Character) selected from: PBAR PSHEAR PCOMP PROD PQDMEM1 PCOMP1 PTRMEM PCOMP2 PSHELL LAYRNUM The layer number of a composite element (Integer > 0 or blank) PIDi Property identification numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. Stress constraints are selected in Solution Control with the discipline option: STRESS=sid 2. If the alternate form is used, PID2 must be greater than or equal to PID1. Properties in the range which do not exist are ignored. 3. The stress limit for compression, SC, is always treated as a negative value regardless of the sign of the input value. 4. LAYRNUM is only used if the element is composed of a composite material defined with PCOMP Bulk Data entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-103 DENSLIST USER’S MANUAL DENSLIST Input Data Entry: Description: Defines a list of density ratio values. Format and Example: 1 2 DENSLIST CONT DENSLIST 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID DENS1 DENS2 DENS3 DENS4 DENS5 DENS6 DENS7 DENS8 DENS9 -etc- 201 1.0 0.5 Field 10 CONT 0.7 Contents SID Density set identification number (Integer > 0) DENSi Density ratio value (Real > 0.0) Remarks: 1. DENSLIST Bulk Data entries are selected in the Function Packet. 2. The density ratios will be used to select particular intrinsic function values for those intrinsics that are associated with a density ratio; e.g. flutter roots. 7-104 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL DESELM DESELM Input Data Entry: Designates design variable properties when the design variable is uniquely associated with a single finite element Description: Format and Example: 1 2 DESELM CONT DVID 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LAYERNUM LABEL EID ETYPE VMIN VMAX VINIT 10 CBAR 0.01 10.0 1.0 10 CONT DVSYMBL DESELM 1 +BC D1 Field +ABC Contents DVID Design variable identification (Integer > 0) EID Element identification (Integer > 0) ETYPE Element type (Character) selected from: CELASi CBAR CSHEAR CMASSi CROD CQDMEM1 CONM2 CONROD CTRMEM CQUAD4 CTRIA3 VMIN Minimum allowable value of the design variable (Real ≥ 0.0) (Default = .001) VMAX Maximum allowable value of the design variable (Real ≥ 0.0) (Default = 1000.) VINIT Initial value of the design variable (Real, VMIN ≤ VINIT ≤ VMAX) (Default = 1.0) LAYERNUM The layer number of a composite element to be designed (Integer > 0, or blank) LABEL Optional user-supplied label to define the design variable (Character) DVSYMBL Design variable symbol associated with this local design variable (Remark 3) Remarks: 1. The initial element thickness or area used in the structural analysis is derived from the VINIT value and the property value on the associated property entry: tinit = VINIT ∗ property_value Similarly, the minimum and maximum values are the VMIN and VMAX values of the element property are derived from: tmin = VMIN ∗ property_value tmax = VMAX ∗ property_value 2. DVID must be unique among all DESELM, DESVARP and DESVARS entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-105 DESELM USER’S MANUAL 3. If the designed element has only one designable property, the continuation containing DVSYMBL may be omitted. Otherwise, a selection must be made from the following table: ELEMENTS ALLOWABLE DVSYMBL VALUES ELASi K MASSi, CONM2 M BAR (PBAR), ROD, CONROD A BAR (PBAR1) D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10 SHEAR,QDMEM1,TRMEM,QUAD4,TRIA3 T 7-106 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: DESVARP DESVARP Designates physically linked global design variable properties Description: Format and Example: 1 2 DESVARP DVID DESVARP 1 3 4 5 6 LINKID VMIN VMAX VINIT 0.01 2.0 1.0 Field 7 8 LAYERNUM LAYRLST 13 9 10 LABEL NBDTOP Contents DVID Design variable identification (Integer > 0) LINKID link identification number referring to ELIST, ELISTM and/or PLIST, PLISTM entries (Integer > 0, or blank) (Default = DVID) VMIN Minimum allowable value of the design variable (Real ≥ 0.0) (Default = 0.001) VMAX Maximum allowable value of the design variable (Real ≥ 0.0) (Default = 1000.0) VINIT Initial value of the design variable (Real, VMIN ≤ VINIT ≤ VMAX) (Default = 1.0) LAYRNUM Layer number if referencing a single layer of composite element(s) (Integer > 0 or blank) LAYRLST Set identification number of PLYLIST entries specifying a set of composite layers to be linked (Integer > 0 or blank) LABEL Optional user supplied label to define the design variable (Character) Remarks: 1. The elements linked to the DESVARP are specified using one or more ELIST, ELISTM, PLIST, and PLISTM entries. 2. The initial element thickness or area used in the structural analysis is derived from the VINIT value and the property value on the associated property entry: tinit = VINIT ∗ property_value Similarly, the minimum and maximum values are the VMIN and VMAX values of the element property are derived from: tmin = VMIN ∗ property_value tmax = VMAX ∗ property_value 3. LAYRNUM and LAYRLST are mutually exclusive. 4. Noncomposite elements may be linked to composite layers by including them in the ELIST, ELISTM and/or PLIST, PLISTM sets. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-107 DESVARS USER’S MANUAL DESVARS Input Data Entry: Designates shape function linked global design variable properties. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 DESVARS DVID DESVARS 1 3 4 5 6 SHAPEID VMIN VMAX VINIT 0.01 2.0 1.0 Field 7 8 9 LAYERNUM LAYRLST 13 10 LABEL INBDTOP Contents DVID Design variable identification (Integer > 0) SHAPEID Identification number of SHAPE, SHAPEM, or SHPGEN Bulk Data entries defining the shape function (Integer > 0, or blank) (Default = DVID) VMIN Minimum allowable value of the design variable (Real) (Default = –1020) VMAX Maximum allowable value of the design variable (Real) (Default = 1020) VINIT Initial value of the design variable (Real, VMIN ≤ VINIT ≤ VMAX) (No default, a value must be supplied ) LAYRNUM Layer number if referencing a single layer of composite element(s) (Integer > 0 or blank) LAYRLST Set identification of PLYLIST entries specifying a set of composite layers to be linked (Integer > 0 or blank) LABEL Optional user supplied label to define the design variable (Character) Remarks: 1. The elements linked to the DESVARS are specified using SHAPE and/or SHAPEM Bulk Data entries. 2. The initial local variables are computed from: {tinit} = P {VINIT} Where P is the design variable linking matrix and the minimum and maximum values for the local variables are taken from the TMIN and TMAX values on the property and connectivity entries, respectively. 3. LAYRNUM and LAYRLST are mutually exclusive. 4. Noncomposite elements may be linked to composite layers by including them in the referenced SHAPE or SHAPEM set. 7-108 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: DLAGS DLAGS This entry is used in conjunction with RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 data entries and defines time lags and phase lags as well as the set identification of the static load. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DLAGS SID LID TAU PHASE LID TAU PHASE DLAGS 5 21 0.04 20.0 10 0.0 45.0 Field 9 10 Contents SID Identification number of DLAGS set (Integer > 0) LID Identification number of time (or frequency) independent applied load (Integer > 0) TAU Time delay for the designated load set (Real) PHASE Phase lag (in degrees) for the designated load set (Real) Remarks: 1. One or two dynamic load sets may be defined on a single entry. 2. Refer to RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entries for formulas which define the manner in which TAU and PHASE are used. 3. The phase parameter is used only in conjunction with RLOAD1 and RLOAD2 data entries. 4. The LID set can refer to statically applied loads as well as to additional dynamic loads input on DLONLY entries. 5. TAU and PHASE can be defaulted to zero, but LID must not be zero. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-109 DLOAD USER’S MANUAL DLOAD Input Data Entry: Defines a dynamic loading condition for frequency response or transient response problems as a linear combination of load sets defined using RLOAD1 or RLOAD2 entries (for frequency response) or TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entries (for transient response) Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID S S1 L1 S2 L2 S3 L3 CONT S4 L4 DLOAD 17 1.0 -2.0 7 2.0 8 -2.0 9 DLOAD +A 10 CONT –etc– 2.0 Field 6 +A Contents SID Load set identification number (Integer > 0) S Scale factor (Real ≠ 0.0) Si Scale Factors (Real ≠ 0.0) Li Load set identification numbers defined via bulk data entries enumerated above (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The load vector being defined by this entry is given by [P] = S ∑ SiPi j 2. The Li must be unique. 3. SID must be unique from all Li. 4. TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 loads may be combined only through the use of the DLOAD entry. 5. RLOAD1 and RLOAD2 loads may be combined only through the use of the DLOAD entry. 6. SID must be unique for all TLOAD1, TLOAD2, RLOAD1 and RLOAD2 entries. 7. Linear load sets must be selected by a solution control command (DLOAD = SID). 7-110 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: DLONLY DLONLY This entry is used in conjunction with the RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 entries and defines the point where the dynamic load is to be applied with the scale factor A. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DLONLY SID P C A P C A DLONLY 3 6 2 8.2 15 1 10.1 Field 9 10 Contents SID Identification number of DLONLY set (Integer > 0) P Grid, extra point or scalar point identification number (Integer > 0) C Component number (1 through 6 for grid point; blank or 0 for extra points or scalar points) A Load factor A for the designated coordinate (Real) Remarks: 1. One or two load factors may be defined on a single entry. 2. Refer to RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entries for the formulas which define the load factor A. 3. Component numbers refer to global coordinates. 4. The SID field is referred to as the DLAGS entry. 5. The scale factor, A, applied to any grid/component will be the sum of all Ai for that degree of freedom on all DLONLY entries with the same SID. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-111 DMI USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: DMI Direct Matrix Input Used to input matrix data base entities directly. Generates a real or complex matrix of the form: A11 A12 … A1n A21 A22 … A2n A = … … … … An1 Am2 … Amn where the elements Aij may be real or complex Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 NAME PREC FORM M N CONT C1 R1 A(R1, C1) C2 R2 CONT R1 A(R1, C3) C4 R2 A(R2, C4) DMI TEST RDP REC 3 4 +BC 1 2 2.0 2 1 +EF 1 5.0 4 3 6.5 DMI Field 7 8 9 CONT A(R1, C2) A(R1+1, C2) C3 CONT ABC 3.0 4.0 4 DEF Contents NAME Any valid data base entity name (Character) PREC The precision of the matrix entity to be loaded (Character) selected from: RSP FORM 10 CSP RDP CDP The form of the matrix entity to be loaded. Any one of the following REC SYM DIAG IDENT SQUARE M The number of rows in the matrix (Integer > 0) N The number of columns in the matrix (Integer > 0) Ci The column number of the column being loaded (Integer) Ri The row number of the first row in the string being loaded (Integer) A(Ri,Ci) Matrix terms (Real) Remarks: 1. If the named entity exists, it will be flushed and reloaded. If the entity does not exist, it will be created. 2. Column and row identifiers (Ci, Ri) must always appear together although they can appear in any two contiguous fields. 3. Columns must be loaded in increasing column number order. If more than one string is to be loaded for a particular column, the Ci field must contain the same value as in the previous string. Strings must be loaded in increasing row order without overlap. Complex matrices require two real values for each matrix term. These can be split across physical entry boundaries. 7-112 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: DMIG DMIG Direct Matrix Input at Grid Points Defines structure-related direct input matrices with terms located by external grid/component values. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 DMIG NAME PREC FORM CONT GCOL CCOL GROW CROW Xij Yij CONT CONT GCOL CCOL GROW CROW Xij Yij CONT DMIG TEST RDP REC +BC 1001 4 2001 2 1.25+5 +EF 1001 4 3001 3 2.67+4 Field CONT ABC DEF -etc- Contents NAME Any valid data base entity name (Character) PREC The precision of the matrix entity to be loaded. Any one of the following character strings: RSP, RDP, CSP, or CDP FORM The form of the matrix entity to be loaded. Any one of the following: REC, SYM, DIAG, IDENT, SQUARE, TRIANG GCOL Grid, scalar or extra point identification for column index (Integer) CCOL Component number for GCOL, 0 ≤ CCOL ≤ 6 if GCOL is a grid point, zero or blank for scalar or extra points. (Integer) GROW Grid, scalar or extra point identification for row index. (Integer) CROW Component number for GROW, 0 ≤ CROW ≤ 6 if GROW is a grid point, zero or blank for scalar or extra points. (Integer) Xij, Yij Matrix term. Xij is real part for real or complex matrices. Yij is the imaginary part for complex matrices and is ignored for real matrices.(Real) Remarks: 1. If the named entity exists, it will be flushed and reloaded. If the entity does not exist, it will be created. 2. The number of rows and columns will be either p-set size or g-set size depending on whether the named entity is requested by K2PP, M2PP, B2PP or K2GG, M2GG, etc. 3. Each non-null term in the matrix requires a continuation entry. The column index and row index values can appear any number of times on a logical entry but a fatal error will occur if the same term is entered more than once. 4. The matrix terms can be entered in any order. 5. The TRIANG input FORM implies that only the upper or lower triangular portion of the symmetric matrix is input. ASTROS will automatically expand the input across the diagonal. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-113 DVTOPTE USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: DVTOPTE Type definition for designed element thickness variation Defines the thickness variation type for a designed element by specifying the element identification numbers. Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID2 EID3 EID4 EID5 EID6 7 8 9 DVTOPTE TYPE ETYPE EID1 CONT EID7 EID8 -etc- DVTOPTE TOP QUAD4 101 102 104 3 4 5 6 ETYPE EID1 THRU EID2 Alternate Form: 1 2 DVTOPTE TYPE Field 10 CONT 10 Contents TYPE Designed element thickness variation type, one of the character values, CENTER, TOP or BOTTOM. (Character, default = CENTER) Element thickness varies about a fixed element reference plane CENTER Element thickness varies about a fixed element top plane TOP Element thickness varies about a fixed element bottom plane BOTTOM ETYPE Element type (Character) selected from: QUAD4 EIDi TRIA3 Element identification number (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The thickness option for a selected element will be ignored if it is not a designed plate bending element. 7-114 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: DVTOPTL DVTOPTL Type definition for designed element thickness variation. Defines the thickness variation type for a designed element by specifying the element list set ID number. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ELID3 ELID4 ELID5 ELID6 ELID7 DVTOPTL TYPE ELID1 ELID2 CONT ELID8 ELID9 -etc- TOP 10 99 DVTOPTL Field 10 CONT 999 Contents TYPE Designed element thickness variation type, one of the character values, CENTER, TOP or BOTTOM. (Character, default = CENTER) Element thickness varies about a fixed element reference plane CENTER Element thickness varies about a fixed element top plane TOP Element thickness varies about a fixed element bottom plane BOTTOM ELIDi Element list set identification number (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The thickness option for a selected element will be ignored if it is not a design bending element. 2. The elements in the specified list will be ignored if they are not QUAD4 or TRIA3. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-115 DVTOPTP USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: DVTOPTP Type definition for designed element thickness variation. Defines the thickness variation type for a designed element by specifying the element property identification numbers. Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PID2 PID3 PID4 PID5 PID6 7 8 9 DVTOPTP TYPE PTYPE PID1 CONT PID7 PID8 -etc- DVTOPTP TOP PSHELL 100 200 3 4 5 6 PTYPE PID1 THRU PID2 Alternate Form: 1 2 DVTOPTP TYPE Field 10 CONT 10 Contents TYPE Designed element thickness variation type, one of the character values, CENTER, TOP or BOTTOM. (Character, default = CENTER) Element thickness varies about a fixed element reference plane CENTER Element thickness varies about a fixed element top plane TOP Element thickness varies about a fixed element bottom plane BOTTOM PTYPE Property type (Character) selected from: PSHELL PIDi PCOMP PCOMP1 PCOMP2 Property identification number (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The thickness option for elements connected to the specified properties will be ignored if it they are not designed bending plate elements. USER’S MANUAL DYNRED DYNRED Input Data Entry: Description: Dynamic Reduction Data Defines dynamic reduction control data. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 NVEC DYNRED SID FMAX DYNRED 1 50.0 Field 5 6 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) FMAX Highest frequency of interest (Hertz) (Real > 0 or blank) NVEC Number of generalized coordinates desired (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. Dynamic reduction data must be requested in the Solution Control packet with: DYNRED=SID 2. The user should select either an FMAX, or both the FMAX and NVEC fields. FMAX should not be greater than necessary for the specific dynamic analysis. NVEC, if specified, should be significantly less than the size of the f-set to realize any computational cost savings. NVEC will limit dynamic reduction to using NVEC flexible vectors. 3. Dynamic reduction transforms the motions of the f-set to the motions of the user defined A-set plus motions of generalized coordinates created in the process. The generalized coordinates represent overall structure displacements which are approximate normal mode shapes. The generalized coordinates are identified by SCALAR points that are automatically generated. The SCALAR point identification numbers begin with 1 greater than the highest user GRID, SCALAR, or EXTRA point identification number. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-117 EIGC USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: EIGC Complex Eigenvalue Extraction Data. Specifies complex eigensolution control data. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 EIGC SID METHOD NORM G C E CONT PA1 QA1 PB1 QB1 W1 NE1 ND1 CONT PA2 QA2 PB2 QB2 W2 NE2 ND2 EIGC 14 INV POINT 27 +BC 2.0 5.6 2.0 -3.4 2.0 4 4 +EF -5.5 -5.5 5.6 5.6 1.5 6 3 Field 9 10 CONT 1.-8 CONT ABC DEF Contents SID Set identification number (Unique integer > 0) METHOD Method of complex eigenvalue extraction, one of the strings INV or HESS INV - Inverse power method HESS - Upper Hessenberg method NORM Method for normalizing eigenvectors, one of the strings MAX or POINT MAX - Normalize to a unit value for the real part and a zero value for the imaginary part, the component having the largest magnitude. POINT - Normalize to unit value of the component G,C (defaults to MAX if point is not defined) G Grid or scalar point identification number (Required if and only if NORM = POINT (Integer > 0) C Component number (Required if and only if NORM = POINT and G is a geometric grid point) (0 < Integer ≤ 6) E Convergence test (Real, Default = 10-6) PAi, QAi PBi, QBi Two complex points defining a line in the complex plane (Real) W Width of region in complex plane (Real > 0) NEi Estimated number of roots in each region (Integer > 0) NDi Desired number of roots in each region (Default is 3*NEi) (Integer > 0) 7-118 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL EIGC Remarks: 1. The SID may be called out directly in the CEIG module call or may be entered via the Solution Control CMETHOD in the BOUNDARY command. One of these methods must be used. 2. Each continuation entry defines a rectangular search region. Any number of regions may be used and they may overlap. Roots in overlapping regions will not be extracted more than once. Q (Imaginary Axis) A1 W2 B2 P (Real Axis) A2 B1 W1 3. The units of P, Q, and W are radians per unit time. 4. At least one continuation entry is required. 5. For the Upper Hessenberg method, ND1 controls the number of vectors computed. Only one continuation entry is considered and the (P, Q) pairs, along with the parameters W1 and NE1 are ignored. All eigenvalues are computed for this method. 6. If (P, Q) pairs and parameters W1 and NE1 are provided, and insufficient memory exists for the Upper Hessenberg method , ASTROS will switch to the Inverse power method. 7. A pair (P, Q) defines a complex eigenvalue. From this pair the following may be computed: 1 P2 + Q √ 2 fN = undamped frequency = 2π ξ = damping coefficient = P P2+Q √ 2 fD = damped frequency = fN 1 − ξ2 √ for lightly damped systems, Q is a measure of the radian frequency and P is a measure of the damping. 8. Parameter Wi should be kept greater than 5 percent of the segment length Ai to Bi for relatively efficient processing. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-119 EIGR(GIVENS and Modified GIVENS) Input Data Entry EIGR(GIVENS and Modified GIVENS) Specifies real eigensolution control data for the Givens methods which are used to extract all eigenvalues. Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 SID METHOD FL FU NORM GID DOF EIGR -cont- USER’S MANUAL 6 7 NVEC 8 9 E 10 -cont- Requesting Eigenvectors in a Frequency Range: EIGR 13 GIV .0 +A POINT 32 4 20.0 +A Requesting a Specified Number of Eigenvectors: EIGR 13 MGIV +A POINT 32 10 +A 4 Field Contents SID Set identification number. (Required,Integer>0) [1] METHOD Method of eigenvalue extraction. [2,3] GIV MGIV Given’s method Modified Given’s method FL,FU Frequency range for eigenvector computations. (cycles/sec) (Real>0.0, FL<FU) [4] NVEC Number of eigenvectors to compute. (Integer>0, default 1) E Mass orthogonality test parameter. A non-zero value requests a check of the mass orthogonality of the eigenvectors. (Real>0.0, default 10-10) NORM Method for eigenvectors normalization. [5,6] Method for normalizing eigenvectors, one of the character values, MASS, MAX, or POINT MASS - Normalize to unit value of the generalized mass MAX - Normalize to unit value of the largest component in the analysis set (Default) POINT - Normalize to unit value of the component defined by G,C (defaults to "MAX" if point is not defined) GID Grid or scalar point identification number. (Required only if NORM=POINT) (Integer>0) DOF Component number (One of the integers 1-6) (Required only if NORM = "POINT" and GID is a geometric grid point) Remarks: 1. The real eigenvalue extraction method set must be selected in Solution Control (METHOD=SID) to be used. 2. Both the GIV and MGIV methods are full-spectrum tridiagonalization procedures which compute all eigenvalues and a range of eigenvectors selected by the user. The GIV method requires that the a-set 7-120 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL EIGR(GIVENS and Modified GIVENS) mass matrix be positive definite. The MGIV method uses an additional transformation to remove this requirement. 3. If METHOD is GIV, the mass matrix for the analysis set must be positive definite. This means that all degrees of freedom, including rotations, must have mass properties. 4. The number of eigenvalues which are computed depend on the values of FL, FU, and NVEC. The following table summarizes the options. FU Blank Blank Blank The lowest mode only. Blank Blank n_val The first n_val modes. Blank All modes between − ∞ and hi_val. Blank hi_val Blank hi_val low_val Blank low_val Blank low_val hi_val low_val hi_val NVEC Mode Shapes Computed FL n_val Blank n_val Blank n_val First n_val modes in the range − ∞ and hi_val. First mode above low_val. First n_val modes above low_val. All modes between low_val and hi_val. First n_val modes between low_val and hi_val. If you are extracting rigid body modes you should leave the FL Field blank. 5. If you select NORM=MASS, the eigenvectors are normalized to a unit value of the generalized mass. If you select NORM=MAX, the eigenvectors are normalized with respect to the largest component value in the g-set. When using the MAX normalization with Dynamic Reduction, the g-set degrees of freedom, excluding the dynamic reduction generalized coordinates, are used in the normalization process. Finally, if you select NORM=POINT, the eigenvectors are normalized with respect to the value of the component defined by GID and DOF. This component must be in the analysis set. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-121 EIGR (INVERSE POWER) EIGR (INVERSE POWER) Bulk Data Entry Specifies real eigensolution control data for the Inverse Power method which is used to extract a few eigenvalues in a specified frequency range. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SID METHOD FL FU NEST NVEC NORM GID DOF EIGR -cont- USER’S MANUAL EIGR 13 INV 1.9 +A POINT 32 4 Field 15.6 10 8 12 9 E 1.-6 10 -cont- +A Contents SID Set identification number. [1] Integer>0 Required METHOD Method of eigenvalue extraction. Character SINV Required FL,FU Frequency range of interest (cycles/sec). [2] Real FL<FU Required NEST Estimated number of roots in the frequency range FL to FU. (Integer>0, Required) NVEC The number of eigenvectors to be computed. [2] (Integer>0, default= 3*NEST) E The mass orthogonality test and eigenvalue convergence parameter. A non-zero value requests a check of the mass orthogonality of the eigenvectors.( Real>0.0, default 10-10) NORM Method for eigenvectors normalization. [5,6] Method for normalizing eigenvectors, one of the character values, MASS, MAX, or POINT MASS - Normalize to unit value of the generalized mass MAX - Normalize to unit value of the largest component in the analysis set (Default) POINT - Normalize to unit value of the component defined by G,C (defaults to "MAX" if point is not defined) GID Grid or scalar point identification number. (Required only if NORM=POINT) (Integer>0) DOF Component number (One of the integers 1-6) (Required only if NORM = "POINT" and G is a geometric grid point) Remarks: 1. The real eigenvalue extraction method set must be selected in Solution Control (METHOD=SID) to be used. 2. The number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors extracted depends on the FL,FU and NVEC values. A summary is given in the table found with entry EIGR (Lanczos). 3. If you select NORM=MASS, the eigenvectors are normalized to a unit value of the generalized mass. If you select NORM=MAX, the eigenvectors are normalized with respect to the largest component value in the g-set. When using the MAX normalization with Dynamic Reduction, the g-set degrees of freedom, excluding the dynamic reduction generalized coordinates, are used in the normalization process. Finally, if you select NORM=POINT, the eigenvectors are normalized with respect to the value of the component defined by GID and DOF. This component must be in the analysis set. 7-122 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL EIGR(LANCZOS) Bulk Data Entry Description: EIGR(LANCZOS) Specifies real eigensolution control data for the Lanczos method of eigenvalue extraction. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 FU EIGR SID METHOD FL CONT NORM GID DOF EIGR Field 1 LANCZOS .0 6 7 8 NVEC 9 E 10 CONT 20.0 Contents SID Set identification number. [1] Integer>0 Required METHOD Method of eigenvalue extraction. [2] Character LANCZOS Required FL,FU Frequency range for eigenvector computations. (cycles/sec) Real FL<FU [3] NVEC Number of eigenvectors to compute. Integer [3] E Mass orthogonality test parameter. A non-zero value requests a check of the mass orthogonality of the eigenvectors. Real>0.0 10-10 NORM Method for eigenvectors normalization. [5,6] Method for normalizing eigenvectors, one of the character values, MASS, MAX, or POINT: Normalize to unit value of the generalized mass MASS Normalize to unit value of the largest component in the analysis MAX set (Default) Normalize to unit value of the component defined by G,C (defaults to POINT MAX if point is not defined) GID Grid or scalar point identification number. (Required only if NORM=POINT) (Integer>0) DOF Component number (One of the integers 1-6) (Required only if NORM = "POINT" and G is a geometric grid point) Remarks: 1. The real eigenvalue extraction method set must be selected in Solution Control (METHOD=SID) to be used. 2. The Lanczos eigenvalue extraction technique is optimized for processing large, sparse matrices. It is not recommended to perform either Guyan reduction or Dynamic Reduction with the Lanczos technique. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-123 EIGR(LANCZOS) USER’S MANUAL 3. The number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors extracted depends on the FL,FU and NVEC values. A summary is given in the following table: FL FU Blank Blank Blank Blank Blank hi_val Blank hi_val low_val Blank low_val Blank low_val hi_val low_val hi_val NVEC Blank n_val Blank n_val Blank n_val Blank n_val Eigenvalues and Mode Shapes Computed The lowest mode only. The first n_val modes. All modes between − ∞ and hi_val. First n_val modes in the range − ∞ and hi_val. First mode above low_val. First n_val modes above low_val. All modes between low_val and hi_val. First n_val modes between low_val and hi_val. If you are extracting rigid body modes you should leave the FL Field blank. 4. If you select NORM=MASS, the eigenvectors are normalized to a unit value of the generalized mass. If you select NORM=MAX, the eigenvectors are normalized with respect to the largest component value in the g-set. When using the MAX normalization with Dynamic Reduction, the g-set degrees of freedom, excluding the dynamic reduction generalized coordinates, are used in the normalization process. Finally, if you select NORM=POINT, the eigenvectors are normalized with respect to the value of the component defined by GID and DOF. This component must be in the analysis set. 7-124 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: ELEMLIST ELEMLIST Defines a list of elements. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID ETYPE EID1 EID2 EID3 EID4 EID5 EID6 CONT EID7 EID8 -etc- ELEMLIST 100 QDMEM1 100 101 200 205 3 4 5 6 7 ETYPE EID1 THRU EID2 ELEMLIST Alternate Form: 1 2 ELEMLIST SID Field 10 CONT CONT 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number referenced by Solution Controlcommands or Bulk Data entries. (Integer > 0 ) ETYPE Character input identifying the element type. One of the following: BAR ELAS IHEX2 MASS EIDi QDMEM1 ROD TRIA3 CONROD CONM2 IHEX1 IHEX3 QUAD4 SHEAR TRMEM Element identification numbers (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. If the alternate form is used, EID2 must be greater than or equal to EID1. 2. Nonexistent elements may be referenced, and if so, no error messages are issued. 3. Any number of continuations is allowed. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-125 ELIST Input Data Entry: Defines elements associated with a design variable. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LINKID ETYPE EID1 EID2 EID3 EID4 EID5 EID6 CONT EID7 EID8 EID9 -etc- ELIST 6 CROD 12 14 22 3 4 5 6 ETYPE EID1 THRU EID2 ELIST Alternate form: 1 2 ELIST LINKID Field 7 8 LINKID Element list identifier (Integer > 0) ETYPE Character input identifying the element type. One of the following: EIDi CELAS2 CROD CQDMEM1 CMASS1 CONROD CTRMEM CONT CONT Contents CELAS1 CBAR CSHEAR 10 CMASS2 CONM2 CQUAD4 CTRIA3 Element identification numbers (Integer > 0, or blank) 9 10 USER’S MANUAL ELISTM ELISTM Input Data Entry: Description: Defines elements, and their local design variables, associated with a design variable. Format and Example: 1 2 ELISTM CONT ELISTM 3 4 5 6 7 8 LINKID ETYPE EID1 DVSYM1 EID2 DVSYM2 EID3 EID4 DVSYM4 -etc- 6 BAR 12 Field 9 10 DVSYM3 CONT CONT A 22 A Contents LINKID Element list identifier (Integer > 0) ETYPE Character input identifying the element type. One of the following: CELAS1 CBAR CSHEAR CELAS2 CROD CQDMEM1 CMASS1 CONROD CTRMEM CMASS2 CONM2 CQUAD4 CTRIA3 EIDi Element identification numbers (Integer > 0, or blank) DVSYMi Symbol defining the local design variable. (Remarks 2 and 3) Remarks: 1. The LINKID is referenced by DESVARP data to connect the global design variable to the local variables. 2. The following symbols may be used for the different types of elements: ELEMENTS ALLOWABLE DVSYM VALUES ELASi K MASSi, CONM2 M BAR (PBAR), ROD, CONROD A BAR (PBAR1) D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10 SHEAR,QDMEM1,TRMEM,QUAD4,TRIA3 T 3. If all elements to be linked have only one possible DVSYM (e.g. K), the ELIST Bulk Data entry may be used. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-127 EPOINT USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: EPOINT Defines extra points of the structural model for use in dynamics problems. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 EPOINT CONT EPOINT 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SETID ID1 ID2 ID3 ID4 ID5 ID6 ID7 ID8 ID9 -etc- 1000 3 18 1 4 16 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ID1 THRU ID2 Alternate Form: 1 2 EPOINT Extra Point List SETIC Field 9 10 CONT 10 Contents SETID Extra point sets identification numbers. (Integer > 0) IDi Extra point identification number (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The extra point set identification is selected on the BOUNDARY entry. All extra points defined with this SETID will be used in dynamic analyses in the boundary condition. 2. All extra point identification numbers must be unique with respect to all other structural and scalar points. 3. This entry is used to define coordinates used in transfer function definitions (see TF entry) and Direct Matrix input. 4. If the alternate form is used, ID2 must be greater than or equal to ID1. 7-128 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: FFT FFT Defines parameters for controlling the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) during time domain response analysis. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RF FRIM OTYPE FLIM FFT SID TIME NT RDELTF FFT 3 20. 1024 1.0 Field 10 Contents SID FFT set identification number (Integer > 0 ) TIME Length of time period to be analyzed (Real > 0.0) NT Number of time points to be used for the FFT (Integer ≥ 2) RDELTF Ratio of incremental frequency (del F) to 1 / T. See remarks 4 and 6. (Default = 1.0, Real > 0.0) RF Ratio of total frequency duration (F ) to NT / 2*T. See remarks 5 and 6. (Default = 1.0, Real > 0.0) FRIM Frequency response interpolation method. Character string LINEAR or CUBIC. Default is LINEAR. OTYPE Type of response to be output. Character string TIME, FREQ or BOTH. Default is TIME. FLIM Frequency load interpolation method. Character string LINEAR or CUBIC. Default is LINEAR. Remarks: 1. SID must be selected by a FFT option on a TRANSIENT command in solution control. 2. TIME is the period for periodic dynamic loads defined in the time domain. For non-periodic loads, T is the total time duration of the excitation plus any quiet portion desired for response decay. T may be larger than the time duration defined by TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 data, in which case the forcing function will be automatically set to zero for the additional time. 3. NT should be a power of 2; i.e., NT = 2**m, m = 1,2,...; or NT = 2, 4, 8, ... . If NT is not a power of 2, it will be automatically set to the next highest power of 2 value. 4. The incremental frequency, ∆ F, required by the FFT algorithm, is 1 / T. The value of ∆ F may be adjusted by the user with the RDELTF factor. However, the most accurate results are normally obtained with the default case of RDELTF = 1.0. 5. The frequency duration required by the FFT algorithm is F = NT / 2*T. This is the frequency duration used when the default value of RF = 1.0 is used. If RF < 1.0, the response between RF and 1.0 is set to zero when using the inverse Fourier transform to compute time domain responses. 6. The frequency list used in the frequency response calculations is generated using a constant incremental frequency of del F = RDELTF * ∆ F , and the total frequency duration is F = RF * F. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-129 FLFACT USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: FLFACT Aerodynamic Physical Data Used to specify density ratios, velocity lists, and reduced frequencies for FLUTTER analysis. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 CONT F8 F9 -etc- FLFACT 97 .3 .7 FLFACT 10 CONT 3.5 Field Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0). Fi Aerodynamic factor (Real). Remarks: 1. Only the factors selected by a FLUTTER data entry will be used. 2. Embedded blank fields are forbidden. 3. Parameters must be listed in the order in which they are to be used within the looping of FLUTTER analysis. 4. All FLFACT entries having the same SETID will be treated as a single set. 7-130 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: FLUTTER FLUTTER Aerodynamic FLUTTER Data Defines data needed to perform FLUTTER analysis. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID METHOD DENS MACH VEL MLIST KLIST EFFID SYMXZ SYMXY EPS CURFIT NROOT VTYPE GFLUT GFILTER FLUTTER 19 PKIT 119 0.85 319 +BC -1 0.01 CUBIC FLUTTER CONT Field 10 CONT ABC EQUIV Contents SID Set identification number (See Remark 1) (Integer > 0) METHOD FLUTTER analysis method, PK or PKIT (See Remark 2) (Character, Default=PK) DENS Identification number of an FLFACT set specifying density ratios to be used in FLUTTER analysis (See Remark 3) (Integer > 0). MACH Mach number to be used in the FLUTTER analysis (Real ≥ 0.0) VEL Identification number of an FLFACT set specifying velocities to be used in the FLUTTER analysis. (Integer > 0). MLIST Identification number of a SET1 set specifying a list of normal modes to be omitted from the FLUTTER analysis (See Remark 4) (Integer > 0, or blank). KLIST Identification number of an FLFACT set specifying a list of hard point reduced frequencies for the given Mach number for use in the FLUTTER analysis (See Remark 5) (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) EFFID Identification number of a CONEFFF set specifying control surface effectiveness values (See Remark 6) (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) SYMXZ, SYMXY Symmetry flags associated with the aerodynamics (See Remark 7) (Integer) +1 Symmetric 0 or blank Asymmetric -1 Antisymmetric EPS Convergence parameter for FLUTTER eigenvalue (Real, Default = 10-5) CURFIT Type of curve fit to be used in the PK FLUTTER analysis. One of LINEAR, QUAD, CUBIC, or ORIG (See Remarks 8, 9, and 10) (Character, Default = LINEAR) NROOT Requests that only the first NROOT eigenvalues be found (Integer or blank) VTYPE Input velocities are in units of true, TRUE, or equivalent, EQUIV, speed. (See Remark 11) (Character, Default=TRUE) GFLUT The damping a mode must exceed to be considered a flutter crossing (See Remark 12) (Real ≥ 0, Default=0.0) GFILTER The damping a mode must attain to be considered stable before a flutter crossing (See Remark 12) (Real, Default=0.0) ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-131 FLUTTER USER’S MANUAL Remarks: 1. The FLUTTER data entry must be selected in the Solution Control packet. Only those Mach numbers and symmetries selected in Solution will be processed in the UNSTEADY aerodynamic preface. 2. When PK is selected Muller’s method is used, and when PKIT is selected the iterative method is used. 3. The density is given by ρ × ρref , where ρref is the reference value given on the AERO Bulk Data entry, and ρ is the density ratio from the FLFACT entry. 4. If the MLIST is blank or zero, all computed eigenvectors will be retained in the FLUTTER analysis. 5. If the KLIST is blank or zero, all "hard point" k values (those on the MKAEROi entries) associated with the Mach number/symmetries on the FLUTTER entry will be used in the interpolation of the aerodynamics. Specifying a subset may be used to improve the ORIG interpolation. Those MKAEROi hard point k values nearest in value to those listed on the FLFACT will be used. No duplicate hard point k’s will be used and no errors will be printed. 6. If the EFFID is blank or zero, no effectiveness corrections will be made. 7. The symmetry flags are used to select the appropriate unsteady aerodynamic matrices generated from the list on the MKAEROi entries. 8. The LINEAR, QUAD, and CUBIC fits are separate first, second and third order, respectively, fits of the real and complex terms of the generalized aerodynamic matrix between each hard point k. Only the closest 2, 3 or 4, respectively, k’s are utilized for each fit and LINEAR fitting is used off the ends of the hard point KLIST. The program automatically reduces the order of the fit if too few points are available for the higher order fit (e.g., CUBIC becomes QUAD if only 3 k’s are used in the KLIST) (Refer to the Version 9.0 Release Notes for more information). 9. The ORIGinal fit (documented in the Theoretical Manual) is a cubic fit over all the hard point k’s. Its use is not recommended since it tends to experience numerical problems for any but small k ranges and small numbers of k’s. 10. For all fitting options, the generalized aerodynamic matrices are normalized by the hard point k value before fitting, as documented on the Theoretical Manual. 11. Equivalent velocity is defined as the true velocity multiplied by the density ratio (See Remark 3). 7-132 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL FLUTTER 12. When PKIT is selected, the fields GFLUT and GFILTER effect the flutter crossings reported during a flutter analysis. GFLUT defines the damping value at which flutter occurs. GFILTER is used to filter out crossings of lightly damped modes. A flutter crossing will only be identified if the damping in the mode drops below GFILTER before exceeding GFLUT. This allows lightly damped modes to be filtered even if GFLUT otherwise defines a flutter crossing, i.e. has damping of zero. The figure below shows two example curves. GFLUT is 0.005 and GFILTER is -0.03. Point 1 on Curve A would not be considered a flutter crossing even though the curve exceeds GFLUT. This occurs because the damping was not less than GFILTER before GFLUT was exceeded. Point 2 on Curve B would be reported as a flutter crossing at the velocity where the curve crosses GFLUT. GFLUT and GFILTER have no effect during optimization. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-133 FORCE USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: FORCE Static Load Defines a static load at a grid point by specifying a vector. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 FORCE SID G CID F N1 N2 N3 FORCE 2 5 6 2.9 0.0 1.0 0.0 Field 9 10 Contents SID Load set identification number (Integer > 0) G Grid point identification number (Integer > 0) CID Coordinate system identification number (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) (Default = 0) F Scale factor (Real) Ni Components of a vector measured in the coordinate system defined by CID (Real; must have at least one nonzero component) Remarks: 1. The static load applied to grid point G is given by {f} = F {N} where {N} is the vector defined in Fields 6, 7 and 8. 2. A CID of zero references the basic coordinate system. 7-134 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: FORCE1 FORCE1 Static Load, Alternate Form 1 Used to define a static load by specification of a value and two grid points which determine the direction. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 FORCE1 SID G F G1 G2 FORCE1 6 13 -2.93 16 13 Field 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Load set identification number (Integer > 0) G Grid point identification number (Integer > 0) F Value of load (Real) Gi Grid point identification numbers (Integer > 0; G1 ≠ G2) Remarks: 1. The direction of the force is determined by the vector from G1 to G2. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-135 FREQ USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: FREQ Defines a set of frequencies to be used in the solution of frequency response problems. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 FREQ SID F1 F2 CONT F8 F9 -etc- FREQ 3 2.98 3.05 29.2 22.4 19.3 +BC Field 10 CONT CONT 17.9 21.3 25.6 28.8 31.2 ABC Contents SID Frequency set identification number (Integer > 0) Fi Frequency value (Real ≥ 0.0) Remarks: 1. The units for the frequencies are cycles per unit time. 2. Frequency sets must be selected by the Solution Control (FSTEP=SID) to be used. 3. All FREQ, FREQ1 and FREQ2 entries with the same frequency set identification numbers will be used. Duplicate frequencies will be ignored. fN and fN-1 are considered duplicated if | fN − fN−1 | < 10−5 ∗(fMAX − fMIN ) 7-136 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: FREQ1 FREQ1 Defines a set of frequencies to be used in the solution of frequency response problems by specification of a starting frequency, frequency increment, and number of increments desired. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 FREQ1 SID F1 DF NDF FREQ1 6 2.9 0.5 13 Field 6 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Frequency set identification number (Integer > 0) F1 First frequency in set (Real ≥ 0.0) DF Frequency increment (Real > 0.0) NDF Number of frequency increments (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The units for the frequency F1 and the frequency increment DF are cycles per unit time. 2. The frequencies defined by this entry are given by: fi = F1 + (i-1) DF, i = 1, NDF + 1 3. Frequency sets must be selected by the Solution Control (FSTEP=SID) to be used. 4. All FREQ, FREQ1 and FREQ2 entries with the same frequency set identification numbers will be used. Duplicate frequencies will be ignored. fN and fN-1 are considered duplicated if | fN − f N−1 | < 10−5 ∗(fMAX − fMIN ) ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-137 FREQ2 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: FREQ2 Defines a set of frequencies to be used in the solution of frequency response problems by specification of a starting frequency, final frequency, and number of logarithmic increments desired. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 FREQ2 SID F1 F2 NF FREQ2 6 1.0 8.0 6 Field 6 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Frequency set identification number (Integer > 0) F1 First frequency (Real > 0.0) F2 Last frequency (Real > 0.0; F2 > F1) NF Number of logarithmic intervals (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The units for the frequencies F1 and F2 are cycles per unit time. 2. The frequencies defined by this entry are given by: fi = F1 e( i−1 ) d where, f2 1 d = ln f NF 1 For the example shown, the list of frequencies will be 1.0, 1.4142, 2.0, 2.8284, 4.0, 5.6569 and 8.0 cycles per unit time. 3. Frequency sets must be selected by the Solution Control (FSTEP=SID) to be used. 4. All FREQ, FREQ1 and FREQ2 entries with the same frequency set identification numbers will be used. Duplicate frequencies will be ignored. fN and fN-1 are considered duplicated if: | fN − f N−1 | < 10−5 ∗(fMAX − fMIN ) 7-138 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: FREQLIST FREQLIST Defines a list of frequencies for which outputs are defined. Format and Example: 1 2 FREQLIST CONT FREQLIST 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID FREQ1 FREQ2 FREQ3 FREQ4 FREQ5 FREQ6 FREQ7 FREQ8 FREQ9 -etc- 100 10.0 20.0 50.0 100.0 Field 10 CONT Contents SID Set identification number referenced by Solution Control (Integer > 0) FREQi Frequency (in Hertz) at which outputs are desired (Real) Remarks: 1. In order to be used, the SID must be referenced by Solution Control. 2. The nearest frequency to FREQ, either above or below, which was used in the Frequency Response analysis will be used to satisfy the output requests. 3. Any number of continuations is allowed. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-139 GDVLIST USER’S MANUAL GDVLIST Input Data Entry Description: Defines a list of global design variables for which outputs are desired. Format and Example: 1 2 GDVLIST CONT GDVLIST SID GDVID8 100 3 SID 4 5 GDVID1 GDVID23 GDVID3 GDVID9 1 Alternate Form 1 2 GDVLIST Global Design Variable List 6 7 8 GDVID4 GDVID5 GDVID6 9 10 GDVID7 CONT -etc2 3 5 3 4 5 GDVID1 THRU GDVID2 Field 7 6 9 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number referenced by Solution Control (Integer > 0) GDVID Global design variable identification number (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. In order to be used, the SID must be referenced by Solution Control. 2. If the alternate form is used, GDVID2 must be greater than or equal to GDVID1. 3. Nonexistent global design variables may be referenced and will result in no error message. 4. Any number of continuations is allowed, except when using the alternate form, which allows no continuations. 7-140 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL GENEL GENEL Input Data Entry Description: Defines a general element of the structural model by a stiffness or flexibility matrix. Format and Example: 1 2 GENEL General Element 3 EID 4 5 6 7 8 9 GIDI1 DOFI1 GIDI2 DOFI2 GIDI3 DOFI3 CONTINUES IN GROUPS OF 2 CONT CONT GIDI4 CONT "UD" CONT GIDD4 DOFD4 CONT "K"/"Z" K11 K21 K31 CONT ... K33 K43 K53 CONT "S" S11 S12 S13 CONT S23 ... S31 S32 GENEL 3000 3 1 3 2 3 6 +G31 +G31 UD 4 1 4 2 4 6 +G32 +G32 K 6.0 0.0 0.0 6.0 3.0 2.0 +G33 S 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 -1.0 +G34 0.0 1.0 Field DOFI4 10 GIDD1 DOFD1 GIDD2 DOFD2 GIDD3 CONT DOFD3 CONTINUES IN GROUPS OF 2 ... K22 K32 CONT K42 CONTINUES WITH LIST OF TERMS S14 ... S21 CONT S22 CONTINUES WITH LIST OF TERMS CONT CONT CONT CONT +G33 0.0 +G34 Contents EID Element identification number. See Remark 1 (Integer>0) (Required) GIDIi Grid or scalar point identification numbers of points in the UI list. (Integer>0) (Required) DOFIi Single degree of freedom corresponding to the points GIDIi. (DOF Code) (Required) "UD" Indicates the start of the UD degrees of freedom. (Character) (Required) GIDDi Grid or scalar point identification numbers of points in the UD list. (Integer>0) (Required) DOFDi Single degree of freedom corresponding to the points GIDDi. (DOF Code) (Required) "K","Z" Indicates the start of the element stiffness, K, or flexibility, Z, matrix. (Character) (Required) Kij Elements of the K or Z matrix. See Remark 2 (Real) (Default = 0.0) "S" Indicates the start of data defining the rigid body, S, matrix. (Character) (Required) Sij Elements of the S matrix. See Remark 3 (Real) (Default = 0.0) Remarks: ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-141 GENEL USER’S MANUAL 1. Element identification numbers must be unique. 2. The K or Z matrices are entered as lower triangular matrices by columns. High precision input format may be used. 3. The S matrix is entered by rows. 4. There are four distinct sections of data to input; the UI list, the UD list, the K or Z matrix, and the S matrix. 5. The stiffness approach: K fi = T f d −S K − K S ui , or S TK S ud 6. The flexibility approach: Z ui = T fd −S S fi O ud where u i = [ ui1 , ui2 , … , uim] T u d = [ud1 , ud2 , … , udn] T K Z11 K Z12 … K Z1m K Z22 … ⋅ ⋅ K Z = I or Z = ⋅ and K Z T = K Z ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ … … K Zmm K Zm1 S11 … … … S1n ⋅ ⋅ S = ⋅ ⋅ Sm1 … … … Smn The required input is the Ui list and the lower triangular portion of K or Z. Additional input may include the Ud list and S. If S is input, Ud must also be input. If Ud is input but S is omitted, S is internally calculated. In this case, Ud must contain six and only six degrees of freedom. The forms shown above for both the stiffness and flexibility approaches assume that the element is a free body whose rigid body motions are defined by Ui = S Ud. 7-142 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL GPWG GPWG Input Data Entry Description: Contains definition of the location about which to perform grid point weight generation Format and Example: 1 2 GPWG GPWG Field Weight Generator Data GID/X0 3 4 Y0 Z0 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 Contents GID Grid point identification of the GPWG reference point (Integer) X0 X component of basic coordinates of the reference point (Real) Y0 Y component of basic coordinates of the reference point (Real) Z0 Z component of basic coordinates of the reference point (Real) Remarks: 1. Either a grid point identification number or the basic x, y, z components of the reference point may be given. 2. If no GPWG data entry exists, the grid point weight generation will be computed about the origin of the basic coordinate system. 3. If more than one GPWG entry exists, the first one appearing in the sorted bulk data echo will be used. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-143 GRAV USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: GRAV Gravity Vector Used to define gravity vectors for use in determining gravity loading for the structural model. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 GRAV SID CID G N1 N2 N3 GRAV 1 3 32.2 0.0 0.0 -1.0 Field 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) CID Coordinate system identification number (Integer ≥ 0) G Gravity vector scale factor (Real ≠ 0.0) Ni Gravity vector components (Real; at least one nonzero component) Remarks: 1. The gravity vector is defined by {g} = G{Ni}. The direction of {g} is the direction of free fall. 2. A CID of zero references the basic coordinate system. 3. Gravity loads may be combined with "simple loads" (e.g., FORCE, MOMENT) by specification on a LOAD entry or by GRAV = SID. Gravity loads with the same SID as simple load entries will not be used unless referenced by one of these methods. 4. Load sets must be selected in Solution Control to be used. 5. The units of G should be length/sec2 in consistent length units. 7-144 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: GRDSET GRDSET Grid Point Default Defines default options for Fields 3, 7, and 8 of all GRID entries. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 GRDSET CP CD PS GRDSET 16 32 3456 Field 9 10 Contents CP Identification number of coordinate system in which the location of the grid point is defined (Integer ≥ 0) CD Identification number of coordinate system in which the displacements are measured at grid point (Integer ≥ 0) PS Permanent single-point constraints associated with grid point (any of the digits 1 through 6 with no embedded blanks) (Integer ≥ 0) Remarks: 1. The contents of Fields 3, 7, or 8 of this entry are assumed for the corresponding fields of any GRID entry whose Field 3, 7, and 8 are blank. If any of these fields on the GRID entry are blank, the default option defined by this entry occurs for that field. If no permanent single-point constraints are desired or one of the coordinate systems is basic, the default may be overridden on the GRID entry by making one of the Fields 3, 7, or 8 zero (rather than blank). Only one GRDSET entry may appear in the user’s Bulk Data packet. 2. The primary purpose if this entry is to minimize the burden of preparing data for problems with a large amount of repetition (e.g., two-dimensional pinned-joint problems). 3. At least one of the entries CP, CD, or PS must be nonzero. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-145 GRID USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: GRID Grid Point Defines the location of a geometric grid point of the structural model, the directions of its displacement, and its permanent single-point constraints. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CD PS GRID ID CP X1 X2 X3 GRID 2 3 1.0 2.0 3.0 Field 9 10 315 Contents ID Grid point identification number (Integer > 0) CP Identification number of coordinate system in which the location of the grid point is defined (Integer > 0 or blank) Xi Location of the grid point in coordinate system CP (Real) CD Identification number of coordinate system in which displacements, degrees of freedom, constraints, and solution vectors are defined at the grid point (Integer > 0 or blank) PS Permanent single-point constraints associated with grid point (any of the digits 1-6 with no embedded blanks) (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. All grid point identification numbers must be unique with respect to all other structural and scalar points. 2. The meaning of X1, X2, and X3 depend on the type of coordinate system, CP, as follows: TYPE X1 X2 X3 Rectangular X Y Z Cylindrical R θ (deg) Z Spherical R θ (deg) ϕ (deg) Also see CORDij entry descriptions. 3. The collection of all CD coordinate systems defined on all GRID entries is called the Global Coordinate System. All degrees-of-freedom, constraints, and solution vectors are expressed in the Global Coordinate System. 7-146 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL GRIDLIST GRIDLIST Input Data Entry: Defines a list of points at which outputs are desired. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 GRIDLIST 3 4 SID GID1 GID2 CONT GID8 GID9 -etc- GRIDLIST 100 1001 1010 Alternate Form: 1 2 GRIDLIST SID 3 GID1 4 THRU Field 5 GID3 6 7 8 9 GID4 GID5 GID6 GID7 6 7 8 9 10 CONT 1020 5 10 GID2 Contents SID Set identification number referenced by Solution Control (Integer > 0 ) GIDi Grid, scalar or extra point id at which outputs are desired (Integer > 0 ) Remarks: 1. In order to be used, the SID must be referenced by Solution Control. 2. If the alternate form is used, GID2 must be greater than or equal to GID1. 3. Nonexistent points may be referenced and will result in no error message. 4. Any number of continuations is allowed. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-147 GUST USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: GUST Aerodynamic Gust Load Description Defines a stationary vertical gust for use in aeroelastic analysis. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 WG XO V QDP MACH 1.0 0. 1.+4 13.5 0.9 GUST SID GLOAD CONT SYMXZ SYMXY GUST 133 61 1 0 +BC Field 9 10 CONT ABC Contents SID Gust set identification number (Integer > 0) GLOAD The SID of a TLOAD or RLOAD data entry which defines the time or frequency dependence (Integer > 0) WG Scale factor (gust velocity/forward velocity) for gust velocity (Real ≠ 0.) XO Location of reference plane in aerodynamic coordinates (Real). V Velocity of vehicle (Real > 0.0) QDP Dynamic pressure (Real > 0.0) MACH Mach number (Real ≥ 0.0) SYMXZ,SYMXY Symmetry flags associated with aerodynamics (Integer) Symmetric +1 0 or Blank Asymmetric Antisymmetric -1 Remarks: 1. The GUST entry is selected as a discipline option for FREQUENCY or TRANSIENT in Solution Control. 2. The gust angle is in the +z direction of the aerodynamic coordinate system. The value is, WG = T [ t − x − xo ] v where T is the tabular function. 3. The symmetry flags will be used to select the appropriate unsteady aerodynamic matrices from the list of m-k pairs for each symmetry option given on the MKAEROi entries. 7-148 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: IC IC Transient Initial Condition Defines values for the initial conditions of coordinates used in transient analysis. Both displacement and velocity values may be specified at independent coordinates of the structural model. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 IC SID G C UO VO IC 1 3 2 5.0 -6.0 Field 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) G Grid or scalar or extra point identification number (Integer > 0) C Component number (blank or zero for scalar or extra points, any one of the digits 1 through 6 for a grid point) UO Initial displacement value (Real) VO Initial velocity value (Real) Remarks: 1. Transient initial condition sets must be selected in the Solution Control (IC=SID) to be used. 2. If no IC set is selected, all initial conditions are assumed zero. 3. Initial conditions for coordinates not specified on IC entries will be assumed zero. 4. Initial conditions may be used only in direct formulation. In a modal formulation the initial conditions are all zero. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-149 ITERLIST USER’S MANUAL ITERLIST Input Data Entry Description: Iteration List Defines a list of iteration steps for which outputs are desired. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ITER ITER ITER ITER ITER 8 9 ITERLIST SID ITER ITER CONT ITER ITER -etc- ITERLIST 100 1 Alternate Form: 1 2 ITERLIST SID 2 3 5 3 4 5 ITER THRU ITER Field 7 6 10 CONT 9 7 10 Contents SID Set identification number referenced by Solution Control. (Integer > 0) ITER Iteration step number. (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. In order to be used, the SID must be referenced by Solution Control. 2. Nonexistent iteration steps may be referenced and will result in no error message. 3. Any number of continuations is allowed, except when using the alternate form, which allows no continuations. 7-150 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: JSET JSET Select Coordinates for the j-set Defines coordinates (degrees of freedom) that the user desires to use in the computation of inertia relief mode shape in Dynamic Reduction. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ID C JSET SETID ID C ID C CONT ID C ID C -etc- JSET 16 2 23 3516 Field 9 10 CONT Contents SETID The set identification number of the INERTIA set. (Integer > 0) ID Grid or scalar point identification number (Integer > 0). C Component number, zero or blank for scalar points, any unique combination of the digits 1 through 6 for grid points. (Integer) Remarks: 1. Coordinates specified on this entry form members of a mutually exclusive set. They may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 2. When JSET and/or JSET1 entries are present, all degrees of freedom not otherwise constrained will be placed on the o-set. 3. Use of JSET in dynamic reduction: a. JSET defines the structural/nonstructural j-set degrees of freedom (inertia relief shapes). An alternate input format is provided by the JSET1 entry. b. The SID is selected by the Solution Control Command BOUNDARY INERTIA = n. c. Use "0" as the grid point identification number to select the origin of the basic coordinate system as one of the j-set degrees of freedom. 4. Any number of continuations are allowed. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-151 JSET1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: JSET1 Select Coordinates for the j-set, Alternate Form Defines coordinates (degrees of freedom) that the user desires to use in the computation of inertia relief mode shape(s) in Dynamic Reduction. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SETID C GID1 GID2 GID3 GID4 GID5 GID6 CONT GID7 GID8 -etc- JSET1 345 2 1 3 10 9 6 7 8 Alternate Form: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C GID1 THRU GID2 JSET1 +bc JSET1 SETID Field 10 CONT ABC 9 10 Contents SETID The INERTIA set identification number C Component number (any unique combination of the digits 1 through 6 (with no embedded blanks) when point identification numbers are grid points; must be blank or zero if point identification numbers are scalar points. GIDi Grid or scalar point identification numbers (Integer > 0). Remarks: 1. Coordinates specified on this entry form members of a set that is exclusive from other sets defined by bulk data entries. 2. When JSET and/or JSET1 entries are present, all degrees of freedom not otherwise constrained will be placed in the o-set. 3. If the alternate form is used, all points in the sequence ID1 through ID2 are required to exist and ID2 must be greater than or equal to ID1. 4. Use of JSET1 in dynamic reduction: a. JSET1 defines the structural and nonstructural j-set degrees of freedom (inertia relief shapes). An alternate input format is provided by the JSET entry. b. The SID is selected by Solution Control Command BOUNDARY INERTIA = n. c. Use "0" as the grid point identification number to select the origin of the basic coordinate system as one of the j-set degrees freedom. 7-152 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry LDVLIST LDVLIST Local Design Variable List Defines a list of local design variables for which outputs are desired. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DVSYMBL EID1 EID2 EID3 EID4 LDVLIST SID ETYPE LAYER CONT EID5 EID6 -etc- LDVLIST 100 Alternate Form 1 2 LDVLIST SID QUAD4 2 100 100 200 300 3 4 5 6 7 ETYPE LAYER EID1 THRU EID2 Field 10 CONT 700 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number referenced by Solution Control. (Integer > 0) ETYPE Character input identifying the element type. One of the following: BAR CONM2 ELAS MASS QDMEM1 QUAD4 ROD SHEAR TRIA3 TRMEM LAYER Layer number if element is composite laminate. (Integer > 0 or blank) DVSYMBL Character symbol specifying the PBAR1 cross-sectional parameter if ETYPE is PBAR. D1 D6 EIDi D2 D7 D3 D8 D4 D9 D5 D10 Element identification number. (Integer > 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. In order to be used, the SID must be referenced by Solution Control. 2. If the alternate form is used EID2 must be greater than or equal to EID1. 3. Nonexistent elements may be referenced and will result in no error message. 4. If a layer number is omitted for a composite laminate element then all layers in that element will be selected. 5. Any number of continuations is allowed. 6. See the PBAR1 Bulk Data entry for a description of the cross-sectional parameters. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-153 LOAD USER’S MANUAL LOAD Input Data Entry: Static Load Combination (Superposition) Defines a static load as a linear combination of load sets defined using FORCE, MOMENT, FORCE1, MOMENT1, PLOAD, and GRAV entries. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S1 L1 S2 L2 S3 L3 CONT 1.0 3 6.2 4 4.5 10 ABC LOAD SID S CONT S4 L4 LOAD 101 -0.5 +BC 2.3 115 Field 10 Contents SID Load set identification number (Integer >0) S Scale factor (Real ≠ 0.0) Si Scale factors (Real ≠ 0.0) Li Load set identification numbers defined via data entry types enumerated above (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The load vector defined is given by P = S ∑ SiLi 2. The Li must be unique. The remainder of the physical entry containing the last entry must be blank. 3. Load sets must be selected in the Solution Control if they are to be applied to the structural model. 4. A LOAD entry may not reference a set identification number defined by another LOAD entry. 7-154 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL MACHLIST MACHLIST Input Data Entry: Description: Defines a list of Mach numbers. Format and Example: 1 2 MACHLIST CONT MACHLIST 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID MACH1 MACH2 MACH3 MACH4 MACH5 MACH6 MACH7 MACH8 MACH9 -etc- 201 1.0 0.5 Field 10 CONT 0.7 Contents SID Mach set identification number (Integer > 0) MACHi Mach number (Real > 0.0) Remarks: 1. MACHLIST Bulk Data entries are selected in the Function Packet. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-155 MAT1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: MAT1 Material Property Definition, Form 1 Defines the material properties for linear, temperature-independent, isotropic materials Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RHO A TREF GE CONT 4.28 6.5-6 5.37-6 0.23 ABC MAT1 MID E G NU CONT ST SC SS MCSID MAT1 17 3.+7 20.+4 15.+4 +B 0.33 10 12.+4 Field Contents MID Material identification number (Integer >0) E Young’s modulus (Real > 0.0, or blank) G Shear modulus (Real or blank) NU Poisson’s ratio (–1.0 < Real ≤ 0.5 or blank) RHO Mass density (Real ≥ 0.0) A Thermal expansion coefficient (Real) TREF Thermal expansion reference temperature (Real) GE Structural element damping coefficient (Real) ST, SC, SS Stress limits for tension, compression, and shear (Real). (Used to compute margins of safety in certain elements). MCSID Material Coordinate System identification number (Integer > 0 or blank). Remarks: 1. The material identification number must be unique for all MAT1, MAT2, MAT8, and MAT9 bulk data entries. 2. The mass density, RHO, will be used to automatically compute mass for all structural elements. 3. Weight density may be used in Field 6 if the value 1/g is entered on the CONVERT entry where g is the acceleration of gravity. 4. Either E or G must be specified (i.e., nonblank). 5. If any one of E, G, or NU is blank, it will be computed to satisfy the identity E = 2 *(1+NU)*G; otherwise, values supplied by the user will be used. 6. If E and NU or G and NU are both blank, they will both be given the values 0.0. 7. Implausible data on one or more MAT1 entries will result in a warning message. Implausible data is defined as any of E <0.0 or G < 0.0 or NU > 0.5 or NU < 0.0 or |1 - E/(2(1+NU)G)| >0.01 except for cases covered by Remark 6. 8. It is strongly recommended that only two of the three values E, G, and NU be input. The three values may be input independently on the MAT2 entry. 7-156 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: MAT2 MAT2 Material Property Definition, Form 2 Defines the material properties for linear, temperature-independent, anisotropic materials for two-dimensional elements. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 MAT2 MID G11 G12 G13 G22 G23 G33 RHO CONT CONT A1 A2 A12 TO GE ST SC SS CONT CONT MCSID MAT2 13 6.2+3 5.1+3 0.056 ABC 6.5-6 6.5-6 +BC 6.2+3 -500.0 Field 0.002 20.+5 Contents MID Material identification number (Integer > 0) Gij The material property matrix (Real) RHO Mass density (Real ≥ 0.0) Ai Thermal expansion coefficient vector (Real) TO Thermal expansion reference temperature (Real) GE Structural element damping coefficient (Real) ST, SC, SS Stress limits for tension, compression, and shear (Real). (Used to compute margins of safety in certain elements). MCSID Material Coordinate System identification number (Integer > 0 or blank). Remarks: 1. Material identification numbers must be unique for all MAT1, MAT2, MAT8, and MAT9 bulk data entries. 2. The mass density, RHO, will be used to automatically compute mass for all structural elements. 3. Weight density may be entered in Field 9 if the value 1/g, where g is the acceleration of gravity, is entered on the CONVERT entry. 4. The convention for the Gij in Fields 3 through 8 are represented by the matrix relationship σ1 G11 G12 G13 σ 2 = G12 G22 G23 τ G G G 13 23 33 12 ε1 ε2 − ( T − To ) γ 12 A1 A2 A 12 5. 2x2 matrices (for example, transverse shear) use elements G11, G12, and G22. For this case, G33 must be blank. 6. If the MAT2 entry is referenced by the PCOMP entry, the transverse shear flexibility for the referenced laminae is zero. 7. Unlike the MAT1 entry, data from the MAT2 entry are used directly, without adjustment of equivalent E, G, or NU values. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-157 MAT8 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: MAT8 Material Property Definition, Form 8 Defines the material property for an orthotropic material. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 MAT8 MID E1 E2 NU12 G12 G1, Z G2, Z RHO CONT CONT A1 A2 TREF Xt Xc Yt Yc S CONT CONT GE F12 MAT8 171 30.+6 1.+6 0.3 2.+6 3.+6 1.5+6 0.056 +ABC +BC 28.-6 1.5-6 155.0 1.+4 1.5+4 2.+2 8.+2 1.+3 +DEF +EF 1.-4 Field Contents MID Material identification number (Integer > 0) E1 Modulus of elasticity in longitudinal direction (also defined as fiber direction or 1-direction) (Real ≠ 0.0) E2 Modulus of elasticity in lateral direction (also defined as matrix direction or 2-direction) (Real ≠ 0.0) NU12 ( ε2 ) ( ε1 ) for uniaxial loading in 1-direction]. Note that NU21 = for ( ε1 ) ( ε2 ) uniaxial loading in 2-direction is related to NU12, E1, E2 by the relation NU12*E2 = NU21*E1. (Real) Poisson’s ratio [ G12 In-plane shear modulus (Real > 0.0) G1,Z Transverse shear modulus for shear in 1-Z plane (Real > 0.0 or blank) (default implies infinity) G2,Z Transverse shear modulus for shear in 2-Z plane (Real > 0.0 or blank) (default implies infinity) RHO Mass density (Real ≥ 0.0) A1 Thermal expansion coefficient in the 1-direction (Real) A2 Thermal expansion coefficient in the 2-direction (Real) TREF Thermal expansion reference temperature (Real) Xt, Xc Allowable stresses in tension and compression, respectively, in the longitudinal direction. Required if failure index is desired. (Real ≥ 0.0) (Default value for Xc is Xt) Yt, Yc Allowable stresses in tension and compression, respectively, in the transverse direction. Required if failure index is desired. (Real ≥ 0.0) (Default value for Yc is Yt) S Allowable stress for in-plane shear (Real ≥ 0.0) GE Structural damping coefficient (Real) 7-158 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL F12 MAT8 Interaction term in the tensor polynomial theory of Tsai-Wu (Real). Required if failure index or stress constraint by Tsai-Wu theory is desired and if value of F12 is different from 0.0. Remarks: 1. If G1,Z and G2,Z values specified as zero, or are not supplied, transverse shear flexibility calculations will not be performed. 2. An approximate value for G1,Z and G2,Z is the in-plane shear modulus G12.. If test data are not available to accurately determine G1,Z and G2,Z for the material and transverse shear calculations are deemed essential, the value of G12 may be supplied for G1,Z and G2,Z. 3. Xt,Xc, Yt, Yc and SS are used for composite element failure calculations when requested in the FT field of the PCOMPi entry. 4. The mass density, RHO, is used to automatically compute mass for all structural elements. 5. Weight density may be entered in Field 9 if the value 1/g, where g is the acceleration of gravity, is entered on the CONVERT entry. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-159 MAT9 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: MAT9 Material Property Definition, Form 9 Defines the material properties for linear, temperature-independent, anistropic materials for solid isoparametric elements Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 MAT9 MID G11 G12 G13 G14 G15 G16 G22 CONT CONT G23 G24 G25 G26 G33 G34 G35 G36 CONT CONT G44 G45 G46 G55 G56 G66 RHO A1 CONT CONT A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 TREF GE MAT9 17 6.2+3 6.2+3 ABC +BC +EF DEF 5.1+3 5.1+3 Field 5.1+3 3.2 6.6-6 Contents MID Material identification number (Integer > 0) Gij Elements of the 6x6 symmetric material property matrix (Real ≥ 0.0) RHO Mass density (Real ≥ 0.0) Ai Thermal expansion coefficient vector (Real) TREF Thermal expansion reference temperature (Real) GE Structural element damping coefficient (Real) Remarks: 1. The material identification numbers must be unique for all MAT1, MAT2, MAT8, and MAT9 entries. 2. The mass density RHO will be used to automatically compute mass in a structural dynamics problem. 3. Weight density may be entered in Field 9 if the value 1/g, where g is the acceleration of gravity, is entered on the CONVERT entry. 4. Continuation number 4 need not be used. 5. The subscripts 1 through 6 refer to x, y, z, xy, yz, zx, for example: σx G11 σy SYM G12 G22 σz G13 G23 G33 = G G G G τxy 14 24 34 44 G G G G G τyz 15 25 35 45 55 G G G G G G66 τzx 16 26 36 46 56 εx A1 A2 εy A3 εz γ − A ( T − To ) xy 4 γ A5 yz γ A6 zx 6. The damping coefficient, GE is: C GE = 2 C0 7-160 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL MFORM MFORM Input Data Entry: Description: Defines the form of the mass matrix as consistent (coupled) or lumped. Format and Example: 1 2 MFORM VALUE MFORM LUMPED 3 Field VALUE Mass Matrix Form 4 6 5 7 8 9 10 Contents A character string denoting the form of the mass matrix. The available forms are: 1) LUMPED 2) COUPLED Remarks: 1. If more than one MFORM is included in the Bulk Data, any COUPLED value will result in coupled mass being used. 2. If no MFORM is indicated, the LUMPED formulation will be used. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-161 Input Data Entry: MKAERO1 Mach Number - Frequency Table Provides a table of Mach numbers (m) and reduced frequencies (k) for unsteady aerodynamic matrix calculation. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SYMXZ SYMXY m1 m2 m3 m4 m5 m6 CONT k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 k7 k8 MKAERO1 1 0 0.1 0.7 0.3 0.6 1.0 MKAERO1 +ABC Field SYMXZ, SYMXY Contents 10 CONT +ABC USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: MKAERO2 MKAERO2 Mach Number - Frequency Table Provides a list of Mach numbers (m) and reduced frequencies (k) for aerodynamic matrix calculation. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SYMXZ SYMXY m1 k1 m2 k2 m3 k3 CONT CONT m4 k4 m5 k5 -etc- MKAERO2 0 0 0.10 0.60 0.70 0.30 0.70 1.0 ABC 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.0 MKAERO2 +BC Field 10 Contents SYMYZ, SYMXY Symmetry flags (Integer). See Remarks 4 and 6. mi,ki List of pairs of Mach numbers (Real ≥ 0.) and reduced frequencies (real ≥ 0.) Remarks: 1. This entry will cause the aerodynamic matrices to be computed for the given sets of parameter pairs. 2. Several MKAEROi entries may be in the input packet. If these data entries are in the packet, they will be used. 3. Any number of continuations are allowed. 4. The symmetry flags have the following definition: +1 for symmetric (Cannot be used with SYMXY option) 0 for asymmetric -1 for antisymmetric The m-k pairs listed on the entry will generate aerodynamic matrices having the symmetries selected. 5. m-k pairs may be repeated with different symmetry options. 6. The following restrictions are imposed on the symmetry flags: a) Ground effect (if present) must be antisymmetric SYMXY = 0 or -1. b) Ground effect is not available at all for supersonic flow. 7. Reduced frequency is computed using: k = bω 2v where b is the reference chord defined by an AERO entry, ω is the frequency in radians per sec, and v is the true velocity. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-163 MODELIST USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: MODELIST Defines a list of modes at which outputs are desired. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 MODELIST CONT MODELIST 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID MODE1 MODE2 MODE3 MODE4 MODE5 MODE6 MODE7 MODE8 MODE9 -etc- 100 1 2 4 3 4 5 MODE1 THRU MODE2 Alternate Form: 1 2 MODELIST SID Field 10 CONT CONT 6 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number referenced by Solution Control (Integer > 0 ) MODEi Mode number of mode at which outputs are desired. (Integer > 0 ) Remarks: 1. In order to be used, the SID must be referenced by Solution Control. 2. If the alternate form is used MODE2 must be greater than or equal to MODE1. 3. Modes are numbered from 1 to n, starting at the lowest frequency for which a eigenvector was computed. 4. Nonexistent modes may be referenced and will result in no error message. 7-164 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: MOMENT MOMENT Static Moment Defines a static moment at a grid point by specifying a vector. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MOMENT SID G CID M N1 N2 N3 MOMENT 2 5 6 2.9 0.0 1.0 0.0 Field 9 10 Contents SID Load set identification number (Integer > 0) G Grid point identification number (Integer > 0) CID Coordinate system identification number (Integer ≥ 0) M Scale factor (Real) Ni Components of vector measured in coordinate system defined by CID (Real; at least one nonzero component) Remarks: 1. The static moment applied to grid point G is given by {m} = M {N} 2. A CID of zero references the basic coordinate system. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-165 MOMENT1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: MOMENT1 Static Moment, Alternate Form 1 Defines a static moment by specification of a value and two grid points which determine the direction. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 MOMENT SID G M G1 G2 MOMENT 6 13 -2.93 16 13 Field 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Load set identification number (Integer > 0) G Grid point identification number (Integer > 0) M Value of moment (Real) Gi Grid point identification numbers (Integer > 0; G1 ≠ G2) Remarks: 1. The direction of the moment vector is determined by the vector from G1 and G2. 7-166 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: MPC MPC Multipoint Constraint Defines a multipoint constraint equation of the form ∑ Aj uj = 0.0 j Format and Example: 1 2 MPC SID CONT MPC +B Field 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 G0 C0 A0 G C A G C A G C A 28 3 6.2 2 3 4.29 1 4 -2.91 9 10 CONT +B Contents SID Set identification (Integer > 0) G0,G Identification number of grid or scalar point (Integer > 0) C0,C Component number - any one of the digits 1 through 6 in the case of geometric grid points; blank or zero in the case of scalar points (Integer) A0,A Coefficient (Real; A0 must be nonzero) Remarks: 1. The first coordinate (G0, C0) in the sequence is assumed to be the dependent coordinate. A dependent degree of freedom assigned by one MPC entry cannot be assigned dependent by another MPC entry or by a rigid element. 2. Forces of multipoint constraint are not recovered. 3. Multipoint constraint sets must be selected in Solution Control (MPC = SID) to be used. 4. The m-set coordinates specified on this entry may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-167 MPCADD USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: MPCADD Defines a multipoint constraint set as a union of multipoint constraint sets defined via MPC entries. Format and Example: 1 2 MPCADD CONT MPCADD Multipoint Constraint Set Combination 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 -etc- 101 2 3 1 6 4 Field 10 CONT Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) Sj Set identification numbers of multipoint constraint sets defined via MPC entries (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The Sj must be unique. 2. Multipoint constraint sets must be selected in Solution Control (MPC = SID) to be used. 3. Sj may not be the identification number of a multipoint constraint set defined by another MPCADD entry. 4. MPCADD entries take precedence over MPC entries. If both have the same set identification number, only the MPCADD entry will be used. 7-168 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL MPPARM MPPARM Input Data Entry: Description: Identify values of user defined optimizer parameters that overrides the default values. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 VALUE PARAM VALUE PARAM VALUE MPPARM PARAM VALUE PARAM CONT PARAM VALUE -etc- MPPARM ISCAL 0 STOL Field 10 CONT 0.005 Contents PARAM Name of parameter to be overridden (Character) VALUE Integer or real value to be used for the parameter. Remarks: 1. Any number of PARAM-VALUE combinations can be specified on an MPPARM entry. 2. See the EDO software manual (ADS V 1.10) for a definition of parameters, but the most useful are shown below: REAL PARAMETER DEFINITION DEFAULT CT Constraint tolerance in the Method of Feasible Directions or the Modified Method of Feasible Directions. A constraint is active if its numerical value is more positive than CT. -0.003 CTL Same as CT, but for linear constraints. -0.003 Same as CTMIN, but for linear constraints. 0.0005 CTMIN Minimum constraint tolerance for nonlinear constraints. If a constraint is more positive than CTMIN, it is considered to be violated. 0.0005 DABOBJ Maximum absolute change in the objective between two consecutive iterations to indicate convergence in optimization. max(0.001 Fo ,0.0001) DABOBM Absolute convergence criterion for the optimization sub-problem when using sequential minimization techniques. (Note 3) DABSTR Same as DABOBJ, but used at the strategy level. (Note 3) DELOBJ Maximum relative change in the objective between two consecutive iterations to indicate convergence in optimization. 0.001 CTLMIN ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-169 MPPARM USER’S MANUAL REAL PARAMETER DEFINITION DEFAULT DELOBM Relative convergence criterion for the optimization sub-problem when using sequential minimization techniques. (Note 3) DELSTR Same as DELOBJ, but used at the strategy level. (Note 3) DOBJ1 Relative change in the objective attempted on the first optimization Used to estimate initial move in dimensional search. Updated optimization progresses. function iteration. the oneas the DOBJ2 Absolute change in the objective attempted on the first optimization Used to estimate initial move in dimensional search. Updated optimization progresses. function iteration. the oneas the 0.1 0.2 max(Xi) DX1 Maximum relative change in a design variable attempted on the first optimization iteration. Used to estimate initial move in the onedimensional search. Updated as the optimization progresses. 0.01 DX2 Maximum absolute change in a design variable attempted on the first optimization iteration. Used to estimate initial move in the onedimensional search. Updated as the optimization progresses. 0.02 EXTRAP Maximum multiplier on the one-dimensional search parameter, ALPHA in the one-dimensional search using polynomial interpolation/extrapolation. (Note 3) SCFO The user-simplified value of the scale factor for the objective function if the default or calculated value is to be overridden. (Note 3) SCLMIN Maximum numerical value of any scale factor allowed. (Note 3) STOL Tolerance on the components of the calculated search direction to indicate that the KuhnTucker conditions are satisfied. (Note 3) THETAZ nominal value of the push-off factor in the Method of Feasible Directions. (Note 3) 7-170 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL MPPARM REAL PARAMETER DEFINITION DEFAULT XMULT Multiplier on the move parameter, ALPHA, in the one-dimensional search to find bounds on the solution. (Note 3) ZRO Numerical estimate of zero on the computer. Usually the default value is adequate. If a computer with a short word length is used, ZRO = 1.0E-4 may be preferred. (Note 3) INTEGER PARAMETER DEFINITION DEFAULT ISCAL Scaling parameter. By default, scaling is done every NDV iterations, otherwise scaling is performed every ISCA iterations. -1 ITMAX Maximum number of iterations allowed at the optimizer level. 40 ITROMP The number of consecutive iterations for which the absolute or relative convergence criteria must be met to indicate convergence at the optimizer level. 2 ITRMST The number of consecutive iterations for which the absolute or relative convergence criteria must be met to indicate convergence at the optimizer level. (Note 3) JTMAX Maximum of iterations allowed at the strategy level. (Note 3) 3. Some of these parameters, indicated in the tables, are used only with the original version of the ADS optimizer. They are not used in MicroDOT. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-171 OMIT USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: OMIT Omitted Coordinates Defines degrees of freedom that the user desires to omit from the problem through matrix partitioning. Used to reduce the number of independent degrees of freedom. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 OMIT SETID ID C ID C ID C OMIT 10 16 2 23 3516 54 23 Field 9 10 Contents SETID The reduce set identification number (Integer > 0). ID Grid or scalar point identification number (Integer > 0). C Component number, zero or blank for scalar points, any unique combination of the digits 1 through 6 for grid points. Remarks: 1. Coordinates specified on this entry form members of a mutually exclusive set. They may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 2. In many cases it may be more convenient to use OMIT1, ASET or ASET1 entries. 7-172 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: OMIT1 OMIT1 Omitted Coordinates, Alternate Form Defines degrees of freedom that the user desires to omit from the problem through matrix partitioning. Used to reduce the number of independent degrees of freedom. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SETID C GID1 GID2 GID3 GID4 GID5 GID6 CONT CONT GID7 GID8 -etc- OMIT1 3 2 1 3 10 9 6 5 ABC +BC 7 8 Alternate Form: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 C GID1 THRU GID2 OMIT1 OMIT1 Field SETID 10 10 Contents SETID The reduce set identification number (Integer > 0). C Component number (Any unique combination of the digits 1 through 6 (with no embedded blanks) when point identification numbers are grid points; must be null or zero if point identification numbers are scalar points). GIDi Grid or scalar point identification number (Integer > 0). Remarks: 1. Coordinates specified on this entry form members of a mutually exclusive set. They may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 2. If the alternate form is used, points in the sequence ID1 through ID2 are required to exist and ID2 must be greater than or equal to ID1. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-173 PAERO1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PAERO1 Aerodynamic Panel Property Gives associated bodies for the panels in the unsteady aerodynamic model. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 PAERO1 PID B1 PAERO1 1 3 Field 9 10 Contents PID Property identification number (referenced by CAERO1) (Integer > 0) Bi Identification number of CAERO2 entries for associated bodies (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) Remarks: 1. The associated bodies must be in the same aerodynamic group. 2. The Bi numbers above must appear on a CAERO2 entry to define these bodies completely. 7-174 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PAERO2 PAERO2 Aerodynamic Body Properties Defines the cross-section properties of unsteady aerodynamic bodies. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PID ORIENT WIDTH AR LRSB LRIB LTH1 LTH2 THI1 THN1 THI2 THN2 THI3 THN3 PAERO2 2 Z 6.0 1.0 22 91 +bc 1 3 PAERO2 CONT Field 100 10 CONT abc Contents PID Property identification number (Integer > 0) ORIENT Orientation flag "Z", "Y", or "ZY". Type of motion allowed for bodies (Character). Refers to the aerodynamic coordinate system "y" and "z" directions (see AERO data entry) WIDTH Reference half-width of body (Real > 0.0) AR Aspect ratio (height/width) (Real > 0.0) LRSB Identification number of an AEFACT data entry containing a list of slender body halfwidths. If blank, the value of WIDTH will be used (Integer > 0 or blank) LRIB Identification number of an AEFACT data entry containing a list of interference body half-widths. If blank, the value of WIDTH will be used (Integer > 0 or blank) LTH1, LTH2 Identification number of AEFACT data entries for defining theta arrays for interference calculations (Integer ≥ 0) THIi, THNi The first and last interference element of a body to use the θi array (Integer ≥ 0) Remarks: 1. The EID of all CAERO2 elements in any IGID group must be ordered, so that their corresponding ORIENT values appear in the order Z, ZY, Y. 2. The half-widths (given on AEFACT data entries referenced in fields 6 and 7) are specified at division points. The number of entries on an AEFACT data entry used to specify half-widths must be one greater than the number of elements. 3. The half-width at the first point (i.e., the nose) on a slender body is usually 0.; thus, it is recommended (but not required) that the LRSB data is supplied with a zero first entry. 4. THIi and THNi are interference element locations on a body. The element numbering begins at one for each body. 5. A body is represented by a slender body surrounded by an interference body. The slender body creates the down wash due to the motion of the body, while the interference body represents the effects upon panels and other bodies. This is illustrated in the following Figure. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-175 PAERO2 7-176 THE BULK DATA PACKET USER’S MANUAL ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PAERO6 PAERO6 Defines body analysis parameters for steady aerodynamics. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 LRAD LAXIAL PAERO6 BCID CMPNT CP IGRP NRAD PAERO6 10 FUSEL 0 3 4 Field 9 10 Contents BCID Body component identification number (Integer > 0) CMPNT Component type (FUSEL for the fuselage and POD for a POD) CP Coordinate system of the geometry input (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) IGRP Group flag (Integer > 0) NRAD Number of equal radial cuts used to define the body panels (Integer ≥ 0 or blank) LRAD Identification number of an AEFACT data entry which defines the angular locations in degrees of the body panels (Integer ≥ 0 or blank) LAXIAL Identification number of an AEFACT data entry which defines the axial locations of in degrees of the body panels (Integer ≥ 0 or blank) Remarks: 1. NRAD and LRAD are mutually exclusive. 2. If LRAD iand NRAD are zero or blank, the radial cuts specified by the BODY or AXSTA entries are used. 3. LAXIAL is used only for FUSEL components. Inputs on the AEFACT entry are the dimensional fuselage stations. 4. If LAXIAL is blank, the axial locations are the same as those given by AXSTA data entries for the given body component. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-177 Input Data Entry: PBAR Simple Beam Property Defines the properties of a simple beam (bar) which is used to create bar elements via the CBAR entry. Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 PBAR PID MID A I1 I2 J NSM TMIN CONT CONT C1 C2 D1 D2 E1 E2 F1 F2 CONT CONT K1 K2 I12 R12 R22 ALPHA PBAR 39 6 2.9 +23 2.0 5.97 123 4.0 Field Contents PID Property identification number (Integer > 0) MID Material identification number (Integer > 0) A Area of bar cross-section (Real ≥ 0.0) Ii Area moments of inertia (Real) (I1 ≥ 0.0, I2 ≥ 0.0, I1I2 > I122) J Torsional constant (Real ≥ 0.0) NSM Nonstructural mass per unit length (Real ≥ 0.0) TMIN The minimum cross-sectional area in design (Real, Default = 0.0001) K1,K2 Area factor for shear (Real) Ci,Di,Ei,Fi Stress recovery coefficients (Real) R12,R22,ALPHA Inertia linking terms for design (see Remark 6) Remarks: 1. The BAR element geometry and coordinate system is shown in the Figure on the following page. 2. PBAR entries may only reference MAT1 material entries. 3. The transverse shear stiffnesses in planes 1 and 2 are (K1)AG and (K2)AG, respectivelynts8.002 Tcı˝(PBAR)Tjı˝ USER’S MANUAL PBAR 6. For design, the following applies to the R12 and R22 values. The moments of inertia are linked to the Ze Plane 2 End A WA Ye Plane 1 V WB End B GIDO GID1 GID2 Xe cross-sectional area by the following expressions: I1 = R12 * A**ALPHA I2 = R22 * A**ALPHA (A) If R12 = 0.0 then the missing value is computed from R12=I1/(A**ALPHA) . The same is true for R22 and I2. (B) The ALPHA value defaults to 1.0 and must be ≥ 1.0. (C) If both I1 and R12 or I2 and R22 are given, the linking expression will override the input Ii values. 7. If the CBAR is to be designed, the following restrictions apply. (A) J = NSM = K1 = K2 = I12 = 0.0 If any of these values are not zero, a warning message will be issued and the value set to zero. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-179 PBAR1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry PBAR1 Geometric BAR element property Defines the properties of a BAR element by specifying its cross-sectional characteristics. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 PBAR1 PID -cont- NSM PBAR1 101 +A 1.25 56 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 MID SHAPE D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 TUBE Field 2.0 0.1 10 -cont- +A Contents PID Property identification number (Integer>0). MID Material identification number (Integer>0). (See Remark 1) SHAPE Cross-sectional shape (Character I, T, BOX, BAR, TUBE, ROD, HAT or GBOX). (See Remark 2) Di Cross-sectional dimensions (Real>0.0). (See Remark 2) NSM Nonstructural mass per unit length (Real). Remarks: 1. PBAR1 entries may only reference MAT1 material data. 2. The cross-sectional properties and shear flexibility factors of the BAR are computed using the SHAPE and Di geometric data as defined by the figures on the following page. The stress recovery points are also shown. Note that the orientation of the element coordinate system is important for the element definition. 7-180 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL PBAR1 Definition of Cross-Sectional Geometry and Stress Recovery Points ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-181 PCOMP USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PCOMP Layered Composite Element Property Defines the properties of an n-ply composite material laminate. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PID Z0 NSM SBOND F.T. TMIN CONT MID1 T1 THi SOUT1 MID2 T2 CONT MID3 T3 TH3 SOUT3 -etc- PCOMP 100 -0.5 1.5 5.+3 HOFF +BC 150 0.05 90. YES PCOMP +EF 8 TH2 9 10 LOPT CONT SOUT2 CONT MEM ABC -45. DEF 45.0 Field Contents PID Property identification number (Integer > 0). Z0 Offset of the laminate lower surface from the element mean plane. A positive value means the +ze direction. (Real or blank, see Remark 2) NSM Nonstructural mass per unit area (Real ≥ 0.0). SBOND Allowable shear stress of the bonding material. (Real ≥ 0.0) F.T. Failure theory, one of the strings HILL, HOFF, TSAI, STRESS, or STRAIN. See Remark 4. TMIN Minimum ply thickness for design (Real > 0.0 or blank). (Default = 10-4) LOPT Lamination generation option, MEM or blank. (See Remark 5). MIDi Material identification number of the i-th layer. (Integer > 0 or blank) Ti Thickness of the i(th) layer (Real > 0.0 or blank). THi Angle between the longitudinal direction of the fibers of the i-th layer and the material X-axis. (Real or blank) SOUTi Stress output request for i-th layer,one of the strings YES or NO. (Default = NO) Remarks: 1. For non-designed elements, the plies are numbered from 1 to n beginning with the bottom layer. 7-182 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL PCOMP 2. For composities there are two methods for specifying the offset of the element reference plane from the element mean plane: Z0 on this entry and ZOFF on the CQUAD4 or CTRIA3 Bulk Data entries. The distinction is shown in the figure below: UPPER SURFACE t ELEMENT REFERENCE LOWER SURFACE ZOFF Z0 ELEMENT MEAN PLANE You may only specify a Z0 on this entry if the ZOFF field of any CQUAD4 or CTRIA3 referencing it is blank. The default value for Z0 is -t/2 where t is the overall thickness of the laminate. 3. SBOND is required if bonding material failure index calculations are desired. 4. The failure theory is used to determine the element failure on a ply-by-ply basis. The available theories are: - Hill Theory HILL - Hoffman Theory HOFF - Tsai-Wu Theory TSAI - For Maximum Stress Theory STRESS - For Maximum Strain Theory STRAIN 5. MEM indicates a layup of membrane only plies. 6. The material properties, MIDi, may reference only MAT1, MAT2, and MAT8 Bulk Data entries. 7. If any of the MIDi, Ti or THi are blank, then the last non-blank values specified for each will be used to define the values for the ply. 8. TMIN will be ignored unless the element is linked to design variables by SHAPE entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-183 PCOMP1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PCOMP1 Layered Composite Element Property Defines the properties of an n-ply laminated composite material where all plies are composed of the same material and are of equal thickness. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PID Z0 NSM SBOND F.T. TMIN MID LOPT CONT CONT TPLY TH1 TH2 TH3 TH4 TH5 TH6 TH7 CONT CONT TH8 TH9 TH10 -etc- PCOMP1 100 -0.5 1.7 5.+3 STRAIN +BC 0.25 -45.0 45.0 90.0 90.0 PCOMP1 Field 200 10 ABC 45.0 Contents PID Property identification number (1,000,000 > Integer > 0). Z0 Offset of the laminate lower surface from the element mean plane. A positive value means the +ze direction. (Real or blank, see Remark 2) NSM Nonstructural mass per unit area (Real ≥ 0.0). SBOND Allowable shear stress of the bonding material. (Real ≥ 0.0) F.T. Failure theory, one of the strings HILL, HOFF, TSAI, STRESS or STRAIN. (See Remark 4). TMIN Minimum ply thickness for design (Real > 0.0 or blank) (Default = 0.0001) MID Material identification number for all layers. (Integer > 0.0 or blank) LOPT Lamination generation option, MEM.or blank. (See Remark 5). TPLY Thickness of each layer. (Real > 0.0). THi Angle between the longitudinal direction of the fibers of the i(th) layer and the material X-axis. (Real or blank) Remarks: 1. For nondesigned elements, the plies are numbered from 1 to n beginning with the bottom layer. 7-184 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL PCOMP1 2. For composities there are two methods for specifying the offset of the element reference plane from the element mean plane: Z0 on this entry and ZOFF on the CQUAD4 or CTRIA3 Bulk Data entries. The distinction is shown in the figure below: UPPER SURFACE t ELEMENT REFERENCE LOWER SURFACE ZOFF Z0 ELEMENT MEAN PLANE You may only specify a Z0 on this entry if the ZOFF field of any CQUAD4 or CTRIA3 referencing it is blank. The default value for Z0 is -t/2 where t is the overall thickness of the laminate. 3. SBOND is required if bonding material failure index calculations are desired. 4. The failure theory is used to determine the element failure on a ply-by-ply basis. The available theories are: - Hill Theory HILL - Hoffman Theory HOFF - Tsai-Wu Theory TSAI - For Maximum Stress Theory STRESS - For Maximum Strain Theory STRAIN 5. MEM indicates a layup of membrane only plies. 6. The material properties, MIDi, may reference only MAT1, MAT2, and MAT8 Bulk Data entries. 7. TMIN will be ignored unless the element is linked to design variables by SHAPE entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-185 Input Data Entry: Description: PCOMP2 Layered Composite Element Property Defines the properties of an n-ply laminated composite material where all plies are composed of the same material but are of different thickness. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PID Z0 NSM SBOND F.T. TMIN MID LOPT T1 TH1 T2 TH2 T3 TH3 -etc- PCOMP2 100 -0.5 1.7 5.+3 TSAI +BC 0.25 -45.0 0.5 90.0 0.25 PCOMP2 CONT Field 200 10 CONT ABC 45.0 Contents PID Property identification number (Integer > 0). Z0 Offset of the laminate lower surface from the element mean plane. A positive value means the +ze direction. (Real or blank, see Remark 2) NSM Nonstructural mass per unit area (Real ≥ 0.0). USER’S MANUAL PCOMP2 2. For composities there are two methods for specifying the offset of the element reference plane from the element mean plane: Z0 on this entry and ZOFF on the CQUAD4 or CTRIA3 Bulk Data entries. The distinction is shown in the figure below: UPPER SURFACE t ELEMENT REFERENCE LOWER SURFACE ZOFF Z0 ELEMENT MEAN PLANE You may only specify a Z0 on this entry if the ZOFF field of any CQUAD4 or CTRIA3 referencing it is blank. The default value for Z0 is -t/2 where t is the overall thickness of the laminate. 3. SBOND is required if bonding material failure index calculations are desired. 4. The failure theory is used to determine the element failure on a ply-by-ply basis. The available theories are: - Hill Theory HILL - Hoffman Theory HOFF - Tsai-Wu Theory TSAI - For Maximum Stress Theory STRESS - For Maximum Strain Theory STRAIN 5. MEM indicates a layup of membrane only plies. 6. The material properties, MIDi, may reference only MAT1, MAT2, and MAT8 Bulk Data entries. 7. If any of the Ti or THi are blank, then the last non-blank values specified for each will be used to define the values for the ply. 8. TMIN will be ignored unless the element is linked to design variables by SHAPE entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-187 PELAS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PELAS Scalar Elastic Property Used to define the stiffness, damping coefficient, and stress coefficient of a scalar elastic element (spring) defined by means of the CELAS1 entry. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 TMIN PELAS PID K GE S PELAS 7 4.29 0.06 7.92 Field 7 8 9 10 Contents PID Property identification number (Integer > 0) K Elastic property value (Real) GE Damping coefficient (Real ≥ 0.0) S Stress coefficient (Real) TMIN Minimum value for design (Real > 0.0, or blank, Default = 0.0001) Remarks: 1. The user is cautioned to be careful using negative spring values. 2. TMIN is ignored unless the element is designed using shape function design variable linking. 7-188 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PIHEX PIHEX Defines the properties of an isoparametric solid element, including a material reference and the number of integration points. Referenced by the CIHEX1, CIHEX2, and CIHEX3 entries. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CID NIP AR ALPHA BETA PIHEX PID MID PIHEX 15 3 Field Isoparametric Hexahedron Property 3 9 10 5.0 Contents PID Property identification number (Integer > 0) MID Material identification number (Integer > 0) CID Identification number of the coordinate system in which the material referenced by MID is defined (Integer ≥ or blank) NIP Number of integration points along each edge of the element (Integer = 2, 3, 4, or blank) AR Maximum aspect ratio (ratio of longest to shortest edge) of the element (Real > 1.0 or blank) ALPHA Maximum angle in degrees between the normals of two subtriangles comprising a quadrilateral face (Real, 0.0 ≤ ALPHA ≤ 180.0 or blank) (Default = 45.0) BETA Maximum angle in degrees between the vector connecting a corner point to an adjacent midside point and the vector connecting that midside point and the other midside or corner point (Real, 0.0 < BETA < 180.0 or blank) (Default = 45.0) ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-189 Examples of Field Definitions: Remarks: 1. All PIHEX entries must have unique identification numbers. 2. CID is not used for isotropic materials. 3. The default for CID is the basic coordinate system. 4. The default for NIP is 2 for IHEX and 3 for IHEX2 and IHEX3. 5. AR, ALPHA, and BETA are used for checking the geometry of the element. The defaults are: AR ALPHA (degrees) BETA (degrees) — CIHEX1 5.0 45.0 CIHEX2 10.0 45.0 45.0 CIHEX3 15.0 45.0 45.0 USER’S MANUAL PLIST PLIST Input Data Entry: Defines property entries associated with a design variable. Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LINKID PTYPE PID1 PID2 PID3 PID4 PID5 PID6 CONT PID7 PID8 PID9 -etc- PLIST 6 PROD 12 14 22 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PTYPE PID1 THRU PID2 PLIST Alternate Form: 1 2 PLIST Field DVID 10 CONT 10 Contents LINKID Property list identifier (Integer > 0). PTYPE Property type associated with this list (e.g., PROD). PID1,PID2, PID3 Property entry identifications. (Integer > 0, or blank) Remarks: 1. Allowable PTYPES are: PROD, PSHEAR, PCOMP, PCOMP1, PCOMP2, PELAS, PSHELL , PMASS, PTRMEM, PQDMEM1, and PBAR. 2. If the alternate form is used, PID2 must be greater than or equal to PID1. 3. All elements using properties listed on PLIST entries for a particular LINKID will be designed by (linked to) that design variable that references the PLIST LINKID. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-191 PLISTM USER’S MANUAL PLISTM Input Data Entry: Description: Defines elements, and their local design variables, associated with a design variable by referencing an element property entry. Format and Example: 1 2 PLISTM CONT PLISTM 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LINKID PTYPE PID1 DVSYM1 PID2 DVSYM2 PID3 DVSYM3 PID4 DVSYM4 -etc- 6 PBAR1 12 D1 22 D1 Field 10 Contents LINKID Element list identifier (Integer > 0) PTYPE Character input identifying the property type. One of the following: PELAS PBAR PSHEAR PCOMP PMASS PBAR1 PQDMEM1 PCOMP1 PROD PTRMEM PCOMP2 PSHELL PIDi Property identification numbers (Integer > 0, or blank) DVSYMi Symbol defining the local design variable. (Remarks 2 and 3) Remarks: 1. The LINKID is referenced by DESVARP data to connect the global design variable to the local variables. 2. The following symbols may be used for the different types of properties: ELEMENTS ALLOWABLE DVSYM VALUES PELAS K PMASS M PBAR, PROD A PBAR1 D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10 SHEAR,QDMEM1,TRMEM,PSHELL PCOMP,PCOMP1,PCOMP2 T 3. If all elements to be linked have only one possible DVSYM (e.g. K), then the PLIST Bulk Data entry may be used. 7-192 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS Input Data Entry: Description: PLOAD Static Pressure Load Defines a static pressure load on a triangular or quadrilateral surface. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 G4 PLOAD SID P G1 G2 G3 PLOAD 1 -4.0 16 32 11 Field 8 9 10 Contents SID Load set identification number (Integer > 0) P Pressure (Real) Gi Grid point identification numbers (Integer > 0; G4 may be zero) Remarks: 1. The grid points define either a triangular or a quadrilateral surface to which a pressure is applied. If G4 is zero or blank, the surface is assumed to be triangular. 2. In the case of a triangular surface, the assumed direction of the pressure is computed according to the right-hand rule using the sequence of grid points G1, G2, and G3 as illustrated below. The total load on the surface, AP, is divided into three equal parts and applied to the grid points as concentrated loads. A minus sign in field 3 reverses the direction of the load. 3. In the case of a quadrilateral surface, the grid points G1, G2, G3, and G4 should form a consecutive sequence around the perimeter. The right-hand rule is applied to find the assumed direction of the pressure. Four concentrated loads are applied to the grid points in approximately the same manner as for a triangular surface. The following specific procedures are adopted to accommodate irregular and/or warped surfaces: a. The surface is divided into two sets of overlapping triangular surfaces. Each triangular surface is bounded by two of the sides and one of the diagonals of the quadrilateral. b. One-half of the pressure is applied to each triangle which is then treated in the manner described in Remark 2. 4. Load sets must be selected in Solution Control to be used. PLOAD2 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry PLOAD2 Defines a uniform static pressure load applied to plate elements. Description: Format and Example: 1 2 PLOAD2 PLOAD2 LID 156 Alternate Form: 1 2 PLOAD2 Plate element static pressure load LID 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 P EID1 EID2 EID3 EID4 EID5 EID6 7 8 9 98.2 101 432 657 3 4 5 6 P EID1 "THRU" EID2 Field 10 10 Contents LID Load set identification number (Integer>0). P Pressure value (Real). [1,2] EIDi Element identification numbers (Integer>0). (Remark 3) Remarks: 1. The pressure intensity is the load per unit surface area. 2. The direction of the pressure is computed according to the right-hand rule using the grid point sequence specified on the element connection entry. If the surface of an element is curved, the direction of the pressure may vary over the surface. Refer to PLOAD4 for a more general pressure load capability. 3. For compatibility with commercial NASTRAN products, ASTROS element type identifiers are not used. Therefore, the referenced element identification numbers must be unique among the plate element types. 4. Equivalent grid point loads are computed which depend on the specific element geometry and type. A uniform pressure may not result in equal grid point loads. 7-194 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry PLOAD4 PLOAD4 Plate element static pressure load Defines a load on the surface of a TRIA3 or QUAD4 element. Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 P3 P4 PLOAD4 LID EID P1 P2 CONT CID V1 V2 V3 PLOAD4 101 2043 15. 18. +BC 52 1.0 0.0 0.0 Alternate Form: 1 2 6 7 8 9 P3 P4 "THRU" EID2 P1 P2 CONT CID V1 V2 V3 Field 101 +ABC 5 EID1 10. 10. 20. 20. 10 CONT 4 LID 1 12.4 9 3 PLOAD4 PLOAD4 23.6 8 THRU 10 CONT 201 Contents LID Load set identification number (Integer>0). EID Element identification number (Integer>0). (Remark 1) Pi Pressure at the grid points defining the element surface (Real). (Remarks 2,3,4) CID Coordinate system identification number (Integer>0). (Remarks 3,4) Vi Components of a vector in system CID that defines the direction of the grid point loads generated by the pressure (Real). (Remarks 3,4) Remarks: 1. For compatibility with commercial NASTRAN products, ASTROS element type identifiers are not used. Therefore, the referenced element identification numbers must be unique among the plate element types. 2. If only P1 is given, the pressure is assumed to be uniform over the element surface. The P4 value is ignored for a triangular face. The pressure intensity is the load per unit surface area. 3. If a direction vector is not specified, the direction of the grid point loads is normal to the element mid-surface at each grid point in the local +z direction. If the surface of the element is curved, the direction of pressure may vary from point to point. 4. When the direction vector is defined and a value for CID is not entered, the grid point load vectors are applied in the Basic Coordinate System. 5. Equivalent grid point loads are computed which depend on the specific element geometry and type. A uniform pressure may not result in equal grid point loads. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-195 PLYLIST USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: PLYLIST A list of composite element layer numbers. Defines a set of layers of composite elements by a list. Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 CONT CONT P8 -etc- PLYLIST 3 1 2 3 4 16 15 14 ABC +BC 13 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 P1 THRU P2 PLYLIST Alternate Form: 1 2 PLYLIST SID Field 10 10 Contents SID Set of identification numbers (Integer > 0) Pi List of ply numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. These entries are referenced by the DESVARP, DESVARS, DCONLMN, DCONPMN, DCONLAM and DCONTH2 data entries. 2. When using the THRU option, all intermediate plies will be assumed to exist. 3. When used by DESVARS and DESVARP, the entry refers to composite layer numbers to be linked together in the design model. 4. When used by DCONLMN, DCONPMN and DCONLAM, the entry refers to composite layers that, together, define a "ply" or a "laminate" whose summed thicknesses will be contribute to the constraint. 7-196 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PMASS PMASS Scalar Mass Property Used to define the mass value of a scalar mass element which is defined by means of the CMASS1 entries. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PMASS PID M TMIN PID M TMIN PMASS 7 4.29 0.2 6 13.2 0.1 Field 8 9 10 Contents PID Property identification number (Integer > 0). M Value of scalar mass (Real). TMIN The minimum mass value in design. Default = 0.0001 Remarks: 1. This entry defines a mass value. 2. Up to 2 mass values may be defined by this entry. 3. TMIN is ignored unless the mass element is linked to design variables through SHAPE entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-197 PQDMEM1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PQDMEM1 Quadrilateral Membrane Property Used to define the properties of a quadrilateral membrane referenced by the CQDMEM1 entry. No bending properties are included. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 TMIN PQDMEM1 PID MID T NSM PQDMEM1 235 2 0.5 0.0 Field 7 8 9 10 Contents PID Property identification number (Integer > 0). MID Material identification number (Integer > 0). T Thickness of membrane (Real ≥ 0.0) NSM Nonstructural mass per unit area (Real ≥ 0.0). TMIN Minimum thickness for design (Real > 0.0 or blank) (Default = 0.0001) Remarks: 1. All PQDMEM1 entries must have unique property identification numbers. 2. TMIN is ignored unless the element is linked to the global design variables by a SHAPE entry. 7-198 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PROD PROD Rod Property Defines the properties of a rod which is referenced by the CROD entry. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TMIN PROD PID MID A J C NSM PROD 17 23 42.6 17.92 4.236 0.5 Field 9 10 Contents PID Property identification number (Integer > 0) MID Material identification number (Integer > 0) A Area of rod (Real ≥ 0.0, or blank) J Torsional constant (Real ≥ 0.0, or blank) C Coefficient to determine torsional stress (Real ≥ 0.0, or blank) NSM Nonstructural mass per unit length (Real ≥ 0.0, or blank) TMIN Minimum rod area for design (Real > 0.0, or blank). Default = 0.0001 Remarks: 1. PROD entries must all have unique property identification numbers. 2. For structural problems, PROD entries may only reference MAT1 material entries. 3. The formula used to compute torsional stress is: cMθ τ = J where Mθ is the torsional moment. 4. TMIN is ignored unless the rod element is linked to the design variables by SHAPE entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-199 PSHEAR USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PSHEAR Shear Panel Property Defines the elastic properties of a shear panel. Referenced by the CSHEAR entry. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 TMIN PSHEAR PID MID T NSM PSHEAR 13 2 4.9 16.2 Field 7 8 9 10 Contents PID Property identification number (Integer > 0) MID Material identification number (Integer > 0) T Thickness of shear panel (Real > 0.0) NSM Nonstructural mass per unit area (Real ≥ 0.0, or blank) TMIN Minimum panel thickness for design (Real ≥ 0.0, or blank). Default = 0.0001 Remarks: 1. All PSHEAR entries must have unique identification numbers. 2. PSHEAR entries may reference only MAT1 material entries. 3. TMIN is ignored unless the element is linked to global design variables by SHAPE entries. 7-200 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PSHELL PSHELL Shell Element Property Defines the membrane, bending, transverse shear, and coupling properties of the shell elements. (QUAD4 and TRIA3) Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PID MID1 T MID2 12I/T3 MID3 TS/T NSM CONT Z1 Z2 MID4 MCSID SCSID ZOFF TMIN PSHELL 203 204 1.90 205 1.2 206 0.8 6.32 ABC +BC +.95 -.95 0 0 0.01 PSHELL CONT Field 10 Contents PID Property identification number (Integer > 0) MID1 Material identification number for membrane (Integer > 0 or blank) T Default value for membrane thickness (Real > 0.0, or blank) MID2 Material identification number for bending (Integer > 0, or blank) 12I/T3 Bending stiffness parameter (Real > 0.0, or blank, Default = 1.0) MID3 Material identification number for transverse shear (Integer > 0, or blank), must be blank unless MID2 > 0) TS/T Transverse shear thickness divided by membrane thickness (Real > 0.0 or blank, Default = .833333). NSM Nonstructural mass per unit area (Real > 0.0, or blank) Z1,Z2 Fiber distances for stress computation. The positive direction is determined by the right-hand rule and the order in which the grid points are listed on the connection entry. (Real or blank, defaults are -1/2 T for Z1 and 1/2 T for Z2.) MID4 Material identification number for membrane-bending coupling (Integer > 0 or blank, must be blank unless MID1 > 0 and MID2 > 0, may not equal MID1 or MID2) MCSID Identification number of material coordinate system (Real or blank, or Integer ≥ 0) (See Remark 9) SCSID Identification number of stress coordinate system (Real or blank, or Integer ≥ 0) (See Remark 9) ZOFF Offset of the element reference plane from the plane of grid points. A positive value means the +ze direction. (Real or blank, default = 0.0) (See Remark 10) TMIN Minimum thickness for design (Real > 0.0 or blank) (Default = 0.0001) Remarks: 1. All PSHELL property entries must have unique identification numbers. 2. The structural mass is computed from the density using the membrane material properties. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-201 PSHELL USER’S MANUAL 3. The results of leaving an MID field blank are: MID1 No membrane or coupling stiffness. MID2 No bending, coupling, or transverse shear stiffness. MID3 No transverse shear flexibility. MID4 No bending-membrane coupling. 4. The continuation entry is not required. 5. The MID4 field should be left blank if the material properties are symmetric with respect to the middle surface of the shell. 6. This entry is used only with the QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements. 7. For structural problems, PSHELL entries may reference MAT1, MAT2, or MAT8 material property entries. 8. If the transverse shear material, MID3, references MAT2 data, then G33 must be zero. If MID3 references MAT8 data, then G1, Z and G2, Z must not be zero. 9. If MCSID/SCSID is left blank (0.0) or is real, it is considered to be the angle of rotation of the X axis of the material/stress coordinate system with respect to the X axis of the element coordinate system in the XY plane of the latter. If Integer, the orientation of the material/stress x-axis is along the projection of the x-axis of the specified coordinate system onto the x-y plane of the element system. The value of MCSID is the default value for the TM field on CQUAD4 Bulk Data entries. 10. The offset ZOFF may also be provided on the CQUAD4 or CTRIA3 Bulk Data entry. The element reference plane is located at the mid-thickness of the element parallel to the element mean plane. 11. TMIN is ignored unless element is linked to global design variables by SHAPE entries. 12. The hierarchy of local coordinate systems is: MCSID supplies the default value for the TM field on the element connectivity entry TM overrides MCSID if TM is not blank SCSID defaults to the material coordinate system if SCSID is blank 7-202 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: PTRMEM PTRMEM Defines property data for TRMEM element. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 NSM TMIN PTRMEM PID MID T PTRMEM 500 1000 0.15 Field 7 8 9 10 Contents PID Property entry identification number (Integer > 0) MID Material property identification (Integer > 0) T Thickness of membrane element (Real > 0.0) NSM Nonstructural mass associated with the element (Real > 0.0, or blank) TMIN Minimum thickness for design (Real > 0.0 or blank) (Default = 0.0001) Remarks: 1. The PTRMEM entry can reference either MAT1, MAT2 or MAT8 entries. 2. TMIN is ignored unless the element is linked to global design variables by SHAPE entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-203 RBAR USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry Description: RBAR Rigid Bar Defines a Rigid Bar element with 6 degrees of freedom at each end. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CMA CMB RBAR SETID EID GA GB CNA CNB RBAR 1001 5 1 2 234 123 Field 10 Contents SETID Multipoint constraint set identification number specified in Solution Control. (Integer > 0) EID Rigid Bar element identification number. (Integer > 0) GA,GB Grid point identification numbers of connection points. (Integer > 0) CNA, CNB Independent degrees of freedom in the global coordinate system for the elements at grid point GA and GB. Indicated by any of the digits 1 through 6 with no embedded blanks. (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) (Remark 2) CMA, CMB Component numbers of dependent degrees of freedom in the global coordinate system assigned by the element at grid point GA and GB. Indicated by any of the digits 1 through 6 with no embedded blanks. (Integer > 0 or blank) (Remarks 3 and 4) Remarks: 1. The RBAR entry is selected in the Solution Control with the MPC=SETID option of the BOUNDARY command. THIS IS AN ENHANCEMENT TO THE NASTRAN METHOD, WHICH DOES NOT ALLOW RIGID CONNECTIONS TO BE CHANGED FOR DIFFERENT BOUNDARY CONDITIONS. 2. The total number of components in CNA and CNB must be six; for example, CNA=1236, CNB=34. The components must jointly be capable of representing any general rigid body motion of the element. 3. If both CMA and CMB are zero or blank, all of the degrees of freedom not in CNA and CNB will be made dependent, i.e. they will be placed in the m-set. 4. The m-set degrees of freedom specified on this entry may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 5. Rigid element identification numbers must be unique within each element type for each MPC set identification number. 7-204 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry Description: RBE1 RBE1 Defines a rigid body connected to an arbitrary number of grid points. Format and Example: 1 2 RBE1 SETID CONT CONT "UM" CONT RBE1 1001 +BC +EF Field Rigid Body Element, Form 1 UM 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID GN1 CN1 GN2 CN2 GN3 CN3 GN4 CN4 GN5 CN5 GN6 CN6 CONT GM1 CM1 GM2 CM2 GM3 CM3 CONT GM4 CM4 GM5 CM5 -etc- 11 1 2 2 134 4 2 1 13 3 5 10 CONT ABC DEF 2 1 12 5 Contents SETID Multipoint constraint set identification number specified in Solution Control. (Integer > 0) EID Rigid body element identification number. (Integer > 0) GNi Grid point identification numbers at which independent degrees of freedom are assigned. (Integer > 0) CNi Component numbers of independent degrees of freedom in the global coordinate system at grid points GNi, indicated by any of the digits 1 through 6 with no embedded blanks. (Integer > 0) (Remark 2) "UM" Character string indicating the start of the list of dependent degrees of freedom. GMj Grid point identification numbers at which dependent degrees of freedom are assigned. (Integer > 0) CMj Component numbers of dependent degrees of freedom in the global coordinate system at grid points GMj, indicated by any of the digits 1 through 6 with no embedded blanks. (Integer > 0) (Remark 2) Remarks: 1. The RBE1 entry is selected in the Solution Control with the MPC=SETID option of the BOUNDARY command. THIS IS AN ENHANCEMENT TO THE NASTRAN METHOD, WHICH DOES NOT ALLOW RIGID CONNECTIONS TO BE CHANGED FOR DIFFERENT BOUNDARY CONDITIONS. 2. The total number of components in CNi must be six; for example, CN1=123, CN2=3, CN3=2 and CN4=3. The components must jointly be capable of representing any general rigid body motion of the element. The m-set degrees of freedom specified on this entry may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 3. A degree-of-freedom cannot be both independent and dependent for the same element. However, both independent and dependent components may exist at the same grid point. 4. Rigid element identification numbers must be unique within each element type for each MPC set identification number. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-205 RBE2 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry Description: RBE2 Rigid Body Element, Form 2 Defines a body whose independent degrees of freedom are specified at a single grid point and whose dependent degrees of freedom are specified at an arbitrary number of grid points. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 GM2 GM3 GM4 CONT 12 14 15 ABC RBE2 SETID EID GN CM GM1 CONT GM5 GM6 GM7 GM8 -etc- RBE2 1001 9 8 12 10 16 20 +BC Field 10 Contents SETID Multipoint constraint set identification number specified in Solution Control. (Integer > 0) EID Rigid body element identification number. (Integer > 0) GN Grid point identification number at which all 6 independent degrees of freedom are assigned. (Integer > 0) CM Component numbers of dependent degrees of freedom in the global coordinate system assigned by the element at grid points GM1, GM2, etc. Indicated by any of the digits 1 through 6 with no embedded blanks. (Integer > 0 or blank) GMi Grid point identification number at which dependent degrees of freedom are assigned. (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. The RBE2 entry is selected in the Solution Control with the MPC=SETID option of the BOUNDARY command. THIS IS AN ENHANCEMENT TO THE NASTRAN METHOD, WHICH DOES NOT ALLOW RIGID CONNECTIONS TO BE CHANGED FOR DIFFERENT BOUNDARY CONDITIONS. 2. The components indicated by CM are made dependent at all grid points GMi. 3. The m-set degrees of freedom specified on this entry may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 4. Rigid element identification numbers must be unique within each element type for each MPC set identification number. 7-206 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry Description: RBE3 RBE3 Rigid Body Element, Form 3 Defines the motion of a reference grid point as the weighted average of motions at a set of other grid points. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID REFG REFC WT1 C1 G1,1 G1,2 CONT CONT G1,3 WT2 C2 G2,1 G2,2 -etc- WT3 CONT CONT C3 G3,1 -etc- -etc- WT4 C4 G4,1 CONT CONT G4,2 -etc- GM1 CM1 GM2 GM4 CM4 -etc- 14 100 +BC 5 +EF 2 +HI 16 RBE3 CONT SETID "UM" CONT RBE3 +KL Field 1001 UM 100 10 CONT CM2 GM3 CM3 CONT 1234 1.0 123 1 3 ABC 4.7 1 2 4 6 5.2 DEF 7 8 9 5.1 1 15 GHI JKL 14 5 3 7 2 Contents SETID Multipoint constraint set identification number specified in Solution Control. (Integer > 0) EID Rigid body element identification number. (Integer > 0) REFG Reference grid point identification number. (Integer > 0) REFC Component numbers of degrees of freedom in the global coordinate system that will be computed at REFG, Indicated by any of the digits 1 through 6 with no embedded blanks. (Integer > 0) WTi Weighting factor for most common defined by Gi,j. (Real) Ci Component numbers of degrees of freedom in the global coordinate system which have weighting factor WTi, at grid points Gi,j. Indicated by any of the digits 1 through 6 with no embedded blanks. (Integer > 0) Gi,j Grid point identification number whose components Ci have weighting factor WTi. (Integer > 0) "UM" Character string indicating the start of the list of dependent degrees of freedom. The default is that all of the components in REFC at REFG, and no others, will be placed in the m-set. GMi Grid point identification numbers with components in the m-set. (Integer > 0) CMi Component numbers in the global coordinate system at grid points GMi which are placed in the m-set. Indicated by any of the digits 1 through 6 with no embedded blanks. (Integer > 0 or blank) (Remark 2) ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-207 RBE3 USER’S MANUAL Remarks: 1. The RBE3 entry is selected in the Solution Control with the MPC=SETID option of the BOUNDARY command. THIS IS AN ENHANCEMENT TO THE NASTRAN METHOD, WHICH DOES NOT ALLOW RIGID CONNECTIONS TO BE CHANGED FOR DIFFERENT BOUNDARY CONDITIONS. 2. The form of Gi,j is different than NASTRAN. The first data field on the continuations has been reserved for the "UM" identifier. The Gi,j list must be contained within data fields 3 through 9. Blanks may appear anywhere in the list. 3. The default for "UM" should be used except in cases where the user wishes to include some or all of the REFC components in displacement sets other that the m-set. If the default is not used for "UM" then: the total number of components in "UM" must equal the number of components in REFC. the components in "UM" must be a subset of the components specified in the (REFG,REFC) and (Gi,j,Ci). the m-set coefficient matrix in the constraint equation must be nonsingular. 4. The m-set degrees of freedom specified on this entry may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 5. Rigid element identification numbers must be unique within each element type for each MPC set identification number. 7-208 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: RLOAD1 RLOAD1 Defines a frequency dependent dynamic load of the form. P(f) = A [C(f) + iD(f)] ei(θ−2πfτ) Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 RLOAD1 SID DLAGID TC TD RLOAD1 10 3 1 2 Field 6 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) DLAGID Identification number of a DLAGS set which defines A, θ and τ (Integer > 0) TC Set identification number of TABLEDi entry which gives C(f) (Integer ≥ 0; TC + TD > 0) TD Set identification number of TABLEDi entry which gives D(f) (Integer ≥ 0; TC + TD > 0) Remarks: 1. RLOAD1 loads may be combined with RLOAD2 loads only by specification on a DLOAD entry. 2. SID must be unique for all RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-209 RLOAD2 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: RLOAD2 Defines a frequency dependent dynamic load of the form. P(f) = AB(f) ei(ϕ(f) + θ−2πfτ) Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 RLOAD2 SID DLAGID TB TP RLOAD2 10 6 100 101 Field 6 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) DLAGID Identification of a DLAGS entry which defines A, θ and τ (Integer > 0) TB Set identification number of TABLEDi entry which gives B(f) (Integer > 0) TP Set identification number of TABLEDi entry which gives ϕ(f) in degrees (Integer ≥ 0) Remarks: 1. RLOAD2 loads may be combined with RLOAD1 loads only by specification on a DLOAD entry. That is, the SID on a RLOAD2 entry may not be the same as that on a RLOAD1 entry. 2. SID must be unique for all RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 entries. 7-210 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry Description: RROD RROD Rigid Rod Defines a pin-ended rod that is rigid in extension. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CMB RROD SETID EID GA GB CMA RROD 1001 14 1 2 2 Field 8 9 10 Contents SETID Multipoint constraint set identification number specified in Solution Control. (Integer > 0) EID Rigid Rod element identification number. (Integer > 0) GA,GB Grid point identification numbers of connection points. (Integer > 0) CMA, CMB Component number of one, and only one, dependent degree-of-freedom in the global coordinate system assigned by the element at either grid point GA or GB. (Integer 1,2 or 3, either CMA or CMB may contain the digit and the other must be blank) Remarks: 1. The RROD entry is selected in the Solution Control with the MPC=SETID option of the BOUNDARY command. THIS IS AN ENHANCEMENT TO THE NASTRAN METHOD, WHICH DOES NOT ALLOW RIGID CONNECTIONS TO BE CHANGED FOR DIFFERENT BOUNDARY CONDITIONS. 2. The degree-of-freedom selected to be dependent must have a nonzero component along the axis of the rod; which also implies that the rod must have a finite length. 3. The m-set degrees of freedom specified on this entry may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 4. Rigid element identification numbers must be unique within each element type for each MPC set identification number. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-211 SAVE USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: SAVE Defines a list of data base entities that are not to be purged. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 NAME5 NAME6 NAME7 NAME8 SAVE NAME1 NAME2 NAME3 NAME4 CONT NAME9 NAME10 NAME11 -etc- SAVE DVCT Field NAMEi 10 CONT Contents The name of a data base entity whose contents are not to be purged. Remarks: 1. Any number of continuations are allowed. 2. This data entry is used by the UTPURG utility to determine if a requested purge of an entity will take place. 7-212 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: SEQGP SEQGP Grid and Scalar Point Resequencing Used to manually order the grid points and scalar points of the problem. The purpose of this card is to allow the user to reidentify the formation sequence of the grid and scalar points of the structural model in such a way as to optimize bandwidth. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SEQID ID SEQID ID SEQID 0.2 2 1.9.2.6 3 SEQGP ID SEQID ID CONT ID SEQID -etc- SEQGP 5392 15.6 596 Field 10 CONT Contents ID Grid point identification number (Integer > 0 ) SEQID Sequenced identification number (a special number described below) Remarks: 1. ID is any grid or scalar point identification number which is to be reidentified for sequencing purposes. The sequence number identifies a special number which may have any of the following forms where X is a decimal integer digit - XXXX.X.X.X, XXXX.X.X, XXXX.X or XXXX where any of the leading Xes may be omitted. This number must contain no embedded blanks. The leading character must not be a decimal point. 2. If the user wishes to insert a point between two already existing grid or scalar points, such as 15 and 16, for example, he would define it as, say 5392, and then use this card to insert extra point number 5392 between them by equivalencing it to, say, 15.6. All output referencing this point will refer to 5392.3. The SEQID numbers must be unique and may not be the same as a point ID which is not being changed. No extra point ID may be referenced more than once. 3. The SEQID numbers must be unique and may not be the same as a point ID which is not being changed. No extra point ID may be referenced more than once. 4. If a point ID is referenced more than once, the last reference will determine its sequence. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-213 SET1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: SET1 Set definition for aerodynamic analysis. Defines a set of integers by a list. Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 CONT ABC SET1 SID G1 CONT G8 -etc- SET1 3 31 62 93 124 16 17 18 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 G1 THRU G2 +BC 19 Alternate Form: 1 2 SET1 10 SID Field 10 Contents SID Set of identification numbers (Integer > 0) Gi List of integers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. These entries are referenced by the SPLINE1 and FLUTTER data entries. 2. When using the THRU option, all intermediate quantities will be assumed to exist. 3. When used by SPLINE1, the entry refers to a list of structural grid points. 4. When used by FLUTTER, the entry refers to mode numbers to be omitted in the flutter analysis. 7-214 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: SET2 SET2 Grid Point List Defines a set of structural grid points in terms of aerodynamic macro elements. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SET2 SID SP1 SP2 CH1 CH2 ZMAX ZMIN SET2 3 0.0 0.73 0.0 0.667 1.0 -3.51 Field 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) SP1,SP2 Lower and higher span division points defining prism containing set (1.01 > Real > –0.01) CH1,CH2 Lower and higher chord division points defining prism containing set (1.01 > Real > –0.01) ZMAX,ZMIN Z-coordinates of top and bottom (using right-hand rule with the order of the corners as listed on a CAEROi entry) of the prism containing set (Real). Usually ZMAX > 0.0, ZMIN < 0.0 Remarks: 1. These entries are referenced by the SPLINE1 data entries. 2. Every grid point, within the defined prism and within the height range, will be in the set. For example, 111 114 117 120 112 115 118 121 116 119 122 113 The shaded area in the figure defines the cross-section of the prism for the sample data given above. Points exactly on the boundary may be missed, hence, to get all the grid points within the area of the macro element, use SP1 = -0.01, SP2 = 1.01, etc. 3. A zero value for ZMAX or ZMIN implies infinity is to be used. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-215 SHAPE USER’S MANUAL SHAPE Input Data Entry: Description: Defines element connectivity entries associated with a design variable. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SHAPEID ETYPE EID1 PREF1 EID2 PREF2 EID3 PREF3 CONT EID4 PREF4 EID5 PREF5 -etc- SHAPE 10 CROD 12 12.0 22 SHAPE Field 10 CONT 1.0 Contents SID Shape function identification number (Integer > 0) ETYPE Character input identifying the element type. One of the following: CELASi CBAR CSHEAR CMASSi CROD CQDMEM1 CONM2 CONROD CTRMEM CQUAD4 CTRIA3 EIDi Element identification numbers (Integer > 0, or blank) PREFi Linking factor for the associated EID (Real) Remarks: 1. The shape function identification is referenced by the DESVARS entry to connect the global variable to the shape. 2. The linking factors define a shape function to be used as the global design variable. 3. Designed properties (e.g., thicknesses) of elements listed on SHAPE entries will be set to unity to ensure proper shape function definition; that is, the PREF values define the shape to be applied to a uniform property distribution. 4. If PBAR1 cross-sectional parameters are used as design variables, the SHAPEM Bulk Data entry must be used. 7-216 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL SHAPEM SHAPEM Input Data Entry: Description: Defines element connectivity entries, and their local variables, associated with a design variable. Format and Examples: 1 2 SHAPEM 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SHAPEID ETYPE EID1 DVSYM1 PREF1 EID2 DVSYM2 PREF2 EID3 DVSYM3 PREF3 -etc- 10 CROD 12 A 1.0 22 A 0.5 CONT SHAPEM Field 10 CONT Contents SHAPEID Shape function identification (Integer > 0) ETYPE Character input identifying the element type. One of the following: CELASi CBAR CSHEAR CMASSi CROD CQDMEM1 CONM2 CONROD CTRMEM CQUAD4 CTRIA3 EIDi Element identification numbers (Integer > 0, or blank) DVSYMi Symbol defining the local design variable. (Remarks 2 and 3) PREFi Linking factor for the associated local design variable (Real) Remarks: 1. The shape function identification number is referenced by the DESVARS entry to connect the global variable to the shape. 2. The following symbols may be used for the different types of properties: ELEMENTS ALLOWABLE DVSYM VALUES PELAS K PMASS M PBAR, PROD A PBAR1 D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10 SHEAR,QDMEM1,TRMEM,PSHELL PCOMP,PCOMP1,PCOMP2 T 3. If all elements to be linked have only one possible DVSYM (e.g. K), then the SHAPE Bulk Data entry may be used. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-217 SHPGEN USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: SHPGEN Defines a design variable which performs shape linking using the automatic shape generation capability. Format and Examples: 1 2 SHPGEN SHPGEN 3 SHAPEID ESETID 10 4 5 6 7 8 SHAPE X0,CID Y0 Z0 DVSYMBL 12 12.0 22.0 1.0 11 Field 9 10 Contents SHAPEID Shape function identification (Integer > 0) ESETID Identification number of an ELEMLIST Bulk Data entry (Integer > 0) SHAPE Desired shape function (Character) (Remark 1) CID The identification number of a user-defined coordinate system in which the origin is the new origin for shape generation, and the shape function contribution is in the direction of these coordinate axes. X0 The x-coordinate, in the basic system, of the new origin for shape generation (Real) Y0 The y-coordinate, in the basic system, of the new origin for shape generation (Real) Z0 The z-coordinate, in the basic system, of the new origin for shape generation (Real) DVSYMBL Character symbol specifying the PBAR1 cross-sectional parameter if ETYPE is PBAR. D1 D6 D2 D7 D3 D8 D4 D9 D5 D10 Remarks: 1. SHAPEID is referenced by a DESVARS Bulk Data entry which defines the shape used for the global variable. 2. To print or punch the resulting SHAPE or SHAPEM entries, you may use the DEBUG command SHPGEN. 3. The SHAPE is a character string that consists of one, two or three digits. The first digit specifies the order of the contribution to the shape of the basic x-coordinate of the element centroid. The second and third digits represent the same data for the y-coordinate and z-coordinate of the centroid, respectively. The value of each digit may vary from 0 to 9, which represents the order of the shape term, as: 232 indicates to use the terms x − xo 2 3 ; y − yo ; z − zo 2 4. The shape function contributions are about the specified point in the basic coordinate system unless you specify a CID. Then the contributions are relative to this system. 7-218 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: SPC SPC Single-Point Constraint Defines sets of single-point constraints and enforced displacements. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C D SPC SID G C D G SPC 2 32 436 -2.6 5 9 10 +2.9 Field Contents SID Identification number of single-point constraint set (Integer > 0) G Grid or scalar point identification number (Integer > 0) C Component number of global coordinate (6 ≥ Integer ≥ 0; up to 6 unique digits may be placed in the field with no embedded blanks.) D Value of enforced displacement for all coordinates designed by G and C (Real) Remarks: 1. Degrees of freedom specified on this entry form members of a mutually exclusive set. They may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 2. Single-point forces of constraint are recovered during stress data recovery. 3. Single-point constraint sets must be selected in Solution Control (SPC= SID) to be used. 4. SPC degrees of freedom may be redundantly specified as permanent constraints on the GRID entry. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-219 SPCADD USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: SPCADD Defines a single-point constraint set as a union of single-point constraint sets defined via SPC or SPC1 entries. Format and Examples: 1 2 SPCADD CONT SPCADD Single-Point Constraint Set Combination 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 -etc- 101 3 2 9 1 Field 10 CONT Contents SID Identification number for new single-point constraint set (Integer > 0) Si Identification numbers of single-point constraint sets defined via SPC or by SPC1 entries (Integer > 0; SID ≠ Si) Remarks: 1. Single-point constraint sets must be selected in Solution Control (SPC = SID) to be used. 2. No Si may be the identification number of a single-point constraint set defined by another SPCADD entry. 3. The Si values must be unique. 4. SPCADD entries take precedence over SPC or SPC1 entries. If both have the same set ID, only the SPCADD entry will be used. 7-220 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: SPC1 SPC1 Single-Point Constraint, Alternate Form 1 Defines sets of single-point constraints Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 G3 G4 G5 G6 CONT ABC SPC1 SID C G1 G2 CONT G7 G8 G9 -etc- SPC1 3 2 1 3 10 9 6 5 +BC 2 8 Alternate Form: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SPC1 SID C GID1 THRU GID2 SPC1 313 456 10 THRU 1000 10 10 Field Contents SID Identification number of single-point constraint set (Integer > 0) C Component number of global coordinate (any unique combination of the digits 1 through 6 (with no embedded blanks) when point identification numbers are grid points; must be null if point identification numbers are scalar points) Gi,GIDi Grid or scalar point identification numbers (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. Note that enforced displacements are not available via this entry. As many continuation entries as desired may appear. 2. Coordinates specified on this entry form members of a mutually exclusive set. They may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 3. Single-point constraint sets must be selected in Solution Control (SPC = SID) to be used. 4. SPC degrees of freedom may be redundantly specified as permanent constraints on the GRID entry. 5. If the alternate form is used, points in the sequence GID1 through GID2 are required to exist. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-221 SPLINE1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: SPLINE1 Surface Spline Defines a surface spline for interpolating out-of-plane motion for aeroelastic problems. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SPLINE1 EID CP MACROID BOX1 BOX2 SETG DZ SPLINE1 3 111 111 118 14 0.0 Field 9 10 Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) CP Coordinate system defining the spline plane (Integer ≥ 0, or blank) MACROID Identification number of a CAEROi entry which defines plane of spline (Integer > 0) BOX1,BOX2 First and last box whose motions are interpolated using this spline (Integer > 0) SETG Refers to a SETi entry which lists the structural grid points to which the spline is attached (Integer > 0) DZ Linear attachment flexibility (Real ≥ 0.0) Remarks: 1. The interpolated points (k-set) will be defined by aero-cells. The sketch shows the cells for which u k is interpolated if BOX1 = 111 and BOX2 = 118. 111 114 117 120 112 115 118 121 116 119 122 113 2. The attachment flexibility (units of area) is used for smoothing the interpolation. If DZ = 0.0, the spline will pass through all deflected grid points. If DZ >> (area of spline), a least squares plane fit will occur. Intermediate values will provide smoothing. 3. If no CP is specified, the spline plane is assumed to be the CAERO macro element plane. 4. The SPLINE EID is used only for error messages and need not be related to the macroelement identification number. 7-222 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: SPLINE2 SPLINE2 Defines a beam spline for interpolating panels and bodies for steady and unsteady aeroelastic analyses. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EID MACROID BOX1 BOX2 SETG DZ DTOR CID CONT CONT DTHX DTHY SPLINE2 1000 5000 5000 5100 10 0. 1.0 4 +ABC SPLINE2 +BC 10 -1. Field Contents EID Element identification number (Integer > 0) MACROID The identification of a CAERO1, CAERO2, CAERO6 or PAERO6 aerodynamic macroelement to be splined (Integer > 0) BOX1,BOX2 The identification numbers of the first and last boxes on the macroelement to be interpolated using this spline (Integer > 0) SETG The identification of a SETi entry which lists the structural grid points to which the spline is attached (Integer > 0) DZ Linear attachment flexibility (Real ≥ 0.0) DTOR Torsional flexibility, EI (Real ≥ 0.0; use 1.0 for bodies) GJ CID Rectangular coordinate system which defines the y-axis of the spline (Integer > 0 if lifting surface or blank; not used for bodies) DTHX,DTHY Rotational attachment flexibility. DTHX is for rotation about the x-axis; not used for bodies. DTHY is for rotation about the y-axis; used for slope of bodies. (Real) Remarks: 1. The interpolation points (k-set) will be defined by aero-cells. 2. For panels, the spline axis is the projection of the y-axis of coordinate system CID, projected onto the plane of the panel. For bodies, the spline axis is parallel to the x-axis of the aerodynamic coordinate system. 3. The flexibilities are used for smoothing. Zero attachment flexibilities will imply rigid attachment, i.e., no smoothing. Negative values of DTHX and /or DTHY will imply no attachment. 4. The continuation card is optional. 5. The SPLINE2 EID must be unique with respect to all other SPLINEi data entries, it is used only for error messages. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-223 SPOINT USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: SPOINT Scalar Point List Defines scalar points of the structural model Description: Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ID7 ID8 8 9 SPOINT ID1 ID2 ID3 ID4 ID5 ID6 SPOINT 3 18 1 4 16 2 3 4 5 6 7 "THRU" ID2 Alternate Form: 1 2 SPOINT ID1 Field IDi,ID1,ID2 10 10 Contents Scalar point identification number (Integer > 0; ID1 < ID2) Remarks: 1. If the alternate form is used, all scalar points ID1 through ID2 are defined. 7-224 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: SUPORT SUPORT Fictitious Support Defines coordinates at which the user desires determinate reactions to be applied to a free body during analysis. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ID C ID C SUPORT SETID ID C SUPORT 1000 16 215 Field 9 10 Contents SETID Solution control SUPPORT set identification (Integer > 0) ID Grid or scalar point identification number (Integer > 0) C Component number (zero or blank for scalar points; any unique combination of the digits 1 through 6 for grid points) Remarks: 1. Coordinates specified on this entry form members of a mutually exclusive set. They may not be specified on other entries that define mutually exclusive sets. 2. From one to three support coordinates may be defined on a single entry. 3. Continuation entries are not allowed. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-225 TABDMP1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: TABDMP1 Modal Damping Table Defines modal damping as a tabular function of frequency. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 G3 CONT 0.001 ABC TABDMP1 ID TYPE F1 G1 F2 G2 F3 CONT F4 G4 F5 G5 F6 G6 -etc- TABDMP1 3 G 0.0 0.005 1.0 0.008 2.0 2.5 0.01057 2.6 0.01362 +BC Field 10 Contents ID Table identification number (Integer > 0) TYPE Data word which indicates the type of damping units, G, CRIT, Q, or blank. Default is G. Fi Frequency value in cycles per unit time (Real ≥ 0.0). Gi Damping value (Real). Remarks: 1. The Fi must be in either ascending or descending order but not both. 2. Jumps between two points (Fi = Fi+1) are allowed, but not at the end points. 3. At least two entries must be present. 4. Any Fi, Gi entry may be ignored by placing the BCD string SKIP in either of two fields used for that entry. 5. The TABDMP1 mnemonic infers the use of the algorithm g = gt (F) where F is input to the table and g is returned. The table look-up gT (F) is performed using linear interpolation within the table and linear extrapolation outside the table using the last two end points at the appropriate table end. At jump points the average gT (F) is used. There are no error returns from this table look-up procedure. 6. If TYPE is G or blank, the damping values are in structural damping units, that is, the value of g in (1+ig)K. If TYPE is CRIT, the damping values are in the units of fraction of critical damping, C/C0. If TYPE is Q, the damping values are in the units of the amplification or quality factor, Q. These constants are related by the following equations: C/C0 = g/2, 1 2C C Q = 0 1 g 7-226 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: TABLED1 TABLED1 Defines a tabular function for use in generating frequency-dependent and time-dependent dynamic loads. Format and Examples: 1 2 TABLED1 ID CONT x1 TABDMP1 32 +BC -3.0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CONT y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 -etcABC 6.9 2.0 Field 5.6 3.0 5.6 Contents ID Table identification number (Integer > 0) xi,yi Tabular entries (Real) Remarks: 1. The xi must be in either ascending or descending order but not both. 2. Jumps between two points (xi = xi+1) are allowed, but not at the end points. 3. At least two entries must be present. 4. Any x-y entry may be ignored by placing the string SKIP in either of the two fields used for that entry. 5. The generated function is: y = yT (X) where X is input to the table and Y is returned. The table look-up yT (x) is performed using linear interpolation within the table and linear extrapolation outside the table using the last two end points at the appropriate table end. At jump points the average yT (x) is used. There are no error returns from this table look-up procedure. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-227 TEMP USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: TEMP Grid Point Temperature Field Defines temperature at grid points for determination of (1) Thermal Loading; and (2) data recovery. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 G T TEMP SID G T G T TEMP 3 94 316.2 49 219.8 Field 9 10 Contents SID Temperature set identification number (Integer > 0) G Grid point identification number (Integer > 0) T Temperature (Real) Remarks: 1. From one to three grid point temperatures may be defined on a single entry. 2. Average element temperatures are obtained as a simple average of the connecting grid point temperatures when no element temperature data are defined. 3. For each thermal load, temperatures must be specified for all grid points using either TEMP or TEMPD entries. 7-228 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: TEMPD TEMPD Defines a temperature value for all grid points of the structural model which have not been given a temperature on a TEMP entry. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID T SID T SID T TEMPD SID T TEMPD 1 215.3 Field Grid Point Temperature Field Default 10 Contents SID Temperature set identification number (Integer > 0) T Default temperature value (Real) Remarks: 1. From one to four default temperatures may be defined on a single entry. 2. Average element temperatures are obtained as a simple average of the connecting grid point temperatures when no element temperature data are defined. 3. For each thermal load, temperatures must be specified for all grid points using either TEMP or TEMPD entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-229 TF USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: TF Dynamic Transfer Function Description: 1. Used to define a transfer function of the form (B0 + B1 p + B2 p2 ) ud + ∑ ( A0(i) + A1 (i) p + A2 (i) p2 ) ui = 0 i 2. May also be used as a means of direct matrix input. See Remark 3. Format and Examples: 1 2 TF CONT TF +ABC 3 4 5 6 7 SID GD CD B0 B1 B2 CONT G(1) C(1) A0(1) A1(1) A2(1) 1 2 3 4.0 5.0 6.0 +ABC 13 4 5.0 6.0 7.0 Field 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification (Integer > 0). GD,G(i) Grid, scalar or extra point identification numbers (Integer > 0). CD,C(i) Component numbers (null or zero for scalar or extra points, any one of the digits 1 through 6 for a grid point). B0, B1, B2, A0(i),A1(i), A2(i) Transfer function coefficients (Real). Remarks: 1. The matrix elements defined by this entry are added to the dynamic matrices for the problem. 2. Transfer function sets must be selected in Solution Control (TFL = SID) to be used. 3. The constraint relation given in Equation 1 will hold only if no structural elements or other matrix elements are connected to the dependent coordinate, ud. In fact, the terms on the left side of Equation 1 are simply added to the terms from all other sources in the row for ud. 4. Any number of continuations are allowed. 7-230 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: TIMELIST TIMELIST Defines a list of times at which outputs are desired. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID TIME TIME TIME TIME TIME TIME TIME CONT TIME TIME -etc- TIMELIST 100 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 TIMELIST Field 10 CONT Contents SID Set identification number referenced by Solution Control (Integer > 0 ) TIME Time, (in consistent time unit) at which outputs are desired. (Real) Remarks: 1. In order to be used, the SID must be referenced by Solution Control. 2. The nearest time to TIME, either above or below, which was used in the Transient Response analysis will be used to satisfy the output requests. 3. Any number of continuations is allowed. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-231 TLOAD1 USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: TLOAD1 Defines a time dependent function of the form: P(t) = AF(t − τ) for use in a transient response problem. Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 TLOAD1 SID DLAGID TID TLOAD1 10 8 13 Field 5 6 7 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) DLAGID Identification number of DLAGS set which defines A and τ (Integer > 0) TID Identification number of a TABLED1 entry which gives F(t−τ) (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. SID must be unique for all TLOAD1, TLOAD2, RLOAD1, and RLOAD2 entries. 7-232 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: TLOAD2 TLOAD2 Defines a time-dependent dynamic load of the form: _ _ 0 0 o r w hen t < t > t2 −t1 _ _ _ _ P(t) = B Ct w hen 0 ≤ t ≤ t2 −t1 cos(2π f t+θ) At e w here Format and Examples: 1 2 _ t = t − t1 − τ 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TLOAD2 SID DLAGID T1 T2 FREQ PHASE CTEXP GROWTH TLOAD2 10 6 2.1 4.7 12.0 30.0 2.0 3.0 Field 10 Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) DLAGID Identification number of the DLAGS entry set which define the time invariant load A and the time delay (Integer >0) T1 Time constant (Real ≥ 0.0) T2 Time constant (Real, T2 > T1) FREQ Frequency in cycles per unit time (Real ≥ 0.0) PHASE Phase angle in degrees (Real) CTEXP Exponential coefficient (Real) GROWTH Growth coefficient (Real) Remarks: 1. TLOAD2 loads may be combined with TLOAD1 loads only by specification on a DLOAD entry. 2. SID must be unique for all TLOAD1, TLOAD2, RLOAD1 and RLOAD2 entries. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-233 TRIM USER’S MANUAL TRIM Input Data Entry Description: Trim Variable Specification Specifies conditions for steady aeroelastic trim or nonplanar steady aerodynamic analysis. Format and Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TRIM TRIMID MACH QDP TRMTYP EFFID VO CONT LABEL1 VAL1 LABEL2 VAL2 LABEL3 VAL3 TRIM 1001 0.90 1200. LIFT 100 926.3 +ABC NZ 8.0 QRATE 0.243 ELEV FREE Field 8 9 10 CONT LABEL4 VAL4 -etc+ABC ALPHA FREE Contents TRIMID Trim set identification number (Integer>0) MACH Mach number (Real ≥ 0.0) QDP Dynamic pressure (Real>0.0) TRMTYP Type of trim required (Character or blank) (See Remark 3) blank ROLL LIFT PITCH SUPORT controlled trim. Axisymmetric roll trim (1 DOF) Symmetric trim of lift forces (1 DOF) Symmetric trim of lift and pitching moment (2 DOF) EFFID Identification number of CONEFFS Bulk Data entries which modify control surface effectiveness values (Integer ≥ 0, or blank)(Remark 2) VO True velocity (Real>0.0, or blank) (See Remark 12) LABELi Label defining aerodynamic trim parameters. VALi Magnitude of the specified trim parameter (Real) or the character string FREE. Remarks: 1. The TRIM entry is selected in Solution Control in the SAERO and NPSAERO disciplines with the TRIM option. 2. All aerodynamic forces created by the control surface will be reduced to the referenced amount. For example, an EFF1 of 0.70 indicates a 30% reduction in the forces. 3. The TRMTYP field has the following interpretation: LIFT Implies that the vertical acceleration will be trimmed by one FREE symmetric control parameter or surface, or, the acceleration computed for some set of symmetric parameters/surfaces. 7-234 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS ROLL implies that the roll acceleration, PACCEL, will be trimmed by some one FREE antisymmetric control parameter or surface — OR — the acceleration computed for some set of antisymmetric parameters/surfaces. Any number of antisymmetric parameters may be fixed, but the FREE parameters are limited to PACCEL — OR — any one antisymmetric parameter or surface. For example, PACCEL=0.0; AILERON=1.0; PRATE=FREE PITCH implies that the vertical acceleration, NZ, and the pitch acceleration, QACCEL, will be trimmed by no more than two FREE symmetric control parameters or surfaces — OR — the accelerations computed for some set of symmetric parameters/surfaces. Any number of symmetric parameters may be fixed, but the FREE parameters are limited to QACCEL and NZ — OR — up to two symmetric parameters or surfaces — OR — some combination. For example, NZ=8.0g’s; QACCEL=0.0; ALPHA=FREE; ELEV=FREE TRIM USER’S MANUAL 8. The number of FREE Values of VALUEi must correspond exactly to the number of unknowns in the trim analysis. If TRMTYP is blank, the number of SUPORT DOF. 9. If TRIMID is referenced by an NPSAERO discipline, TRMTYP must be blank and FREE is not allowed for VALUEi. 10. For NX, NY and NZ, units are length per second in consistent units unless a CONVERT/MASS Bulk Data entry is provided. In this case, the values are dimensionless. 11. The angular accelerations, QACCEL, PACCEL, and RACCEL, are entered in units of radians per second per second. 12. QRATE, PRATE, and RRATE, are entered in units of radians per second. The velocity must be input if any of the "rate" parameters are given since its value is needed to dimensionalize the forces computed for a unit rate per velocity in the aerodynamic preface. 13. The THKCAM label refers to thickness and camber effects and its corresponding value is usually set to 1.0. Non-unit values of the THKCAM parameter are available only to provide added generality. 14. Any control surfaces, trim parameters, or structural accelerations not specified on the TRIM entry will not participate in the analysis: they will be given fixed values of 0.0. This includes THKCAM. 15. Refer to the STATIC AEROELASTIC TRIM Application Note for more information. 7-236 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: TSTEP TSTEP Defines time step intervals at which a solution will be generated and output in transient analysis. Format and Examples: 1 2 TSTEP SID CONT TSTEP +ABC Field 2 3 4 5 N(1) DT(1) N0(1) N(2) DT(2) N0(2) 10 .001 5 9 0.01 1 6 7 8 9 10 CONT +ABC Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) N(i) Number of time steps of value DT(i) (Integer ≥ 2) DI(i) Time increment (Real > 0.0) N0(i) Skip factor for output (every N0(i)th step will be saved for output) (Integer > 0) Remarks: 1. TSTEP entries must be selected in the Solution Control (TSTEP=SID). 2. Note that the entry permits changes in the size of the time step during the course of the solution. Thus, in the example shown, there are 10 time steps of value 0.001 followed by 9 time steps of value .01. Also, the user has requested that output be recorded for t = 0.0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, etc. ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-237 VELOLIST USER’S MANUAL VELOLIST Input Data Entry: Description: Defines a list of velocity values. Format and Example: 1 2 VELOLIST CONT VELOLIST 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SID VELO1 VELO2 VELO3 VELO4 VELO5 VELO6 VELO7 VELO8 VELO9 -etc- 201 100.0 80.0 Field 10 CONT 200.0 Contents SID Velocity set identification number (Integer > 0) VELOi Velocity value (Real > 0.0) Remarks: 1. VELOLIST Bulk Data entries are selected in the Function Packet. 7-238 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Input Data Entry: Description: VSDAMP VSDAMP Specifies values of g and/or ω3 to generate either viscous damping that has the same damping forces as structural damping of magnitude g at the frequency ω3 or to specify the structural damping g (see Remarks 3 and 4) Format and Examples: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SID G ω3 VSDAMP SID G ω3 VSDAMP 100 0.005 15.0 Field 8 9 10 Contents SID Set identification number (Integer > 0) G Damping value (Real) ω3 Frequency value in Hertz (Real ≥ 0.0) Remarks: 1. The setid is selected by the DAMPING=n command in Solution Control. 2. Up to two values of g and ω3 can be defined on a single entry. 3. If ω3 is zero, g will be used to generate a complex stiffness matrix 3 of the form K = ( 1 + ig ) K 4. g If ω3 is nonzero, a viscous damping matrix of the form B = K is generated. 2πω3 ASTROS THE BULK DATA PACKET 7-239 VSDAMP USER’S MANUAL This page is intentionally blank. 7-240 THE BULK DATA PACKET ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Chapter 8. OUTPUT FEATURES In a software system the magnitude of ASTROS, the amount of data that may be of interest to you is very large. In multidisciplinary optimization, the quantity of data is even larger and the expense involved in its computation even more critical. It is worthwhile, therefore, to limit the amount of output to a minimum and to provide a mechanism for you to select those data that are of importance in each particular case. Chapter 4 of this manual described one mechanism provided to select particular iterations, disciplines, subcases and response quantities: that of the Solution Control output request. This Chapter endeavors to present the totality of output options available. The system controlled outputs from the engineering modules are described in order to establish a familiarity with an ASTROS output listing. This is followed by a more complete description of output from each Solution Control request than is contained in Chapter 4, with different disciplines, elements, design constraints and node types accounted for in some detail. These represent the outputs that are fully supported by the ASTROS software and require little or no user intervention to obtain. The presentation of these features assumes that the standard executive sequence is used. If the user substantially modifies the standard sequence (to the point where certain modules are not called), some or all of the presented output features may no longer be available. The more advanced forms of user output requests are also presented in this section. The most basic of these forms involve changing the engineering module print control levels through the use of the DEBUG packet. Then, the MAPOL addressable print utilities are presented. The use of these utilities, in conjunction with the general versatility of the MAPOL language, provides the user with the capacity both to look at existing data and to compute and view additional data. In fact, these options enable the user to obtain virtually any data that reside on the data base or that can be computed and stored on the data base. Finally, a quick overview of the Interactive eBASE Environment (eSHELL) is given. The eSHELL program provides for complete Standard Query Language interactive queries on the eBASE entities. ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-1 USER’S MANUAL 8.1. SYSTEM CONTROLLED OUTPUT Many of the engineering and executive system program units write data to the ASTROS output listing automatically. As enumerated in the introduction to this section, output of this nature in ASTROS is very limited, but sufficient amounts exist to justify a brief presentation of the data and their formats. It is also useful to present the basic ASTROS listing in order to facilitate contrasting it to listings containing user selected output quantities. The first page of ASTROS output is the title page showing the version number, date and host machine. Each page of output following the solution control listing is labeled with six lines of header information including the user selected title, subtitle and label. The version number, date and, if applicable, the design iteration number will also appear in the header of each page. 8.1.1. Default Output Printed by Modules The DEBUG packet echo and the ASSIGN DATABASE entries, shown in Table 8-1, are the first output following the title page. Immediately following these, the solution control commands are echoed to the output listing. This listing is helpful in identifying the particular disciplines and cases selected in the run. The multidisciplinary nature of ASTROS requires further output labeling. Therefore, in addition to the solution control summary, the BOUND module writes a summary of selected disciplines for each boundary condition at the top of the boundary condition loop, as shown in Table 8-2. It indicates all disciplines and most discipline options in the current boundary condition to assist you in determining the particular path that will be taken through the standard MAPOL sequence. A similar printout, Table 8-3, from the ABOUND module appears at the top of the sensitivity phase boundary condition loop to indicate the nature of the active boundary conditions and active design constraints. The next set of output, Table 8-4, comes from the bandwidth minimizer. It details the method selected, numbers of grids and elements in the model and the values of the measures of merit in the resequencing of grid points. Active constraint information is provided in the Active Constraint Summary from the ACTCON module. It indicates the total number of constraints considered active according to the current constraint deletion criteria. You may select a complete listing of the active constraints with the PRINT DCONSTRAINT solution control option, but you may not suppress the table header indicating the number of constraints retained of the total number applied. This number is computed even if the current design is considered to be the converged optimum. A summary of the convergence criteria and of the critical constraint value is included in the Active Constraint Summary header, illustrated in Table 8-5, if the approximate problem was considered converged following the preceding redesign step. Each redesign step is summarized in a small table, shown in Table 8-6, entitled the Approximate Optimization Summary. It indicates the optimization method used in resizing and the changes in three measures of convergence. The first measure is the change in the value of the objective function during the solution of the approximate optimization problem. The second is the change in the Euclidean norm of the design variable vector and finally, the maximum absolute change in any component of the design variable vector. Each of the values are computed as an absolute change and a percentage change. These values are then printed. You may compare the first two percentage values against your input convergence limit, denoted UPPER BOUND PERCENT MOVE, to determine which (if either) is greater than the limit. If either 8-2 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 8-1. DEBUG and ASSIGN DATABASE Output :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :: :: :: AUTOMATED STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION SYSTEM :: :: :: :: ***** ***** ***** ***** ***** ***** :: :: * * * * * * * * * :: :: ***** ***** * ***** * * ***** :: :: * * * * * * * * * :: :: * * ***** * * * ***** ***** :: :: :: :: VERSION 9.0 :: :: :: :: IBM RISC SYSTEM/6000 :: :: JUL 01, 1992 :: :: :: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ***** ASTROS DEBUG PACKET ECHO ***** DEBUG KEY "LOGBEGIN " HAS BEEN SELECTED DEBUG KEY "LOGMODULE " HAS BEEN SELECTED DEBUG KEY "MATRIX " HAS BEEN SELECTED ***** ASTROS ASSIGN DATABASE COMMAND ECHO ***** *...10...**...20...**...30...**...40...**...50...**...60...**...70...**...80...* ASSIGN DATABASE COMB SHAZAM NEW *...10...**...20...**...30...**...40...**...50...**...60...**...70...**...80...* DATA BASE NAME = COMB DATA BASE PASSWORD = SHAZAM DATA BASE STATUS = NEW USER PARAMETERS ARE: ** NONE GIVEN ** Table 8-2. Boundary Condition Summary B O U N D A R Y C O N D I T I O N S U M M A R Y MATRIX REDUCTION SUMMARY: THE PHYSICAL SET CONTAINS AND F O R B O U N D A R Y C O N D I T I O N 2 3948 DEGREES OF FREEDOM (DOFS) 3948 PHYSICAL DOFS ARE STRUCTURAL 0 PHYSICAL DOFS ARE EXTRA POINTS THERE ARE 12 DEPENDENT MULTIPOINT CONSTRAINT DOFS LEAVING 3936 INDEPENDENT DOFS THERE ARE 1563 SINGLE POINT CONSTRAINT DOFS LEAVING 2373 FREE DOFS THE FREE DOFS ARE REDUCED USING STATIC CONDENSATION THERE ARE 2221 OMITTED DOFS LEAVING 152 ANALYSIS SET DOFS 0 OF WHICH ARE "SUPPORTED" LEAVING 152 DOFS LEFT OVER DISCIPLINE-SUBCASE SUMMARY: *** STATICS HAS BEEN SELECTED 5 SUBCASE(S) ARE DEFINED *** FLUTTER HAS BEEN SELECTED A REAL EIGENANALYSIS WILL 1 SUBCASE(S) ARE DEFINED ASTROS *** BY SOLUTION CONTROL *** ALSO BE DONE IF NOT ALREADY SELECTED BY SOLUTION CONTROL OUTPUT FEATURES 8-3 USER’S MANUAL Table 8-3. Active Boundary and Constraint Summary S E N S I T I V I T Y S U M M A R Y F O R B O U N D A R Y C O N D I T I O N : 1 C O N D I T I O N : 2 4 FLUTTER CONSTRAINTS -----4 TOTAL ACTIVE CONSTRAINTS FOR THIS BOUNDARY CONDITION. S E N S I T I V I T Y 2 6 4 -----12 S U M M A R Y F O R B O U N D A R Y TSAI-WU STRESS CONSTRAINTS ON STATIC SUBCASE TSAI-WU STRESS CONSTRAINTS ON STATIC SUBCASE FLUTTER CONSTRAINTS 1 2 TOTAL ACTIVE CONSTRAINTS FOR THIS BOUNDARY CONDITION. Table 8-4. Resequencing Summary *** S U M M A R Y O F A U T O M A T I C R E S E Q U E N C I N G METHOD SELECTED CRITERION BANDWIDTH PROFILE MAXIMUM WAVEFRONT AVERAGE WAVEFRONT RMS WAVEFRONT *** CM RMS WAVEFRONT BEFORE 648 25960 50 39.453 40.632 NUMBER OF GRID POINTS MAXIMUM NODAL DEGREE AFTER 60 23960 60 36.413 38.159 658 14 NUMBER OF MPC EQUATIONS PROCESSED 12 ELEMENTS PROCESSED CSHEAR CTRMEM CONROD CONM2 CBAR CQUAD4 TOTAL ELEMENTS 8-4 OUTPUT FEATURES 565 40 305 35 152 662 1759 ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 8-5. Active Constraint Summary S U M M A R Y O F A C T I V E C O N S T R A I N T S AFTER ANALYSIS 4 OF A MAXIMUM 16 12 CONSTRAINTS RETAINED OF 60 APPLIED THE APPROXIMATE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM WAS CONVERGED WITH FEASIBLE CONSTRAINT CRITERIA (CTLMIN)...: 5.00000E-04 AND ACTIVE CONSTRAINT CRITERIA (CTL)......: -7.50000E-04 CURRENT MAXIMUM CONSTRAINT VALUE...: TO TERMINATE -4.97155E-04 ...: -2.25000E-03 < -4.97155E-04 <= 1.00000E-03 *** ASTROS OPTIMIZATION HAS CONVERGED *** **************************************************************** * CONSTRAINT RETENTION ALGORITHM SUMMARY * * RFAC = 3.000, EPS = -.100, NDV = 4 * * * * # OF CONSTRAINTS RETAINED BY RFAC = 12 * * CUTOFF CONSTRAINT VALUE = -.981 * * * * # ADDED WITH VALUES GREATER THAN EPS = 0 * * * * # OF ADDITIONAL MINIMUM THICKNESS * * CONSTRAINTS RETAINED ONLY FOR * * CONTROLLING MOVE LIMITS (DCONTHK) = 0 * **************************************************************** COUNT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 CONSTRAINT VALUE -7.09291E-02 -4.97155E-04 -4.20226E-01 -8.19597E-01 -8.42767E-01 -5.62036E-01 -4.38053E-01 -8.14886E-01 -8.52344E-01 -5.76223E-01 -9.77223E-01 -9.81333E-01 CONSTRAINT TYPE UPPER BND LIFT EFFECT DISPLACEMENT VON MISES STRESS VON MISES STRESS VON MISES STRESS VON MISES STRESS VON MISES STRESS VON MISES STRESS VON MISES STRESS VON MISES STRESS VON MISES STRESS VON MISES STRESS TYPE COUNT 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 28 BOUNDARY ID 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SUBCASE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ELEMENT TYPE N/A N/A QDMEM1 QDMEM1 QDMEM1 QDMEM1 QDMEM1 QDMEM1 QDMEM1 QDMEM1 ROD SHEAR EID/LAYR N/A N/A 13 14 16 17 20 21 23 26 2 29 Table 8-6. Approximate Optimization Summary **** ASTROS APPROXIMATE OPTIMIZATION SUMMARY **** *** ITERATION 1 *** ** RESIZING METHOD = MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING ** ** DESIGN VAR. MOVE LIMIT = 2.000000 * * UPPER BOUND PERCENT MOVE = 1.000000 PERCENT * * CRITERION 1: OBJECTIVE CHANGE * * CURRENT VALUE = 4.3531E+01 * * PREVIOUS VALUE = 2.7840E+01 * * DELTA = 1.5691E+01 * * PERCENT MOVE = 56.3603 * * CRITERION 2: DESIGN VECTOR MOVE * * NORM OF X-X0 = 1.3076E+00 * * EUCLIDEAN NORM OF X0 = 2.3200E+00 * * PERCENT MOVE = 56.3603 * * CRITERION 3: DESIGN VARIABLE MOVE * * MAXIMUM MOVE = 3.6390E-01 * * AT DESIGN VARIABLE = 3 * * CURRENT VALUE = 1.2339E+00 * * PREVIOUS VALUE = 8.7000E-01 * * PERCENT MOVE = 41.8275 * * THE APPROXIMATE PROBLEM IS NOT CONVERGED * ******************************************************************** ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-5 USER’S MANUAL value is greater, the approximate problem will not be considered converged, otherwise it will be. A message indicating the state of convergence closes the Approximate Optimization Summary. The last default design print, Table 8-7, is generated by the ACTCON module on the final design iteration. The ACTCON module prints out the design iteration history. The iteration history includes statistics summarizing each approximate optimization problem and shows the increments in the objective function. All values in this table are associated with the approximate problem. Since weight in ASTROS is explicitly linear in the design variables, the objective function values are exact. The final default outputs are a trailer indicating the status of the termination (either with or without errors), the date and the time the run was completed and an execution timing summary. The timing summary, shown in Table 8-8, indicates the CPU time spent in each phase of the execution. The elapsed clock time is shown upon leaving each phase of the MAPOL execution. This summary is useful in determining where a problem may have occurred and in confirming that the proper path was taken through the MAPOL sequence. It is, of course, also useful as an indication of the relative CPU costs of each phase of execution. 8.1.2. Error Message Output Error messages can be printed from virtually all the modules of the ASTROS system as well as from the data base management software. Database errors should not occur unless you have modified or otherwise written a special MAPOL sequence, incorrectly assigned file names or used other incorrect or inconsistent database information. Typically, database errors cause immediate termination of the execution. The system administrator should be able to assist in solving such problems which, it is felt, will most likely be Table 8-7. Design Iteration History A S T R O S ITERATION NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 OBJECTIVE FUNCTION VALUE NUMBER FUNCTION EVAL 1.25894E+04 7.12705E+03 6.36273E+03 6.08681E+03 5.89348E+03 5.74943E+03 5.62364E+03 5.50224E+03 5.38496E+03 5.27604E+03 5.18694E+03 5.14224E+03 5.13861E+03 5.13618E+03 5.11049E+03 D E S I G N NUMBER GRADIENT EVAL NUMBER RETAINED CONSTRAINTS (INITIAL FUNCTION VALUE) 31 4 18 30 6 18 39 8 18 47 11 18 56 13 18 38 9 18 40 10 18 24 7 18 36 8 18 43 11 18 33 5 18 10 2 18 10 1 18 18 3 18 THE FINAL OBJECTIVE FUNCTION VALUE IS: FIXED = + DESIGNED = TOTAL = 8-6 OUTPUT FEATURES I T E R A T I O N H I S T O R Y NUMBER ACTIVE CONSTRAINTS NUMBER VIOLATED CONSTRAINTS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NUMBER LOWER BOUNDS 0 1 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 NUMBER UPPER BOUNDS 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 APPROXIMATE PROBLEM CONVERGENCE NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED NOT CONVERGED CONVERGED 0.00000E+00 5.11049E+03 -------------5.11049E+03 ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 8-8. ASTROS Execution Summary **************************************** *** *** *** A S T R O S T E R M I N A T E D *** *** 02/16/93 11:45:50 *** *** *** **************************************** A S T R O S ELAPSED TIME -------00:00:00 00:00:02 00:00:12 00:04:43 00:04:43 00:05:54 00:05:55 00:05:55 00:07:56 00:07:56 00:07:56 00:07:56 00:08:22 00:08:28 00:09:03 00:09:07 00:10:12 00:10:15 00:10:33 00:10:33 00:10:34 00:10:34 00:10:34 00:10:34 00:10:35 TOTAL CPU ---------00:00:00.0 00:00:01.9 00:00:10.4 00:03:07.4 00:03:07.4 00:03:37.8 00:03:38.0 00:03:38.1 00:05:15.1 00:05:15.1 00:05:15.1 00:05:15.1 00:05:23.3 00:05:26.1 00:05:54.9 00:05:58.5 00:06:52.9 00:06:54.8 00:07:04.0 00:07:04.1 00:07:04.8 00:07:05.0 00:07:05.4 00:07:05.4 00:07:05.5 00:12:34 00:13:20 00:13:20 00:14:47 00:14:52 00:14:52 00:08:48.0 00:09:07.8 00:09:07.9 00:09:52.7 00:09:56.1 00:09:56.1 01:30:33 00:45:23.8 T I M I N G S U M M A R Y STEP CPU ---------- *** BEGIN ASTROS *** BEGIN PREFACE MODULES ELEMENT MATRIX GENERATION NON-PLANAR STEADY AERODYNAMICS PHASE 1 ELEM. MATRIX ASSEMBLY PHASE 1 STATIC LOADS GENER. STEADY AERODYNAMICS UNSTEADY AERODYNAMICS ****************************** BEGIN OPTIMIZATION ---------------------------DESIGN ITERATION 1 BOUNDARY CONDITION 1 MPC REDUCTION SPC REDUCTION STATIC CONDENSATION >>>DISCIPLINE: NORMAL MODES >>>DISCIPLINE: FLUTTER DATA RECOVERY STATIC CONDENSATION RECOVERY SPC RECOVERY MPC RECOVERY CONSTRAINT EVALUATION OUTPUT PROCESSING BOUNDARY CONDITION 2 ......... ......... ......... CONSTRAINT EVALUATION OUTPUT PROCESSING SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS DESIGN MODULE ---------------------------DESIGN ITERATION 2 ......... ......... ......... *** END ASTROS *** 00:00:08.4 00:02:56.9 00:00:00.0 00:00:30.4 00:00:00.2 00:00:00.0 00:01:36.9 00:00:00.0 00:00:00.0 00:00:00.0 00:00:08.1 00:00:02.8 00:00:28.7 00:00:03.6 00:00:54.3 00:00:01.9 00:00:09.1 00:00:00.0 00:00:00.7 00:00:00.2 00:00:00.3 00:00:00.0 00:00:00.1 00:00:00.7 00:00:19.7 00:00:00.1 00:00:44.7 00:00:03.3 00:00:00.0 00:00:08.2 caused by incorrect use of the system or by incorrect system installation. The ASTROS Programmer’s Manual contains further information on the causes of particular database errors. The standard ASTROS error messages are printed by the UTMWRT utility module and represent error checks that the modules are coded to perform or errors that may cause problems in the current module’s algorithm. As much as possible, these error messages are intended to be standalone in that the user should be able to interpret the message without referring to the Programmer’s Manual. There are four different levels of errors that can occur in ASTROS, each labeled differently when printed: (1) ASTROS System Fatal Message These messages come about due to errors or inconsistencies in the system definitions. Usually, these relate to erroneous input to the system generation utility, SYSGEN, or are a result of using an outdated system data base. You should contact your system adminis- OUTPUT FEATURES 8-7 USER’S MANUAL (2) (3) (4) trator to effect a correction. Hopefully, these errors will rarely occur and should never occur in an unmodified ASTROS system. User Information Message These messages are written when the system encounters data that may represent an input error or may later generate a problem but that may only be a special user input that falls outside the expected range. Usually, these messages can be ignored. This is the least serious type of user message in ASTROS. User Warning Message These messages are written when the system encounters data that are incorrect but which may not cause termination. In some cases, this level of error is issued to signify that the system will continue to search for errors but will terminate abnormally following the search. User Fatal Message These messages are written when the system encounters data that are in error to the extent that continuation is impossible. The system will terminate execution either immediately or after some minor clean up. If the user is unable to decipher the error message, the following steps can be helpful in determining the source of the error: (1) (2) Check the timing summary with the LOGBEGIN and LOGMODULE options in the DEBUG packet against the MAPOL sequence path to determine which module generated the error message. Also, check the SYSGEN output to determine the module that wrote the message. Note that the "message number" is included in the error message print if the message is a standard one and the message number can be used to trace the module that uses the message. Check the Programmer’s Manual documentation for the relevant module to determine the error checks it performs and to get further information on the source of the error. 8.2. SOLUTION CONTROL OUTPUT OPTIONS This Section presents a detailed description of the output quantities that can be selected through the solution control packet. These quantities fall into five categories: (1) element; (2) nodal; (3) design; (4) eigenvalues for flutter and normal modes; and (5) aeroelastic trim quantities. Each of these categories is presented in the separate subsections that follow. The PRINT and PUNCH solution control commands are used to request the desired output quantities. These commands have three groups of options: subset options, quantity options and form options. These options are fully described in Chapter 4 of this manual, but one point must be stressed: subset options play an extremely important role in ASTROS output requests. Subset options allow you to identify the set of iterations or subcases to which the print selection will apply. This selection is necessary because many disciplines (MODES, for example) generate more than one subcase (eigenvector) with a single solution control directive. The critical point is that the default selection for subcases is that there be no output. In other words, if there are no subcases selected, ASTROS will, by default, print nothing. Unlike NASTRAN, ASTROS has no options to reorder the output. The multidisciplinary nature of ASTROS completely negates the utility of the SORT1 and SORT2 options found in NASTRAN variants, and any other sort options become impossibly complex very quickly. Instead, a reasonable, fixed sort is 8-8 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL established in which each boundary condition is treated separately and in the order given in the solution control packet. If the standard sequence is used, the response quantities will appear in the following order within each optimize or analyze boundary condition: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Steady aerodynamic trim parameters. Flutter roots and flutter mode shape modal participation factors -- note that the mode shape is only available if flutter has occurred and if the FLUTTER discipline is within an ANALYZE boundary condition. Applied LOAD print requests. The "displacement" nodal response quantities: DISPLACEMENTs, VELOCITYs, and ACCELERATIONs. Element response quantities in the order STRESS, STRAIN, FORCE and STRAIN ENERGY for each subcase, elements are processed alphabetically within each quantity type. In the OPTIMIZE subpacket, these data are followed by the selected design and resizing prints in the following order: (7) (8) Active constraint summary (either the default abbreviated print or the full print if the DCONSTRAINT print option is selected). The print of the global and then local design variables representing the current design depeding on the GDESIGN and LDESIGN PRINT requests. On the final design iteration, the iteration history precedes the design variable output by default. Within each response quantity’s print module, the disciplines are not treated in the order given in the solution control packet; instead, they are treated, where applicable, in the following order: (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) STATICS MODES SAERO TRANSIENT FREQUENCY The subcases within each discipline are treated in the order given in the solution control packet. In the case of MODES, the eigenvectors are ordered in increasing eigenvalue order. TRANSIENT and FREQUENCY subcases are ordered in increasing time or frequency step. 8.2.1. Element Response Quantities ASTROS has two basic forms of elements: aerodynamic elements and structural elements. An aerodynamic element is defined as a "box" of an aerodynamic macroelement, e.g., wing component or fuselage segment. The nature of the macroelement varies among both aerodynamic models and among aerodynamic components within each model. In general, however, a box is the smallest subdivision of the aerodynamic component for which data (e.g., pressures, forces, and moments) are computed. Structural elements are either metric elements, which connect structural node points (grids); scalar elements, which connect pairs of degrees of freedom or pairs of scalar points; or mass elements. Table 8-9 shows the list of aerodynamic and structural elements in ASTROS for which element output exist. The following subsections document the quantities that are available as output for each of these elements. The structural mass elements are not included in this table since they have no element response quantities. The NASTRAN User’s Manual (Reference 2) was used as a major resource in writing this section and you are referred to it for additional information on the structural elements. ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-9 USER’S MANUAL Table 8-9. ASTROS Aerodynamic and Structural Elements AERODYNAMIC CAERO1 CAERO2 CAERO6 PAERO6 STRUCTURAL CBAR CELAS1, CELAS2 CIHEX1. CIHEX2, CIHEX3 CROD, CONROD CQDMEM1, CTRMEM CTRIA3, CQUAD4 Structural element output is available for all disciplines that result in a real displacement field. This includes STATICS, MODES, TRANSIENT, and SAERO analyses. Complex displacement fields (from FLUTTER and FREQUENCY analyses) result in computation of the selected (complex) element response quantities, but their formatted print is not available except through executive sequence print utilities described in Subsection 3.4. For all disciplines in ASTROS, the solution control print options STRESS, STRAIN, FORCE, and ENERGY are used to select print of the structural element quantities. The AIRDISP and TPRESSURE options are used for aerodynamic element quantities. Each of these print options selects either ALL, NONE or an integer set identification number that refers to one or more ELEMLIST bulk data entries specifying which elements are to have output computed and printed. Chapter 4 contains the complete description of the solution control print command. Each output is carefully labeled as to its boundary condition number, discipline generating the response field and load condition, mode number, time step, frequency step or flight condition represented by the output. 8.2.1.1. Aerodynamic Element Output The solution control PRINT option TPRESSURE provides the trimmed pressures on the aerodynamic boxes for SAERO. The trimmed pressures are computed and stored in the relational entity OAGRDLOD. The AIRDISP print option is available for the SAERO discipline and provides the out-of-plane displacements and streamwise slopes of the aerodynamic boxes that coorespond to the structural displacements. These data are computed and stored on the relational entity OAGRDDSP. Aerodynamic geometry data are computed and stored by default to a set of relational entities that parallel the structural model. These data forms are designed primarily for model checkout of the SAERO model using existing FE preprocessors that support NASTRAN-style input data. These relations are: AEROGEOM which supplies the GRID-like data and CAROGEOM which provides connectivity data for the boxes in a ROD or QUAD4 form. The ROD is used to model the outline of the airfoils and the QUAD4 elements are used to model the boxes. For unsteady aerodynamics, the box-on-box aerodynamic forces are only available through the DEBUG/UNSTEADY and DEBUG/AMP options (see Chapter 2). The geometry data are not available. 8-10 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Ze Plane 2 End A WA Plane 1 Ye V End B WB GIDO GID1 Xe GID2 Figure 8-1. BAR Element Coordinate System 8.2.1.2. Bar Element Output The BAR element includes extension, torsion, bending in two perpendicular planes and the associated shears. The shear center is assumed to coincide with the elastic axis. The BAR element coordinate system is shown in Figure 8-1. The orientation of the BAR element is described in terms of two reference planes defined through the use of the orientation vector, v, as shown in that figure. The positive directions for the element forces are shown in Figure 8-2. Additional information on the structural elements is contained in Chapter 5 of the ASTROS Theoretical Manual. Fx M 2a Ye Ta V 1a V 2a M 1b M 1a V 2b F xb V 2a M 2b Xe Tb Figure 8-2. BAR Element Forces Sign Conventions ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-11 USER’S MANUAL Stresses, strains, forces and strain energies are available as output for the BAR element through the STRESS, STRAIN, FORCE, and ENERGY solution control print options. The following element forces are output on request: (1) (2) (3) (4) Bending moments at each end in both reference planes. Shear forces in each reference plane. Average axial force. Torque about the bar axis. The following element stresses and strains in the element coordinate system are output on request: (1) (2) (3) (4) Average axial stress or strain. Extensional stress or strain due to bending at 4 points on the cross-section at each end. Maximum and minimum stress or strain at each end. Stress margins of safety for the element in both tension and compression. Tensile stresses and strains are given a positive value while compressive stresses and strains are given a negative value. The bending contribution to the stresses are always computed at the four points on the element cross-section that were specified on the connectivity entry for the BAR element. This means that the safety margins are computed using all eight stress values even if all four stress points at each end are Table 8-10. BAR Element Output Quantities 1 ELEMENT SA1 ID. SB1 106 -2.810616E+03 7.498176E-02 ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 P. 16 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, TIME = 4.9999997E-02 S T R E S S E S I N B A R E L E M E N T S ( B A R ) SA2 SA3 SA4 AXIAL SA-MAX SA-MIN M.S.-T SB2 SB3 SB4 STRESS SB-MAX SB-MIN M.S.-C 0.000000E+00 -2.810616E+03 2.810616E+03 0.000000E+00 2.810616E+03 -2.810616E+03 1.7E+38 0.000000E+00 7.498176E-02 -7.498176E-02 7.498176E-02 -7.498176E-02 1.7E+38 ELEMENT SA1 ID. SB1 106 -1.963023E-04 5.857950E-10 ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 P. 23 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, TIME = 9.9999998E-03 S T R A I N S I N B A R E L E M E N T S ( B A R ) SA2 SA3 SA4 AXIAL SA-MAX SA-MIN SB2 SB3 SB4 STRAIN SB-MAX SB-MIN 0.000000E+00 -1.963023E-04 1.963023E-04 0.000000E+00 1.963023E-04 -1.963023E-04 0.000000E+00 5.857950E-10 -5.857950E-10 5.857950E-10 -5.857950E-10 1 1 ELEMENT ID. 106 1 ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 P. 31 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, TIME = 9.9999998E-03 F O R C E S I N B A R E L E M E N T S ( B A R ) BEND-MOMENT END-A BEND-MOMENT END-B - SHEAR AXIAL PLANE 1 PLANE 2 PLANE 1 PLANE 2 PLANE 1 PLANE 2 FORCE TORQUE 0.000000E+00 3.195801E+00 0.000000E+00 -9.536743E-06 0.000000E+00 6.391621E-01 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 P. 31 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, TIME = 9.9999998E-03 E L E M E N T BAR ELEMENTS BAR ELEMENT ID 101 102 103 104 105 106 ELEMENTS SUBTOTAL 8-12 OUTPUT FEATURES S T R A I N E N E R G I E S TOTAL ENERGY OF ALL ELEMENTS IN THE SUBCASE STRAIN ENERGY 1.430531E-03 4.057172E-04 4.288774E-03 1.405888E-02 1.847305E-02 5.228124E-03 4.388508E-02 = 4.388508E-02 PERCENT OF TOTAL 3.259722 .924499 9.772738 32.035667 42.094154 11.913216 100.000000 ASTROS USER’S MANUAL the same and/or coincide with the element axis. Also, margins of safety are printed even if no stress limits were given on the material entry. In these cases, a very large value for the margin of safety is used to indicate that no limits were specified. In addition, ASTROS fully supports strain output for the BAR element. Strain energies may also be requested for the BAR element. The strain energy print (which is identical for all ASTROS structural elements) is patterned after that in NASTRAN. It shows the total strain energy for the given displacement field, the strain energy in each selected element and the total strain energy for all the elements of a given type, e.g., all the BAR elements. Examples of each of these outputs are shown in Table 8-10. 8.2.1.3. ELAS Element Output The ELAS element is a scalar spring element which relates the displacements at a pair of scalar points or degrees of freedom or that relates a single degree of freedom to a ground state. The element force and strain energy are directly available for the element and the user can, if desired, input a scalar quantity that relates the "stress" in the element to the displacement(s) of the connected degree(s) of freedom. On output, these values will be printed for each output request for each selected ELAS element. Strains have no meaning for the scalar spring element and any such requests will be ignored without warning. Element strain energies, however, are available for the element and are computed from the spring constant and the nodal displacement(s). The strain energy print for the ELAS is identical to that for the BAR element and includes a breakdown by element and by element type. If no scalar value is given for the element stress but the stress value is requested, a value of zero will be computed and printed for the response quantity with no warnings given. 8.2.1.4. IHEX1 Element Output The IHEX1 element is a linear isoparametric solid hexahedron element with three extensional degrees of freedom for each of its eight nodes. Stresses, strains, and strain energies are available as output for the IHEX1 element through the STRESS, STRAIN, and ENERGY solution control print command options. Force output is not available for the IHEX1 element. On request, the following stresses and strains are output in the basic coordinate system at the center and at each corner grid point: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Normal stresses or strains in all three directions. Shear stresses or strains in all three planes. Principal stresses or strains in all three directions with associated direction cosines. Mean stress or strain. Octahedral shear stress or strain. The stress and strain output at each of the nine points is identified by a stress or strain point ID. The stress and strain point IDs are numbered 1 through 9, with the first eight ordered as on the associated CIHEX1 input data entry, and the ninth located at the element center, as illustrated in Figure 8-3. All output is provided in the basic coordinate system, since there is no naturally occurring element coordinate system for the IHEX1. An example of the output for the IHEX family of elements is shown in Table 8-11. The IHEX1 element is shown with the IHEX2 and IHEX3 elements differing only in the number of data recovery points. ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-13 Strain energy output may be requested for the IHEX1 element. The strain energy print for the IHEX1 is identical to that for the BAR element and includes a breakdown by element and by element type. Table 8-11. IHEX1 Element Solution Quantities ELEMENT ID. 123 S T R E S S E S STRESS -----CENTER POINT NORMAL 1 X -7.617902E+01 Y -3.264816E+01 Z -3.264816E+01 123 2 123 9 ELEMENT ID. 123 X Y Z 7.238755E+01 3.102324E+01 3.102324E+01 ............ ............ ............ X 0.000000E+00 Y 9.217892E+00 Z -3.504066E-01 I N 8 - N O D E D S O L I D AND CORNER POINT STRESSES-----SHEAR PRINCIPAL XY -2.852164E+01 A -6.942204E+00 YZ 0.000000E+00 B -1.018850E+02 ZX -3.108560E+01 C -3.264816E+01 E L E M E DIRECTION A LX .52 LY -.58 LZ -.63 XY -2.909098E+01 YZ 0.000000E+00 ZX 3.477372E+01 A B C 1.015376E+02 1.873196E+00 3.102325E+01 LX LY LZ .84 -.35 .41 .54 .54 -.65 .00 .77 .64 -4.481134E+01 4.183963E+01 XY -2.000000E+01 YZ -3.080879E+00 ZX 0.000000E+00 A 2.535997E+01 B -1.615026E+01 C -3.422195E-01 LX LY LZ .62 -.78 .09 .77 .62 .12 .15 .00 -.99 -2.955829E+00 1.710619E+01 S T R A I N S I N 8 - N O D E STRAIN ------CENTER AND CORNER POINT POINT NORMAL SHEAR 1 X -5.659012E-06 XY -7.415626E-06 Y 0.000000E+00 YZ 0.000000E+00 Z 0.000000E+00 ZX -8.082256E-06 123 2 123 9 X Y Z 5.377361E-06 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 ............ ............ ............ X -2.660247E-07 Y 9.323016E-07 N T ( I H E X 1 ) COSINES MEAN B C STRESS .85 .00 4.715845E+01 .35 .74 .38 -.68 D S O L I D E L E M E N T ( I H E X 1 ) STRAINS-----DIRECTION COSINES MEAN PRINCIPAL A B C STRAIN A 8.498356E-06 LX .61 .79 .00 1.886337E-06 B -1.415737E-05 LY -.53 .41 .00 C 0.000000E+00 LZ -.58 .45 .00 OCTAHEDRAL SHEAR STRESS 4.009525E+01 OCTAHEDRAL SHEAR STRAIN 9.344843E-06 XY -7.563655E-06 YZ 0.000000E+00 ZX 9.041167E-06 A 1.477920E-05 B -9.401835E-06 C 0.000000E+00 LX LY LZ .78 -.40 .48 .62 .50 -.60 .00 .00 .00 -1.792454E-06 9.952897E-06 XY -5.200001E-06 YZ -8.010304E-07 A 5.628016E-06 B -4.962797E-06 LX LY .66 -.75 .74 .67 .15 .00 -1.182329E-07 4.334298E-06 8.2.1.5. IHEX2 Element Output The IHEX2 element is a quadratic isoparametric solid hexahedron element with three extensional degrees of freedom for each of its 20 nodes. Stresses, strains, and strain energies are available as output for the IHEX2 element through the STRESS, STRAIN, and ENERGY solution control print command options. Force output is not available for the IHEX2 element. On request, the following stresses and strains are output in the basic coordinate system at the twenty-one points located at the center, corners, and mid-edges of the element: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Normal stresses or strains in all three directions. Shear stresses or strains in all three planes. Principal stresses or strains in all three directions with associated direction cosines. Mean stress or strain. Octahedral shear stress or strain. The stress and strain output at each of the 21 points is identified by a stress or strain point ID. The stress and strain point IDs are numbered 1 through 21, with the first 20 ordered as on the associated CIHEX2 input data entry, and the 21st located at the element center. Although the corner stress and strain points are located at the corner grid points of the element, the mid-edge stress and strain points may or may not be located at the mid-edge grid points, depending on the location of those grid points. The stress/strain points for the IHEX2 are illustrated in Figure 8-4. All output is given in the element coordinate system for the IHEX2. Strain energy output may be requested for the IHEX2 element. The strain energy print for the IHEX2 is identical to that for the BAR element and includes a breakdown by element and by element type. 8.2.1.6. IHEX3 Element Output The IHEX3 element is a cubic isoparametric solid hexahedron element with three extensional degrees of freedom for each of its 32 nodes. Stresses, strains, and strain energies are available as output for the IHEX3 element through the STRESS, STRAIN, and ENERGY solution control print command options. Force output is not available for the IHEX3 element. On request, the following stresses and strains are output in the basic coordinate system at the 21 points located at the center, corners, and mid-edges of the element: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Normal stresses or strains in all three directions. Shear stresses or strains in all three planes. Principal stresses or strains in all three directions with associated direction cosines. Mean stress or strain. Octahedral shear stress or strain. The stress and strain output at each of the 21 points is identified by a stress or strain point ID. The stress and strain point IDs are numbered 1 through 21. The first 20 points are ordered as on the associated CIHEX3 input data entry, except that there is only one mid-edge point per edge, instead of two, and the 21st point is located at the element center. Although the corner stress and strain points are located at the corner grid points of the element, the mid-edge stress and strain points may or may not be located at a grid point, depending on the location of the mid-edge grid points. The stress/strain points for the IHEX3 are illustrated in Figure 8-5. All output is provided in the basic coordinate system, since there is no naturally occurring element coordinate system for the IHEX3. Strain energy output may be requested for the IHEX3 element. The strain energy print for the IHEX3 is identical to that for the BAR element and includes a breakdown by element and by element type. USER’S MANUAL 8.2.1.7. Rod Element Output The ASTROS ROD element supports both extensional and rotational properties. The element coordinate system and sign conventions are shown in Figure 8-6. ASTROS supports stress, strain, force and strain energy output for the ROD. The forces that are computed are: (1) (2) Axial force. Torque about the element axis. The torque and force are both computed even if the particular element does not support torsional or extensional forces, respectively. In these cases, a value of zero will be printed for the appropriate response quantity. The stresses and/or strains that are available are: (1) (2) (3) (4) Axial stress or strain. Torsional stress or strain. Margin of safety for axial stress. Margin of safety for torsional stress. The margins of safety for strain are not available and the stress margins are computed even if there are no limits specified on the material property entry. In these cases, a large safety margin value is used to signify that no limits were imposed. An example of the ROD element output prints is shown in Table 8-12. The strain energy print for the ROD is identical to that for the BAR element and includes a breakdown by element and by element type. Fx GID1 T Fx GID2 Xe T Figure 8-6. ROD Element Coordinate System 8.2.1.8. QDMEM1/TRMEM Element Output The QDMEM1 isoparametric element and the TRMEM constant strain triangular element are membrane elements which support isotropic, orthotropic and composite membrane properties. If the element is composite, the individual layers are treated as independent, stacked elements in which each "layer," as defined on the PCOMP bulk data entry, represents an element. In the case of composite elements, the layers are numbered sequentially starting with the first layer appearing on the PCOMP entry. Non-composite elements will show a layer number of zero. ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-17 USER’S MANUAL Table 8-12. ROD Element Solution Quantities ELEMENT AXIAL ID. STRESS 1 6.512166E+03 3 -6.821167E+03 1TEN BAR TRUSS FINAL STATIC ANALYSIS ELEMENT AXIAL ID. STRAIN 1 6.512166E-04 3 -6.821167E-04 1TEN BAR TRUSS FINAL STATIC ANALYSIS ELEMENT AXIAL ID. FORCE 1 1.953650E+05 3 -2.046350E+05 S T R E S S E S I N R O D SAFETY TORSIONAL SAFETY MARGIN STRESS MARGIN 2.8E+00 0.000000E+00 1.7E+38 2.7E+00 0.000000E+00 1.7E+38 E L E M E N T S ( R O D ) ELEMENT AXIAL SAFETY TORSIONAL SAFETY ID. STRESS MARGIN STRESS MARGIN 2 1.337487E+03 1.8E+01 0.000000E+00 1.7E+38 4 -1.995846E+03 1.2E+01 0.000000E+00 1.7E+38 ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT STATICS ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, SUBCASE 1 S T R A I N S I N R O D E L E M E N T S ( R O D ) TORSIONAL ELEMENT AXIAL TORSIONAL STRAIN ID. STRAIN STRAIN 0.000000E+00 2 1.337487E-04 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 4 ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT STATICS ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, SUBCASE 1 F O R C E S I N R O D E L E M E N T S ( R O D ) ELEMENT AXIAL TORQUE ID. FORCE TORQUE 0.000000E+00 2 4.012462E+04 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 4 P. 11 P. 12 Stresses, strains, forces and strain energies are available for each element or layer of a composite element. Since the stresses, strains, and forces vary within a CQDMEM1 element, the intersection point of the diagonals projected onto the mean plane of a warped element has been chosen as the point at which the stresses, strains, forces and strain energies for the element are computed. The stresses, strains and element forces are computed in the element coordinate system. The element coordinate system and the stress computation point for the QDMEM1 element are shown in Figure 8-7 and those for the TRMEM in Figure 8-8. G3 G4 Xm y x G1 θm G2 Figure 8-7. QDMEM1 Element Coordinate System 8-18 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL y G3 Xm θm x G2 G1 Figure 8-8. TRMEM Element Coordinate System ASTROS computes the running loads associated with the stresses for the QDMEM1 element. These forces are: (1) The force components in the element coordinate system at the stress computation point. The QDMEM1 stress and strain print includes the following: (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) The normal stresses or strains at the stress point in the element x- and y-directions. The shear stress or strain on the element x face in the element y-direction. The angle in degrees between the element x-axis and the major principal axis. The major and minor principal (zero shear) stresses or strains. The maximum shear stress or strain. An example of the printed output for the QDMEM1 is shown in Table 8-13. The output for the TRMEM is identical except for the titling. The strain energy print for the QDMEM1 is identical to that for the BAR element and includes a breakdown by element and by element type. 8.2.1.9. QUAD4/TRIA3 Element Output The QUAD4 and TRIA4 isoparametric quadrilateral and triangular plate elements include both membrane and bending behavior. Transverse shear flexibility may be requested, as can the coupling of membrane and bending behavior. The QUAD4 element coordinate system and node numbering are shown in Figure 8-9. The TRIA3 element coordinate system and node numbering are shown in Figure 8-10. These elements may be assigned general anisotropic or composite material properties. For designed composites, the layers are treated as stacked membrane elements similar to the QDMEM1 element. In this case, the layers are identified by number in the order specified on the PCOMP, PCOMP1 or PCOMP2 entry. For design invariant composite laminates, the output always refers to the aggregate laminate properties and refers to layer number zero. The reference plane of the QUAD4/TRIA3 elements may be offset from the plane of the grid points and variation in the element thickness may be modeled by ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-19 USER’S MANUAL (1) Combined extensional and bending stresses and strains computed at the element center in the element coordinate system. Principal stresses and strains computed at the element center including the angle between the element x-axis and the principal axis. (2) The following forces are output on request: (1) Element forces computed at the center of the element in the mean plane in the element coordinate system. For composite materials, all output quantities are computed using the aggregate laminate properties. Hence, output of stresses or strains at the ply or laminae level is currently not an available print option for the QUAD4/TRIA3 elements in ASTROS. An example of the printed output is shown in Table 8-14. Table 8-14. QUAD4 and TRIA3 Solution Quantities 1SIMPLIFIED FIGHTER WING ELEMENT ID 3 7 13 S T R E S S E S LAYER FIBER NO. DISTANCE 0 -1.00000E-01 1.00000E-01 0 -1.00000E-01 1.00000E-01 0 -1.00000E-01 1.00000E-01 ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT STATICS ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, SUBCASE 1 I N Q U A D R I L A T E R A L P L A T E S ( Q U A D 4 ) STRESSES IN STRESS COORD SYSTEM PRINCIPAL STRESSES (ZERO SHEAR) NORMAL-X NORMAL-Y SHEAR-XY ANGLE MAJOR MINOR 6.91372E+02 -8.33210E+03 -2.21727E+03 -13.0858 1.20677E+03 -8.84749E+03 6.91372E+02 -8.33210E+03 -2.21727E+03 -13.0858 1.20677E+03 -8.84749E+03 -5.43684E+02 -7.64178E+03 -2.58719E+03 -18.0457 2.99228E+02 -8.48469E+03 -5.43683E+02 -7.64178E+03 -2.58719E+03 -18.0457 2.99228E+02 -8.48469E+03 -6.16923E+02 3.07066E+03 1.17650E+03 73.7292 3.41404E+03 -9.60305E+02 -6.16923E+02 3.07066E+03 1.17650E+03 73.7292 3.41404E+03 -9.60305E+02 P. 13 1SIMPLIFIED FIGHTER WING ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 P. 14 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT STATICS ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, SUBCASE 1 S T R A I N S I N Q U A D R I L A T E R A L P L A T E S ( Q U A D 4 ) ELEMENT LAYER FIBER STRAINS IN STRESS COORD SYSTEM PRINCIPAL STRAINS (ZERO SHEAR) ID NO. DISTANCE NORMAL-X NORMAL-Y SHEAR-XY ANGLE MAJOR MINOR 3 0 -1.00000E-01 3.50886E-04 -8.56139E-04 -5.91205E-04 -13.0479 4.19391E-04 -9.24645E-04 1.00000E-01 3.50886E-04 -8.56139E-04 -5.91205E-04 -13.0479 4.19391E-04 -9.24645E-04 7 0 -1.00000E-01 1.93048E-04 -7.46862E-04 -6.85105E-04 -18.0443 3.04642E-04 -8.58457E-04 1.00000E-01 1.93048E-04 -7.46862E-04 -6.85105E-04 -18.0443 3.04642E-04 -8.58457E-04 13 0 -1.00000E-01 -1.64593E-04 3.26487E-04 3.13462E-04 73.7247 3.72245E-04 -2.10351E-04 1.00000E-01 -1.64593E-04 3.26487E-04 3.13462E-04 73.7247 3.72245E-04 -2.10351E-04 1SIMPLIFIED FIGHTER WING ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 P. 15 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT STATICS ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, SUBCASE 1 F O R C E S I N Q U A D R I L A T E R A L P L A T E S ( Q U A D 4 ) ELEMENT - MEMBRANE FORCES - BENDING MOMENTS -TRANSVERSE SHEAR FORCESID FX FY FXY MX MY MXY QX QY 3 2.10645E+02 -1.73879E+03 -2.46591E+02 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 7 5.97852E+01 -1.69688E+03 1.03084E+01 2.03451E-07 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 13 -1.89788E+02 6.80536E+02 -4.45374E+01 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-21 USER’S MANUAL 8.2.1.10. Shear Panel Output The shear panel is an element which resists the action of tangential forces applied to its edges. In ASTROS, the shear panel supports only isotropic material properties and makes use of the shear flow distribution approximation of Garvey (Reference 4) with special handling for warped, parallel edge and general trapezoidal geometries. The element force sign convention is shown in Figure 8-11. The stresses, strains, forces and strain energies are available for the shear panel. The element forces that are computed include the following: (1) (2) (3) The eight forces between each pair of nodes; each force is directed along the line connecting the adjacent nodes (the element edge). The four "kick" forces at each node, normal to the plane formed by the two adjacent element edges. The shear flows (forces/unit length) along each edge. When stresses or strains are requested, they are computed at the node points in skewed coordinates parallel to the adjacent edges. Both the average and maximum shear stress or strain are then printed. A safety margin based on the maximum stress value is computed for stress output. A large safety margin is printed if not limits were specified on the material property entry. Table 8-15 contains a sample of the SHEAR panel element output. The strain energy print for the SHEAR panel is identical to that for the BAR element and includes a breakdown by element and by element type. 8.2.2. Nodal Response Quantities ASTROS has two basic forms of node point: the structural node and the extra point. The structural node is defined as either a "grid" point having 6 degrees of freedom (three translations and three rotations) or a "scalar" point having a single degree of freedom. These node points can be used to connect metric and scalar structural elements. The extra point is similar to the scalar point in that it has a single degree of freedom, but differs in that extra points included in the model are selected in the boundary condition rather than being implicitly included in the model. Further, they cannot be connected directly to either metric or scalar structural elements; instead, these elements are connected through terms introduced by direct matrix input or by transfer functions. Extra points are used in dynamic analyses for modeling control systems and other nonstructural mechanisms in the system under analysis. These degrees of freedom do not appear in the system matrices until after the dynamic matrix assembly and do not appear in any but the dynamic response disciplines (FLUTTER, TRANSIENT and FREQUENCY). When nodal output is requested for dynamic analyses, any extra point results may be selected using the GRIDLIST entry just as are grid and scalar point results. Nodal output is available for all disciplines in ASTROS, although particular nodal response quantities may not be available for all disciplines. The solution control print options VELOCITY, DISPLACEMENT, GPFORCE, LOAD, SPCFORCE, and ACCELERATION are used to select print of the nodal response quantities. Each of these print options selects either ALL, NONE or an integer set identification number that refers to one or more GRIDLIST bulk data entries. Chapter 3 contains the complete description of the solution control print command. Each output is carefully labeled as to its boundary condition number, which discipline generated the output quantities and which load condition, mode shape, time step, frequency step or flight condition is represented by the output. 8-22 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL K3 F 41 K4 F 32 q3 F 43 F 34 q4 K2 q2 K1 F 21 F 12 q1 F 23 F 14 Figure 8-11. Shear Panel Forces Table 8-15. SHEAR Solution Quantities SIMPLIFIED FIGHTER WING ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 P. FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT STATICS ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, SUBCASE 1 S T R E S S E S I N S H E A R P A N E L S ( S H E A R ) ELEMENT MAX AVERAGE SAFETY ELEMENT MAX AVERAGE SAFETY ID. SHEAR SHEAR MARGIN ID. SHEAR SHEAR MARGIN 17 4.728344E+03 3.414915E+03 4.9E+00 21 1.600469E+03 1.250366E+03 1.6E+01 25 5.703891E+03 4.119477E+03 3.9E+00 29 2.716250E+02 2.716250E+02 1.0E+02 32 7.276465E+02 -7.276465E+02 3.7E+01 36 3.413748E+03 -3.413748E+03 7.2E+00 SIMPLIFIED FIGHTER WING ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 P. FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT STATICS ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, SUBCASE 1 S T R A I N S I N S H E A R P A N E L S ( S H E A R ) ELEMENT MAX AVERAGE ELEMENT MAX AVERAGE ID. SHEAR SHEAR ID. SHEAR SHEAR 17 1.257538E-03 9.082221E-04 21 4.256566E-04 3.325442E-04 25 1.516992E-03 1.095605E-03 29 7.224069E-05 7.224069E-05 32 1.935230E-04 -1.935230E-04 36 9.079117E-04 -9.079117E-04 SIMPLIFIED FIGHTER WING ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 P. FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT STATICS ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, SUBCASE 1 F O R C E S I N S H E A R P A N E L S ( S H E A R ) 16 18 ====== POINT 1 ====== ====== POINT 2 ====== ====== POINT 3 ====== ====== POINT 4 ====== F-FROM-4 F-FROM-2 F-FROM-1 F-FROM-3 F-FROM-2 F-FROM-4 F-FROM-3 F-FROM-1 KICK-1 SHEAR-12 KICK2 SHEAR-23 KICK-3 SHEAR-34 KICK-4 SHEAR-41 ELEMENT ID. 17 14 6.30889E+03 1.41850E+03 -1.41850E+03 -6.30889E+03 6.30889E+03 9.45669E+02 -9.45669E+02 -6.30889E+03 0.00000E+00 9.45669E+02 0.00000E+00 6.30446E+02 0.00000E+00 4.20297E+02 0.00000E+00 6.30446E+02 32 -2.91059E+03 -6.54882E+02 6.54882E+02 2.91059E+03 -2.91059E+03 -6.54882E+02 6.54882E+02 2.91059E+03 0.00000E+00 -1.45529E+02 0.00000E+00 -1.45529E+02 0.00000E+00 -1.45529E+02 0.00000E+00 -1.45529E+02 ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-23 USER’S MANUAL The form of nodal output in ASTROS is very similar for all nodal output quantities; therefore, only general descriptions will be given rather than individually describing each response quantity in turn. In general, the nodal output includes the node point identification number (sorted by external identification number) and node type: (G)rid, (S)calar point or (E)xtra point. This is followed by either one or six quantities associated with the node point. The columns of the print are labeled Ti for the translations and Ri for the rotation where i = 1, 2 or 3. An example is shown in Table 8-16. Complex nodal quantities are generated by FLUTTER and FREQUENCY disciplines and can be printed in either polar coordinates or cartesian coordinates through the form option on the PRINT or PUNCH command. Cartesian print is the default. Complex quantities are printed using the same columns as real nodal data but use two lines of output. The first line contains either the real part or the magnitude and the second line either the imaginary part or the phase angle in degrees. An example of POLAR complex print is shown in Table8-17. All structural disciplines generate DISPLACEMENT output except some FLUTTER analyses. Flutter mode shapes are generated only if a flutter condition occurs in the selected range of velocities and then only if the FLUTTER discipline occurs in the ANALYZE subpacket of the solution control. VELOCITYs are only available for TRANSIENT and FREQUENCY analyses. ACCELERATIONs are available for STATICS with inertia relief, SAERO, TRANSIENT and FREQUENCY analyses. The LOAD option selects output of externally applied loads at the nodal points. For STATICS, the applied mechanical, thermal and/or gravity loads are output for the selected nodes and subcases. Steady aeroelastic loads output prints, for each trim condition, those trimmed forces applied to the structure following transformation from the aerodynamic model. The SAERO "applied" load is the sum of the trimmed rigid loads and the flexible correction. Each component is stored independently in the relation OGRIDLOD, but Table 8-16. Displacement Vector TEN BAR TRUSS ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT STATICS ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, SUBCASE 1 FINAL STATIC ANALYSIS D I S P L A C E M E N T POINT ID. 1 2 3 4 5 6 TYPE G G G G G G T1 2.82588E-01 -3.17412E-01 2.34438E-01 -2.45562E-01 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 T2 -1.26504E+00 -1.31319E+00 -5.58118E-01 -6.00705E-01 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 P. 7 V E C T O R T3 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 R1 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 R2 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 R3 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 Table 8-17. Complex Displacement Vector ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 P. 8 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT FREQUENCY ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 1, FREQ = 3.2179463E+00 C O M P L E X POINT ID. 7 TYPE G T1 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 8-24 OUTPUT FEATURES D I S P L A C E M E N T P O L A R F O R M T2 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 T3 1.17367E+01 3.47650E+02 V E C T O R R1 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 R2 5.63383E-01 1.67894E+02 R3 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 ASTROS USER’S MANUAL the APPLIED component is printed on request. TRANSIENT and FREQUENCY disciplines compute loads at user specified time or frequency steps which may be printed. The FLUTTER and MODES disciplines have no loads output. The print of single point forces of constraint, the PRINT SPCF option, has been implemented in a computational sense with the PRINT or PUNCH request generating the SPCFORCE forces for all disciplines (including SAERO) and storing the terms in the relation OGRIDLOD. In SAERO, the "applied" load that is used is the sum of the trimmed rigid load and the flexible correction. The actual printing of the SPCFORCES to the output file is not available. The GPFORCE PRINT/PUNCH request does not send data to the output file or to the punch file. Instead, a PRINT or PUNCH request will result in the storage of the data on the database. The relation used to store GPFORCE data is called GPFDATA and is loaded in module EDR. The format of the relational tuple is: ATTRIBUTE NITER BC DISC SUBCASE EID DESCRIPTION Iteration Number Boundary Condition id Discipline Type (as in CASE relation) Subcase number Element id ETYPE Element Type CMPLX Complex Flag (1=Real, 2=Complex) SIL FLAG Internal DOF number Type of DOF (6=GRID, 1=SCALAR) RFORCE Real Part of Forces IFORCE Imaginary Part of Forces where BC, NITER, DISC and SUBCASE identify the ASTROS analysis; EID and ETYPE identify the element; SIL identifies which degree(s) of freedom these forces are associated with (obviously it is one of those attached to the element EID/ETYPE) and the forces are stored in RFORCE (and IFORCE) with scalar points using only word 1 of each array. Notice that there will be one entry for each grid/scalar for each element for each subcase for each discipline for each boundary condition for each iteration for which data are requested in Solution Control. 8.2.3. Design Variables and Design Constraints There is an important distinction between global design variables and local design variables in ASTROS. A number of linking options relating global variables to local variables are provided and are described in ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-25 USER’S MANUAL Section 2 of the Theoretical Manual. Briefly, the local variable is the physical element property (e.g., thickness or cross-sectional area) that is free to change in the design process while the global variables are the actual variables that are modified by the resizing module. The resultant physical variables are then computed based on the user’s linking options and the current global design variable values. The GDESIGN solution control print option allows the user to request that a set of the global design variables be printed at some set of iterations. The global variable print displays the user assigned design variable identification number, the current value, the minimum and maximum values allowed for the global variable, the sensitivity of the objective function to the design variable and the linking option used to relate it to local design variables. The linking options are: (1) (2) (3) Unique Physical. The user has related the global variable to a single local variable through a DESELM entry. Linked Physical. The user has related the global variable to some number of local variables through a combination of DESVARP and ELIST/PLIST entries. Shape Function. The user has related this and possibly other global variables to some number of local variables through a combination of DESVARS/SHAPE entries. The final item in the global design variable print is an eight character user label identifying the design variable. An example of this print for the initial iteration of the ten bar truss problem is shown in Table 8-18 along with the LDESIGN print output. The LDESIGN solution control print option allows the user to request that some set of local design variables be printed at some set of iterations. The local design variables are, of course, element dependent. Each element type that has elements connected to global design variables is printed separately. The elements are identified by element identification number and, if appropriate, the layer number. The linking option used to connect them to the global variables is also shown. This print can be very helpful in checking the correctness of the design model. Following these general data are the element dependent local variable value and the allowable range that the primary value can take. Note that the BAR element links the moments of inertia to the cross-sectional area so all three "design variables" are shown but the area is the only independent variable. The local variable print accounts for all scalar factors that might appear in the design variable linking and therefore, indicates the true physical values represented by the current design. Finally, the two-dimensional elements include a print of the ratio of the current thickness to the minimum thickness. This additional item is included as a convenience to allow a quick computation of the number of composite plys represented by a particular design if the user inputs the ply thickness as the minimum thickness and if the element has composite material properties. The solution control print option DCONSTRAINT selects that the active constraint summary print should include a table indicating which constraints are active, their current value, the constraint type and other identifying data connecting the constraints to a particular element, subcase and/or discipline. Table 8-18 shows the DCONSTRAINT print in addition to the default ACTCON summary. The identifying data for each constraint in the print includes the TYPE COUNT, which is a running count (by constraint type) of all active and inactive constraints. This allows the user to identify exactly which constraint is active; e.g., the fourth flutter constraint or the 3000th Von Mises stress constraint. Additionally, if the constraint is associated with a particular boundary condition, the associated boundary condition identification is shown. Similar connections are made for subcase and element dependent constraints. If the constraint is not boundary condition, subcase or element dependent, zeros, blanks or the string N/A will appear in the corresponding columns of the active constraint summary. The user is cautioned that the constraint 8-26 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 8-18. Design Variable Values 1TEN BAR TRUSS ASTROS VERSION 9.0 ASTROS ITERATION 1 03/03/93 P. 7 STATIC ANALYSIS A S T R O S DESIGN VARIABLE ID DESIGN VARIABLE VALUE 1 2 3 4 5 2.00000E+00 2.00000E+00 2.00000E+00 2.00000E+00 2.00000E+00 D E S I G N V A R I A B L E V A L U E S MINIMUM MAXIMUM OBJECTIVE VALUE VALUE SENSITIVITY 6.66700E-03 6.66700E-03 6.66700E-03 6.66700E-03 6.66700E-03 1.00000E+03 1.00000E+03 1.00000E+03 1.00000E+03 1.00000E+03 5.40000D+02 5.40000D+02 5.40000D+02 5.40000D+02 5.40000D+02 UNIQUE UNIQUE UNIQUE UNIQUE UNIQUE LINKING LAYER LAYER USER OPTION NUMBER LIST LABEL PHYSICAL PHYSICAL PHYSICAL PHYSICAL PHYSICAL 1TEN BAR TRUSS N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A ASTROS VERSION 9.0 ASTROS ITERATION 1 STATIC ANALYSIS S U M M A R Y O F L O C A L EID 1 2 3 4 5 D E S I G R O D LINKING OPTION UNIQUE PHYSICAL UNIQUE PHYSICAL UNIQUE PHYSICAL UNIQUE PHYSICAL UNIQUE PHYSICAL N V A R I A B L E S -E L E M E N T S AREA MINIMUM 3.00000000E+01 1.000E-01 3.00000000E+01 1.000E-01 3.00000000E+01 1.000E-01 3.00000000E+01 1.000E-01 3.00000000E+01 1.000E-01 I T E R A T I O N 03/03/93 ROD1 ROD2 ROD3 ROD4 ROD5 P. 8 1 MAXIMUM 1.500E+04 1.500E+04 1.500E+04 1.500E+04 1.500E+04 Table 8-19. Design Constraint Summary TEN BAR TRUSS ASTROS VERSION 11.0 04/06/95 ASTROS ITERATION 13 P. 56 STATIC ANALYSIS S U M M A R Y O F A C T I V E C O N S T R A I N T S AFTER ANALYSIS 13 OF A MAXIMUM 16 18 CONSTRAINTS RETAINED OF 18 APPLIED **************************************************************** * CONSTRAINT RETENTION ALGORITHM SUMMARY * * RFAC = 3.000, EPS = -.100, NDV = 10 * * * * # OF CONSTRAINTS RETAINED BY RFAC = 18 * * CUTOFF CONSTRAINT VALUE = -2.000 * * * * # ADDED WITH VALUES GREATER THAN EPS = 0 * * * * # OF ADDITIONAL MINIMUM THICKNESS * * CONSTRAINTS RETAINED ONLY FOR * * CONTROLLING MOVE LIMITS (DCONTHK) = 0 * **************************************************************** COUNT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ASTROS CONSTRAINT VALUE -1.99999E+00 -1.99999E+00 -1.36685E+00 -1.73042E+00 -8.14951E-06 -6.63099E-06 -6.33147E-01 -2.69576E-01 -7.30348E-01 -9.99997E-01 -6.70627E-01 -7.28571E-01 CONSTRAINT TYPE DISP/DCID DISP/DCID DISP/DCID DISP/DCID DISP/DCID DISP/DCID DISP/DCID DISP/DCID VON MISES VON MISES VON MISES VON MISES = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 6 = 7 = 8 STRESS STRESS STRESS STRESS TYPE COUNT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 BOUNDARY ID 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SUBCASE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ELEMENT TYPE N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A ROD ROD ROD ROD EID/LAYR/DIMENSION N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1 2 3 4 OUTPUT FEATURES 8-27 USER’S MANUAL ordering in the active constraint summary is not necessarily the order that constraints appear in the sensitivity matrices, the DESIGN module or other discipline dependent output. Finally, in interpreting the constraint values, the user must be aware of some features of ASTROS design constraints. The constraints in ASTROS are all formulated such that a value greater than zero represents a violated constraint. Also, all the constraints are normalized in some manner by the design allowable. The normalization has been formulated in such a way as to provide the best behavior under the linear approximations used in the approximate optimization problem but this has the effect of obscuring the physical meaning of the constraint. The user is referred to the Theoretical Manual for the exact form of each constraint. 8-28 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 8.2.4. Flutter/Normal Modes Response Quantities The solution control print option ROOTS for flutter selects that the root extraction summary for flutter analyses be printed. In addition, if the flutter analyses appear in the ANALYZE subpacket of the solution control packet, the modal participation factors of any flutter conditions will be printed. The roots are ordered such that the lowest frequency root at each velocity is associated with the lowest frequency normal mode and so on in increasing frequency order. For each normal mode, the corresponding velocity value, damping ratio, frequency and complex eigenvalue are shown. For OPTIMIZE flutter analyses, only the user’s input velocities are used in the root extraction algorithm. ANALYZE flutter analyses may generate additional velocities in the process of converging to a flutter crossing. Further, OPTIMIZE flutter analyses assume that constraints are imposed and print out the TYPE COUNT and CONSTRAINT VALUE as shown in Table 8-20. These columns do not appear for analysis cases. The complex modal participation factors for each of the normal modes in the modal representation of the structure are printed if the ROOTS PRINT option is selected in ANALYZE flutter disciplines and a flutter crossing is found. A flutter crossing can occur for each Mach number and density ratio combination in the flutter analysis. Therefore, the flutter condition is identified by velocity, Mach number and density ratio to distinguish among multiple flutter conditions in the same analysis. An example is given in Table 8-21 in which the INDEX is the normal mode and REAL/IMAG are the complex factor. Note that a zero participation factor will be shown for normal modes that the user omitted from the flutter analysis. Table 8-20. Flutter Solution Results 1 ASTROS VERSION 9.0 ASTROS ITERATION 4 S U M M A R Y MODE = 1 VEL TYPE CONSTRAINT NO. COUNT VALUE 1 2 3 4 5 1 7 13 19 25 -1.890E+00 -1.008E+01 -2.202E+00 -1.711E+00 -1.536E+00 MODE = 2 VEL TYPE CONSTRAINT NO. COUNT VALUE 1 2 3 4 5 2 8 14 20 26 -2.292E+00 -1.017E+00 -3.128E-01 -2.659E-02 1.055E-01 ASTROS MACH NUMBER = .8000 VELOCITY EQUIVALENT 1.01150E+04 1.51725E+04 1.71955E+04 1.82070E+04 1.87128E+04 MACH NUMBER = P - K DENSITY RATIO = DAMPING RATIO TRUE 1.01150E+04 1.51725E+04 1.71955E+04 1.82070E+04 1.87128E+04 -3.78041E-01 -2.01653E+00 -4.40401E-01 -3.42128E-01 -3.07225E-01 .8000 VELOCITY EQUIVALENT 1.01150E+04 1.51725E+04 1.71955E+04 1.82070E+04 1.87128E+04 O F TRUE DENSITY RATIO = 1.01150E+04 1.51725E+04 1.71955E+04 1.82070E+04 1.87128E+04 DAMPING RATIO -4.58386E-01 -2.03466E-01 -6.25583E-02 -5.31809E-03 2.11023E-02 F L U T T E R 03/03/93 P. 20 E V A L U A T I O N 1.0000E+00 FREQUENCY CYC/SEC RAD/SEC 2.28032E+01 2.49806E+01 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 1.43276E+02 1.56958E+02 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00 COMPLEX EIGENVALUE REAL IMAGINARY -6.42583E-02 -2.50330E-01 -1.52631E-01 -1.18573E-01 -1.06476E-01 3.39954E-01 2.48278E-01 5.78939E-08 2.59419E-11 1.89918E-14 1.0000E+00 FREQUENCY CYC/SEC RAD/SEC 4.39390E+01 2.88941E+01 2.99157E+01 3.02772E+01 3.04440E+01 2.76077E+02 1.81547E+02 1.87966E+02 1.90237E+02 1.91285E+02 COMPLEX EIGENVALUE REAL IMAGINARY -1.50133E-01 -2.92149E-02 -8.20597E-03 -6.66799E-04 2.58853E-03 6.55051E-01 2.87173E-01 2.62346E-01 2.50766E-01 2.45332E-01 OUTPUT FEATURES 8-29 ff Table 8-21. Modal Participation Factors ASTROS VERSION 9.0 03/03/93 FINAL ANALYSIS SEGMENT MODES ANALYSIS: BOUNDARY 2 P. 31 MODAL PARTICIPATION FACTORS FOR CRITICAL FLUTTER SPEED OF: MACH V(TRUE) V(EQ) DENSITY RATIO FREQUENCY INDEX 1 4 REAL IMAG 9.8031E-01 1.1690E-02 0.0000E+00 -8.5903E-03 INDEX 2 5 = = = = = .8000 18306.8594 18306.8594 1.000000 30.310659 HZ, REAL 6.4565E-02 5.0619E-03 IMAG -1.8495E-01 -2.7755E-03 190.447495 RAD/S INDEX 3 6 REAL -1.5952E-02 5.2087E-03 IMAG -9.2147E-03 8.6489E-04 The ROOTS print option for normal modes, illustrated in Table 8-22, selects that the eigenvalue extraction table be printed. It will appear immediately ahead of any eigenvectors, if any were selected. The table is patterned after that in NASTRAN and includes the eigenvalues (in sorted order), the extraction order, the cyclic and radian frequency and generalized mass and generalized stiffness for each eigenvector computed. The table is prefaced by data identifying the eigenvalue extraction method and some self-explanatory method dependent data. 8.2.5. Aeroelastic Trim Quantities The TRIM solution control print option select that the aeroelastic trim parameters and stability coefficients be printed. There are two types of aeroelastic trim analyses in ASTROS: (1) SYMMETRIC and (2) ANTISYMMETRIC. The number of degrees of freedom SUPORTed at the support point determine the number of trim degrees of freedom. SYMMETRIC analyses may have DOF’s 1, 3 and/or 5 (thrust, lift, pitch) or any combination. ANTISYMMETRIC analyses may have 2, 4, and/or 6 (side-force, roll, yaw) or any t0O1E-01 620(ff D 9.96 AHff D 9.96 ffff)(io ( f)(i2-2IIII2III4.ffff)(i3SS9.96 3 -1.5952E-02 -9.2147E-03)Tjı˝0 -1.3 TD 3 -1.5 L2 287.88 4R REAL 0 -1.Pd2dS -1.5242´G2147E-03)Tjı˝0 -9 -9 52 s ( )]TJı˝/3600 eL 3 r -9.214w y4R 5 0boi(21. Mo)84 afffffffffff -1TISYMMETRIC USER’S MANUAL combination. The thrust DOF should never be free since ASTROS has no mechanism to input thrust and the drag computations based on potential aerodynamics are invariably poor. The code does not impose any restriction, however. Each TRIM print is labeled with the Mach number, dynamic pressure, reference grid point, and the appropriate normalization parameters. These parameters are the reference area and chord length for longitudinal coefficients and reference area and span for lateral coefficients. The SYMMETRIC trim print includes, in the most general case, the drag, lift and pitching moment stability coefficients for: CD - Thickness and camber effects CD , C L , C M , α α α - Angle of attack (α) in both radians and degrees C D , CL , CM δ δ δ - User defined control surface deflection(s) (δ) (both radians and degrees) CD , C L , C M q q q - Pitch rate (q) in both radians and degrees. o, CL o, CM o These nondimensional factors are implicitly defined in the following equations: Drag = _ qc q S CD + CD α + CD + CD δi for i = 1 , … nSYM o δ α q 2V i Lift = _ qc q S CL + CL α + CL + CL δi fo r i = 1 , … nSYM o 2V δ α q i Pitching _ qc Moment = q S c CM + CM α + CM + CM δi fo r i = 1 , … nSYM o 2V α δ q i where, _ q = Dynamic Pressure S = Reference Area c = Reference Chord V = Reference Velocity nSYM = The number of symmetric control surfaces These definitions are the standard forms used in aircraft stability and control (see Reference 5). Each of these three quantities (drag, lift and pitching moment coefficients) is shown in up to three forms (Table 8-23): ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-31 USER’S MANUAL Table 8-23. Symmetric Trim Results 1SIMPLIFIED WING STRUCTURE DESIGN STRESS, DISP, LIFT AND AILERON EFFECTIVENESS CONSTRAINTS SYMMETRIC CONDITION ASTROS VERSION 9.0 ASTROS ITERATION 1 03/03/93 P. 9 NONDIMENSIONAL LONGITUDINAL STABILITY DERIVATIVES COMPUTED AT THE AERODYNAMIC REFERENCE GRID AND INCLUDING ANY CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS TRIM IDENTIFICATION REFERENCE AREA <<< RIGID DIRECT ------.0012 DRAG RIGID SPLINED ------N/A = = 100 2.4000E+03 >>> <<< FLEXIBLE RIGID DIRECT ------------N/A .0099 REFERENCE GRID REFERENCE CHORD LIFT RIGID SPLINED ------.0099 = = 20 2.0000E+01 >>> <<< PITCHING MOMENT >>> FLEXIBLE RIGID RIGID FLEXIBLE DIRECT SPLINED ------------------- -------.0173 .0057 .0057 .0069 PARAMETER LABEL ------------THICKNESS/CAMBER "THKCAM " ANGLE OF ATTACK ANGLE OF ATTACK "ALPHA "ALPHA " 1/DEG " 1/RAD .0010 .0582 N/A N/A N/A N/A .1173 6.7223 .1173 6.7223 .1928 11.0489 -.0062 -.3552 -.0062 -.3552 .0080 .4573 PITCH RATE PITCH RATE "QRATE "QRATE " S/DEG " S/RAD -.0015 -.0870 N/A N/A N/A N/A .0923 5.2878 .0923 5.2878 .1004 5.7517 -.2034 -11.6513 -.2034 -11.6513 -.1999 -11.4535 CONTROL SURFACE "ELEV " 1/DEG -.0012 N/A N/A .0118 .0118 .0128 -.0431 -.0431 -.0420 CONTROL SURFACE "ELEV " 1/RAD -.0670 N/A N/A .6775 .6775 .7346 -2.4704 -2.4704 -2.4069 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------COMPUTED DRAG VALUES ARE INCLUDED FOR COMPLETENESS AND MODEL CHECK-OUT ONLY USE CAUTION IN INTERPRETING THEIR PHYSICAL VALIDITY VALUES MARKED "N/A" CANNOT BE COMPUTED UNLESS THE CORRESPONDING DOF IS SUPPORTED --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TRIM RESULTS FOR TRIM SET 100 OF TYPE PITCH ----------------------------------------------MACH NUMBER DYNAMIC PRESSURE VELOCITY 8.00000E-01 6.50000E+00 9.86400E+03 TRIM PARAMETERS: DEFINITION ---------LOAD FACTOR PITCH RATE ANGLE OF ATTACK CONTROL SURFACE ROTATION THICKNESS/CAMBER (1) (2) (3) LABEL ----"NZ "QRATE "ALPHA "ELEV "THKCAM " " " " " FLEXIBLE -------3.09119E+03 1.56990E+01 1.26089E+00 -2.11388E+00 1.00000E+00 RIGID ----3.09119E+03 1.56990E+01 2.17052E+00 -2.63485E+00 1.00000E+00 DEG/S DEG DEG (USER INPUT) (USER INPUT) (COMPUTED) (COMPUTED) (USER INPUT) The stability derivative for the rigid aerodynamic model as computed directly from the forces acting on the aerodynamic boxes (termed DIRECT in the output). This output always appears since it comes directly from the aerodynamic model. The stability derivative for the rigid aerodynamic model as computed from the forces transformed to the structural degrees of freedom (termed SPLINEd in the output). This output only appears if the associated DOF is SUPORTed. The flexible derivative which includes corrections for the flexibility and inertia relief effects. This output only appears if the associated DOF is SUPORTed. If the first two forms do not agree closely (within 1-2 percent), the spline transformation may be incorrect or some of the applied load is being reacted by model SPCs or MPCs before reaching the SUPORT points. This latter is the most common occurrence so that SPCFORCE and GPFORCE data are the first place to look to correct the problem. The SPLINEd and FLEXIBLE forms are used in the stability coefficient constraint calculations (DCONALE, DCONCLA, DCONSCF). 8-32 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Finally, the trim parameters that were computed for the current flight condition are shown. In general, these are the angle of attack in degrees, the pitch rate in deg/s, and the SYMMETRIC control surface deflection angle(s) in degrees. In each case, the rigid and flexible "trim" state is shown (the rigid is informational only) and the parameter is labeled as COMPUTED if it was a free parameter in the trim analysis or USER INPUT if it was a fixed user input trim parameter. Only those parameters explicitly called out on the TRIM bulk data entry are listed. The ANTISYMMETRIC trim print is similar except that the degrees of freedom that are available result in coefficients for side force, rolling moment and yawing moment. CY ,Cl ,CN β β β = Yaw angle (β), in both radians and degrees. CY ,Cl ,CN r r r = Yaw rate (r), in both radians and degrees. CY ,Cl ,CN p p p = Roll rate (p), in both radians and degrees. CY ,Cl ,CN δ δ δ = User defined control surface deflection(s) (δ), in both radians and degrees. These nondimensional factors are implicitly defined in the following equations: Side Force _ rb pb + CY + CY δi fo r i = 1 ,..., nANTI = qS CY β + CY 2V 2V β δ r p i Roll Moment _ rb pb = qSb Cl β + Cl + Cl + Cl δi fo ri = 1 ,..., nANTI 2V 2V β δ r p i Yaw Moment _ rb pb = qSb CN β + CN + CN + CN δi fo ri = 1 ,..., nANTI β δ r 2V p 2V i b = reference semispan nANTI = The number of antisymmetric control surfaces where, These quantities are shown in three forms as shown in Table 8-24: (1) (2) (3) ASTROS The stability derivative for the rigid aerodynamic model as computed directly from the forces acting on the aerodynamic boxes (termed DIRECT in the output). This output always appears since it comes directly from the aerodynamic model. The stability derivative for the rigid aerodynamic model as computed from the forces transformed to the structural degrees of freedom (termed SPLINEd in the output). This output only appears if the associated DOF is SUPORTed. The flexible derivative which includes corrections for the flexibility and inertia relief effects. This output only appears if the associated DOF is SUPORTed. OUTPUT FEATURES 8-33 USER’S MANUAL Table 8-24. Antisymmetric Trim Results 1SIMPLIFIED WING STRUCTURE DESIGN STRESS, DISP, LIFT AND AILERON EFFECTIVENESS CONSTRAINTS ANITSYMMETRIC CONDITION ASTROS VERSION 9.0 ASTROS ITERATION 2 03/03/93 P. 26 NONDIMENSIONAL LATERAL STABILITY DERIVATIVES COMPUTED AT THE AERODYNAMIC REFERENCE GRID AND INCLUDING ANY CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS TRIM IDENTIFICATION REFERENCE AREA = = 200 2.4000E+03 REFERENCE GRID REFERENCE SPAN = = 20 6.0000E+01 <<< SIDE FORCE >>> <<< ROLLING MOMENT >>> <<< YAWING MOMENT >>> RIGID RIGID FLEXIBLE RIGID RIGID FLEXIBLE RIGID RIGID FLEXIBLE DIRECT SPLINED DIRECT SPLINED DIRECT SPLINED ------------ ------------------- ------------------- -------.0000 N/A N/A .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 N/A N/A .0000 N/A N/A .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 N/A N/A PARAMETER --------YAW ANGLE YAW ANGLE LABEL ----"BETA "BETA " 1/DEG " 1/RAD YAW RATE YAW RATE "RRATE "RRATE " S/DEG " S/RAD .0000 .0000 N/A N/A N/A N/A .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 N/A N/A N/A N/A ROLL RATE ROLL RATE "PRATE "PRATE " S/DEG " S/RAD .0000 .0000 N/A N/A N/A N/A -.0418 -2.3951 -.0418 -2.3951 -.0510 -2.9248 -.0002 -.0112 N/A N/A N/A N/A CONTROL SURFACE "AILERON " 1/DEG .0000 N/A N/A .0166 .0166 .0160 .0000 N/A N/A CONTROL SURFACE "AILERON " 1/RAD .0000 N/A N/A .9508 .9508 .9191 .0018 N/A N/A --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VALUES MARKED "N/A" CANNOT BE COMPUTED UNLESS THE CORRESPONDING DOF IS SUPPORTED --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TRIM RESULTS FOR TRIM SET 200 OF TYPE ROLL ----------------------------------------------MACH NUMBER DYNAMIC PRESSURE VELOCITY 8.00000E-01 6.50000E+00 9.86400E+03 TRIM PARAMETERS: DEFINITION ---------CONTROL SURFACE ROTATION ROLL RATE LABEL ----"AILERON " "PRATE " FLEXIBLE -------1.00000E+00 1.03324E+02 RIGID ----1.00000E+00 1.30519E+02 DEG DEG/S (USER INPUT) (COMPUTED) As in the longitudinal case, discrepancies between the data for the first two forms may indicate an error in the spline transformations or, more likely, the boundary conditions to allow the applied load to reach the SUPORT point unreacted. The effectiveness calculations are performed using the third form. Finally, the trim parameters that were computed for the current flight condition are shown. In general, these are the yaw angle in degrees, the yaw rate in deg/s, the roll rate in deg/s, and the ANTISYMMETRIC control surface deflection angle(s) in degrees. In each case, the rigid and flexible "trim" state is shown (the rigid is informational only) and the parameter is labeled as COMPUTED if it was a free parameter in the trim analysis or USER INPUT if it was a fixed user input trim parameter. Only those parameters explicitly called out on the TRIM bulk data entry are listed. 8.3. SUMMARY OF SOLUTION RESULTS Some of the solution results of ASTROS are written to the print file while others are placed on the CADDB database. In the latter case, they can be accessed using the ICE interactive program. Table 8-25 8-34 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL provides a summary of each quantity and indicates whether the data are printed or stored. In each case, if the PUNCH request results in storage of the data, the PRINT request also stores the data even if the actual printing of the data occurs. Table 8-25. Summary of Output Quantities QUANTITY IF PRINT IS REQUESTED IF PUNCH IS REQUESTED ACCEL PRINT File Relation OGRDDISP AIRDISP Relation OAGRDDSP Relation OAGRDDSP BUCK PRINT File Relations OPNLBUCK/OEULBUCK CGRAD Relation GRADIENT Relation GRADIENT DCON PRINT File Relation CONST DISP PRINT File Relation OGRIDDSP ENERGY PRINT File Relation EOxxxx1 FORCE PRINT File Relation EOxxxx 1 GDESIGN PRINT File Relation GLBDES GPFORCE Relation GPFDATA Relation GPFDATA GPWG PRINT File Relation OGPWG KSNS Unstructured DKVI Unstructured DKVI LDESIGN PRINT File Relation OLOCALDV LOAD Relation OGRIDLOD Relation OGRIDLOD MASS Matrix MGG Matrix MGG PUNCH File MODEL MSNS Unstructured DMVI Unstructured DMVI OGRADIENT Relation GRADIENT Relation GRADIENT QHH Matrix QHHL/QHHLFL Matrix QHHL/QHHLFL QHJ Matrix QHJL Matrix QHJL ROOT PRINT File Relations LAMBDA/CLAMBDA SPCF Relation OGRIDLOD Relation OGRIDLOD STIFFNESS Matrix KGG Matrix KGG STRAIN PRINT File Relation EOxxxx1 STRESS PRINT File Relation EOxxxx1 TPRESSURE PRINT File Relation OAGRDLOD VELOCITY PRINT File Relation OGRIDDSP TRIM PRINT File 1 - xxxx represents an element name: BAR, ELAS, HEX1, HEX2, HEX3, QDMM1, QUAD4, ROD, SHEAR, TRIA3 or TRMEM. ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-35 USER’S MANUAL 8.4. OTHER SELECTABLE QUANTITIES The DEBUG packet has been used to control several low level outputs in a number of ASTROS modules. This subsection documents the outputs generated by those DEBUG parameters that relate to modifying the level or form of output from an ASTROS module. 8.4.1. Intermediate Steady Aerodynamic Matrix Output The preface aerodynamic module, STEADY, has a selectable print-level DEBUGs called STEADY. These options will generate output from the USSAERO submodule of the preface aerodynamics modules. There are four print levels available: PRINT ACTION 1 Prints steady aerodynamic model geometry and a few miscellaneous debugs. 2 Prints the above and stability coefficient data. 3 Prints the above and pressure data from the USOLVE submodule. 4 Prints the above and voluminous data from the calculation of velocity components and intermediate matrices from the USSAERO submodule. The user is cautioned that a print level of 4 generates a large amount of data. Most of these prints are vestigial prints from the USSAERO code that was adapted for use in the ASTROS system. In cases where the output data is not self-evident, the user is referred to the USSAERO documentation (Reference 6). 8.4.2. Intermediate Unsteady Aerodynamic Matrix Output The secondary unsteady aerodynamic preface module, AMP, has an optional print DEBUG called AMP and an optional matrix argument as its last argument. CALL AMP ([AJJTL],[D1JK],[D2JK],[SKJ],[QKKL],QKJL],[QJJL],[ajjdc]); The AMP option controls the output of several intermediate matrices or of individual matrices from the matrix lists QKKL, QKJL and QJJL that are formed in AMP for FLUTTER and GUST analyses, respectively. The user is referred to the Programmer’s Manual for complete documentation of these data base entities. The following matrices are output: 8-36 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL IF PRINT IS: AND: AND: THEN: The SKJ matrix. 1 If there is only one aerodynamic group If flutter entries are in the bulk data packet The above and the matrix, [X], representing the solution to the equation: [AJJ] * [X] = ( [D1JK] + (ik)[D2JK] ) If gust entries are in the bulk data packet The above and the matrix [QKJ] from the corresponding matrix list. If flutter entries are in the bulk data packet The above and the matrices [D1JK] and [D2JK]. >1 The above and the matrix [AJJT] after extraction from the corresponding matrix list. The optional matrix [AJJDC] is used to store the intermediate matrix [X] described in the options shown above. If [AJJDC] is blank, a scratch data base entity is used to store [X]. In either case, [X] may be printed through the AMP option. Only the last [X] matrix calculated will be returned to the executive sequence in [AJJDC] for use in additional processing. 8.4.3. Flutter Root Iteration Output The flutter analysis module, FLUTTRAN, has an optional DEBUG print control called FLUTTRAN to generate additional information on the flutter eigenvalue extraction: The FLUTTRAN option in this case pertains to prints that give information on the iterative solution of the flutter matrices. It has the following meaning: PRINT 1 >1 ACTION Print the number of iterations required to find each flutter root. Print the above plus information on each of the estimated roots for each iteration. This voluminous information may sometimes be of use, when the flutter solution goes astray, in determining if a modified set of velocities would give improved results. 8.4.4. Stress Constraint Computation Output The stress/strain constraint evaluation module, SCEVAL, has an optional DEBUG parameter called SCEVAL. The SCEVAL argument, if non-zero, will generate a listing, by element type, of all the constrained elements, the current value of their stress components and the resultant constraint value for each design load condition. Also included in the print, is the running "type count" for stress and strain constraints that appears in the Active Constraint Summary print described in Subsection 5.2.3. This allows the user to identify exactly which elements and subcases are associated with each particular stress or strain constraint. This print is a remnant from the ASTROS development when the element stresses were not available, but it may still be useful in checking out the constraint modeling for large problems. ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-37 USER’S MANUAL 8.4.5. Intermediate Optimization Output The DESIGN module for resizing via mathematical programming methods has a DEBUG option called DESIGN that selects a print of intermediate data: The DESIGN debug value is passed directly to the MicroDOT optimization package which makes the following intermediate quantities available: PRINT ACTION 1 Initial design information and final results. 2 The above and function values at each iteration. 3 The above and internal MicroDOT parameters. 4 The above and search directions. 5 The above and gradient information. 6 The above and scaling information. 7 The above and one-dimensional search information. These DESIGN/DEBUG options allow the user to view the detailed calculations used in the solution of the approximate constrained optimization problem that ASTROS generates at each iteration. The user is cautioned that the data printed from the DESIGN module are not necessarily ordered in the same manner as in other design prints and not identified by user supplied design variable identification numbers. 8.5. EXECUTIVE SEQUENCE OUTPUT UTILITIES In recognition of the inability to provide for the print of all useful response quantities, utilities have been included in the set of MAPOL modules to augment the solution control print options. These utilities may be placed in any MAPOL program where the user desires to see additional information. In general, these utilities print the data contained in either general or specific data base entities. The formats of these prints are more general and therefore, less well identified than the special print options described in the preceding subsections. The generality of these utilities, however, is felt to be a vital addition to the output features of the ASTROS procedure in that almost any data on the user’s data base files can be written to the output file. These utilities provide a primitive link between ASTROS and external post-processing systems. ICE now provides a very sophisticated link. 8.5.1. Structural Set Definition Print Utility, USETPRT The USETPRT utility has been provided to print, for each boundary condition in the solution control packet, the structural set definition table stored in the ASTROS data base entity, USET. This utility exactly mimics the capabilities provided by the NASTRAN PARAM/USETPRT option. The USETPRT module has the following calling sequence: CALL USETPRT ( USET(BC), BGPDT(BC) ); 8-38 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL For the selected boundary condition, BC, each degree of freedom in the structural model is listed in a table which shows the structural sets to which the degree of freedom belongs. The reader is referred to Section 4 of the Theoretical Manual for more information on the structural set definitions in ASTROS. 8.5.2. Special Matrix Print Utility, UTGPRT The print utility, UTGPRT, has been provided in order to view particular matrices whose rows correspond to the structural degrees of freedom. In general, these matrices are very large and virtually impossible to interpret without some additional formatting beyond that which is available for more general matrix prints. Therefore, for the supported matrix entities, the matrix columns are printed in a form similar to that used for the nodal response quantities as presented in Section 5.2.2. The UTGPRT utility has the following calling sequence: CALL UTGPRT ( BC, USET(BC), [mat1], [mat2], ... [mat10] ); where up to ten matrix arguments may be supplied. The BC integer argument and the name of the USET entity for the BC’th boundary condition identifies the associated boundary condition so that the utility can make use of the USET entity in formatting the output. The following entities are supported: [DKUG], [DMUG], [DPVJ], [DUG], [DPGV], [DUGV] [DPTHVI], [DPGRVI], [PG], [DFDU] The utility keys off the entity names, so the above names must be used, although the matrices can be subscripted if the user wishes. The reader is referred to the Programmer’s Manual for additional information on the data contained in these entities. 8.5.3. General Matrix Print Utility, UTMPRT The matrix print utility, UTMPRT, has been written such that any data base matrix entity can be printed to the output file. The calling sequence for UTMPRT is: CALL UTMPRT ( method, [mat1], [mat2], ... [mat10] ); where up to ten matrices can be printed in a single call. The optional integer METHOD argument selects from among two formats that are available. If METHOD is zero or absent, the entire matrix column, starting with the first non-zero term and ending with the last non-zero term, will be printed, including all intermediate zeros. If METHOD is non-zero, only the non-zero terms of each column will be printed. 8.5.4. General Relation Print Utility, UTRPRT The print utility, UTRPRT, has been written such that any data base relational entity can be printed to the output file. The calling sequence for UTRPRT is: CALL UTRPRT ( rel1, rel2, ... rel10 ); where up to ten relations can be printed in a single call. Relational entities are tables in which the columns are called attributes. The UTRPRT utility attempts to print the relation in a format in which each ASTROS OUTPUT FEATURES 8-39 USER’S MANUAL column represents one attribute and each row represents a single entry in the relation. The utility is not very sophisticated, however, and relations having more attributes than can fit in the width of a page (128 characters or approximately 12 attributes) will have the trailing attributes ignored. Also, string attributes are only printed if they are eight characters long. Despite its limitations, the UTRPRT utility can be very useful in viewing ASTROS data base relations. 8.5.5. General Unstructured Print Utility, UTUPRT The print utility, UTUPRT, has been written such that any data base unstructured entity can be printed to the output file. The calling sequence for UTUPRT is: CALL UTUPRT ( UNSTRUCT, type ); Unlike other data base entities, there is no information in an unstructured entity to identify what type of data is stored in its records. The user, therefore, must supply the TYPE argument to select the proper format to use in the print. The following TYPE’s are available: TYPE <0 prints only the record length (in single precision words) of each record in the entity TYPE =0 prints each record using an integer format TYPE =1 prints each record using a real single precision format TYPE =2 prints each record using a double precision format. For TYPE values greater than or equal to zero, each record will be printed, in its entirety, in the selected format. If, as is typical, the record contains mixed data, e.g., both integer and real data, the user can make multiple calls to UTUPRT to view first the integer format and then the real format. No errors will occur, but the real data will give spurious looking integer prints and vice versa. 8.6. THE eSHELL INTERACTIVE PROGRAM A code like ASTROS is so general that to make all possible response quantities available would take decades of effort, if it could be done at all. In fact, a mature finite element code like NASTRAN is continuously adding new output capabilities as the user community dictates. Naturally, a relatively new code like ASTROS cannot attempt to address all these features. Instead, the ASTROS designers considered it important to focus on design optimization and provide a large, but finite, number of options for post-processing outside this area. To support a powerful and general purpose ability to query solution results, UAI provides the program called eSHELL. This special program allows users to access any ASTROS data, to view it interactively and to generate files which can be moved from one computer to another or used as input to other application programs. 8-40 OUTPUT FEATURES ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Chapter 9. MAPOL PROGRAMMING This chapter contains the programmer’s manual for the ASTROS executive language, MAPOL. It presents the syntax and features of the MAPOL language and it contains the general information needed to make syntactically correct modifications to the ASTROS standard MAPOL sequence and to write independent MAPOL programs to direct the ASTROS system. All variable types, statement forms, input/output features and intrinsic functions are presented. 9.1. INTRODUCTION AND USER OPTIONS The Matrix Analysis Problem Oriented Language (MAPOL) is a high level computer language that has been designed to support the large-scale matrix operations typically encountered in engineering analysis. Its conceptual roots may be traced to the Direct Matrix Abstraction Program (DMAP) capability found in the NASTRAN® system developed by NASA in the late 1960’s. The DMAP language used to create NASTRAN’s solution algorithms is very crude; however, it has been a prime factor in extending the life cycle of the system. It has done this by providing a simple method of installing new code and functional capabilities into the system. It also affords the user an opportunity to interact with the software. MAPOL has been selected to provide the same advantages to the ASTROS system. Additionally, it extends the primitive DMAP design by assimilating the many advances that were made in computer science over the intervening two decades. MAPOL is a structured procedural language that directly supports high-order matrix operations, the manipulation of database entities and complex data types. The syntax of the language is similar to PASCAL, and it should be easily learned by anyone familiar with Fortran or PASCAL. This Chapter details all of the features of the MAPOL language and gives examples of their use. ASTROS MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-1 USER’S MANUAL 9.1.1. USER OPTIONS In this section, the different kinds of MAPOL programs and their uses are discussed. MAPOL is the control language of the ASTROS system and, as such, the multidisciplinary solution algorithm is simply a MAPOL program that is embedded in the system. the user is free to modify this standard algorithm and can also create individual MAPOL programs or specialized procedures. 9.1.2. MAPOL PROGRAM FORM If an ASTROS analysis is not using the standard solution, then a MAPOL program is required as the first part of the input data stream. The MAPOL data packet must be formed as shown: MAPOL [<option-list>] ; ... ... ... END; As introduced in Chapter 1, all bold capitalized words (e.g., MAPOL) must appear exactly as they are written. A symbol enclosed in angle brackets (e.g., <option-list> ) represents one or more choices to be made. If the symbol is enclosed in square brackets (e.g., [<id>]), the choice is optional. The MAPOL command, which must be the first statement in the program, selects compiler options. These options are shown in Table 9-1 where the default option options are indicated by boldface. Table 9-1. MAPOL Command Options NAME OPTION LIST NOLIST Lists the MAPOL source program GO NOGO Selects, or deselects, execution after program compilation. As an example, the statement: MAPOL NOLIST; will cause the MAPOL program to be compiled and executed with no listings produced, while the statement: MAPOL NOGO; will cause the MAPOL program to be compiled and a listing of the source code produced. After compilation, ASTROS will terminate without executing the program. 9-2 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 9.1.3. THE STANDARD ASTROS SOLUTION As mentioned earlier, the ASTROS multidiscpliniary solution algorithm is a MAPOL program. The code resides on the ASTROS system database. It is retrieved and used whenever a MAPOL program is not found in the input data stream. While Chapter 2 provides a complete listing of the standard MAPOL algorithm for ASTROS, the actual program changes with each release of the system. Because of this, it is recommended that the user request the current listing if it is needed. This may be done by executing the ASTROS system generation program, SYSGEN. This program provides a listing of the standard solution algorithm as part of its output. 9.1.4. MODIFYING THE STANDARD SOLUTION In some cases, the user may wish to modify the standard ASTROS solution in order to, for example, perform some auxiliary computations not currently available or to execute only a portion of the solution. Special MAPOL editing commands allow for these modifications: DELETE REPLACE INSERT a [ a [ a ,b] ,b] DELETE is used to remove one or more statements starting with line "a" and, optionally ending with line "b" inclusively. REPLACE performs a deletion of the specified line, or lines, and replaces them with any following MAPOL statements. The INSERT command allows any number of MAPOL statements to be inserted after line "a". For example: EDIT; INSERT 1 $ MY MODIFICATION $ REPLACE 20,23 A := 2 * B; DELETE 101,237 Note that rather than entering the MAPOL command, the special EDIT declaration is used. In the example, a comment is added at the beginning of the algorithm to document the modification. Several lines (20-23) are replaced by a new computational expression, and a larger block of lines (101237) is removed from the program. 9.1.5. CREATING MAPOL PROGRAMS If the standard executive sequence is not selected, the MAPOL compiler assumes that a new program is being created. This new program may perform any operations that use any of the matrix and database utilities available in the ASTROS system. All of these are described in subsequent chapters of this manual. ASTROS MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-3 USER’S MANUAL Table 9-2. Summary of MAPOL User Options STATEMENT FUNCTION MAPOL [<option-list>] Begins a MAPOL program and selects its name and compiler options END Terminates the MAPOL program EDIT [<option-list>] Modifies the standard solution sequence DELETE a [,b] Removes line a or lines a through b when editing REPLACE a [,b] Removes old line a or lines a through b and inserts new ones when editing INSERT a Inserts new lines after a when editing 9.1.6. SUMMARY Table 9-2 summarizes the MAPOL statements that have been described in this section, along with their uses. 9-4 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 9.2. DATA TYPES AND DECLARATIONS This section describes the data types that are available in the MAPOL language. It discusses their specifications during programming and how they are represented in the ASTROS machine. 9.2.1. DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION All programming languages are composed of two kinds of symbols. The first kind of symbol is an explicit part of the language. In MAPOL, such symbols include special characters such as: = - * := ; and "reserved words" such as: REAL, RELATION, IF, ELSE, WHILE In this Chapter, reserved words are indicated by bold capitalized names. The second kind of symbol is an identifier, or variable name, which may be chosen by the programmer. Identifiers are composed of letters and digits, but the first character must always be a letter. This and other definitions in this manual are shown as: <ident> := <letter> | <ident> <letter> | <ident> <digit> The vertical line "|" is read as "or". This definition clearly specifies all possible legal identifiers, because no matter how many times the rules: <ident> := <ident> <letter> or <letter> := <ident> <digit> are used, the user must finally use the rule: <ident> := <letter> This final rule ensures that the identifier begins with a <letter>. In MAPOL <letter> refers to any of the upper case letters from A to Z, and digit to the integers from 0 to 9. Note that although this open-ended definition of an identifier, which is called recursive, implies that arbitrarily long names may be used, the MAPOL compiler has an implementation limit of eight characters for a variable name. However, for subscripted database entities, the implementation limit is five characters — the subscipt is later appended to this basic name. If such a name is too long to accomodate a subscript, then characters are truncated on the right with warning. ASTROS MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-5 USER’S MANUAL 9.2.2. COMMENTARY Commentary may be included in the MAPOL program by enclosing the text between two dollar signs ($). Comments may be one or more complete lines, or they may be embedded in a line as shown below: A := 2; SET B TO 4 $ B := 4; THIS IS A MULTI LINE COMMENT THAT SHOWS HOW IT MUST ONLY START AND END WITH DOLLAR $ C := A * B; $ THIS IS AN INTERLINE COMMENT $ $ $ 9.2.3. SIMPLE DATA TYPES The MAPOL language supports five simple data types: • • • • • INTEGER REAL COMPLEX LOGICAL LABEL MAPOL is a strongly typed language, and as such, all variables must be declared at the beginning of a program unit. This is done with one or more declaration statements. The syntax of a declaration statement is defined by the rules shown below: <decl> := <type> <var-list> <type> := REAL | INTEGER | COMPLEX | LOGICAL | LABEL <var-list> := <var> | <var>, <var-list> Each simple variable, with the exception of LABEL, may be an array with one subscript. This is defined by: <var> := | <ident> (<sub1>) | <ident> (<sub1>) <sub1> := INTEGER 9.2.3.1. Data Type INTEGER INTEGERs are whole numbers such as 157, 83, or 22. An INTEGER may also have a sign associated with it such as -47 or +1024. The range of integers depends upon the ASTROS host computer. 9.2.3.2. Data Type REAL REAL data represents floating point numbers. Such numbers include 1.75, 0.00025, 1.78E-6 and 3.00271E+36. REAL numbers are represented in a manner determined by the machine precision of the 9-6 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL host computer automatically. MAPOL, therefore, does not distinguish between the REAL and DOUBLE PRECISION types such as is found in Fortran. 9.2.3.3. Data Type COMPLEX COMPLEX numbers are those which may be represented in the form: a+bi Because some host computers automatically handle COMPLEX data while others do not, MAPOL and ASTROS handle such data in a manner totally independent of the host computer. In the ASTROS machine, both a and b are represented as a pair of machine precision floating point numbers. Most available mathematical functions operate on COMPLEX data. 9.2.3.4. Data Type LOGICAL LOGICAL variables have a value of true or false. The ASTROS machine represents true by the Fortran .TRUE. and false by the Fortran value .FALSE. Logical constants may only be used in assignment statements. 9.2.3.5. Data Type LABEL LABELs are used to define statement locations within a MAPOL program. Typically, they are only used with the GOTO statement (see Section 9.4). ASTROS MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-7 USER’S MANUAL 9.2.4. COMPLEX DATA TYPES To best support comprehensive engineering analysis capabilities, MAPOL supports five complex, or high level data types: • • • • • MATRIX IMATRIX RELATION UNSTRUCT IUNSTRUCT All of these types represent database entities. Matrices and unstructured entities may be handled only in their entirety in MAPOL. Relations may be accessed on an entry-by-entry and attribute-by-attribute basis. Use of the IMATRIX and IUNSTRUCT, ("I" for indexed) data types allows for more efficient retrieval of data that are accessed in a random order. 9.2.4.1. Data Types MATRIX and IMATRIX Matrix database entities are declared in a slightly different manner from the remaining data types. The rules for their declaration are: <decl> <mat-list> <mat-var> <sub1> <sub2> := := := := := MATRIX <mat-list> <mat-list> , <mat-var> | <mat-var> [<ident>] | [<ident> (sub1 , sub 2)] INTEGER INTEGER Note that the matrix <ident> is enclosed in square brackets (i.e., [ ]) for clarity and ease-of reading of MAPOL programs. Matrix expressions, then, look as they do written in standard mathematical notation. Matrix variables may also be subscripted to allow multiple entities to be referenced using the same <ident> . This feature is used in ASTROS to allow data from multiple boundary conditions to be saved for subsequent evaluation. There is an implementation limit of two subscripts, each of which may take on any integer value from 1 to 1000. However, no more than 1000 entities may result from this declaration. When subscripted matrix entities are used, the executive system generates a CADDB entity name and relates that name to the subscript value. The MAPOL programmer is therefore cautioned that, unlike other high-order variables, subscripted variables, and subscripted matrix entities do not have a corresponding CADDB entity of the same name. Due to the nature of the name generation algorithm, subscripted entity names must be unique in their first five characters. 9.2.4.2. Data Type Relation The most complex and powerful MAPOL data type is the RELATION. Briefly, a relation can be thought of simply as a table. The rows of the table are called entries and the columns attributes The CADDB is a collection of such relations as shown in Figure 9-1. In the figure, a single relation, called GRID, has been highlighted. The GRID relation has four attributes: an identification number, GID, and three spatial coordinates (X, Y, and Z). The formats, or schemas, of relations that reside on CADDB are fixed. 9-8 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL ENT1 ENT2 ENT3 Database ENT4 Attributes GRID ENT6 GID X Y Z 101 0.0 0.0 0.0 102 1.0 0.0 0.0 103 1.0 1.0 0.0 104 0.0 1.0 0.0 Entries Figure 9-1. Schematic Representation of Relation All of the relations that are generated by the ASTROS modules that appear in the MAPOL program must be declared. The rules for these declarations are: <decl> := RELATION <rel-list> <rel-list>:= <rel-list> , <rel-var> | <rel-var> <rel-var> := <ident> If the user wishes to use the individual attributes of a relation, or to define a new relation, the PROJECT declaration is used: <decl> := PROJECT <rel-var> USING <att-list> <rel-var> := <ident> <att-list>:= <att-list> , <attname> | <attname> <attname> := <ident> The names of each of the attributes, <attname>, must match those defined in the CADDB schema if the relation already exists; otherwise, they are used to define the schema for the new relation. Note that in MAPOL, the attribute names cannot be shared among relations. This is the pure relational model which is not enforced within ASTROS itself. ASTROS MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-9 USER’S MANUAL As an example, the GRID relation of Figure 9-1 would be: INTEGER GID; REAL X,Y,Z; PROJECT GRID USING GID,X,Y,Z; Note that each attribute must be declared and be of the appropriate type. Once a relation and its projection have been declared, specific entries may be retrieved. After a retrieval, any or all of the relation’s attributes may be used directly by variables of the form: <relname> . <attname> This is illustrated in the following program segment: INTEGER GID,ID; REAL X,Y,Z; REAL C1,C2,C3; PROJECT GRID USING GID,X,Y,Z; ... ... ID := GRID.GID; C1 := GRID.X; C2 := GRID.Y; C3 := GRID.Z; ... The value of an attribute within a relation may be modified if an assignment is made and then the entry is written onto CADDB (refer to Chapter 9.8). 9.2.4.3. Data Types UNSTRUCT and IUNSTRUCT The simplest CADDB data structure is called an UNSTRUCTured entity. The form and content of such an entity is the responsibility of the ASTROS programmer. The only use of the UNSTRUCT entity is for inter-module communications: UNSTRUCT entities, which may not be subscripted, are declared with: <decl> := UNSTRUCT <un-list> <un-list> := <un-list> , <un-var> | <un-var> <un-var> := <ident> 9.2.4.4. Data Base Entity Declaration Requirements All of the ASTROS database entities may be divided into three classes: (1) MAPOL entities, (2) HIDDEN entities, and (3) TEMPORARY entities. MAPOL entities are those that are used and appear in the MAPOL program such as matrices or relations used in calculations and any entity appearing as an argument in a functional module call. HIDDEN entities represent data that are used by a functional module but whose contents are generated from required physical data. As an example, the GRID Bulk Data are stored in a relation called GRID. Many modules might wish to access this GRID data. Requiring 9-10 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL the GRID relation to appear in the calling list of each such module is more disruptive than it is beneficial. As a result, GRID might never explicitly appear in the MAPOL program. It must, however, be declared so that the CADDB will be properly initialized. The last entity type, the TEMPORARY entity, is used mostly as a "scratch" area for intra-module use. As such it is created and deleted by the module needing it. In summary, all of the MAPOL and HIDDEN entities must be declared in the MAPOL program. TEMPORARY entities are not declared. 9.3. EXPRESSIONS AND ASSIGNMENTS In this section, the relationships between the various data types are described. Of particular importance is the manner in which data are combined by arithmetic expressions and how values are assigned to the ASTROS machine memory. 9.3.1. ARITHMETIC EXPRESSIONS Arithmetic expressions are formulae for computing numeric values. An arithmetic expression consists of either a single operand or two or more operands separated by arithmetic operators. 9.3.1.1. Arithmetic Operators MAPOL supports five arithmetic operators as shown in Table 9-3. Successive operands must be separated by operators, and two operators may not be used in succession. 9.3.1.2. Arithmetic Operands Arithmetic operands may be constants, symbolic names of constants, variables, (including relational attributes), array elements, or function references. Operands may also be arithmetic expressions and arithmetic expressions enclosed in parentheses. The data type of an arithmetic operand may be INTEGER, REAL or COMPLEX. In some cases, it may also be MATRIX or IMATRIX. It may never be LOGICAL, LABEL, RELATION (without an attribute specification), UNSTRUCT, or IUNSTRUCT. Table 9-3. MAPOL Arithmetic Operators OPERATOR + Addition when connecting two operands. Unary plus when preceding an operand. - Subtraction when connecting two operands. Negation when preceding an operand. * Multiplication / Division ** ASTROS DESCRIPTION Exponentiation MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-11 USER’S MANUAL 9.3.1.3. Evaluation of Arithmetic Expressions Expressions are evaluated from left to right according to the following hierarchy of operations: PRIORITY 1 OPERATOR FUNCTION Evaluation 2 ** 3 * and / 4 + and - This hierarchy is used to determine which of two sequential operations is to be performed first. If two sequential operations are of unequal rank, the higher ranking operation is performed first. When a unary minus or plus appears in an arithmetic expression, it follows the same hierarchy as a minus or plus used for subtraction or addition. For example: R = -S**T is evaluated as R = -(S**T) R = -S/T is evaluated as R = - (S/T) R = -S+T is evaluated as R = (-S)+T The division of operands in an expression may result in a truncated value for integer operands or a fractional value for non integer operands. Therefore, parentheses should be used when a specific order of evaluation other than left to right is desired for the operands. For example, the expression 8*7/4 has a resultant value of 14; the expression 8*(7/4) has a resultant value of 8; the resultant value of the expression 3.0/(2.0*6.0) is 0.25. 9.3.1.4. The Uses of Parentheses Parentheses may be used in arithmetic expressions to specify the order of operation. This allows an evaluation that is different from the standard hierarchy. Whenever parentheses are used, the enclosed expression is evaluated prior to its use. When such expressions are nested, the innermost expressions are evaluated first. The expression X := A - SQRT(B) / (C-D) * E**2 * (F-G); is therefore evaluated in the following order: SQRT(B) (C-D) TEMP1/TEMP2 E ** 2 TEMP3*TEMP4 (F-G) TEMP5*TEMP6 A - TEMP7 → → → → → → → → 9-12 MAPOL PROGRAMMING TEMP1 TEMP2 TEMP3 TEMP4 TEMP5 TEMP6 TEMP7 X ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 9-4. MAPOL Operation Rules FOR: Binary Operators X op Y Exponentiation X ** Y 9.3.1.5. TYPE OF X INTEGER REAL COMPLEX INTEGER INTEGER REAL COMPLEX REAL REAL REAL COMPLEX COMPLEX COMPLEX COMPLEX COMPLEX INTEGER INTEGER REAL ILLEGAL REAL REAL REAL ILLEGAL COMPLEX COMPLEX ILLEGAL ILLEGAL Type and Value of Arithmetic Expressions Type conversions are performed when mixed expressions are evaluated. The final value of an arithmetic expression may depend upon this type conversion. Table 9-4 shows the conversions that occur when two operands are combined with an arithmetic operator: Special rules apply to operations when one or more of the operations is of the type MATRIX. These rules are discussed in Section 9.5. 9.3.2. LOGICAL EXPRESSIONS A logical expression produces a logical data type result with a value of TRUE or FALSE. 9.3.2.1. Logical Operators Table 9-5 lists the logical operators that may be used in logical expressions. Table 9-5. MAPOL Logical Operators OPERATOR ASTROS DESCRIPTION NOT Negation (Unary) AND Conjunction OPERATOR DESCRIPTION OR Disjunction XOR Equivalence MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-13 USER’S MANUAL Logical operators must be separated by logical operands except for the following cases: AND NOT OR NOT 9.3.2.2. Logical Operands Any of the following operands may be used in logical expressions: • • • • • • LOGICAL CONSTANTS LOGICAL VARIABLES LOGICAL ARRAY ELEMENTS LOGICAL FUNCTION REFERENCE LOGICAL EXPRESSION RELATIONAL EXPRESSION Both logical and relational expressions may be enclosed on parentheses 9.3.2.3. Evaluation of Logical Expressions Logical expressions are evaluated based on “truth tables” shown in Table 9-6. L1 and L2 are logical variables, T and F signify TRUE and FALSE: Table 9-6. Evaluation of MAPOL Logical Expressions VARIABLES RESULT L1 L2 NOT L1 L1 OR L2 L1 AND L2 L1 XOR L2 T T F F T F T F F F T T T T T F T F F F F T T F 9-14 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Logical operators have a hierarchy similar to the arithmetic operations: PRIORITY OPERATOR 1 Logical FUNCTION 2 NOT 3 AND 4 OR 5 XOR Any operation in a logical expression may be enclosed in parentheses; the parenthetical expression is evaluated, and the resulting value is used as an operand. Thus, parentheses may be used to alter the order in which operations are to be performed. When parenthetical expressions are nested, evaluation begins with the innermost set of parentheses and proceeds to the outermost set. 9.3.3. RELATIONAL EXPRESSIONS A relational expression uses relational operators to compare two arithmetic expressions. A relational expression produces a logical data type with a value of TRUE or FALSE. Thus, a relational expression may be an operand in a logical expression. 9.3.3.1. Relational Operators Table 9-7 summarizes the relational operators available in MAPOL. Table 9-7. Relational Operators in MAPOL OPERATOR = <> > >= < <= ASTROS DESCRIPTION Equality Inequality Greater than Greater than or equal to Less than Less than or equal to MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-15 USER’S MANUAL 9.3.3.2. Relational Operands Relational operands must be of an arithmetic type integer or real. A complex operand is permitted only when the relational operator is = or <>. 9.3.3.3. Evaluation of Relational Expressions In a relational expression involving the comparison of arithmetic operands, each of the arithmetic operands is evaluated prior to testing the relation. When the data type of two arithmetic operands differs, one operand is converted to the type of the other before the comparison is made. (See Section 3.2.5 for data type conversions.) The numeric values of the arithmetic operands are compared as specified by the relational operator, and the resulting value is either TRUE or FALSE. 9.3.4. MATRIX EXPRESSIONS Matrix expressions are those which combine two or more matrices to yield a matrix result. 9.3.4.1. Matrix Operators MAPOL allows four computational matrix operators as shown in Table 9-8. All matrices must be conformable in order to perform these operations. In the case of addition and subtraction, this means that the number of rows and columns in A and B must be the same. In the case of multiplications, the number of columns of the premultiplier must equal the number of rows in the post multiplier. Table 9-8. Matrix Operators in MAPOL OPERATOR DESCRIPTION A+B Aij + Bij A-B Aij − Bij A*B ∑ Aik Bkj k -A 9-16 MAPOL PROGRAMMING − Aij ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Matrix equations are written with the square brackets just as they are when declared. Examples of these equations are: [A] := [B] * [C]; [X] := [Q(I)] * [Z]; [P(2)] := [R] - [S(2 * K + 1)] Matrix operands may also be grouped to direct the order of operation. Instead of the parentheses used in scalar expressions, the square brackets are again used as shown below: [A] := [ [B] + [C] * [D] ] + [E]; [A(I)] := [ [B] * [[C] + [D] ] * [E]]] * [F]; All matrix algebra is optimized to provide the most effective use of computer resources. Matrices may also be multiplied by scalars or scalar expressions which may be INTEGER, REAL, or COMPLEX. These operations are written in the natural way; e.g.: [A] := (X) [B]; [Q(2)] := (R + S * T) [C] + [D]; All scalar multipliers must be placed on the left as shown. Note also that the multiplication operator is implied by the parentheses when multiplying a matrix by a scalar. In addition to the matrix operations of Table 41, MAPOL allows for matrix transpose and inverse using the syntax of the following example: [A] := TRANS([B]) * [C]; [X] := INV([KGG])*[PG]; [U] := TRANS([A]) * INV([A]*TRANS([A])0*[B]; Note that these operations are functions and, as such, the arguments are enclosed in parentheses. Also, the use of TRANS is only allowed in expressions. See Section 9.6.9 for a discussion of the TRANS function. 9.3.4.2. Matrix Operands and Expressions Only matrix operands may be used in matrix expressions with the exception noted in Section 9.5.1. The matrix expressions are evaluated with the same hierarchy as that of arithmetic types. 9.3.5. ASSIGNMENT STATEMENTS Assignment statements are used to compute and assign values to variables and array elements. The syntax of a MAPOL assignment is: <var> := <expr> ; The type of the expression <expr> is converted to the type of the variable <var> based on the rules of Table 9-9 where the following definitions are used. ASTROS MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-17 USER’S MANUAL VAL(X) - value of X FIX(X) - convert X to an integer value FLOAT(X) - convert X to a floating point value REAL(C) - convert to the real part of a complex number Table 9-9. Assignment Rules in MAPOL TYPE OF <var> TYPE OF <expr> INTEGER INTEGER REAL COMPLEX VAL(<expr>) ⇒ <VAR> FLOAT(VAL(<expr>)) ⇒ <VAR> FIX(REAL(VAL(<expr>))) ⇒ <VAR> REAL INTEGER REAL COMPLEX FLOAT(VAL(<expr>)) ⇒ <VAR> VAL(<expr>) ⇒ <VAR> REAL(VAL(<expr>)) ⇒ <VAR> COMPLEX INTEGER REAL COMPLEX FLOAT(VAL(<expr>)) ⇒ REAL(<VAR>) VAL(<expr>) ⇒ REAL(<VAR>) VAL(<expr>) ⇒ <VAR> 9-18 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASSIGNMENT RULE ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 9.4. CONTROL STATEMENTS 9.4.1. INTRODUCTION Control statements are statements used to alter and control the normally sequential execution of MAPOL instructions. There are five MAPOL control statements: • • • • • GOTO FOR...DO WHILE...DO IF...THEN...ELSE END , ENDP 9.4.2. THE UNCONDITIONAL GOTO STATEMENT The GOTO statement causes MAPOL program to jump unconditionally to the specified statement label. This label must exist in the same program unit (see Section 9.6) as the GOTO statement. The label identifier must also have been declared in the program unit’s specification statements. The general syntax is: GOTO <label>; where <label> is any legal identifier that has been declared. When used, the label is denoted by <label> : followed by any valid MAPOL statement. For example: IF A < B GOTO SKIP; ... ... ... SKIP: C:= B - A; Note that the label must be followed by a colon. 9.4.3. ITERATION It is often necessary to execute a group of statements repeatedly. Generally, although the statements themselves remain the same, the data on which they operate changes. This iteration or looping must terminate after a finite number of iterations; therefore, a decision must be made to determine whether to continue or terminate the loop. MAPOL supports two iteration forms: Each is described in this section. 9.4.3.1. The FOR...DO Loop It is often necessary to perform a set of calculations a specific number of times, and that number does not depend on the statements within the loop. Consider the problem of summing the first 20 integers: ASTROS MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-19 USER’S MANUAL 20 SUM = ∑ n n=1 Such a problem is ideally suited to the FOR loop and could be evaluated using the following MAPOL program: MAPOL INTEGER N,SUM,TOP; TOP := 20; SUM := 0; FOR N = 1 TO TOP DO SUM := SUM + N; ENDDO; PRINT ("(1X,’SUM = ’,15)" , SUM ); END; The general syntax of the FOR loop is FOR <var> = <expl> TO <exp2> [ BY <exp3> ] DO ... ... ENDDO; The loop counter var is called the control variable and may be any integer or real variable. <exp1>, <exp2>, and <exp3> are called the initial, terminal and incremental parameters, respectively. Note the incrementation clause BY <exp3> is optional, as in the example. If it does not appear, the increment is taken to be one. Each loop terminates with the instruction ENDDO. The following rules must be noted: (1) (2) (3) 9.4.3.2. If <exp1> > <exp2>, then the body of the loop will still be executed once. The type of the control variable and the three expressions must be the same. The control variable may not be redefined inside of the the loop. The WHILE...DO Loop Another way to execute a group of statements repeatedly is with a WHILE loop. This type of loop is used to repeat groups of statements that typically modify a more complex condition than the simpler incrementation of the FOR loop. As an example, suppose it is desired to compute the cube root of a number X. If a is an approximation to the answer, then b = 2a + x2 a 3 is an improved guess. The program shown below will compute the cube root of 10 to 3 significant figures: 9-20 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL MAPOL REAL X,OLD,NEW,TEMP,EPS; X := 10; OLD := 2.0; $ THE INITIAL GUESS $ EPS := 0.001 $ THE CONVERGENCE CRITERION $ WHILE ABS(OLD-NEW) > EPS DO TEMP := NEW; NEW := (2.0*OLD+X/OLD**2) / 3.0; OLD := TEMP; ENDDO; PRINT ("(1X,’X,CUBERT(X) ’,2F15.5)",X,NEW); END; The general form of the WHILE loop is: WHILE <cond> DO ... ... ENDDO; The <cond> is any conditional expression that results in a logical outcome. 9.4.4. THE IF STATEMENT It is often necessary in a program to specify two or more alternatives that must be selected depending upon other program results. The IF statement allows this selection. There are three types of IF statements in MAPOL: • LOGICAL IF • BLOCK IF IF...THEN...ELSE • 9.4.4.1. The Logical IF The logical IF is used if a single expression is to be executed based on a particular condition. The syntax of this statement is IF <cond> <statement> ; where <cond> is any logical expression and <statement> is any legal executable MAPOL statement except: 1. 2. 3. 4. ASTROS A WHILE or FOR loop Another logical IF An END, ENDP, ENDIF, or ENDDO instruction A PROC definition MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-21 USER’S MANUAL Examples of the logical IF are: IF A<B PRINT("1X,’A= ’,15)" ,A); IF ABS(NEW-OLD) >EXP NEW := OLD; IF A AND B OR C CALL UTMPRT (,[KMAT]); 9.4.4.2. The Block IF It is often necessary to perform a number of instructions based on a given condition. This can be accomplished by a block IF statement, the syntax of which is: IF <cond> THEN ... ... ENDIF; Rather than a single statement, the body on the block may contain any number of statements: IF A < B THEN C := 1.0; D := 4.0; CALL UTMPRT (, [MMAT]); ENDIF; 9.4.4.3. The IF...THEN...ELSE The IF...THEN...ELSE statement is used to execute one of two separate blocks of code depending on a specific condition. The syntax of this statement is: IF <cond> THEN ... ... BLOCK 1 ... ELSE ... ... BLOCK 2 ... ENDIF; If the <cond> is satisfied, the instructions in BLOCK 1 are executed. If <cond> is not satisfied, then BLOCK 2 is executed. 9-22 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL 9.4.4.4. Nested IF Statements IF statements may be nested to any level. That is, each IF or ELSE part may contain another IF statement, as shown below: IF A > B THEN A := 100; ELSE IF C<D THEN C := 200; ELSE C := 0; ENDIF; ENDIF; Note that each IF...THEN...ELSE must terminate with its own ENDIF. It is helpful to indent code so that the blocks are obvious. 9.4.5. THE END AND ENDP STATEMENTS The END and ENDP statements are used to indicate the physical end of a MAPOL program or in-line procedure, respectively. 9.5. INPUT/OUTPUT STATEMENTS The MAPOL compiler does not have facilities for input in the programming language. All input is handled by the ASTROS executive system. MAPOL does, however, allow direct output to the system print device as defined by the ASTROS host computer. Output is merged with the same file that contains all of the other ASTROS print output. 9.5.1. THE PRINT STATEMENT Output printing is requested with the PRINT statement, the syntax of which is: PRINT (<format> [, <print-list>]); In order to allow maximum power and flexibility while minimizing training, the format specifications used by MAPOL are identical to those used by Fortran. The format is entered as a literal string, enclosed by quotation marks; i.e., "(1X,5E1.6)" "(//1X,’ X= ’,F15.5)" The <print-list> is a list of one or more defined variables to be printed. If only heading information is being printed, the <print-list> may be omitted. Examples of print statements are: PRINT ("(1X,3I15)",I,J,K); ASTROS MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-23 USER’S MANUAL which prints the three integer variables I, J, and K using the indicated format and PRINT ("(1X,’THIS IS A HEADER’)"); which prints this message "THIS IS A HEADER". ASTROS does not attempt to check the validity of a format statement with the data types being printed. As a result, it is possible to cause a Fortran run-time error condition. 9.6. PROCEDURES AND FUNCTIONS 9.6.1. INTRODUCTION One of the most powerful features of a programming language is the ability to define procedures, or subroutines, that perform specialized tasks. Some procedures with special characteristics are called "functions". Each MAPOL main program, procedure or function is called a program unit. This section explains the use of procedures and provides examples of their use. 9.6.2. PROGRAM UNITS AND SCOPE OF VARIABLES Earlier, a MAPOL program was defined very simply as having the form: MAPOL ... ... ... END; This form is called a main program. A main program may also contain other program units that may be procedures or functions such as: MAPOL PROC A; ... ... ENDP; REAL FUNC B; ... ... ENDP; ... ... END; All procedures must appear in the main program before any executable statements. Each procedure, or function, may have variable declarations within it. If it does, these variables are called local to the procedure. Variables defined in the main program prior to the definition of the procedures are called global. The value of a local variable is not available outside of the procedure in which it is defined, while 9-24 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS global variables are available to all procedures that are defined after the declaration of the variable. Note that global variables must be defined in the main program preceding procedure definitions. Declarations following the procedures are local to the main program. 9.6.3. DEFINING A PROCEDURE A procedure is defined in MAPOL by a declaration: PROC <procname> [ <params> ]; where <procname> is any identifier. If this name is the same as a run-time procedure, the new procedure will be used. <params> is an optional list of formal parameters that are used to pass information into and retrieve information from the procedure. <params> := ( <paramlist> ) <paramlist> := <ident> | <paramlist> , <ident> Examples are: PROC MYPROC ( A, B, C ) ; PROC GETONE ; The PROC statement is called the procedure head. It is followed by the body and an ENDP statement: PROC TEST; ... ... ... ENDP; PROCEDURE BODY " " This defines the procedure program unit. As an example, to find the square root of a real number 1 a = (b) 2 a Newton-Raphson iteration technique can be used an USER’S MANUAL A MAPOL procedure for this is shown below: PROC USQRT(A,SQRTA); REAL A,SQRTA,EPS,DELTA,AOLD; EPS := 0.0001; SQRTA := 1.0; DELTA := 1.0; WHILE ABS(DELTA) > EPS DO AOLD = SQRTA; SQRTA := AOLD - ((AOLD*AOLD-A) / (2.0*AOLD)); DELTA := SQRTA - AOLD; ENDDO; END; 9.6.4. INVOKING A PROCEDURE Once procedures are defined, they may be used anywhere within the main program or in a subsequent procedure. This is done with the MAPOL statement: CALL <procname> [ <userparm> ]; where <procname> is one of the defined procedures. The optional <userparm> are the actual user-defined variables to be passed to the procedure. They must agree in number and type with the PROC definition. Parameters are passed by name. For example, a program segment using the square root procedure of the last Section is: MAPOL; REAL X,Y; ... ... X := 5; CALL USQRT(X,Y); ... ... END; The parameters X and Y are the actual variables that will be used in place of the formal parameters in the procedure definition. Note that procedures may call other procedures if the called procedure has already been defined. 9.6.5. FUNCTION PROCEDURES A special kind of procedure that can have only one output value is called a FUNCTION. Because it is a value, the type of the function must be declared. Valid types are integer, real, complex or logical. Therefore, the function head differs slightly from that of the procedure: <type> FUNC <funcname> [ <params> ] Again, <type> must be included and all other rules are the same as those for a regular procedure. 9-26 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Unlike procedures, functions are invoked with their name and arguments as in Fortran and they can, therefore, be used directly in assignment statements and expressions, e.g., A := SIN(X); B := X + Y * SQRT(Z); 9.6.5.1. Examples of Variable Scope To clarify the concept of variable scope, consider the following example: MAPOL; INTEGER A; PROC MYPROG(B,C); INTEGER B,C; ... ... C := B*A; $ A is available, E and F are not ENDP; PROC YOURPG(H,I); REAL H,I; ... ... ENDP; REAL E,F; RELATION FOO,BAR; ... ... END; In this example, the variable A is global to all procedures because its declaration precedes the PROC declarations. B and C are local to MYPROG because their declarations appear in the body of that procedure. Finally, E, F, FOO and BAR are local to the main program and cannot be used by either procedure. Variables may be global to all PROCs or local to the main program. All PROC definitions must appear contiguously in the program with no intervening declarations. 9.6.6. INTRINSIC FUNCTION PROCEDURES AND INTRINSIC PROCEDURES In addition to the user defined procedures and functions within a MAPOL main program unit, MAPOL provides a set of predefined functions and procedures to perform certain tasks in a similar manner to other high level languages such as Fortran. These intrinsic procedures are in addition to the engineering modules defined as part of the ASTROS system generation process. The set of intrinsic procedures within the MAPOL language can be broken into three groups: intrinsic mathematical functions, intrinsic relational procedures and general intrinsic procedures. Each group is discussed separately in the following sections. 9.6.7. INTRINSIC MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS Table 57 shows the list of intrinsic mathematical functions available in MAPOL. These functions make up the mathematical function library within the MAPOL language and provide the user with the capacity ASTROS MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-27 USER’S MANUAL to perform a wide variety of tasks within the MAPOL program units. With very few exceptions, the MAPOL mathematical functions are identical in form to those in the Fortran language; the exceptions are noted in Table 9-10. Trigonometric functions in MAPOL use radian angles as arguments and result in radian angles just as in Fortran. All MAPOL functions are "generic" in the sense that they support multiple data types (INTEGER, REAL) as arguments and perform the appropriate conversions. 9.6.8. INTRINSIC RELATIONAL PROCEDURES As discussed in Section 9.4, MAPOL has provided a means by which individual relational entries (row/attribute combinations) may be accessed directly. Table 9-11 shows the argument lists to the set of intrinsic procedures provided to enable the MAPOL programmer to open relations, to retrieve particular rows, to update or add rows and to close the relation. In combination with the RELATION and PROJECT declarations, these procedures provide a direct database interface that neatly matches the full relational application programming interface in CADDB. There is an implementation maximum of five open relational variables at any time during the execution of a MAPOL program. Figure 9-2 shows a simple MAPOL procedure that manipulates a relation called GPOINT. Two rows are placed in the relation followed by a conditional retrieval to obtain one of the tuples for use in an additional operation. 9.6.9. GENERAL INTRINSIC PROCEDURES Two other intrinsic procedures have been provided to enhance the utility of MAPOL: the EXIT and TRNSPOSE procedures. The first is identical to the common Fortran extension EXIT. The MAPOL statement CALL EXIT; will cleanly terminate the ASTROS execution without requiring the user to jump to the end of the MAPOL sequence. This is particularly useful when an edited standard solution sequence is used. The TRNSPOSE procedure provides an additional MATRIX operation that is otherwise missing from the language. While the operation [A] := TRANS (B) * [C]; is available within the syntax of MAPOL expression, the operation [A] := TRANS (B); is not. The intrinsic procedure TRNSPOSE allows this matrix operation to be performed. The form of TRNSPOSE CALL TRNSPOSE ([A], [TRANSA]); where [A] is the matrix to be transposed and [TRANSA] is the resultant transposed matrix. 9-28 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Table 9-10. Intrinsic Mathematical Functions in MAPOL PROCEDURE DESCRIPTION USAGE ABS Absolute value A := ABS(B); ACOS Cosine A := ACOS(B); ASIN Arcsine A := ASIN(B); ATAN Arctangent A := ATAN(B); CMPLX Complex A := CMPLX(B,C); COS Cosine A := COS(B); COSH Hyperbolic cosine A := COSH(B); EXP Exponential A := EXP(B); IMAG Imaginary (Equivalent to FORTRAN AIMAG) A := IMAG(B); LN Natural Logarithm (Equivalent to FORTRAN LOG) A := LN(B); LOG Common Logarithm (Equivalent to FORTRAN LOG10) A := LOG(B); MAX Selects largest value A := MAX(B,C,..); RE Real component (Equivalent to FORTRAN REAL) A := RE(B); SIN Sine A := SIN(B); SINH Hyperbolic sine A := SINH(B); SQRT Square root A := SQRT(B); TAN Tangent A := TAN(B); TANH Hyperbolic tangent A := TANH(B); ASTROS MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-29 USER’S MANUAL Table 9-11. Intrinsic Relational Procedures in MAPOL PROCEDURE RECEND DESCRIPTION AND CALLING SEQUENCE To end the definition of relational conditions. (A maximum of 10 may be applied per relation) CALL RECEND( <rel-var> ); To define relational conditions CALL RELCND(<rel-var>, <attr>, <relop>, <value>); RELCND <attr> is an attribute named in quotation marks <relop> is one of "GT", "LT", "EQ", "NE", "GE", "LE" <value> is the conditional value (A maximum of 10 may be applied per relation) To add a tuple to a relation RELADD CALL RELADD ( <rel-var> ); To close a relation RELEND CALL RELEND ( <rel-var>); To retrieve a tuple form an open relation RELGET CALL RELGET ( <rel-var>, <status> ); <status> is an integer variable that is non-zero if an error occurred To update the fields in an existing tuple. RELUPD CALL RELUPD ( <rel-var> ); To open a relation. CALL RELUSE ( <rel-var>, <ntuple>, <status> ); RELUSE <ntuple> is an integer variable which contains the number of tuples in the relation on output <status> is an integer variable that is non-zero if an error occurred 9-30 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL MAPOL RELATION GPOINT; INTEGER GID, NTUPLES, ERRSTAT; REAL X,Y,Z; PROJECT GPOINT USING GID,X,Y,Z; CALL RELUSE( GPOINT, NTUPLES, ERRSTAT ); PRINT( "(’ NTUPLES = ’, I6)", NTUPLES ); IF ERRSTAT <> 0 THEN PRINT( "(’ ERRSTAT IS ’, I6)", ERRSTAT ); CALL EXIT; ENDIF; GPOINT.GID:=1; GPOINT.X :=5.0; GPOINT.Y :=6.0; GPOINT.Z :=7.0; CALL RELADD( GPOINT ); GPOINT.GID:=2; GPOINT.X :=15.0; GPOINT.Y :=16.0; GPOINT.Z :=17.0; CALL RELADD( GPOINT ); GPOINT.GID:=3; GPOINT.X :=.05; GPOINT.Y :=.06; GPOINT.Z :=.07; CALL RELADD( GPOINT ); CALL RELEND( GPOINT ); Figure 9-2. MAPOL Program Using Relational Procedures ASTROS MAPOL PROGRAMMING 9-31 USER’S MANUAL This page is intentionally blank. 9-32 MAPOL PROGRAMMING ASTROS USER’S MANUAL Chapter 10. REFERENCES 1. Herendeen, D. L., Hoesly, R. L. and Johnson, E. H., "Automated Strength-Aeroelastic Design of Aerospace Structures," AFWAL-TR-85-3025, September 1985. 2. The NASTRAN User’s Manual (Level 17.5), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA SP-222(05), December 1978. 3. Garvey, S. J., "The Quadrilateral Shear Panel," Aircraft Engineering, May 1951, p. 134. 4. Etkin, B., Dynamics of Flight, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, May 1967. 5. Woodward, F. S., "USSAERO Computer Program Development, Versions B and C," NASA CR 3227, 1980. 6. Herendeen, D.L. and Ludwig, M.R., "Interactive Computer Automated Design Database (CADDB) Environment User’s Manual," AFWAL-TR-88-3060, August 1988. ASTROS REFERENCES 10-1 USER’S MANUAL This page is intentionally blank. 10-2 REFERENCES ASTROS